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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

"Table HC12.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,24.5,17.1,7.4 "2 or More",3.7,0.9,0.5,0.4 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,"Q","Q","Q" "Housing Units Served by Main Water Heater" "One Housing Unit",99.7,23.5,16.2,7.3 "Two or More Housing Units",10.3,1.9,1.4,0.5 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,"Q","Q","Q"

2

"Table HC14.8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,23.2,7.1,16.1 "2 or More",3.7,1,0.4,0.6 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,"Q","Q","N" "Housing Units Served by Main Water Heater" "One Housing Unit",99.7,21.9,7.1,14.8 "Two or More Housing Units",10.3,2.3,0.4,1.9 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,"Q","Q","N"

3

"Table HC13.8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,39,21.1,6.6,11.3 "2 or More",3.7,1.5,0.5,0.3,0.7 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,"Q","Q","N","Q" "Housing Units Served by Main Water Heater" "One Housing Unit",99.7,38.2,20.2,6.7,11.3 "Two or More Housing Units",10.3,2.4,1.5,0.2,0.7

4

"Table HC10.8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,19.6,24.5,39,23.2 "2 or More",3.7,0.3,0.9,1.5,1 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,0.7,"Q","Q","Q" "Housing Units Served by Main Water Heater" "One Housing Unit",99.7,16.1,23.5,38.2,21.9 "Two or More Housing Units",10.3,3.7,1.9,2.4,2.3 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,0.7,"Q","Q","Q"

5

Characteristics of a semicircular heat exchanger used in a water heated condenser pump .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??According to literature 6% of South Africas primary energy consumption could be saved if heat pumps were used to their full technical potential. Although there (more)

Da Veiga, Willem Richter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

"Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,6.5,6.9,7.4,11.7 "2 or More",3.7,"Q","Q",0.5,0.4 "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,0.5,"N","Q","N" "Housing Units Served by Main Water Heater" "One Housing Unit",99.7,4.3,6.8,7.4,10.6 "Two or More Housing Units",10.3,2.3,"Q",0.5,1.5

7

"Table HC3.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,74.5,60.9,4,1.8,2.2,5.5 "2 or More",3.7,3.3,3,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,0.3,"Q","Q","N","Q","Q"

8

"Table HC4.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" 8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,33,8,3.4,5.9,14.4,1.2 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,31.9,7.9,3.4,5.8,13.7,1.1 "2 or More",3.7,0.4,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N" "Do Not Use Hot Water",1.1,0.7,"Q","Q","Q",0.6,"Q"

9

Annual Operating Characteristics of Solar Central Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar central water heater (SCWH) could supply ... massive users effectively and reliably. A SCWH assisted by heat pump (SCWHP) was proposed...

Wei Hu; Zhaolin Gu; Shiyu Feng; Xiufeng Gao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Intraparticle heat and mass transfer characteristics of silica-gel/water vapor adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, highly efficient energy utilization systems which extensively employ adsorption phenomena such as pressure swing adsorption, heat storage, adsorption heat pump, etc. are being regarded as one of the countermeasures for environmental issues such as green house effect and ozone layer destruction. An Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) has been investigated as one of the important techniques via which cold heat energy is obtained from waste thermal energy below 373K without using electricity and CFCs. An AHP normally consists of an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser and cold heat energy is generated by latent heat of evaporation during adsorption process. For realizing the AHP technology, it has been pointed out that the development of an adsorber with optimum heat and mass transfer characteristics is essentially important. In this study, experimental studies were carried out which was based on the data of temperature inside the adsorbent particle and adsorptivity profiles at the adsorption/desorption process by volumetric method. To clarify adsorption mechanism relatively large silica-gel particle (7 mm f) was used. Temperature distribution in the particle is determined at the center, at one half radius in the radial direction and at the surface by using very thin (30 mm f) thermocouples. The temperatures at these points simultaneously increase/decrease as soon as the adsorption/desorption started, reached their respective maximum/minimum values and then return to initial temperature. The temperature profiles for the adsorption process show that the temperature at the surface is initially slightly higher than the other two points. All three points reached their respective maximum temperature at the same time with the temperature at the center point the highest and at the surface the lowest. The temperature profiles during the desorptive process are almost exactly the opposite to that of the adsorption process. This shows that the adsorption phenomena can take place not only at the surface but inside the adsorbent particle, implying that intraparticle vapor diffusion has a great influence on adsorptivity.

Yamamoto, Eri; Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids at very low concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids is experimentally conducted. Nanofluids with various concentrations of 0.00005, 0.0001, 0.0005, 0.005, and 0.01 vol.% are employed. Horizontal circular plates made from copper and aluminium with different roughness values of 0.2 and 4 {mu}m are used as heating surfaces. The experiments are performed to explore the effects of nanofluids concentration as well as heating surface material and roughness on nucleate pool boiling characteristics and the heat transfer coefficient under ambient pressure. The results show that based on the copper heated surface which is tested with a concentration of 0.0001 vol.%, higher nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained when compared with the base fluid. A 15% increase is obtained for the surface roughness of 0.2 {mu}m and a 4% increase is obtained for roughness of 4 {mu}m. For concentrations higher than 0.0001 vol.%, however, the higher the concentration, the lower the heat transfer coefficient. In the case of aluminium heated surface, the corresponding heat transfer coefficients are larger than for the copper surface by around 30% with a roughness of 0.2 {mu}m and around 27% with a roughness of 4 {mu}m. Moreover, the results also indicate that the heat transfer coefficient obtained based on a roughness of 4 {mu}m is higher than that for a roughness of 0.2 {mu}m by around 12% for aluminium and by around 13% for copper. (author)

Suriyawong, Adirek; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Energy Saver Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs....

13

Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

14

Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

Kessler, A. F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to cut your water heating bill. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy...

16

Water-Heating Dehumidifier  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

A small appliance developed at ORNL dehumidifies air and then recycles heat to warm water in a water heater. The device circulates cool, dry air in summer and warm air in winter. In addition, the invention can cut the energy required to run a conventional water heater by an estimated 50 per cent....

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

17

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

18

Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

publication provides basic informa- publication provides basic informa- tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica- tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. Solar water heaters, sometimes called

19

Chapter 5 - Solar Water-Heating Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chapter 5 is on solar water-heating systems. Both passive and active systems are described. Passive systems include thermosiphon and integrated collector storage systems. The former include theoretical performance of thermosiphon solar water heaters, reverse circulation in thermosiphon systems, vertical against horizontal tank configurations, freeze protection, and tracking thermosiphons. Subsequently, active systems are described, which include direct circulation systems, indirect water-heating systems, air water-heating systems, heat pump systems and pool heating systems, which include the analysis of various heat losses like evaporation, radiation, convection heat losses, make-up water load, and solar radiation-heat gain. Then the characteristics and thermal analysis of heat storage systems for both water and air systems are presented. The module and array design methods are then described and include the effects of shading, thermal expansion, galvanic corrosion, array sizing, heat exchangers, pipe and duct losses, partially shaded collectors and over-temperature protectionfollowed by an analysis of the characteristics of differential thermostats. Finally, methods to calculate the hot water demand are given as well as a review of international standards used to evaluate the solar water heaters performance. The chapter includes also simple system models and practical considerations for the setup of solar water-heating systems, which include: pipes, supports and insulation; pumps; valves and instrumentation.

Soteris A. Kalogirou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger. (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Turbulent heat transfer characteristics in a circular tube and thermal properties of n-decane-in-water nanoemulsion fluids and micelles-in-water fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We carry out experimental studies of turbulent convective heat transfer of several n-decane-in-water nanoemulsions and micelles-in-water fluids. We characterize the viscosity and thermal properties of the nanofluids, and the nanoparticle distributions and shapes with various techniques, including transmission electron microscopy. We find that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids is lower than that of the base fluid, and the conductivity shows no anomalous behavior. Despite this we find that the average Nusselt numbers and convective heat transfer coefficients are enhanced for low volume fractions when the Reynolds number Re>7000, in agreement with solid particle nanofluids. However, when the pressure losses are taken into account, we find that the nanofluids studied have a practical efficiency equal to or less than that of the base fluid. The highest heat transfer enhancements were obtained with volume fractions considerably smaller than those for the solid particle nanofluids. Our results indicate that the improved heat transfer is due to enhancement of turbulence in the large Re regime.

Sampo Saarinen; Salla Puupponen; Arttu Merilinen; Aliakbar Joneidi; Ari Seppl; Kari Saari; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

25

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation This presentation outlines the goals of the Water Heating Standing...

26

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

27

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

28

Water Heating | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heating Water Heating Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Avg.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 69.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

29

FEMP--Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- nesses in the United States are using the sun to heat domestic water efficiently in almost any climate. In summer, a solar system properly sized for a resi- dential building can meet 100% of the building's water-heating needs in most parts of the country. In winter, the system might meet only half of this need, so another source of heat is used to back up the solar system. In either case, solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector-the device that actually captures the sun's energy.

30

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

31

Preparation, heat capacity, and combustion characteristics of water-surfactant-halogenated hydrocarbon microemulsions suitable for combined fire-extinguishing means  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water-sodium dodecyl sulfate-triethanolamine-1-pentanol-1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodibromoethane (C2F4Br2) microemulsions differing in the H2O/C2F4Br2 ratio and content of surfactants were prepared. The principal possibi...

D. V. Batov; V. N. Kartsev; S. N. Shtykov

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Standardized Templates for Reporting Test Results heatpumpwaterheaterv1.7.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water...

33

Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heating Research Water Heating Research to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Water Heating Research Lighting Research Sensors & Controls Research Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

34

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

35

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

36

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40º-90ºF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

37

Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

Kavanaugh, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional...

39

Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

40

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ........................... 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 243 151 34 40 18 78.7 48.9 11.1 13.0 5.7 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 202 139 31 29 Q 54.8 37.6 8.5 7.9 Q 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 300 240 31 21 7 42.5 34.1 4.4 3.0 1.1 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 250 182 40 11 Q 41.5 30.2 6.6 1.9 Q 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 236 169 41 8 19 35.4 25.2 6.2 1.2 2.8 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 241 165 54 7 16 36.3 24.8 8.1 1.0 2.4 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 199 130 42 11 16 35.0 22.8 7.5 1.9 2.8 Over 500,000 ............................. 198

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ............................. 2,037 1,378 338 159 163 42.0 28.4 7.0 3.3 3.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 249 156 35 41 18 78.6 49.1 11.0 12.9 5.6 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 218 147 32 31 7 54.8 37.1 8.1 7.9 1.7 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 343 265 34 25 18 43.8 33.9 4.4 3.2 2.3 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 270 196 41 13 Q 40.9 29.7 6.3 2.0 2.9 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 269 186 45 13 24 35.8 24.8 6.0 1.8 3.2 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 267 182 56 10 19 35.4 24.1 7.4 1.3 2.6 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 204 134 43 11 17 34.7 22.7 7.3 1.8 2.9 Over 500,000 .............................

42

Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

43

Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging...

44

Solar Water Heating Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Solar Water Heating Webinar Solar Water Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

45

Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic Looking for ways to save money on water heating? Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic...

46

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Water Heating (2005) for Water Heating (2005) Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average annual residential energy consumption for water heating in U.S. households in 2005, measured in both physical units and Btus. The data is presented for numerous categories including: Census Region and Climate Zone; Housing Unit Characteristics (type, year of construction, size, income, race, age); and Water Heater and Water-using Appliance Characteristics (size, age, frequency of use, EnergyStar rating). Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords Energy Consumption Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Consumption.for_.Water_.Heating.Phys_.Units_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 67.6 KiB)

48

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The DLM accounts for the distribution heat loss within eachHot-Water Distribution System Piping Heat Loss FactorsPhaseHot Water Distribution System Piping Heat Loss Factors-

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

50

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

51

Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14-Dec-12 Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial #12;14 December 2012 2 Potential for Mine Water sourced heating Dawdon heat pump trial A demonstration project Contents #12;Friday, 14 December 2012 3 The UK salinity High Iron (removed by lime treatment) Offices , 8 rooms #12;Dawdon heat pump Warm mine water

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

52

Be Sun-sible? about Heating Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heat and transmit it to the water, and study the relationship between insulation and heat loss. Teacher background, assessment questions, and extensions are provided. The...

53

Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Analysis of Air- Analysis of Air- Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Jeffrey Munk Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Acknowledgements * Tennessee Valley Authority - David Dinse * U.S. Department of Energy * Roderick Jackson * Tony Gehl * Philip Boudreaux * ZEBRAlliance 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable Speed Heat Pumps - Energy Use Analysis - Measured Performance - Operational Characteristics 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Water Heating Options

54

Solar Water Heating and Design Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy has been used to heat water for many years, and the design requirements of solar water heating equipment have been studied for ... because that upto this time other sources of energy have been more economical

H. P. Garg

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE, from the...

56

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

HEAT RECOVERY FROM WASTE WATER BY MEANS OF A RECUPERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER AND A HEAT PUMP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The useful heat of warm waste water is generally transferred to cold water using a recuperative heat exchanger. Depending on its design, the heat exchanger is able to utilise up to 90% of the waste heat potential available. The electric energy needed to operate such a system is more than compensated for by an approximately 50-fold gain of useful heat. To increase substantially the waste heat potential available and the amount of heat recovered, the system for recuperative heat exchange can be complemented by a heat pump. Such a heat recovery system on the basis of waste water is being operated in a public indoor swimming pool. Here the recuperative heat exchanger accounts for about 60%, the heat pump for about 40% of the toal heat reclaimed. The system consumes only 1 kWh of electric energy to supply 8 kWh of useful heat. In this way the useful heat of 8 kWh is compensated for by the low consumption of primary energy of 2.8 kWh. Due to the installation of an automatic cleaning device, the heat transfer surfaces on the waste water side avoid deposits so that the troublesome maintenance work required in other cases on the heat exchangers is not required. KEYWORDS Shower drain water, recuperative heat recovery, heat recovery by means of a heat pump, combination of both types of heat recovery, automatic cleaning device for the heat exchangers, ratio of useful heat supply vs. electric energy consumption, economic consideration.

K. Biasin; F.D. Heidt

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Standing Technical Committee Standing Technical Committee Water Heating Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder's Meeting February 29, 2012 - Austin, Texas 2 STC Chairman Responsibilities * To maintain the Water Heating Strategic Plan (living document) * To work with stakeholders to identify research activities that resolve gaps & barriers towards achieving Water Heating Strategic Goals * To work with stakeholders to prioritize gaps leading to future BA research efforts * To serve as a collection point for BA research activities and outside research * To facilitate collaboration among BA researchers and the marketplace 3 Water Heating as a Significant End Use According to DOE RECS data, residential water heating represents 20% of the energy delivered to U.S. households. 4 Water Heating Strategic Goals

60

Emissions characteristics of modern oil heating equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last 10 years there have been some very interesting developments in oil heating. These include higher static pressure burners, air atomizing nozzles, low firing rate nozzles, low heat loss combustion chambers and condensing boilers and furnaces. The current data base on the emissions characteristics of oil-fired residential heating equipment is based primarily on data taken in the 1970's. The objective of the work described in this report is to evaluate the effects of recent developments in oil-fired equipment on emissions. Detailed emissions measurements have been made on a number of currently available residential oil burners and whole systems selected to represent recent development trends. Some additional data was taken with equipment which is in the prototype stage. These units are a prevaporizing burner and a retention head burner modified with an air atomizing nozzle. Measurements include No{sub x}, smoke numbers, CO, gas phase hydrocarbon emissions and particulate mass emission rates. Emissions of smoke, CO and hydrocarbons were found to be significantly greater under cyclic operation for all burners tested. Generally, particulate emission rates were found to be 3 to 4 times greater in cyclic operation than in steady state. Air atomized burners were found to be capable of operation at much lower excess air levels than pressure atomized burners without producing significant amounts of smoke. As burner performance is improved, either through air atomization or prevaporization of the fuel, there appears to be a general trend towards producing CO at lower smoke levels as excess air is decreased. The criteria of adjusting burners for trace smoke may need to be abandoned for advanced burners and replaced with an adjustment for specific excess air levels. 17 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Coughlan, R.; Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solar Water Heating in Dragash Municipality, Kosovo.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Water has been heated with the sun has almost as long as there have been humans, but itis not until recently that more advanced (more)

Dahl Hkans, Mia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

63

HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances How a Small Business is Transforming the Cold Climate Heating Market How a Small Business is Transforming...

64

Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat...

65

[Waste water heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

Not Available

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Definition: Solar Water Heating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Solar Water Heating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Solar Water Heating A low-energy intensive system that uses solar rays to heat water. It is a viable option in developing countries[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Solar water heating (SWH) or solar hot water (SHW) systems comprise several innovations and many mature renewable energy technologies that have been well established for many years. SWH has been widely used in Australia, Austria, China, Cyprus, Greece, India, Israel, Japan and Turkey. In a "close-coupled" SWH system the storage tank is horizontally mounted immediately above the solar collectors on the roof. No pumping is required as the hot water naturally rises into the tank through thermosiphon flow.

67

Heat Pump Water Heating Modeling in EnergyPlus  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Eric Wilson Craig Christensen March 1, 2012 2 Modeling Issues Results Motivation Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling... 3 Gap: Existing analysis tools cannot accurately model HPWHs with reasonable runtime. 4 What have we achieved so far? Laboratory Evaluations 14 x Field Monitoring 5 Closing the Gap Laboratory Evaluations 6 sec timestep hourly timestep 14 x Field Monitoring CARB 6 Why is modeling important? * Performance varies: Can't just use EF * System interaction o HPWH affects building heating and cooling o Space conditions affect HPWH performance 7 Modeling Goals * Manage Risks o Accuracy o Run time o Occupant satisfaction * Flexibility to explore the effects of:

68

Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer...

Singh, K. P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Building America Standing Technical Committee - Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Strategic Plan, v2012a Revised: January 2012 Committee Chair: 2011, 2012 Marc Hoeschele mhoesch@davisenergy.com 530-753-1100 x23 ARBI Page 2 Background on Residential Water Heating According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), annual residential water heating totals 2.11 quads of energy annually, or 20% of the energy delivered to residential buildings 1 . Over the past 70 years, gas and electric storage water heaters have been the predominant water heater type in the United States 2 . Recently, gas tankless water heaters have made inroads in market share with current industry projected gas tankless sales estimated at 400,000+ annually, and an

70

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab...

71

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: EnergyA Specification for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in a fluidized heat exchanger with circulating solid particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The commercial viability of heat exchanger is mainly dependent on its long- ... loss and degrades the thermal performance of a heat exchanger. An experimental study was performed to investigate the characteristic...

Soo Whan Ahn; ByungChang Lee; WonCheol Kim; Myung- Whan Bae

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies provides recommendations to the Building Technologies Office (BTO) on R&D activities to pursue that will aid in achieving BTOs energy savings goals.

74

Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

Focus Marketing Services

1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

75

Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies provides recommendations to the Building Technologies Office (BTO) on R&D activities to pursue that will aid in achieving BTOs energy savings goals.

76

Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project Building America Stakeholder Meeting Ron Domitrovic Ammi Amarnath 3/1/2012 Austin, TX 2 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. HPWH Field Demonstration: Research Objectives * Assess heat pump water heater technology by measuring efficiency. * Provide credible data on the performance and reliability of heat pump water heaters. * Assess user satisfaction in a residential setting. 3 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Demonstration Host Utilities Target: 40 Units per Utility Installed and Potential Sites by Climate Zone Source: Department of Energy (DOE), Building America climate regions 4 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Installation Locations-Southern Company Region

77

Operation characteristics of cylindrical miniature grooved heat pipe using aqueous CuO nanofluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to investigate the operation characteristics of a cylindrical miniature grooved heat pipe using aqueous CuO nanofluid as the working fluid at some steady cooling conditions. The experiments were carried out under both the steady operation process and the unsteady startup process. The experiment results show that substituting the nanofluid for water as the working fluid can apparently improve the thermal performance of the heat pipe for steady operation. The total heat resistance and the maximum heat removal capacity of the heat pipe using nanofluids can maximally reduce by 50% and increase by 40% compared with that of the heat pipe using water, respectively. For unsteady startup process, substituting the nanofluid for water as the working fluid, cannot only improve the thermal performance, but also reduce significantly the startup time. (author)

Wang, Guo-Shan; Song, Bin; Liu, Zhen-Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200240 Shanghai (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's...

79

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and...

80

Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

Kim, S.Y.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

82

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems May 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional change in length (or sometimes in volume, when specified) of a material for a unit change in temperature Viscosity - resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow) Thermal capacity - the ability of matter to store heat Freezing point - the temperature below which a liquid turns into a

83

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

List of Solar Water Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Water Heat Incentives Solar Water Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 920 Solar Water Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-920) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - GEOSmart Financing Program (Arizona) Utility Loan Program Arizona Residential Solar Water Heat Photovoltaics No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas

85

New and Underutilized Technology: Solar Water Heating | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heating Solar Water Heating New and Underutilized Technology: Solar Water Heating October 7, 2013 - 9:02am Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for solar water heating within the Federal sector. Benefits Solar water heating uses solar thermal collectors to heat water. Application Solar water heating is applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Solar water heating is best in regions with high insolation. Key Factors for Deployment The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 requires 30% of hot water demand in new Federal buildings and major renovations to be met with solar water heating equipment providing it is life-cycle cost effective. Federal agencies must consider collector placement location to optimize

86

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

87

Building America Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

88

Building America Standing Technical Committee- Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Building America program is focused on delivering market acceptable energy efficiency solutions to homeowners, builders, and contractors. Near term goals of 30-50% source energy savings are currently targeted. This document examines water heating gaps and barriers, and is updated as of Feb. 2012.

89

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

90

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

#AskEnergySaver: Home Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

electric systems, like solar electric and onsite wind power, have substantial energy loss when converting electricity to heat. With solar thermal water heating, there are a...

92

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heating Technologies to someone by E-mail Water Heating Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Technology Deployment Technology Deployment List Solid-State Lighting

95

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Provider Energy Efficiency '''''This program reopened on October 3, 2011 for 2012 applications. Funding is limited and must be reserved through online application before the installation of qualifying solar water heating systems. See Gulf Power's [http://www.gulfpower.com/renewable/solarThermal.asp Solar Water Heating] web site for more information.''''' Gulf Power offers a Solar Thermal Water Heating rebate to customers who install water heaters. This program started after the original pilot

96

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

97

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems January 21, 2015 3:00PM to 4:30PM EST This...

98

Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems January 21, 2015 3:00PM to 4:30PM EST The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost,...

99

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems January 21, 2015 11:00AM to 12:30PM MST...

100

Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems October 7, 2014 - 2:39pm Q&A What do you want to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of internal heat exchangers for CO2 system under cooling condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the heat transfer characteristics of the internal heat exchanger (IHX) for CO2 heat pump system. The influence on the IHX length, the mass flow rate, the shape of IHX, the operating condition,...

Young Chul Kwon; Dae Hoon Kim; Jae Heon Lee

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Reuse ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water Purification Introduction As population growth and associated factors...

103

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Turbulence characteristics of electron cyclotron and ohmic heated discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbulence characteristics of electron cyclotron (EC) and ohmic heated (OH) discharges has been analyzed by electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations with GYRO [J. Candy, R.E. Waltz, Journal of Computational Physics 186, 545-581 (2003)] aiming to find insights into the effect of auxiliary heating on the transport. Trapped electron modes are found to be unstable in both OH and the EC heated scenarios. In the OH case the main drive is from the density gradient and in the EC case from the electron temperature gradient. The growth rates and particle fluxes exhibit qualitatively different scaling with the electron-to-ion temperature ratios in the two cases. This is mainly due to the fact that the dominant drives and the collisionalities are different. The inward flow velocity of impurities and the impurity diffusion coefficient decreases when applying EC heating, which leads to lower impurity peaking, consistently with experimental observations.

Pusztai, Istvan; Fulop, Tunde; Timchenko, Natalia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Characteristics of microinstabilities in electron cyclotron and ohmic heated discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of microinstabilities in electron cyclotron (EC) and ohmic heated (OH) discharges in the T10 tokamak have been analyzed by linear electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations with gyro[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] aiming to find insights into the effect of auxiliary heating on the transport. Trapped electron modes are found to be unstable in both OH and the EC heated scenarios. In the OH case the main drive is from the density gradient and in the EC case from the electron temperature gradient. The growth rates and particle fluxes exhibit qualitatively different scaling with the electron-to-ion temperature ratios in the two cases. This is mainly due to the fact that the dominant drives and the collisionalities are different. The inward flow velocity of impurities and the impurity diffusion coefficient decreases when applying EC heating, which leads to lower impurity peaking, consistently with experimental observations.

Pusztai, I.; Moradi, S.; Fueloep, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Goeteborg (Sweden); Timchenko, N. [Institute of Tokamak Physics, NRC ''Kurchatov Institute,'' 123182, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS By HUI JIN Bachelor of Science validation of the water-to-air heat pump model. It's hard to find any words to express the thanks to my BASED MODELS OF WATER SLOURCE HEAT PUMPS Thesis Approved: Thesis Adviser Dean of the Graduate College ii

107

City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 450 Provider City of Tallahassee Utilities The City of Tallahassee Utilities offers a $450 rebate to homeowners* and homebuilders who install a solar water-heating system. This rebate may be applied to a first-time installation or to the replacement of an older solar water-heating system. Homebuilders may also apply for the rebate when installing a solar water heater on a new home. Pool heating systems are not eligible for the rebate. The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit

108

Heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed heat exchanger in a 300MW CFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE), a series of experiments was carried out in a commercial 300MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler with FBHE. The parameters of steam, solids and air in FBHE were measured at different boiler loads, based on which the absorbed heat and heat transfer coefficient were calculated. Further study indicates that when the calculated results are applied to the design of large-scale CFB boilers, the bed side heat transfer coefficient in FBHE can be simplified as the function of solids temperature and flow. Therefore, the empirical model of heat transfer coefficient at bed side is put forward. The deviation between calculated results and measured values is acceptable in engineering application. This model provides strong support for the FBHE design in 600MW supercritical CFB boilers.

Man Zhang; Haibo Wu; Qinggang Lu; Yunkai Sun; Guoliang Song

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Santa Clara Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program Santa Clara Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Commercial Heating & Cooling Program Info State California Program Type Leasing Program Provider City of Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utility In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies, installs and maintains solar water heating systems for residents and businesses. In addition, the city has also installed solar energy equipment for a number of its own facilities. Solar equipment is available from the city for heating swimming pools,

110

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 05/01/2012 State District of Columbia Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program Provider Northwest Energy Efficiency Project The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is

111

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate $7,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Up to 75% of system cost after rebate Provider Eugene Water and Electric Board Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of solar water heaters and solar pool heating systems. It began in May 1990 as part of a demand-side management initiative. The loans have been offered since May 1995. EWEB provides all funding for both loans and cash discounts. Customers may

112

Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040 (China)

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

113

Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,900 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (REF) Start Date 04/21/2010 Expiration Date When funding is exhausted State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500, $1,700 or $1,900, depending on annual estimated system output Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to 19.9 MMBTU; $1,700 for

114

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

115

Solar Water Heating Incentive Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heating Incentive Program Solar Water Heating Incentive Program Solar Water Heating Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies by sector, location, technology, and electric or gas provider; see below for details Program Info Start Date October 2003 State Oregon Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies by sector, water heating fuel, and electric or gas provider; see below for details Provider Energy Trust of Oregon Beginning in the fall of 2003, Energy Trust of Oregon's Solar Water Heating (SWH) Incentive Program offers incentives to customers of Pacific Power, PGE, NW Natural Gas and Cascade Natural Gas who install solar water or pool

116

Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

searc searc e er tra A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida searc e er tra Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Laboratory House Building America Technical Update 2013 ACI National Home Performance Conference April 29- 30 , 2013 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Grounds, Florida (east coast) 2009 -Present (Currently fourth testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida

117

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

118

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

119

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date June 2010 State Florida Program Type Other Incentive Provider Lakeland Electric Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar equipment vendor, Regenesis Lakeland, LLC, to install solar water heaters on participating customers' homes. Lakeland Electric bills the customer $34.95 per month regardless of use. Each solar heater is metered and equipped with a heating element timer as a demand management feature. The $34.95 monthly charge is a bulk energy

120

Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services May 29, 2012 - 7:04pm Addthis Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems evaluated by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Certified Solar Collectors and Systems Solar Rating and Certification Corporation Information on solar collectors and pool heating systems certified under the various Solar Rating and Certification Corporation's rating programs.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per customer Rebates will not exceed purchase price Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Solar Water Heater: $500 Provider Beaches Energy Services Beaches Energy Services offers a solar water heating rebate to their residential customers. This $500 rebate applies to new systems which are properly installed and certified. New construction and solar pool heating systems do not qualify for the rebate payment. Systems must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor and must be FSEC certified. Rebates will not

122

Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services May 29, 2012 - 7:04pm Addthis Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems evaluated by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Certified Solar Collectors and Systems Solar Rating and Certification Corporation Information on solar collectors and pool heating systems certified under the various Solar Rating and Certification Corporation's rating programs.

123

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

September 16, 2014 NIKKEN SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International... of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 District heating and cooling system in Nakanoshima 4 Characteristics of heat supply plant in Nakanoshima district -River water is utilized as heat...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

units with tank volumes of 40 to 50 gallons. Standby loss associated with the center flue gas storage energy use. Whereas natural gas, (liquefied petroleum gas), LPG or oil can be burned directly to heat code from 2008 are listed below: Instantaneous (or tankless) water heaters including gas, oil, small

125

Transient heat transfer characteristic of silica aerogel insulating material considering its endothermic reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the current work, we present an experimental study to investigate the reaction mechanism of silica aerogel material at high temperature. The experimental study is based on simultaneous thermal analyzer 449F3 as well as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that when the material is exposed at high temperature, the mass of material will decrease about 1.98% accompanying with endothermic effect. Via FTIR analysis, it is found that the mass loss of material may be caused by the removal of adsorbed water. Besides the experimental study, a numerical heat transfer model is constructed to study the transient heat transfer characteristic of aerogel material by taking the endothermic reaction into account. The numerical heat transfer model is validated by a classical Stefan problem and a corresponding experimental measurement. Afterwards, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of two parameters, reaction temperature and reaction heat, on transient heat transfer characteristics of aerogel insulating material. The results show that: (1) Before reaching the reaction temperature Treaction, the material that with lower Treaction possesses lower temperature. However, when it exceeds the reaction temperature, the material shows the highest temperature among other materials. (2) With the increase of reaction heat, the increasing trend of temperature is weakened and the emergent of the turning point that separates the temperature platform and temperature-rise period appears later.

Tao Xie; Ya-Ling He; Zi-Xiang Tong; Wei-Xu Yan; Xiang-Qian Xie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Cooling characteristics of ground source heat pump with heat exchange methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the cooling performance for a water-to-water ground source heat pump (GSHP) by using the counter flow and parallel flow methods. The GSHP uses R-410A as a refrigerant, and its main components are a scroll compressor, plate heat exchangers as a condenser, an evaporator, a thermostatic expansion valve, a receiver, and an inverter. Based on our modeling results, the heat transfer rate of the counter flow evaporator is higher than that of the parallel flow evaporator for a heat exchanger length greater than 0.42m. The evaporator length of the GSHP used in this study was set to over 0.5m. The performance of the water-to-water GSHP was measured by varying the compressor speed and source-side entering water temperature (EWT). The cooling capacity of the GSHP increased with increased compressor \\{RPMs\\} and source side EWT. Also, using the counter flow method, compared to the parallel flow method, improves the COP by approximately 5.9% for an ISO 13256-2 rated condition.

Ohkyung Kwon; KyungJin Bae; Chasik Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to solve the imbalance problem of a heating system, brought about by consumer demand and regulation, and save the electricity energy consumed by a circulation pump, a water mixing and pressure difference control heating system is proposed...

Li, F.; Han, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

communications). Heat transfer fluid is 60% o-o1vco1 bycharacteristics, heat transfer fluids, flow resistances,of a non- freezing heat transfer fluid circulating in a loop

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SHR Sensible heat ratio T&RH Temperature and relative humidity TC Thermocouple UA Heat loss coefficient v Table of Contents List of Figures ......

130

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature are based

131

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lower Water Heating Temperature Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature are based

132

Heat transfer characteristics of a two-pass trapezoidal channel and a novel heat pipe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, S.C. Lau Ed Marotta Committee Members, J.C. Han N.K. Anand Y.A. Hassan Head of Department, Dennis O?Neal August 2007 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering iii ABSTRACT Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Two-pass Trapezoidal Channel and a Novel Heat Pipe. (August 2007) Sang Won Lee, B.En., Inha University, Korea; M.S., Texas A&M University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. S. C. Lau...

Lee, Sang Won

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

133

Research and Development Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologi...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

fuels are split approximately evenly between gas and electric, with other (e.g., fuel oil, propane) representing only 5% of residential water heating energy consumption. Figure...

134

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

136

Fort Pierce Utilities Authority- Solar Water Heating Rebate (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Fort Pierce Utilities Authority has suspended the Solar Water Heating rebate program until 2013. Contact the utility for more information on these offerings.'''''

137

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems, will take place on January 21, 2015.

138

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with thetwo technologies: (1) an electric resistance storage watertransfers heat from the electric resistance element to the

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future, Vol.VIII-8-1 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-conditioning System Chunlei Zhang Suilin Wang Hongbing Chen...

Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Single-family unit: $2,000 Two- to three-family units: $4,000 Multi-family units (four or more): $10,000 Businesses: $25,000 Program Info Start Date 03/2010 Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 25% of costs Provider Minnesota Power Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings; $10,000 for buildings

142

Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Building Energy Code Provider Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism In June 2008, Hawaii enacted legislation, [http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/bills/SB644_CD1_.htm SB 644], with the intent to require solar water-heating (SWH) systems to be installed on all single-family new home construction, with a few exceptions. This legislation had several errors that were corrected by legislation passed during the 2009 legislative session. In June 2009, HB 1464 was signed by the governor and addressed the errors in the previous

143

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date 11/30/2009 Expiration Date 03/31/2013 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $286/system Provider Duquesne Light Company Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying system. Various equipment, installation, contractor, and warranty requirements apply, as summarized above and described in more detail in program documents. Customers must

144

Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $450 Rebates must not exceed purchase price Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider City of Lake Worth Utilities The City of Lake Worth Utilities (CLWU), in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers rebates to customers who purchase and install a solar water heating system for residential use. A rebate of $450 per system is available to eligible applicants. Eligible equipment must be located on customer premises within the CLWU service territory, and must

145

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Loan Program Provider Valley Electric Association Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA partnered with Great Basin College to train and certify installers, creating jobs in the community, and also with Rheem Manufacturing and a local licensed contractor to install the units. A site visit is performed to determine the best installation and system design for each member. Members have the option of

146

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hosted by DOE's Building America program, this webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution.

147

Save on Home Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Tips: Water Heating Solar energy systems are among the renewable and efficiency purchases that are...

148

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Idaho) Idaho) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Idaho) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 05/01/2012 State Idaho Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is also eligible for the rebate. All program requirements for equipment and installation must be met in order to receive rebates. Incentives are

149

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oregon) Oregon) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Oregon) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 5/1/2012 State Oregon Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program Provider Northwest Energy Efficiency Project The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is also eligible for the rebate. All program requirements for equipment and installation must be met in order to receive rebates. Incentives are

150

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Montana) Montana) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Montana) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 5/1/2012 State Montana Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program Provider Northwest Energy Efficiency Project The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is also eligible for the rebate. All program requirements for equipment and installation must be met in order to receive rebates. Incentives are

151

Simulation and Validation of a Single Tank Heat Pump Assisted Solar Domestic Water Heating System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis is a study of an indirect heat pump assisted solar domestic hot water (I-HPASDHW) system, where the investigated configuration is called the Dual (more)

Wagar, William Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heaters. Water heating energy use represents the second largest energy demand for homes...

153

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Compared to those water heaters, heat pump water heating systems can supply much more heat just with the same amount of electric input used for electric water heaters. The ASHPWH absorbs heat from the ambient- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Residential Energy Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. The data was collected as part of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). RECS is a national survey that collects residential energy-related data. The survey collected data from 4,381 households in housing units statistically selected to represent the 111.1 million housing units in the United States. Data were obtained from residential energy suppliers for each unit in the sample to produce the data. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB)

157

Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential Solutions: $1000/improvement Program Info Start Date 1/1/2011 State Louisiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount kWh savings(annual) x $0.34/kWh Provider Energy Smart Solutions Center Entergy New Orleans offers a Solar Water Heater Rebate pilot program designed to help residential customers make energy efficiency improvements. Rebates will be offered on a first-come, first-served basis and reflected on the invoice as a discount. All systems must be OG 300 rated and incentive amount is based on kWh savings. Walk-through energy assessments

158

Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200kg/(m2s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720kW/m2. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler.

Dong Yang; Jie Pan; Chenn Q. Zhou; Xiaojing Zhu; Qincheng Bi; Tingkuan Chen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Convective heat transfer characteristics of China RP-3 aviation kerosene at supercritical pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convective heat transfer characteristics of China RP-3 aviation kerosene at supercritical pressure Keywords: Supercritical pressure Aviation kerosene Convective heat transfer Numerical study a b s t r a c convective in kerosene pipe flow is complicated. Here the convective heat transfer characteristics of China

Guo, Zhixiong "James"

160

Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics flow. Initial turbulent friction and heat transfer measurements for silica and carbon nanotube (CNT

Kostic, Milivoje M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi model, the Modified Kovacs (MK) model for the determination of soil-water characteristic curve at the low water contents of two horizons of a soil from Burkina Faso. Combining terms from capillary state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Solar Water Heating FTA, 024922m FTA solwat heat.pdf  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Federal Technology Alert A series of energy efficient technology guides prepared by the New Technology Demonstration Program Solar Water Heating Well-Proven Technology Pays Off in Several Situations Solar water heating is a well-proven and readily available technology that directly substitutes renewable energy for conventional water heating. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), one of a series on new energy- efficient technologies and renewable energy technologies, describes the various types of solar water heating systems, the situations in which solar water heating is likely to be cost- effective, considerations in selecting and designing a system, and basic steps for installing a system. There are a variety of different types

164

Heat transfer research on supercritical water flow upward in tube  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental research of heat transfer on supercritical water has been carried out on the supercritical water multipurpose test loop with a 7.6 mm upright tube. The experimental data of heat transfer is obtained. The experimental results of thermal-hydraulic parameters on flow and heat transfer of supercritical water show that: Heat transfer enhancement occurs when the fluid temperature reaches pseudo-critical point with low mass flow velocity, and peters out when the mass flow velocity increases. The heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number decrease with the heat flux or system pressure increases, and increase with the increasing of mass flow velocity. The wall temperature increases when the mass flow velocity decreases or the system pressure increases. (authors)

Li, H. B.; Yang, J. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Gu, H. Y.; Zhao, M. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Lu, D. H.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Y. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,500 or 50% of installed cost; $2,000 for systems purchased by 12/31/13 Program Info Funding Source LIPA Efficiency Long Island Program Start Date December 2010 State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $20 per kBTU (based on SRCC collector rating) Bonus Incentive for systems purchased by 12/31/13: 2 Collector system: $500 bonus rebate 1 Collector system: $250 bonus rebate Provider Long Island Power Authority '''''Note: For system purchased by December 31, 2013, LIPA is providing a

166

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Water Heating Program Info State Arizona Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Maricopa Association of Governments In an effort to promote uniformity, the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) approved standard procedures for securing necessary electrical/building permits for residential (single-family) and commercial PV systems. These procedures are a part of the MAG Building Code Standards. The standards address requirements for the solar installation, plans,

167

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency Questions? Our energy efficiency and renewable energy experts will answer your questions about ways to save money and incorporate renewable energy into your home during our Earth Day Google+ Hangout on April 22 at 3 pm ET. Submit your questions on Twitter, G+ and YouTube using #askEnergy,

168

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency Questions? Our energy efficiency and renewable energy experts will answer your questions about ways to save money and incorporate renewable energy into your home during our Earth Day Google+ Hangout on April 22 at 3 pm ET. Submit your questions on Twitter, G+ and YouTube using #askEnergy,

169

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" 5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings ................",4657,3239,1546,1520,110,62,130 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1456,795,574,"Q","Q","Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,778,317,429,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,574,265,274,14,9,31

171

Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

172

Apparatus and method for solar heating of water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an apparatus for heating a tank of water comprising at least three substantially planar plastic strips positioned substantially vertically in spaced relationship in the water, such that the strips are substantially immersed in the water to be heated, and means for positioning the strips in the water with the provisos that the strips are light absorbent on both major planar surfaces and that the positioning means is of such construction as to minimize absorption of solar radiation by the positioning means rather than by the strips. A method for solar heating of a tank of water comprising the steps of positioning at least three substantially vertical, substantially planar plastic strips in spaced relationship in the water, such that strips are substantially immersed in the water to be heated, with the proviso that the strips are light absorbent on both major planar surfaces, and exposing the strips to solar radiation. A recreational swimming pool equipped with a solar heating apparatus comprising at least three substantially planar plastic strips removably positioned substantially vertically in spaced relationship in the pool water, such that and means for removably positioning the strips in spaced relationship in the pool water with the proviso that the strips are light absorbent on both major planar surfaces.

Caines, R.S.

1988-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per account Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider Ocala Utility Services The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive approval from the Ocala Utility Services before installing equipment. The application can be found on the [http://www.ocalafl.org/COO3.aspx?id=947 program web site.] The system must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor on the customer's

177

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

178

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs Water District Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Boise, Idaho Coordinates 43.6135002°, -116.2034505° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

179

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential: 30% of system cost or $3,000, whichever is less Small Commercial: 30% of system cost or $7,500, whichever is less Schools, Religious, Non-profit, Public Facilities and Civic and County Facilities: 50% of system cost or $30,000, whichever is less Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential and Small Business: $14.50 per therm Schools, Religious, Non-profit, Public Facilities and Civic and County

180

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina) Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Generating Facility Rate-Making Siting and Permitting Provider South Carolina Public Service Commission This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services, exemptions, investigations, and records. Article 4 (58-5-400 et seq.) of this

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program (Arizona) Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program (Arizona) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate 50% of system cost Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $15.00/therm Provider Southwest Gas Corporation '''''Note: Effective July 15, 2013, Southwest Gas is no longer accepting applications for the current program year. Systems installed during the current program year will not be eligible for a rebate in the next program

182

Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies: Energy, Biofuels, Biodiesel, Cooking Oil, Mathematical optimization, Algae1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

183

Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

184

Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program (Idaho)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

185

Split system CO2 heat pump water heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Split-system-CO2-heat-pump-water-heaters- Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE...

186

GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

187

South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

188

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

189

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

190

Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Heating and cooling of municipal buildings with waste heat from ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of using waste heat from municipal water wells to replace natural gas for heating of the City Hall, Fire Station, and Community Hall in Wilmer, Texas was studied. At present, the 120/sup 0/F well water is cooled by dissipating the excess heat through evaporative cooling towers before entering the distribution system. The objective of the study was to determine the pumping cycle of the well and determine the amount of available heat from the water for a specified period. This data were correlated with the heating and cooling demand of the City's buildings, and a conceptual heat recovery system will be prepared. The system will use part or all of the excess heat from the water to heat the buildings, thereby eliminating the use of natural gas. The proposed geothermal retrofit of the existing natural gas heating system is not economical because the savings in natural gas does not offset the capital cost of the new equipment and the annual operating and maintenance costs. The fuel savings and power costs are a virtual trade-off over the 25-year period. The installation and operation of the system was estimated to cost $105,000 for 25 years which is an unamortized expense. In conclusion, retrofitting the City of Wilmer's municipal buildings is not feasible based on the economic analysis and fiscal projections as presented.

Morgan, D.S.; Hochgraf, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review...

194

Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar energy systems require periodic inspections and routine maintenance to keep them operating efficiently. Also, from time to time, components may need repair or replacement. You should also take steps to prevent scaling, corrosion, and freezing. You might be able to handle some of the inspections and maintenance tasks on your own, but others may require a qualified technician. Ask for a cost estimate in writing before having any work done. For some systems, it may

195

Study on Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method of Cooling Water System of Surface Water Source Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water source heat pump system is a green air-conditioning system which has high efficiency, energy saving, and environmental protection, but inappropriate design of the system type of water intake will impact on ...

Jibo Long; Siyi Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Long Term Solar Heat Storage through Underground Water Tanks for the Heating of Housing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This project consists in the development of design methods of solar plants for heating of housing by means of the interseasonal storage of solar energy through water tanks located under or...

M. Cucumo; V. Marinelli; G. Oliveti; A. Sabato

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Design of Coil Heat Exchanger for Remote-Storage Solar Water Heating System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coil heat exchanger for hot water thermal storage was presented including the choice of the ... calculation of flow resistance. In this design, solar collector contour aperture area is 4.26...2, the volume of w...

Lv Cuiping; He Duanlian; Dou Jianqing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Analyzing the efficiency of a heat pump assisted drain water heat recovery system that uses a vertical inline heat exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of the present study is to accumulate knowledge on how a drain water heat recovery system using a vertical inline heat exchanger and a heat pump performs under different drain water flow profile scenarios. Investigating how the intermittent behavior of the drain water influences the performance for this type of system is important because it gives insight on how the system will perform in a real life situation. The scenarios investigated are two 24h drain water flow rate schedules and one shorter schedule representing a three minute shower. The results from the present paper add to the knowledge on how this type of heat recovery system performs in a setting similar to a multi-family building and how sizing influences the performance. The investigation shows that a heat recovery system of this type has the possibility to recover a large portion of the available heat if it has been sized to match the drain water profile. Sizing of the heat pump is important for the system performance; sizing of the storage tank is also important but not as critical.

Jrgen Wallin; Joachim Claesson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

Kandlikar, Satish

203

"Table HC14.4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" 4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.7,"Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,23.4,7.5,16 "Use Main Space Heating Equipment",109.1,22.9,7.4,15.4 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use It",0.8,0.6,"Q",0.5 "Main Heating Fuel and Equipment" "Natural Gas",58.2,14.7,4.6,10.1 "Central Warm-Air Furnace",44.7,11.4,4,7.4

204

"Table HC12.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" 4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N" "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Use Main Space Heating Equipment",109.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use It",0.8,"N","N","N" "Main Heating Fuel and Equipment"

205

NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

Not Available

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Characteristics of multimode heat transfer in a differentially-heated horizontal rectangular duct.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study presents the numerical analysis of steady laminar flow heat transfer in a horizontal rectangular duct with differential heating on the vertical walls. Three (more)

Wangdhamkoom, Panitan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Modeling and Experimental Investigation of a Variable Speed Drive Water Source Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate variable speed characteristics are needed for water source heat pumps (WSHP) to design variable speed controls to adjust refrigerant flow rates in heat pumps and air conditioners. The system capacity can then be regulated to match the compressor loads to the heating or cooling needs to improve the energy efficiency and lower energy costs. The motor and compression characteristics of WSHP were modeled to include the coupling between the motor speed and the torque characteristics and compression characteristics. An analytical model is given for a variable speed hermetic scroll compressor that describes various factors, such as the drive frequency, suction pressure, and discharge pressure as a function of the compressor speed. The model was validated experimentally using R22 and \\{R134a\\} in an experimental WSHP with variable speed control using frequency conversion. The results show that the analytical model properly describes the variable speed characteristics and provides a control strategy for adjusting the capacity of scroll compressors to match the heat pump or air conditioner operating conditions.

Zhifang Xue; Lin Shi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating Transcript  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording transcript of a Webinar on Nov. 16, 2010 about residential solar water heating applications

209

Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

Vliet, G. C.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

"Table HC13.4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" 4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N","Q" "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,40.3,21.4,6.9,12 "Use Main Space Heating Equipment",109.1,40.1,21.2,6.9,12 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use It",0.8,"Q","Q","N","N"

212

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-12-2 1 Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters Shangli Shan Dandan Wang Ruixiang Wang Master Master Professor Beijing...) [21] Wang sui-lin . Affection on fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger's Properties by non azeotropic mixtures[J] . Fluid machinery , 1996 , 24 (5) [22] Ge run-ting . Foundation of Dynamic Parameter Model and Theoritical Calculation of Evaporator...

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch and J. Maguire National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54793 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch and J. Maguire National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. SHX1.1001 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54793 August 2012

214

Numerical Analysis of the Flow Characteristics and Heat and Mass Transfer of Falling-Water Films in an Industrial-Scale Dip Tube of a WSCC in an OMB Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A water-scrubbing cooling chamber (WSCC) is applied to an opposed multi-burner (OMB) gasifier(1-3) in which high-temperature syngas (with molten slag) is cooled, washed, and humidified, and the coarse particles are collected. ... On a lab.-scale testing platform of impinging entrained-flow gasifier with two opposed burners, the detailed measurements of gas concn. ...

Yifei Wang; Qiangqiang Guo; Bihua Fu; Jiangliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu; Fuchen Wang

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

215

Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Template Template Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Kate Hudon National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kate.hudon@nrel.gov 303-275-3190 April 3, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: The major market barrier for solar water heaters (SWHs) is installed cost. This project addresses this barrier by working with an industry research partner to evaluate innovative solutions that reduce the installed cost of a SWH by

218

Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs February 19, 2009 - 1:39pm Addthis Water heating can account for a significant portion of your energy costs. Purchasing a new ENERGY STAR® water heater is just one way to save on your water heating bills. The Energy Savers Tips site lists other strategies you can use to cut your water heating costs. How do you reduce your water heating costs? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Energy Savers Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home How Do You Save on Lighting Costs? Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs

219

An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water Reactor Fuel with the Potential for Recycle in the United States An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water Reactor Fuel with the Potential for Recycle in the United States The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) of the Department of Energy has been formulated to perform research leading to advanced fuels and fuel cycles for advanced nuclear power systems. One of the objectives of AFCI is to determine if partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the burden on the geologic repository. The AFCI program is periodically reviewed by the Advanced Nuclear Transmutation Technology (ANTT) subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee

220

Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Obliquely Impinging Slot Jets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The skin friction and heat transfer characteristics due to a slot jet impinging obliquely on a flat plate are presented. The boundary layer equations are solved by a finite difference marching technique, detai...

S. Jayaraj; Vijay K. Garg

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

222

Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Approved...

Herron, Steven Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric

California at Davis, University of

224

Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

BUBBLE CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER OF BINARY MIXTURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUBBLE CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER OF BINARY MIXTURES on the bubble growth and associated heat transfer phenomena. The present work focuses on obtaining the bubble. The bubble growth is observed using a high speed camera (1000 fps) under a magnification of 290X. The bubble

Kandlikar, Satish

226

Investigation of a Novel Solar Assisted Water Heating System with Enhanced Energy Yield for Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulation and experimental verification. The unique characteristic of such system consists in the integrated loop heat pipe and heat pump unit (LHP-HP), which was proposed to improve solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, capture additional solar heat...

Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xu, J.; Yu, X.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Simulation of energy use in residential water heating systems Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as solar-assisted pre-heat and waste water heat recovery components. A total of 7,488 six- day simulations

Victoria, University of

228

Solar Hot Water Heater Augmented with PV-TEM Heat Pump.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solar assisted heat pumps (SAHPs) can provide higher collector efficiencies and solar fractions when compared against standard solar hot water heaters. Vapour compression (VC) heat (more)

PRESTON, NATHANIEL

229

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

231

Solar-assisted heat pump A sustainable system for low-temperature water heating applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems (DX-SAHP) have been widely used in many applications including water heating. In the DX-SAHP systems the solar collector and the heat pump evaporator are integrated into a single unit in order to transfer the solar energy to the refrigerant. The present work is aimed at studying the use of the DX-SAHP for low temperature water heating applications. The novel aspect of this paper involves a detailed long-term thermo-economic analysis of the energy conservation potential and economic viability of these systems. The thermal performance is simulated using a computer program that incorporates location dependent radiation, collector, economic, heat pump and load data. The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) method. Results indicate that the DX-SAHP water heaters systems when compared to the conventional electrical water heaters are both economical as well as energy conserving. The analysis also reveals that the minimum value of the system life cycle cost is achieved at optimal values of the solar collector area as well as the compressor displacement capacity. Since the cost of SAHP system presents a barrier to mass scale commercialization, the results of the present study indicating that the SAHP life cycle cost can be minimized by optimizing the collector area would certainly be helpful in lowering, if not eliminating, the economic barrier to these systems. Also, at load temperatures higher than 70C, the performance of the single stage heat pump degrades to the extent that its cost and efficiency advantages over the electric only system are lost.

S.K. Chaturvedi; V.D. Gagrani; T.M. Abdel-Salam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heater Basics Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water outlet attached to the top. Below the valve is the upper thermostat, a small square outside the cylinder that is attached to a curved tube inside the heater. Resistance elements run from the upper thermostat to the similarly shaped lower thermostat. Below the lower thermostat is a drain valve with a cold water inlet attached to the top. Inside the cylinder is an anode, a series of thin tubes running through the bottom chamber to a coiled tube called a condenser. Insulation runs along the inside of the cylinder.

233

Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Place Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip 100038 Sector Buildings, Solar Product The programme focuses on the development of high-quality and attractive-looking model designs for integrating solar water heaters (SWH) into buildings in China. Coordinates 39.90601°, 116.387909° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.90601,"lon":116.387909,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

234

Evaporation heat transfer and friction characteristics of R-134a flowing downward in a vertical corrugated tube  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differently from most previous studies, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the pure refrigerant HFC-134a during evaporation inside a vertical corrugated tube are experimentally investigated. The double tube test sections are 0.5 m long with refrigerant flowing in the inner tube and heating water flowing in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and two corrugated tubes, which are constructed from smooth copper tube of 8.7 mm inner diameter. The test runs are performed at evaporating temperatures of 10, 15, and 20 C, heat fluxes of 20, 25, and 30 kW/m{sup 2}, and mass fluxes of 200, 300, and 400 kg/m{sup 2} s. The quality of the refrigerant in the test section is calculated using the temperature and pressure obtained from the experiment. The pressure drop across the test section is measured directly by a differential pressure transducer. The effects of heat flux, mass flux, and evaporation temperature on the heat transfer coefficient and two-phase friction factor are also discussed. It is found that the percentage increases of the heat transfer coefficient and the two-phase friction factor of the corrugated tubes compared with those of the smooth tube are approximately 0-10% and 70-140%, respectively. (author)

Aroonrat, Kanit; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and charge level, factoring in renewable generation and other critical needs of the grid; thereby significantly reducing carbon emissions and bringing a new dimension of conservation and efficiency to the electric grid. The Steffes grid-interactive renewable water heater controller provides utilities with an affordable and effective way to integrate renewable generation into the grid while providing uninterrupted hot water to the consumer. In recent years, many states have set Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) to reduce the need for traditional fossil fuel-based power generation, thereby improving our environment and decreasing

236

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Performance Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Prepared under Task Nos. WTN9.1000, ARRB.2204 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

237

Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Florida Florida A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin , Texas March 1st, 2012 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Cocoa, Florida 3 2009 -Present (Currently in third testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Underground Circulation Loop * Solar circulation Loop 140+ feet of ½" copper tubing * Encased in PVC tubing with R-2.4 insulation * ICS to 50 gallon storage tank path need to

238

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to maintain a constant cooling water supply temperature in the cold well. The cooling tower fans can be manually reversed on slow speed for de-icing the cooling tower in winter to remove ice buildup on the slats. Level controller LL-2 shuts down pumps PI...HEAT RECOVERY FROM ARC FURNACES USING WATER COOLED PANELS D. F. Darby Deere & Company Moline, Illinois ABSTRACT In 1980-81, the John Deere Foundry at East Moline underwent an expansion program that in creased its capacity by over 60...

Darby, D. F.

239

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

240

Analysis of recoverable waste heat of circulating cooling water in hot-stamping power system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article studies the possibility of using heat pump instead of cooling tower to decrease temperature and recover waste heat of circulating cooling water of power system. Making use of heat transfer theory ......

Panpan Qin; Hui Chen; Lili Chen; Chong Wang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cogen/chilled-water plant heats, cools, electrifies campus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes replacement of the University of California at Los Angeles' aging boiler and refrigeration equipment with a central chiller/combined-cycle cogeneration plant. The topics of the article include the work scope, the chilled water plant including absorption and steam turbine driven centrifugal chillers, and the cogeneration plant including two packaged combustion turbines, two heat-recovery steam generators and one steam turbogenerator.

Johnson, D.N. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Bakker, V.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermal performance of phase change material energy storage floor for active solar water-heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conventional active solar water-heating floor system contains a big water tank to store energy in the day time for heating at night, which takes much building space and is very heavy. In order to reduce the w...

Ruolang Zeng; Xin Wang; Wei Xiao

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Field testing of air-to-water heat pump...

244

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

245

Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Download presentation slides from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water.

247

Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost?  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective?

248

Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

249

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Analysis of a solar assisted heat pump system for indoor swimming pool water and space heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy application is a good alternative to replace primary energy source especially for large-scale installations. Heat pumps are also effective means to reduce primary energy consumption. This paper describes a case study with a new design of solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) for indoor swimming pool space- and water-heating purposes. The system design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled via the TRNSYS simulation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on the winter time operation schedule. Economic analysis with a range of collector areas was also performed. The simulation results show that the overall system COP can reach 4.5, and the fractional factor of energy saving is 79% as compared to the conventional energy system. The economical payback period is less than 5years.

T.T. Chow; Y. Bai; K.F. Fong; Z. Lin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer Reprinted: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer A unique specimen of gopher snake of pulmocutaneous water loss and heat transfer, no difference was observed between the scale- less animal

Bennett, Albert F.

252

Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

Winiarski, David W.

2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, November 15, 1996--January 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Phase Change Characteristics of a Nanoemulsion as a Latent Heat Storage Material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the fundamental phase change characteristics of a nanoemulsion using differential scanning ... point than water, was utilized as the phase change material fo...

Koji Fumoto; Noriaki Sato; Masahiro Kawaji

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Characteristics of the hair coat of beef cattle as factors in heat tolerance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HAIR COAT OF BEEF CATTLE AS FACTORS IN HEAT TOLERANCE A Thesis by Robert Moore Davis Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee 1952 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HAIR COAT UF BEEF CATTLE AS FACTORS IN HEAT... TOLERANCE by Robert Moore Da vi s A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Major Subject: Animal Breeding May 1952 A...

Davis, Robert Moore

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

257

An approach to energy saving assessment of solar assisted heat pumps for swimming pool water heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A steady state off-design model of a Water Solar Assisted Heat Pump (W-SAHP) and the results of monthly based averaged simulations are presented. The W-SAHP system is arranged with a commercial water-to-water heat pump, coupled with unglazed flat plate solar collectors. The study is purposely developed for swimming pools, however most of the analysis criteria and outcomes are valid for any building (user) having hot water needs. Calculations are made for given thermal load and user operating temperatures with reference to the climatic data of all Italian Municipalities, that is degree days (DD) in the range from 700 to 3000, altitude from 0 to 1500m (above sea level), and latitude from 36.5N to 46.3N. The primary energy saving capability of the W-SAHP solution, compared to a traditional gas-boiler plant, is analyzed as a function of the DD index of each site. Despite the large spread of climatic and altitude data, the results show that the W-SAHP performance is usually well correlated to DD, which can therefore be assumed as the main independent variable for the energy saving assessment of these systems, and make the results easily extended to other possible geographical locations.

Luca A. Tagliafico; Federico Scarpa; Giulio Tagliafico; Federico Valsuani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Heat transfer and combustion characteristics of a burner with a rotary regenerative heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a Rotary Regenerative Combustion (RRX) System, which is coupled with a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger and a combustion burner. This system contributes to saving energy of fuel firing industrial furnaces and decreases NO{sub x} emission. This technology can be considered as a solution of greenhouse problem. This paper, discusses a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger in comparison with the existing types of regenerative burners and reverse firing with high momentum fuel jet (with motive fluid) in the furnace. This burner is compact in size, with high fuel efficiency, low NOx emission, easy to operate, and reliable, based on the results of field tests and commercial operations. The authors can say that the RRX system is a regenerative burner of the second generation.

Hirose, Yasuo; Kaji, Hitoshi; Arai, Norio

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill October 26, 2009 - 3:49pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Sometimes it surprises me to see that the most popular pages on the site are the ones about solar water heaters and demand (or tankless) water heaters. But considering that water heating can account for around 12% of a family's utility bill-the biggest chunk after space heating and cooling-it really shouldn't be that surprising that you want to know how to heat your water more efficiently. Obviously, not everyone is in a position to go out and buy a new water heater, but we can all do something to use less water and save on our bills. Whether you're looking for no-cost habit changes, low-cost purchases or

260

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, J.W.

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Analysis of selected surface characteristics and latent heat storage for passive solar space heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented of an analysis of the value of various technical improvements in the solar collector and thermal storage subsystems of passive solar residential, agricultural, and industrial systems for two regions of the country. The evaluated improvements are: decreased emissivity and increased absorptivity of absorbing surfaces, decreased reflectivity, and decreased emissivity of glazing surface, and the substitution of sensible heat storage media with phase change materials. The value of each improvement is estimated by the additional energy savings resulting from the improvement.

Fthenakis, V.; Leigh, R.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

264

Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas-Fired Absorption Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

265

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.40/annual kWh saved (on average $800 to $1,000) Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to its residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may choose either the cash rebate or a zero-interest loan. Cash rebates of up to $1,000 are available for approved systems. The rebate

266

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate not specified Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount not specified Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may take advantage of the City's zero-interest loan program or a cash rebate. Customers choosing a loan repay it as part of their monthly utility bill. Interested customers are provided site evaluations, consumer

267

"Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,33,8,3.4,5.9,14.4,1.2 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.6,"Q"...

268

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

269

Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 Q Q Q 0.3 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 32.3 8.0 3.3 5.8 14.1 1.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 31.8 8.0 3.2 5.6 13.9 1.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.5 N Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 16.4 4.5 2.1 3.2 6.2 0.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace........................ 44.7 10.0 3.3 1.4 1.6 3.3 0.3 For One Housing Unit........................... 42.9 8.6 3.3 1.2 1.4 2.4 0.3 For Two Housing Units..........................

270

Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas....................................................... 58.2 15.6 18.0 9.5 8.4 6.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace............................. 44.7 10.7 14.3 7.6 6.9 5.2 For One Housing Unit................................ 42.9 10.1 13.8 7.3 6.5 5.2 For Two Housing Units...............................

271

Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 0.3 N Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 77.5 63.7 4.2 1.8 2.2 5.6 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 77.2 63.6 4.2 1.8 2.1 5.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 Q N Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 41.8 35.3 2.8 1.2 1.0 1.6 Central Warm-Air Furnace........................ 44.7 34.8 29.7 2.3 0.7 0.6 1.4 For One Housing Unit........................... 42.9 34.3 29.5 2.3 0.6 0.6 1.4 For Two Housing Units..........................

272

Heat transfer characteristics of laminar methane/air flame impinging normal to a cylindrical surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of methane/air laminar flames impinging normal to a cylindrical surface. Effects of variations in the values of Reynolds number (Re = 600-1300), equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.8-1.3), dimensionless separation distance (H/d = 1-5), and burner diameter to cylinder diameter ratio (d/D = 0.0538-0.1076) have been investigated. Three important configurations, viz., flame inner reaction zone far away, just touching and intercepted by the impingement surface, were examined in detail. High stagnation point heat fluxes were obtained when tip of the flame inner reaction zone just touched the target surface. Stagnation point heat fluxes were either zero or negative when the inner reaction zone was intercepted by the impingement surface. An off-stagnation peak in heat flux was obtained at moderate separation distances above the flame tip. Both stagnation point and peak heat fluxes increased with Re when the inner reaction zone length was less than the separation distance. Heat fluxes in the wall-jet region were high at high Re. Maximum heat fluxes were obtained for initially fuel-rich mixture conditions due to entrainment of the surrounding air. Smaller burner diameters produced high heat flux at the stagnation region for fixed Reynolds number and opposite trends were seen in the wall-jet region. A secondary rise in stagnation point heat flux was obtained at larger separation distances. This secondary rise in heat flux was quite significant for larger burner diameters and at low flow rates. Correlations were developed for stagnation point heat flux. Results were also compared with flat plate under identical operating conditions. (author)

Chander, Subhash; Ray, Anjan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

Treur, Jan

274

City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $2,000 Program Info Funding Source General Funds State Texas Program Type Local Rebate Program Rebate Amount 30% of installed cost Provider City of Sunset Valley The City of Sunset Valley offers rebates to local homeowners who install solar water heating systems on their properties. The local rebate acts as an add-on to the solar water heating rebates that are offered by Austin Energy to its electric customers. The Sunset Valley rebate is set at 30% of the installed system cost, up to a maximum rebate of $2,000 per homeowner, supplementing the

275

An experimental study on heat transfer from a horizontal heated circular cylinder enhanced by water spray.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer which occurs with a heated, constant heat flux, horizontal, single circular cylinder is exposed (more)

Chau, Man Hei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

A refrigerator-heat-pump desalination scheme for fresh-water and salt recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study concerns a refrigerator-heat-pump desalination scheme (RHPDS), which allows energy-efficient recovery of fresh water and salt from the sea. In this scheme, a salt-water chamber is continuously refilled with sea water via atmospheric pressure. Sea water is evaporated into a vacuum chamber and the water vapor is condensed on top of a fresh-water chamber. A refrigerator-heat-pump circuit maintains the two water chambers at suitably different operating temperatures and allows efficient recovery of the latent heat of condensation. The scheme is analyzed with special consideration to potential exploitation of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy.

M. Reali

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at constant pressure Coal water slurry Diffusion coefficient (Damkohler number) Activation energy Higher heating value Gasification rate constant Flame lift off distance Mass of CWS drop Number of coal particles in a single CWS drop Prandtl number... of gasification and combustion of liquid and coal. This is due to the fact that basic combustion theories apply to both processes with some differences to compensate for the difference in the ignition and combustion characteristics of a liquid drop and slurry...

Bhadra, Tanmoy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into carbon gas-fired absorption heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to increase water heating energy efficiency over conventional gas storage water heaters by 40%. Project Description This project seeks to develop a natural gas-fired water heater using an absorption heat. The development effort is targeting lithium bromide aqueous solutions as a working fluid in order to avoid the negative implications of using more toxic ammonia. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a Cooperative Research and Development

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

#tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Costs Water Heating Costs #tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs February 20, 2013 - 5:09pm Addthis Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs #tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs Every month we ask the larger energy community to share their energy-saving tips, and we feature some of our favorite tips in a Storify. For this month's #tipsEnergy, we wanted to know how you save energy and money on water heating. Storified by Energy Department · Wed, Feb 20 2013 14:12:00 Hot water is essential to most of our lives: We use it to shower, run the dishwasher and wash clothes. Quite frequently, we use more hot water than we think -- the average rate hot water flows out of the kitchen faucet is 2 gallons per minute, and an eight-minute shower

282

Development and Application of Engineering-Scale Solar Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on ... . The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, ... Energy source...

Xiufeng Gao; Shiyu Feng; Wei Hu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Pool boiling heat transfer enhancement over cylindrical tubes with water at atmospheric pressure, Part I: Experimental results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pool boiling heat transfer enhancement over cylindrical tubes with water at atmospheric pressure online 4 May 2013 Keywords: Pool boiling Heat transfer enhancement Open microchannels Cylindrical tube boiling heat transfer over enhanced cylindrical microchannel test surfaces with water at atmospheric

Kandlikar, Satish

284

"Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,7.1,6.8,7.9,11.9 "Use Main Space Heating Equipment",109.1,7.1,6.6,7.9,11.4 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use It",0.8,"N","Q","N",0.5 "Main Heating Fuel and Equipment" "Natural Gas",58.2,3.8,0.4,3.8,8.4

285

"Table HC10.4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" 4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,20.5,25.6,40.3,23.4 "Use Main Space Heating Equipment",109.1,20.5,25.6,40.1,22.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use It",0.8,"N","N","Q",0.6 "Main Heating Fuel and Equipment" "Natural Gas",58.2,11.4,18.4,13.6,14.7

286

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research Project | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research Project Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into advanced low-cost solar water heating. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Project Description This project seeks to identify and resolve technical, performance, and cost barriers to the development of easy-to-install and reliable solar water heating systems for all major U.S. climate regions. The project will also evaluate opportunities for breakthrough system innovations and innovations in advanced system performance ratings. Project Partners

288

Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

Not Available

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Experimental analysis of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump with integral storage tank for domestic water heating under zero solar radiation conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the performance of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump water heating (DX-SAHPWH) system working under zero solar radiation conditions at static heating operation mode of the storage tank. The DX-SAHPWH system includes two bare solar collectors as evaporator, a \\{R134a\\} rotary-type hermetic compressor, a thermostatic expansion valve and a helical coil condenser immersed in a 300L water storage tank. The zero solar radiation and stable ambient air temperature working conditions were established by placing the solar collectors into a climate chamber. The analysis is based on experimental data taken from the DX-SAHPWH provided by the manufacturer and equipped with an appropriate data acquisition system. In the paper, the experimental facility, the data acquisition system and the experimental methodology are described. Performance parameters to evaluate the energy efficiency, such as COP and equivalent seasonal performance factors (SPFe) for the heating period, and the water thermal stratification in the storage tank are defined and obtained from the experimental data. Results from the experimental analysis under transient operating working conditions of the DX-SAHPWH system and its main components are shown and discussed. Lastly, the Huang and Lee DX-SAHPWH performance evaluation method was applied resulting in a characteristic COP of 3.23 for the DX-SAHPWH system evaluated under zero solar radiation condition.

Jos Fernndez-Seara; Carolina Pieiro; J. Alberto Dopazo; F. Fernandes; Paulo X.B. Sousa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Characteristics of Fluid flow and heat transfer in Shellside of Heat Exchangers with Longitudinal Flow of Shellside Fluid with Different Supporting structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the paper, a simplified numerical model-the periodic unit duct model was presented for the numerical simulation of shellside characteristics in heat exchanger with longitudinal flow of shellside fluid, and its...

Yongqing Wang; Qiwu Dong; Minshan Liu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

293

Feasibility Analysis of Two Indirect Heat Pump Assisted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis is an analysis of the simulated performance of two indirect heat pump assisted solar domestic hot water (i-HPASDHW) systems compared to two base (more)

Sterling, Scott Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

traps. Learn more about heat traps. Insulate your hot-water storage tank. For electric tanks, be careful not to cover the thermostat, and for natural gas or oil hot water storage...

295

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it evaporates is returned to liquid water as vapor condenses. During low tide, the rate of evaporation typically exceeds the rate

Brody, James P.

296

Burning of Hydrocarbon Fuels Directly in a Water-Based Heat Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A principal possibility of burning hydrocarbon fuels directly in a water-based heat carrier is demonstrated. The first experimental results are presented by an example of burning acetylene in water with initia...

V. S. Teslenko; V. I. Manzhalei; R. N. Medvedev

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water; (2) there is a single deep hot water, and the range of chloride concentrations is produced by the water passing through a zone of highly soluble materials (most likely in...

298

Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water August 16, 2010 - 12:30pm Addthis An array of solar collectors | Photo courtesy of Trane An array of solar collectors | Photo courtesy of Trane Maya Payne Smart Former Writer for Energy Empowers, EERE What are the key facts? Recovery Act grant funds solar farm to heat 14,000 gallons of water a day Estimated to save $60,000 a year 174 tons of CO2 emissions avoided annually Hot water demand soars at the six-building Knox County Detention Facility in Tennessee. It's open 24/7 with 1,036 inmate beds and 4,500 meals served daily-and don't forget the laundry. Naturally, county officials sought an alternative to costly water heating. Their solution: a $1.88 million solar thermal system, among

299

Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Heat transfer characteristics of impinging steady and synthetic jets over vertical flat surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, heat transfer characteristics of single-slot impinging steady and synthetic jets on a 25.4-mmנ25.4-mm vertical surface were experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted with a fixed nozzle width of 1mm. For the steady jet study, the parameters varied in the testing were nozzle length (4mm, 8mm, 12mm, 15mm), Reynolds (Re) number (1002500), and dimensionless nozzle-to-plate spacing (H/Dh=5, 10, 15, 20). Correlations for average Nusselt (Nu) number were developed to accurately describe experimental data. The heat transfer coefficient over a vertical surface increases with increasing Re number. For a small nozzle-to-plate spacing (H/Dh=5), the average Nu number is not only a function of the Re number, but also a function of nozzle length. For large nozzle-to-plate spacing (H/Dh?10) and a nozzle length larger than 8mm, the heat transfer coefficient is insensitive to H/Dh and nozzle length. An 8-mmנ1-mm synthetic jet was studied by varying the applied voltage (20100V), frequency (200600Hz), and dimensionless nozzle-to-plate spacing (H/Dh=5, 10, 15, 20). Compared to the steady jet, the synthetic jet exhibited up to a 40% increase in the heat transfer coefficient. The dynamic Re number was introduced to correlate heat transfer characteristics between synthetic jets and steady jets. Using the dynamic Re number collapses the synthetic and steady jet data into a single Nu number curve.

Xin He; Jason A. Lustbader; Mehmet Arik; Rajdeep Sharma

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

Martin, Timothy

302

Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters June 14, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. What does this mean for me? Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient

304

Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval...

Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

Huggins, J.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

[Waste water heat recovery system]. Final report, September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

Not Available

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Institutional Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Program Type Building Energy Code In July 2009, U.S. Virgin Islands enacted legislation Act 7075. This legislation requires all new developments, and substantial building modifications, must be installed with energy efficient solar water heaters to provide at least 70% of the building's water heating needs. This is for all building types: residential, commercial, and governmental.

309

Study on the LWT control schemes of a heat pump for hot water supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat pump systems have been widely used in buildings and industries due to their high performance. In this study, a leaving water temperature control scheme has been proposed for a water-to-water heat pump for hot water supply. The study was focused on the following four schemes: (1) using an auxiliary electric heater, (2) varying compressor speed, (3) adjusting water flow rate, and (4) adding heat to the secondary fluid flow of the heat source. With schemes (2) and (3), the system showed higher performance than other schemes. However, scheme (2) could not attain the appropriate LWT at low EWT heat source conditions. For all EWT conditions, using schemes (3) and (4) enabled the system to reach an appropriate LWT. Scheme (4) can be adopted as the best technology to control LWT, because it is not easy to vary flow rate of the secondary fluid as in scheme (3).

Jong Min Choi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Mexico-GTZ Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Mexico-GTZ Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating Name Mexico-GTZ Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Partner German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Centro Mexicano de Promoción del Cobre A.C. (PROCOBRE) Sector Energy Focus Area Solar Topics Background analysis Website http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/27 Program Start 2007 Program End 2009 Country Mexico Central America References Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating in Mexico (PPP)[1] GTZ is working with Mexico on this project with the following objective:

311

"Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" 4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.6,0.3,"N","Q","Q","Q" "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,77.5,63.7,4.2,1.8,2.2,5.6

312

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recommendations for Applying Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i This report received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

313

Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the1 water efficiency of a pavement-watering method2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the1 water efficiency of a pavement-watering method2 Martin HENDEL1,2,3* , Morgane COLOMBERT2 , Youssef DIAB2,4 , Laurent ROYON3 3 1 Paris City Hall, Water.hendel@paris.fr)8 9 Preprint version. Uploaded on May 12th , 2014.10 Abstract: Pavement-watering as a technique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Water, Light and Heat Stress Effects on Fremont Cottonwood Photosynthesis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Seedlings of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), a California native riparian foundation species, are vulnerable to water stress from rapid water-table declines and the interactions (more)

Tozzi, Emily Sharp

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Consumer's Guide: Heat Your Water with the Sun (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication introduces consumers to solar heating technologies, and guides them through the basics of the technology and how to purchase it for the home.

Not Available

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A Consumer's Guide: Heat Your Water with the Sun (Brochure)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This publication introduces consumers to solar heating technologies, and guides them through the basics of the technology and how to purchase it for the home.

319

"Table B26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings ................",67338,56115,24171,29196,2218,4182,1371 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,4280,2307,1719,"Q","Q","Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,5748,2287,3204,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9000,4220,4221,224,164,493

320

City of Palo Alto Utilities - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heating Program Solar Water Heating Program City of Palo Alto Utilities - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Single-family residential gas-displacing systems: $2,719 Single-family residential electricity or propane-displacing systems: $1,834 Commercial/Industrial/Multi-family: $100,000 One contractor can have no more than $150,000 in incentive reservations at any given time. Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Single-family residential gas-displacing systems: $18.59 per therm displaced Single-family residential electricity or propane-displacing systems: $$0.54 per kWh displaced Multi-family and commercial gas-displacing systems: $14.53 per therm

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

322

High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail August 19, 2010 - 12:05pm Addthis The Blaine County Public Safety Facility houses between 60 and 80 prisoners and roughly 30 staffers. | Photo courtesy of Blaine The Blaine County Public Safety Facility houses between 60 and 80 prisoners and roughly 30 staffers. | Photo courtesy of Blaine Lindsay Gsell What does this project do? The new solar thermal hot water system will provide nearly 70 percent of the BTUs required for heating 600,000 gallons of water for the jail annually, saving the county more than $4,000 a year in electricity costs at current rates. In Hailey, Idaho, one 330,000 square foot building - the Blaine County Public Safety Facility - accounts for the county's highest operational

323

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that drive water and water vapor flow around hot waste packages. Characterizing salt backfill processes is an important objective of the exercise. An evidence-based algorithm for mineral dehydration is also applied in the modeling. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) is used to simulate coupled thermal,

324

Anisotropic Heat and Water Transport in a PEFC Cathode Gas Diffusion Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEFCs , owing to their high en- ergy efficiency, low emission, and low noise, are widely considered. In addition, the latent heat effects due to condensation/evaporation of water on the temperature and water ohmic losses. Along with water man- agement, thermal management is also a key to high performance

325

Seasonal thermal signatures of heat transfer by water exchange in an underground vault  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......such a cavity, water phases do not need...place, and vertical water flow can be small...Aburatsubo, with a recovery time larger than...heat transfer by water exchange. This...evaporation and condensation process. If the...Monitoring the atmospheric temperature in a......

Frdric Perrier; Pierre Morat; Toshio Yoshino; Osam Sano; Hisashi Utada; Olivier Gensane; Jean-Louis Le Moul

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

3D numerical simulation on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in multistage heat exchanger with slit fins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a numerical investigation is performed for three-stage heat exchangers with plain plate fins and slit ... are arranged in a staggered way, and heat conduction in fins is considered. In order ... av...

W. Q. Tao; Y. P. Cheng; T. S. Lee

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Direct Use for Building Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Webinar (text version) Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Courses Renewable Energy Technologies: Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water." Slide 1 Amy Hollander: Hello, I'm Amy Hollander with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Welcome to today's webinar on Building Heat and Hot Water sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs. This webinar is being recorded from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's new state-of-the-art net zero

328

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

used for many years for space heating and cooling. It can be found in small and large products alike, such as window air conditioners used in homes through large rooftop units...

329

Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Chemical and light-stable isotope data are presented for water samples from the Raft River geothermal area and environs. On the basis of chemical character, as defined by a trilinear plot of per cent milliequivalents, and light-stable isotope data, the waters in the geothermal area can be divided into waters that have and have not mixed

330

Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best 8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? What do we know about actual performance compared to promised performance? What is the best way to manage the space conditioning impacts on a home? Is there an easy decision tree for deciding if this is the best solution for a particular home (Climate? Utility prices? Accessibility? Physical space constraints? Workforce?)? cq8_residential_hpwh_costs_maguire.pdf cq8_hpwh_performance_colon.pdf cq8_hpwhs_multifamily_weitzel.pdf More Documents & Publications Track A - Energy Systems Innovations Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Standing Technical Committee Working Sessions

332

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the US Jeff Maguire 4/30/13 Outline * Why HPWHs? * US Water Heating Market * Overview of HPWHs * Model Description * Results o HPWH Performance o Energy Savings Potential o Breakeven Cost 2 Heat Pump Water Heaters Save $300 a year over standard electric? Save $100 a year over standard gas? Heat Pump Electric Gas 3 Questions about HPWHs * Are HPWHs a good replacement for typical gas and electric storage water heaters? o In different locations across the country? o In conditioned/unconditioned space? o Source energy savings?

333

Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

Mears, Kevin S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

FirstEnergy (West Penn Power)- Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

West Penn Power, a First Energy utility, provides rebates to residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a rebate of up...

335

Progress Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Progress Energy Florida (PEF) launched the ''Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program'' in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and...

336

Tribal Renewable Energy Foundational Course: Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download the...

337

2014-02-21 Issuance: Test Procedure for Commercial Water Heating Equipment; Request for Information  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures for commercial water heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency (February 21, 2014).

338

Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Financial analysis of the implementation of a Drain Water Heat Recovery unit in residential housing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract One of the ways of diminishing energy consumption for hot water heating is the use of Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) units. The aim of the use of these devices is thermal energy recovery from warm drain water and transferring it to incoming cold water. This paper presents the calculation model that allows the estimation of the financial efficiency of the project involving the construction of a shower Drain Water Heat Recovery system in a single-family dwelling house. The presented method of investment risk assessment can be used for decision making by individual users, designers and others. The study of the financial performance was carried out for the various parameters of the installation and the different heat recovery system configurations. From investors point of view the most beneficial option of heat recovery system installation is the system in which preheated water is fed to both the hot water heater and shower mixing valve. Additionally, it was proved that obtained financial results are affected by showering time and water consumption. DWHR units will be therefore particularly beneficial to apply in case of swimming pools, sports facilities or fitness clubs, where high rotation of users is observed.

Daniel S?y?; Sabina Kordana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding the certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration (CRE) equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 28, 2014.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

342

Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges Jim Constantz1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges Jim Constantz1 Received 13 March 2008 of heat as a tracer of shallow groundwater movement and describes current temperature-based approaches relying on traditional observation wells, and remote sensing and other large-scale advanced temperature

343

The effects of water and heat stress on protein synthesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF WATER AND HEAT STRESS ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) A Thesis CHRYS HULBERT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subjett: Plant Physiology THE EFFECTS OF WATER AND HEAT STRESS ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) A Thesis CHRYS HULBERT Approved as to style and content by: Ronald . Newton I (Co...

Hulbert, Chrys

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Experimental investigation of the night heat losses of hot water storage tanks in thermosyphon solar water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of night heat losses on the performance of thermosyphon solar water heaters have been experimentally examined. Three typical thermosyphon solar water heating systems with different storage tank sizes were tested by utilising the method suggested by ISO 9459-2:95. The results were analysed to quantify the night heat losses and to investigate the effect that these may have on the system daily performance. Analysis of the results showed that a linear behavior of the heat losses with the night mean ambient temperature exists. The correlation coefficients of the linearity for the three systems under consideration range from 0.93 to 0.97 with the losses reaching almost 8000 kJ at a mean ambient air temperature of 10 C. This value represents a significant percentage of the daily collected energy making the night losses one of the most important sources of energy loss in thermosyphonic systems.

Ioannis Michaelides; Polyvios Eleftheriou; George A. Siamas; George Roditis; Paraskevas Kyriacou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management...

Stein, J.

347

Water Purification Using the Adsorption Characteristics of Microbubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, technology using microbubbles has been studied for water purification. However, the mechanism and physical parameters of the purification process have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The purpose of this study is to clarify the physical parameters of microbubbles that influence water purification. Firstly, we measured and analyzed the purifying performance using various millimeter-sized bubbles, and we obtained the equilibrium constant of the pollutant adsorbed on the bubble surface from the experimental results. Secondly, we experimented with purifying the polluted water using microbubbles and clarified that the purification performance of microbubbles agreed with that theoretically expected using the equilibrium constant obtained in the preparatory experiment. We assume that an important parameter affecting adsorption on the surface of microbubbles is the equilibrium constant in the chemical potential. Because the equilibrium constant is derived from the surface chemical potential, it is equal to the bulk chemical potential of the liquid. In the microbubbles diameter (70 m) range in this study, we have found that the most significant factor determining the adsorption is the surface area. The surface tension of microbubbles is not significant factor.

Akira Yoshida; Osamu Takahashi; Yorishige Ishii; Yoshihiro Sekimoto; Yukio Kurata

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of microchannels with internal longitudinal fins.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Electronic components generate large amount of heat during their operation, which requires to be dissipated. Over the past decade, internal heat generation levels have exponentially (more)

Foong, Andrew Jun Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DIRECT USE FOR BUILDING HEAT & HOT WATER Presented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Course Outline 2 What we will cover...  About the DOE Office of Indian Energy Education Initiative  Course Introduction  Solar Thermal and Solar Ventilation Air Pre-Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Biomass Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Geothermal Building Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Additional Information & Resources Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs is responsible for assisting Tribes with energy planning and development, infrastructure, energy costs, and electrification of Indian

350

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Raft River area of Idaho contains a geothermal system of intermediate temperatures (approx. = 150 0C) at depths of about 1.5 km. Outside of the geothermal area, temperature measurements in three intermediate-depth drill holes (200 to 400 m) and one deep well (1500 m) indicate that the regional conductive heat flow is about 2.5 mucal/cm 2 sec or slightly higher and that temperature gradients range from 50 0 to 60

351

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant energy efficiency+ Home Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas. How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature? Links: The technology of Condensing Flue Gas Heat Recovery natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building

352

California Solar Initiative - Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » California Solar Initiative - Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program California Solar Initiative - Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Single-Family Low-Income: $3,750 Multi-Family Low-Income: $500,000 Program Info Funding Source Ratepayer Funds Start Date 3/29/2012 State California Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Step 1 Incentive Rates (contact utility to determine current incentive levels): Single-Family Low-Income: $25.64 per therm displaced Multi-Family Low-Income: $19.23 per therm displaced The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) voted in October 2011 to

353

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE Gagan Deep distribution of temperature during drop-wise condensation over a polyethylene substrate was measured using on the substrate was simultaneously visualized. Static contact angles of water on polyethylene are measured

Khandekar, Sameer

354

Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2009-2010 Evaluation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems was compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period. The Hot Water System Laboratory (HWS Lab) test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for the tests.

355

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Performance of an experimental ground-coupled heat pump system for heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is a type of renewable energy technology providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water. However, experimental studies on GCHP systems are still insufficient. This paper first presents an energy-operational optimisation device for a GCHP system involving insertion of a buffer tank between the heat pump unit and fan coil units and consumer supply using quantitative adjustment with a variable speed circulating pump. Then, the experimental measurements are used to test the performance of the GCHP system in different operating modes. The main performance parameters (energy efficiency and CO2 emissions) are obtained for one month of operation using both classical and optimised adjustment of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these performances is performed. In addition, using TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, two simulation models of thermal energy consumption in heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation are developed. Finally, the simulations obtained using TRNSYS are analysed and compared to experimental data, resulting in good agreement and thus the simulation models are validated.

Calin Sebarchievici; Ioan Sarbu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

Focus Marketing Services

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

358

Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Lumbee River EMC is offering $850 rebates to residential customers who install solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

359

Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Lumbee River EMC is offering 1.50% loans to residential customers for the installation of solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings...

360

Solar water heating potential in South Africa in dynamic energy market conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is an attempt to determine the potential for solar water heating (SWH) in South Africa and the prospects for its implementation between 2010 and 2030. It outlines the energy market conditions, the energy requirements related to residential and commercial water heating in the country and the solar water heating market dynamics and challenges. It was estimated that 98% of the potential is in the residential sector and the rest in the commercial sector. The total thermal demand for 20 years for water heating was estimated to 2.2EJ. A Moderate SWH implementation will provide 0.83EJ of clean energy until 2030 and estimated cost savings of 231 billion rand. For an Accelerated SWH implementation these figures are 1.3EJ and 369 billion rand. The estimated accumulated reduction of CO2 emissions due to SWH can be as high as 297Mt. The increased affordability of residential hot water due to SWH is an important social factor and solar water heating has a strong social effect.

Georgi Donev; Wilfried G.J.H.M. van Sark; Kornelis Blok; Ognjan Dintchev

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Parabolic-Trough Solar Water Heating--FTA, 022798m FTA trough  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Parabolic-trough solar water heating is Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven technology that directly sub- stitutes renewable energy for conventional energy in water heating. Parabolic-trough collectors can also drive absorption cooling systems or other equipment that runs off a thermal load. There is considerable potential for using these technologies at Federal facil- ities in the Southwestern United States or other areas with high direct-beam solar radi- ation. Facilities such as jails, hospitals, and barracks that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candi- dates. Use of parabolic-trough systems helps Federal facilities comply with Executive Order 12902's directive to reduce energy use by 30% by 2005 and advance other efforts to get the Federal government to set a good

362

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

365

Impact of extensive residential solar water heating on power system losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

South Africa is in the grips of an electricity crisis. Currently, the bulk of power is produced at coal fired power stations which are located far from the large load centres. Solar energy is widely available in South Africa, and could be used to complement this coal based generation, and supply energy at the point of use. This paper aims to investigate the impact of residential solar water heating on power system transmission losses. Initially simulations were carried out in order to determine the impact of solar water heating on a household's electricity demand. These were done for households located in Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban. A number of solar water heating installations in Cape Town were also monitored, in order to validate the simulation results. Lastly, a power system model was developed in order to investigate the possible impact of large-scale implementation of solar water heating, at varied penetration levels, on a transmission system. Using the model and the results obtained from the simulations, a utility impact analysis was carried out in order to determine the effect on transmission losses. It was concluded that large-scale implementation of solar water heating can be used as a means to alleviate loading and losses on power systems' transmission lines particularly during peak demand.

K.P. Ijumba; A.B. Sebitosi; P. Pillay; K. Folly

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Effect of heat treatment on stress corrosion of Alloy 718 in pressurized-water-reactor primary water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were conducted in 360{degrees}C pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) primary water using alloy 718 in various heat treatment conditions. Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition and an experimental heat of an alloy 718 variation, Hicoroy, were also tested for comparison. Fatigue-precracked, 12.5-mm-thick compact fracture specimens were subjected to a constant extension rate of 1.3 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s. Crack growth rate was measured during testing using a reversing DC potential drop technique. Results in the form of SCC crack growth rate versus applied stress intensity demonstrate that the SCC resistance of alloy 718 in the PWR primary-side environment can be improved by changes in heat treatment.

Miglin, M.T.; Monter, J.V.; Wade, C.S. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States); Nelson, J.L. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 -- Mechanical and Service Water Heating  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical and Service Water Heating Mechanical and Service Water Heating Requirements This course provides an overview of the mechanical and service water heating requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007. Estimated Length: 1 hour, 32 minutes Presenters: Mark Hydeman, Taylor Engineering Original Webcast Date: Thursday, February 28, 2008 - 13:00 CEUs Offered: 1.5 AIA/CES LU (HSW); .15 CEUs towards ICC renewal certification. Course Type: Video Downloads: Presentation Slides Video Watch on YouTube Visit the BECP Online Training Center for instructions on how to obtain a certificate of completion. Building Type: Commercial Focus: Compliance Code Version: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Code Official Contractor Engineer State Official Contacts Web Site Policies U.S. Department of Energy

369

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Experimental study on heat transfer to supercritical water flowing through tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test facility named SWAMUP (Supercritical Water Multi-Purpose Loop) has been constructed in Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. to investigate heat transfer and pressure drop through tubes and rod bundles. SWAMUP is a closed loop with operating pressure up to 30 MPa, outlet-water temperature up to 550 deg. C, and mass flow rate up to 5 t/h. In this paper, experimental study has been carried out on heat transfer of supercritical water flowing vertically through tubes (ID=7.6 and 10 mm). A large number of test points in tubes has been obtained with a wide range of heat flux (200-1500 kw/m{sup 2}) and mass flux (450-2000 kg/m{sup 2}s). Test results showed that heat transfer deterioration (HTD) caused by buoyancy effect only appears in upward flow and HTD caused by acceleration effect appears both in upward flow and downward flow. The heat transfer coefficients (HTC) produced in tube tests were compared with existing heat transfer correlations. (authors)

Zhao, M.; Gu, H.; Cheng, X. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. SJTU, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controlled and actual opera tinp, situations. The larye DOE/ORNL/EUS field test of HPVHs was probably the most co~nprehensive (3). The Florida Public Service Colmi~ission sporlsored saveral field tests of all four water heating systems to evaluate.... Thesis, The University of Texas at ----- Austin, Dec.. 1982. 2. Askey, Jay L., The Effect of Residential 3. R. P. Blevins, B. D. Sloan, and G. E. Malli. "Demonstration of a Heat Pump Water Heater, Volume 2: Final Report." ORNL/Sub-7321-4, Oak Ridge...

Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Influences of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics in laminar and turbulent tube flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effects of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance factor characteristics in a round tube were investigated. Nine different peripherally-cut twisted tapes with constant twist ratio (y/W = 3.0) and different three tape depth ratios (DR = d/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33), each with three different tape width ratios (WR = w/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33) were tested. Besides, one typical twisted tape was also tested for comparison. The measurement of heat transfer rate was conducted under uniform heat flux condition while that of friction factor was performed under isothermal condition. Tests were performed with Reynolds number in a range from 1000 to 20,000, using water as a working fluid. The experimental results revealed that both heat transfer rate and friction factor in the tube equipped with the peripherally-cut twisted tapes were significantly higher than those in the tube fitted with the typical twisted tape and plain tube, especially in the laminar flow regime. The higher turbulence intensity of fluid in the vicinity of the tube wall generated by the peripherally-cut twisted tape compared to that induced by the typical twisted tape is referred as the main reason for achieved results. The obtained results also demonstrated that as the depth ratio increased and width ratio decreased, the heat transfer enhancement increased. Over the range investigated, the peripherally-cut twisted tape enhanced heat transfer rates in term of Nusselt numbers up to 2.6 times (turbulent regime) and 12.8 times (laminar regime) of that in the plain tube. These corresponded to the maximum performance factors of 1.29 (turbulent regime) and 4.88 (laminar regime). (author)

Eiamsa-ard, Smith [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Seemawute, Panida [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Wongcharee, Khwanchit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

PV vs. Solar Water Heating- Simple Solar Payback  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Solar energy systems hang their hats on payback. Financial payback is as tangible as money in your bank account, while other types of paybacklike environmental externalitiesare not usually calculated in dollars. Theres no doubt that photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems will pay you back. Maybe not as quickly as youd like, but all systems will significantly offset their cost over their lifetimes. Here well try to answer: Which system will give the quickest return on investment (ROI)?

374

Determination of heat transfer and friction characteristics of an adapted inclined louvered fin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger was performed. To this end a test rig was constructed to measure the heat transfer rate on the air and waterside of the heat exchanger. A wide range of Reynolds numbers on the airside was investigated. The resulting data was used to determine the convective heat transfer correlation (expressed using the Colburn factor) and the friction factor on the airside. The fin type used in the heat exchanger of this research is an adaptation of the standard inclined louvered type. A thorough error analysis was performed, to validate the results. (author)

T'Joen, C.; Steeman, H.-J.; Willockx, A.; De Paepe, M. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

376

Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T phase diagram for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

377

Solvation thermodynamics and heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvation thermodynamics and in particular the solvation heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water is studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. As ionic solutes we consider a F{sup -} and a Na{sup +} ion, as an example for a polar molecule with vanishing net charge we take a SPC/E water molecule. The partial charges of all three solutes are varied in a wide range by a scaling factor. Using a recently introduced method for the accurate determination of the solvation free energy of polar solutes, we determine the free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the three different solutes as a function of temperature and partial solute charge. We find that the sum of the solvation heat capacities of the Na{sup +} and F{sup -} ions is negative, in agreement with experimental observations, but our results uncover a pronounced difference in the heat capacity between positively and negatively charged groups. While the solvation heat capacity {Delta}C{sub p} stays positive and even increases slightly upon charging the Na{sup +} ion, it decreases upon charging the F{sup -} ion and becomes negative beyond an ion charge of q=-0.3e. On the other hand, the heat capacity of the overall charge-neutral polar solute derived from a SPC/E water molecule is positive for all charge scaling factors considered by us. This means that the heat capacity of a wide class of polar solutes with vanishing net charge is positive. The common ascription of negative heat capacities to polar chemical groups might arise from the neglect of non-additive interaction effects between polar and apolar groups. The reason behind this non-additivity is suggested to be related to the second solvation shell that significantly affects the solvation thermodynamics and due to its large spatial extent induces quite long-ranged interactions between solvated molecular parts and groups.

Sedlmeier, Felix; Netz, Roland R. [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ferrocyanide safety program: Heat load and thermal characteristics determination for selected tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis was conducted to determine the heat loads, conductivities, and heat distributions of waste tanks 241-BY-105, -106, -108, -110, -111, and 241-C-109 at the Hanford Site. The heat distribution of tank 241-BY-111 was determined to be homogeneously distributed throughout the sludge contained in the tank. All of the other tanks, with the exception of 241-C-109, showed evidence of a heat-producing layer at the bottom of the tanks. No evidence of a heat-producing layer in a position above the bottom was found. The thermal conductivities were determined to be within the ranges found by previous laboratory and computer analysis. The heat loads of the tanks were found to be below 2.81 kW (9,600 Btu/hr).

McLaren, J.M.; Cash, R.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at {approx} 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

merge to form water thin film on tube condenser surface. The condensing mechanism will change from high efficiency dropwise condensation to low efficiency filmwise condensation. In this proposal, surface system is one of the most important facilities in power plants. High efficiency waste heat

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

In search for sustainable globally cost-effective energy efficient building solar system Heat recovery assisted building integrated PV powered heat pump for air-conditioning, water heating and water saving  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Obtained as a research result of conducted project, this paper presents an innovative, energy efficient multipurpose system for a sustainable globally cost-effective building's solar energy use and developed methodology for its dynamic analysis and optimization. The initial research and development goal was to create a cost-effective technical solution for replacing fossil fuel and electricity with solar energy for water heating for different purposes (for pools, sanitary water, washing) in one SPA. After successful realization of the initial goal, the study was proceeded and as a result, the created advanced system has been enriched with AC performance. The study success was based on understanding and combined measurements and by BPS made predictions of AC loads and solar radiation dynamics as well as on the determination of the synergetic relations between all relevant quantities. Further, by the performed BPS dynamic simulations for geographically spread buildings locations, it has been shown that the final result of the conducted scientific engineering R&D work has been the created system of confirmed prestigious to the sustainability relevant performance globally cost-effective building integrated photovoltaic powered heat pump (HP), assisted by waste water heat recovery, for solar AC, water heating and saving.

Marija S. Todorovic; Jeong Tai Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of a flat plate heat pipe spreader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loss could bc determined. Duc to the axisymmetric nature of the i. echnique, it was necessary to define the effective radial heat pipe dimensions. ln the case of a disk shaped flat heat pipe, the effective radius is equal to the radius of the disk...

Chesser, Jason Blake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

386

Susceptibility of members of the family Legionellaceae to thermal stress: implications for heat eradication methods in water distribution systems.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...all Legionellaceae to heat inactivation (an eradication...foundation for the utility of heat inactiva- tion as a...rapid and precipitous loss of viability when temperatures...conditions more repre; water distribution system, i.e., when...evaluating sediment on the heat resistance of Legionella...

J E Stout; M G Best; V L Yu

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

USING LIGA BASED MICROFABRICATION TO IMPROVE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR: I. Effects of Different Micro Pattern on Overall Heat Transfer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs in Figure 1) were originally developed for naval propulsion purposes, and then adapted to land-based applications. It has three parts: the reactor coolant system, the steam generator and the condenser. The Steam generator (a yellow area in Figure 1) is a shell and tube heat exchanger with high-pressure primary water passing through the tube side and lower pressure secondary feed water as well as steam passing through the shell side. Therefore, a key issue in increasing the efficiency of heat exchanger is to improve the design of steam generator, which is directly translated into economic benefits. The past research works show that the presence of a pin-fin array in a channel enhances the heat transfer significantly. Hence, using microfabrication techniques, such as LIGA, micro-molding or electroplating, some special microstructures can be fabricated around the tubes in the heat exchanger to increase the heat-exchanging efficiency and reduce the overall size of the heat-exchanger for the given heat transfer rates. In this paper, micro-pin fins of different densities made of SU-8 photoresist are fabricated and studied to evaluate overall heat transfer efficiency. The results show that there is an optimized micro pin-fin configuration that has the best overall heat transfer effects.

Zhang, M.; Ibekwe, S.; Li, G.; Pang, S.S.; and Lian, K.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Countermeasures to Microbiofouling in Simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Heat Exchangers with Surface and Deep Ocean Waters in Hawaii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal energy from warm ocean waters. A small fraction...converted to electrical power and waste heat is rejected...water pumped from the ocean depth. Solar energy absorbed by the ocean surface provides the heat...Thermal losses, the power requirements to pump large...

Leslie Ralph Berger; Joyce A. Berger

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic hot water and space heating and cooling sectors in Lebanon in the period 2010 - 2030.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic water heating, space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings Lebanon is studied (more)

Zaatari, Z.A.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A state, characteristics, and perspectives of the Czech combined heating and power (CHP) systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combined production of electricity and heat is a significant method for saving primary energy sources like fossil fuels, as well as reducing the production of CO{sub 2} and its emission to the atmosphere. The paper discusses the total efficiency of combined heat and power generation (CHP), comparing various types of CHP plants. The paper then describes the situation in the Czech Republic with regard to their centralized heat supply. The author concludes that there is no simple way to rebuild the Czech CHP systems, and that it would be better to start construction on more modern plants. He lists several starting principles to follow in the planning and design stage.

Kadrnozka, J. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Heat flux characteristics in an atmospheric double arc argon plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the axial evolution of heat flux excited by a double arc argon plasma jet impinging on a flat plate is determined, while the nonstationary behavior of the heat flux is investigated by combined means of the fast Fourier transform, Wigner distribution, and short-time Fourier transform. Two frequency groups (<1 and 2-10 kHz) are identified in both the Fourier spectrum and the time-frequency distributions, which suggest that the nature of fluctuations in the heat flux is strongly associated with the dynamic behavior of the plasma arc and the engulfment of ambient air into different plasma jet regions.

Tu Xin; Yu Liang; Yan Jianhua; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheron, Bruno [UMR 6614 CNRS CORIA, Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76801 (France)

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

392

Pilot study of commercial water-loop heat pump compressor life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study of the service life of water-loop heat pump compressors in commercial office buildings, using data gathered from the service records of one heat pump service contractor, focused on the replacement of compressors in small console ( perimeter'') water-loop heat pumps and in larger vertical and horizontal ( core'') units. A statistical methodology for dealing with censored data was developed for this study which is an extension of the methodologies used in other EPRI studies of heat pump and heat pump compressor life. By extrapolating a Weibull distribution curve fitted to the data, the median service life of the sample of perimeter unit compressors (the age at which 50% of the original population of compressors would be expected to have been replaced) was estimated to be 47 years. The median service life of a sample that excluded compressors with a known manufacturing defect was estimated to be 69 years. Core unit compressor replacements were analyzed in the same manner. Extrapolation of a Weibull distribution yielded an estimated median service life of core unit compressors of 12 years. As with the perimeter unit compressors, there was an identified manufacturing defect. When the compressors with the identified fault were excluded from the sample and the data reanalyzed, the median service life for the compressors in the remainder of the buildings was estimated to be 18 years.

Ross, D.P. (Policy Research Associates, Inc., Reston, VA (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution; Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Achieving Results with Renewable Energy in the Federal Government (Brochure)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front

394

Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Server Rack in Datacenter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter is studying the fluid mechanics and heat transfer of single server rack using the computational fluid dynamics software. The ... effect of the different structure parameters of server rack in datacen...

Jianfei Zhang; Donghao Liu; Xiping Qiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Local characteristics of heat-radiation superconductor detectors based on high-temperature superconductor films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relations are proposed for evaluating the local values of the thermal sensitivity, speed of response, and resolution of a heat radiation detector based on high-temperature superconductor films.

O. S. Esikov; A. I. Krot; I. G. Merinov

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations. The results show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow is influenced by water temperatures in the tank. When the temperature gradient in the tank is smaller than 2K/m, there is a downward fluid velocity of 0.0030.015m/s. With the presence of thermal stratification the buoyancy driven flow is significantly reduced. The dependence of the velocity magnitude of the downward flow on temperature gradient is not influenced by the tank volume and is only slightly influenced by the tank height to tank diameter ratio. Based on results of the CFD calculations, an equation is determined to calculate the magnitude of the buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall for a given temperature gradient in the tank.

Jianhua Fan; Simon Furbo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Characteristics of Flowing Liquid Nitrogen in HTS Cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has heat intrusion from the termination including joule heat generation at the terminal joint and from the room temperature cable through the Cu current lead. According to the length of the HTS cable, this heat loss may become a considerable amount which cannot be ignored in the HTS cable system. In this study, referring to a high-voltage cable (HV cable) which was developed in M-PACC project, the effect of heat transfer at the interface between the terminal joint and LN2 in the terminal vessel (ho) on the temperature of the HTS cable were calculated and evaluated. The condition of flow in the terminal vessel was assumed to be natural convection, forced flow or static condition for evaluating this effect with various heat transfer condition. As a result, in the case of the natural convection, most of heats flow into the LN2 in the terminal vessel where the volumetric flow of the LN2 is large since ho becomes high. Accordingly, the temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe of Cu former and the terminal vessel can be restricted. However, in the cases of the forced flow and the static condition, most of heats flow into the LN2 in the inner pipe where the volumetric flow of the LN2 is small since ho becomes small. Accordingly, the temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe becomes high. This temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe makes the temperature of the HTS conductor large resulting in remarkable increase of AC losses. Consequently, on the HV cable design, for restriction of the AC loss increase, it is expected that designing the HTS cable termination such as extending outer surface of the terminal joint for increasing of the heat inflow from the terminal joint to the LN2 in the vessel is effective.

O. Maruyama; T. Ohkuma; T. Izumi; Y. Shiohara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

A comparative evaluation of Al 2 O 3 coated low heat rejection diesel engine performance and emission characteristics using fuel as rice bran and pongamia methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study for the first time a nanoceramic Al 2 O 3 was used as a coatingmaterial in the low heat rejection engine concept. Experiments were conducted on single cylinder four stroke water cooled and direct injection diesel engine. First the engine was tested at different load conditions without coating. Then combustion chamber surfaces (cylinder head cylinder liner valves and piston crown face) were coated with nanoceramic material of Al 2 O 3 using plasma spray method. Comparative evaluation on performance and emission characteristics using fuel as rice bran methyl ester pongamia methyl ester and biodiesel/diesel fuel mixtures was studied in the ceramiccoated and uncoated engines under the same running conditions. An increase in engine power and a decrease in specific fuel consumption as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NOx) and smoke density were observed in the ceramiccoated engines compared with those of the uncoated engine.

M. Mohamed Musthafa; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10kV HTS power substation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A 10kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

Yuping Teng; Shaotao Dai; Naihao Song; Jingye Zhang; Zhiyuan Gao; Zhiqin Zhu; Weiwei Zhou; Zhourong Wei; Liangzhen Lin; Liye Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Heat and water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion{reg_sign} impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rod L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ranjan, Devesh [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought in a tallgrass prairie Title Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought in a tallgrass prairie Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Fischer, Marc L., Margaret S. Torn, David P. Billesbach, Geoffrey Doyle, Brian Northup, and Sebastien C. Biraud Journal Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 166-167 Pagination 169-174 Keywords Carbon exchange, eddy covariance, Fire, Grassland, Prairie, Water stress Abstract Drought and fire are common disturbances to grassland ecosystems. We report two years of eddy covariance ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes and biometric variables measured in nearby burned and unburned pastures in the US Southern Great Plains. Over the course of the experiment, annual precipitation (∼600 mm yr-1) was lower than the long term mean (∼860 mm yr-1). Soil moisture decreased from productive conditions in March 2005 dry, unproductive conditions during the growing season starting in March 2006. Just prior to the burn in early March 2005, burned and unburned pastures contained 520 ± 60 and 360 ± 40 g C m-2 of total above ground biomass (AGB) and litter, respectively. The fire removed approximately 200 g C m-2 of litter and biomass. In the 2005 growing season following the burn, maximum green AGB was 450 ± 60 and 270 ± 40 g C m-2, with corresponding cumulative annual net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) of -330 and -150 g C m-2 for the burned and unburned pastures, respectively. In contrast to NEE, cumulative mean sensible heat and water fluxes were approximately equal in both pastures during the growing season, suggesting either an increase in water use efficiency or a decrease in evaporation in the burned relative to the unburned pasture. In the 2006 growing season, dry conditions decreased carbon uptake and latent heat, and increased sensible heat fluxes. Peak AGB was reduced to 210 ± 30 g C m-2 and 140 ± 30 g C m-2 in the burned and unburned pastures, respectively, while NEE was near zero. These results suggest that the lack of precipitation was responsible for most of the interannual variation in carbon exchange for these un-irrigated prairie pastures.

403

An experimental investigation of the burning characteristics of water-oil emulsions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the combustion characteristics of droplets of n-heptane, n-decane, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane and iso-octane emulsified with various amount of water and freely falling in a furnace of controlled temperature. Results demonstrate the intricate influences of water emulsification on the ignition, extinction and micro-explosion of the droplet response, and that the droplet burning time can be significantly reduced through judicious fuel blending so as to minimize the ignition delay and advance the onset of micro-explosion.

Wang, C.H.; Chen, J.T. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fluorescence spectrum characteristic of ethanolwater excimer and mechanism of resonance energy transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The steady-state fluorescence spectrum characteristic of ethanolwater excimer has been studied in this paper. By analysing the features of the sharp emission spectrum with fine structures in a shortwave band and the characteristics of the broad and featureless fluorescence peaks in the longwave band, one can conclude that the excimers are formed between the new ethanolwater cluster molecules in the excited state and the ground state through the interaction among different chromophores. The excitation spectra in the two fluorescence bands have been studied, and their emission mechanisms have been ascertained based on the energy transfer theory. Furthermore, the critical distance of the resonance energy transfer has been calculated.

Liu Ying; Song Chun-Yuan; Luo Xiao-Sen; Lu Jian; Ni Xiao-Wu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Prediction of heat transfer for a supercritical water test with a four pin fuel bundle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a next step to validate prediction methods for core design of a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor, a small, electrically heated fuel bundle with 4 pins is planned to be tested. This paper summarizes first heat transfer predictions for such a test, which were performed based on supercritical and subcritical sub-channel analyses. For heat transfer under supercritical pressure conditions, the sub-channel code STAFAS has been applied, which had been tested successfully already for a supercritical water reactor design. Design studies with different assembly box sizes at a given pin diameter and pitch have been performed to optimize the coolant temperature distribution. With a fuel pin outer diameter of 10 mm and a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.15, an optimum inner width of the assembly box was determined to be 24 mm. Coolant and cladding surface temperatures to be expected at subcritical pressure conditions have been predicted with the sub-channel code MATRA. As, different from typical PWR or BWR conditions, a dryout has been foreseen for the tests, this code had to be extended to include suitable dryout criteria as well as post dryout heat transfer correlations at higher enthalpies and pressures. Different from PWR or BWR design, the cladding surface temperature of fuel pins in supercritical water reactors can vary significantly around the circumference of each pin, causing bending towards its hotter side which, in turn, can cause additional sub-channel heat-up and thus additional thermal bending of the pin. To avoid a thermal instability by this effect, a sensitivity study with respect to thermal bending of fuel pins has been performed, which determines the minimum number of grid spacers needed for this test. (authors)

Behnke, L. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Himmel, S.; Waata, C.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laurien, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

"Table B32. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,56478,27490,28820,1880,3088,1422 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,4759,2847,1699,116,"N",169 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5348,2821,2296,"Q","Q",205 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,9562,4809,4470,265,"Q",430

408

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters: Initial Findings of Draw Profile Effect on HPWH Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluation Overview  2000-2002 Evaluated 20 installations with CL&P  Product had problems; not ready for prime time (average COPs of 1.67 was not the problem)  New batch of heaters available, including:  GE's GeoSpring Hybrid (50 gal)  A.O.Smith's Voltex Hybrid (60 & 80 gal)  Stiebel-Eltron's Accelera 300 (80 gal)  Evaluating 14 installations for National Grid, NSTAR, & Cape Light Compact. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.

409

Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO{sub 2} near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area.

Shevenell, L.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Physics characteristics of a large, passive, pressure tube light water reactor with voided calandria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A light water cooled and moderated pressure tube reactor concept has been developed that can survive loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) without scram and without replenishing primary coolant inventory, while maintaining safe temperature limits on the fuel and pressure tube. The reactor employs a solid SiC-coated graphite fuel matrix in the pressure tubes and a calandria tank containing a low-pressure gas, surrounded by a graphite reflector. This normally voided calandria is connected to a light water heat sink. The cover gas displaces light water from the calandria during normal operation, while during LOCAs it allows passive calandria flooding. It is shown that such a system, with high void fraction in the core region, exhibits a high degree of neutron thermalization and a large prompt neutron lifetime, similar to D{sub 2}O moderated cores, although light water is used as both coolant and moderator. Moreover, the extremely large neutron migration length results in a strongly coupled core with a flat thermal flux profile and inherent stability against xenon spatial oscillations. The heterogeneous arrangement of the fuel and moderator ensures a negative void coefficient under all circumstances. Flooding of the calandria space with light water results in redundant reactor shutdown. Use of particle fuel allows attainment of high burnups.

Hejzlar, P.; Driscoll, M.J.; Todreas, N.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thermal performance analysis of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) is described, which can supply hot water for domestic use during the whole year. The system mainly employs a bare flat-plate collector/evaporator with a surface area of 4.2m2, an electrical rotary-type hermetic compressor, a hot water tank with the volume of 150L and a thermostatic expansion valve. R-22 is used as working fluid in the system. A simulation model based on lumped and distributed parameter approach is developed to predict the thermal performance of the system. Given the structure parameters, meteorological parameters, time step and final water temperature, the numerical model can output operational parameters, such as heat capacity, system COP and collector efficiency. Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental measurements show that the model is able to give satisfactory predictions. The effect of various parameters, including solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and compressor speed, has been analyzed on the thermal performance of the system.

X.Q. Kong; D. Zhang; Y. Li; Q.M. Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heat transfer characteristics of circular impinging jet arrays in an annular section with cross flow effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . Heat transfer and Flutd flow results ? Counter flow . 32 64 CONCLUSIONS . 101 REFERENCES . 104 APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B APPENDIX C LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Detailed Schematic of the Test Section with the Flow Loop for 81. 27cm Inner pipe... with Parallel Flow. . 2 Schematic Diagram showing the arrangement of the mner pipes with different diameters with the copper segments. 3 Schematic of the test section showmg the two different flow arrangements (Parallel Flow and Counter Flow) . Page 12 14...

Mhetras, Shantanu Prakash

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

Assessment of a Solar Assisted Air Source and a Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump System in a Canadian Household  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an assessment of two solar assisted heat pump systems integrated into an air distribution system in three different 210 m2 single detached residential houses in Montreal, Canada. The housing types considered are a 1980's house, an energy efficient house and a net zero ready house. The advanced heat pump systems considered in the analysis focused on coupling solar energy on the evaporator side of an air source and water source heat pumps to improve performance compared to a standard air source heat pump and provide an alternative to a costly ground source heat pump system. The annual energy consumption and utility cost of the solar assisted heat pump systems were compared to a market available air source heat pump, a ground source heat pump system as well as the typical reference housing heating and cooling system. The results predicted that a solar assisted air source heat pump has a comparable capital cost to a ground source heat pump system in all housing types and the highest energy savings for a net zero ready house of 34% compared to the base case. The solar assisted water source heat pump did not yield interesting results, as the solar assisted air source heat pump demonstrated improved energy savings and lower capital costs in all housing types considered. Comparing the 20 year life cycle costs of the solar assisted heat pump systems to the base case, only in the 1980's housing archetype did the solar assisted air source heat pump system demonstrate a lower life cycle cost than the base case. A standard air source heat pump yielded the lowest life cycle cost in the 1980's and energy efficient house considered and the reference base case system had the lowest life cycle cost in the net zero ready house considered.

Martin Kegel; Justin Tamasauskas; Roberto Sunye; Antoine Langlois

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University ESL-TR-88/06-04 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air... expansion valve wg Water gauge 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE GLOSSARY OF TERMS ii 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Performance Measurement 2.1 Transient Performance 2.2 Cycling Losses 2.5 Frosting Losses 2.6 Defrosting Losses 2.8 Summary 2.15 3...

O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Performance Analysis of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Incorporating a Brazed-Plate Gas-cooler.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study focuses on the experimental testing and numerical modeling of a 4.5 kW transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater at Queens University in the (more)

Murray, PORTIA

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)" #12;1. Introduction Brazed aluminium heat exchangers are composed of flat tubes on the refrigerant exchangers with round tube, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer coefficient. But, according are thus not suitable to small-channel heat exchangers. As a consequence, the refrigerant distribution

Boyer, Edmond

418

Heat loss model for flow assurance in a deep water riser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study is intended to investigate the heat loss phenomenon of oil flow in a riser. This heat loss happens due to the difference between the oil temperature in a riser and the surrounding sea water temperature. It causes the formation of wax that may disturb the flow. Heat loss can be reduced by setting up an insulator in a riser or by selecting appropriate pipeline specifications. It is necessary to determine the possible locations and specifications of insulator and pipeline. A mathematical model is formulated by considering the oil temperature and its flow velocity. Assuming that the density variation is small the fluid behaves as an incompressible fluid. Furthermore numerical solutions with finite difference methods are presented with some hypothetical data to give an overview of how the system works. Two surrounding conditions are taken into account i.e. with and without sea current. From the simulation the location of wax formation can be predicted. At a certain depth region of sea where the sea current is present a greater heat loss take place in which wax may be formed immediately. To overcome the formation of wax we can control the parameters such as conductivity and wall thickness of pipe.

Pudjo Sukarno

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Steady and Transient Characteristics of Catalytic Flow Reverse Reactor Integrated with Central Heat Exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most projects among them employ thermal flow-reversal oxidizers. ... Methane is oxidized into CO2 and water, and its global warming potential is reduced by 87%. ... The regenerative combustion can achieve theoretically an autothermal run of system, even if methane in air is 0.2% v/v. ...

Sheng Wang; Diannan Gao; Shudong Wang

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

422

2014-10-10 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Water Heating Equipment; Request for Information  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding energy conservation standards for commercial water heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

423

A first approach study on the desalination of sea water using heat transformers powered by solar ponds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In many emerging countries over the past few years some phenomena, such as a better welfare state, industrial growth and a development in agriculture, led to a significant increasing of the demand concerning fresh water. In order to face this ever-growing demand, one of the possible solutions to counterbalance the lack of water resources, is the desalination of sea water. For this specific goal solar energy, as a resource, is the process which has more reliance since it allows a low-cost production of desalted water (without using any valuable energy resources such as fossil fuels) and in a complete respect of the environment. This first study has the purpose to analyze from an energetic perspective whether it is possible or not to reach process temperatures over 100C, through the use of solar ponds and heat transformers, in order to produce desalinated water. The final aim of this work is to quantify the surface of solar ponds needed to a production (expressed in cubic meters) of desalinated water. An absorption heat transformer is a thermal machine that while extracting heat from a source (at an available temperature) is able to ennoble a portion of the heat collected/obtained, making it available at higher temperatures. This process occurs at the expenses of the remaining portion of heat whose temperature degrades by lowering its values. The portion of heat will be then transferred to a thermal well. Hence an absorption heat transformer can use the solar energy stored in solar ponds as an energy source at an average temperature. Process temperatures which are higher than 100C for a whole year can take place only under certain chained conditions such as: source temperature with steady values during the entire season obtainable through solar ponds; condensation process occurring at sufficiently low temperatures through the use of sea water; exertion of heat transformers. The heat which is usually available at these temperatures could be used for common thermal processes during the desalination of seawater. In this work we want to demonstrate that it is possible, energetically speaking, to produce desalinated water by exploiting the solar energy stored in solar ponds and the technology of absorption heat transformers. We can notice how for every m3 of desalinated water produced in one day we need ponds with an area ranging between 1000 and 4000m2, this depends on the amount of heat flux drawn. The analysis we carried out represents a first attempt to face this kind of problem. In future studies we will examine both technical and economic feasibility.

F. Salata; M. Coppi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Experimental study on roll-bond collector/evaporator with optimized-channel used in direct expansion solar assisted heat pump water heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this investigation, a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump (DX-SAHP) water heating system using an optimized-channel roll-bond collector/evaporator was designed, fabricated and tested. Optimized fractal T-shape and honeycomb shaped channel patterns were adopted to improve the thermal performance of the roll-bond panel, which acts as both the evaporator for the heat pump system and the collector for solar thermal utilization. The performance of the studied water heating system using the south-faced, wall-mounted roll-bond panel with the new composite channel patterns was investigated experimentally. Results show that, under the experimental conditions, the roll-bond panel with optimized channel pattern shows better thermal properties, and the performance the DX-SAHP system is significantly enhanced by using the roll-bond panel with optimized channel pattern. Compared to the conventional parallel channel pattern, fractal T-shaped channel pattern enhanced COP of the system by 14.6%, and heating capacity by 17.3%. And the honeycomb shaped channel pattern further enhanced COP and heating capacity of the system by 5.9% and 6.2%.

Xiaolin Sun; Jingyi Wu; Yanjun Dai; Ruzhu Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. [1] Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water. [2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514. Federal facilities having financial difficulty meeting the EISA mandate and executive order (e.g., facilities with natural

426

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is called the pumping-power advantage factor, and has the value 2. 5 x 10 for sodium. The only metals having a higher value of H are 13 lithium 7 and bismuth. Lithium 7 comprises 92. 5% of natural lithium, but the cost of separating it from lithium 6...-section for thermal neutrons being 0. 130 barns. For comparison, water has an absorption cross-section of 0. 58 barns for thermal neutrons (2) . Sulfur is not activated by exposure to neutron flux in such a way as to produce a radioactive isotope which...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) remove heat from the air and use it to heat water, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a simulation model to study the inter- actions of HPWHs and space conditioning equipment, related to climate and installa- tion location in the home. This model was created in TRNSYS and is based on data from HPWHs tested at NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. The HPWH model accounts for the condenser coil wrapped around the outside of the storage tank, and uses a data-based performance map. Researchers found that simulated energy use was within 2% of lab results, which confirms

429

Solar-assisted auto-cascade heat pump cycle with zeotropic mixture R32/R290 for small water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a novel solar-assisted auto-cascade heat pump cycle (SAHPC) operating with the zeotropic mixture of R32/R290 for small water heaters is proposed. In the SAHPC system, a cascade heat exchanger (CHEX) associated with a phase separator is used to achieve auto cascade cycle and enhance the overall system performance. The performances of the SAHPC are evaluated by using the developed mathematical model, and then compared with the conventional air-sourced heat pump cycle (CAHPC). Simulation results show the SAHPC has 4.239.85% and 4.379.68% improvements in COP and volumetric heating capacity compared with those of the CAHPC, respectively, under the same operating conditions. However, the improvement of performance of this novel cycle largely depends on the absorbing heat ratio and the zeotropic composition. It is expected that this new cycle will be beneficial to developing dual-source coupled heat pump applications.

Xiaolong Lv; Gang Yan; Jianlin Yu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power.

431

Numerical Study on the Operating Performance of an Indirect Expansion Solar Assisted Multifunctional Heat Pump in Water Heating Mode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An indirect expansion solar assisted multifunctional heat pump (IE-SAMHP) is ... SAMHP consists of an all-glass evacuated-tube solar collector system, a compressor, two air-...

Ji Jie; Jiang Aiguo; Yang Jichun; Pei Gang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Analysis of Energy-Rescued Potential of a Hot Water Heating Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Architecture energy consumption occupies a big ratio of overrall energy consumption, while heating energy consumption is a main part of it. Therefore, analyzing the generation of heat waste is important. In this paper, based on a test of a heating...

Han, J.; Wang, D.; Tian, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exploring the Disconnect Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems M. Hoeschele and E. Weitzel Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) May 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

435

Screening Analysis for EPACT-Covered Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) establishes that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulate efficiency levels of certain categories of commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment. EPACT establishes the initial minimum efficiency levels for products falling under these categories, based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 requirements. EPCA states that, if ASHRAE amends Standard 90.1-1989 efficiency levels, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in the amended Standard 90.1 and that it can establish higher efficiency levels if they would result in significant additional energy savings. 011Standard 90.1-1999 increases minimum efficiency levels for some of the equipment categories covered by EPCA 92. DOE conducted a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential for EPACT-covered products meet and exceeding these levels. This paper describes the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis.

Somasundaram, Sriram; Armstrong, Peter R; Belzer, David B; Gaines, Suzanne C; Hadley, Donald L; Smith, David L; Winiarski, David W

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

436

Absorption cooling in district heating network: Temperature difference examination in hot water circuit.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Absorption cooling system driven by district heating network is relized as a smart strategy in Sweden. During summer time when the heating demand is (more)

Yuwardi, Yuwardi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

Belkus, P. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Tuluca, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

Hu, Lin-Wen

440

Parametric performance studies on fluidized-bed heat exchangers. Task I. Fouling characteristics. Yearly technical progress report, 28 July 1981-31 July 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyses and experiments are being performed in this program to investigate the heat transfer performance of single and multi-stage shallow fluidized beds for application to the recovery of heat from sources such as waste heat, and coal combustion or coal gasification. The work, which is an extension of that done previously under contracts EC-77-C-03-1433 and DE-AC03-79-ET11348, consists of three tasks. In Task 1, tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of liquid condensate fouling on fluidized bed heat exchanger performance. Liquid condensates used in these tests were water and glycerol (which is more viscous than water). The tests showed that fluidized bed heat exchanger performance is degraded by condensation within the bed and the degradation is caused by bed particles adhering to the heat exchanger surface, not by particle agglomeration. Liquid condensate did not continuously build up within the bed. After a period of dry-out, heat transfer equal to that obtained prior to condensation was again obtained. 8 figures, 1 table.

None

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

New test methodologies to analyse direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps for domestic hot water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Since there are not specific standards for testing direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps for domestic hot water, new testing methodologies are proposed supported by laboratory experiments. Two methodologies were developed for performance measurement: modified BIN method and long term performance prediction with a TRNSYS model validated with specific experimental conditions. The long term performance prediction is a methodology similar to the already obtained for solar thermal systems. A system was tested in Lisbon during one year, covering almost all possible local weather conditions. The hot water tapping test cycle used was in agreement with recent standards EN16147:2011 or EN15316-3-1:2007. The influence of average daily air temperature, dew point temperature and solar irradiation was analysed. The seasonal performance factor was calculated for two cities in Portugal (Lisbon and Porto) and for additional four cities in Europe (Davos, Athens, Helsinki and Strasburg). The establishment of a procedure to calculate the seasonal performance of this kind of systems is very important according to the directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.

Jorge Faco; Maria Joo Carvalho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Numerical analysis of convective heat transfer characteristics of supercritical hydrocarbon fuel in cooling panel with local flow blockage structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The convection heat transfer of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure has a great influence on the regenerative cooling technology of a scramjet engine. A three-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted for the convection transfer of hydrocarbon fuel in the cooling panel of a combustion chamber wall. And the flow field around the local flow blockage structure and the outlet flow rate distribution characteristics of fuel in the cooling channels were analyzed in detail. The results of analyses indicate that with the optimized local flow blockage structure, the outlet flow rate distribution of fuel among the cooling channels become more uniform, as the area of local flow dead zone decreases. However, as the fuel temperature increases, the dramatic variation of thermodynamic physical properties of fuel has a strong influence on the flow field around the local flow blockage structure. Especially, a local flow dead zone can be easily formed in the supercritical temperature region. Meanwhile, transverse pressure gradient around the throat region of blockage structure and additional loss, which is caused by turbulence fluctuation and energy exchange of fluid in the downstream area, affect the outlet flow rate distribution of fuel among the coolant passages seriously. It can therefore be concluded that the local flow blockage structure is more suitably designed in the subcritical temperature region by taking above-mentioned factors into consideration.

Yu Feng; Jiang Qin; Wen Bao; Qinchun Yang; Hongyan Huang; Zhongqi Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Comparative Study of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Low Heat Rejection (Mullite Coated) Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, diesel engine whose piston crown, cylinder head and valves were coated with a 0.5 mm thickness of 3Al2O32SiO2 (mullite) (Al2O3 = 60%, SiO2 = 40%) over a 150 ?m thickness of NiCrAlY bond coat. The working conditions for the conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engine were kept exactly same to ensure a comparison between the two configurations of the engine. This paper is intended to emphasis on performance and combustion characteristics of conventional and LHR (Mullite coated) diesel engines under identical conditions. Tests were carried out at same operational constraints i.e. air-fuel ratio and engine speed conditions for both conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engines. The results showed that, there was as much as 1.8 % increasing on brake power for LHR (mullite coated) engine compared to conventional engine (without coating) at full load The average decrease in brake specific fuel consumption in the LHR engine compared with the conventional engine was 1.76 % for full engine load. However, there was increasing on cylinder gas pressure and net heat release rate for LHR engine compared to conventional engine. Also the results revealed that, there was as much as 22% increasing on exhaust gas temperature for LHR engine compared to conventional engine at full engine load.

S B Patond; S A Chaple; P N Shrirao; P I Shaikh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore coupled with flow in heavy oil reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As a new improved oil-recovery technique, multi-thermal fluid injection technology through a horizontal well has been widely used in the development process of heavy oil reservoirs. The flow and heat transfer characteristic of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore is significantly important for the productivity evaluation and parameters design of the horizontal well. Considering the specific physical properties of multi-thermal fluid, fluid absorption in perforation holes and pressure drop characteristics along the horizontal wellbore, this paper developed the flow and heat transfer model of multi-thermal fluid in perforated horizontal wellbore. In order to evaluate the heating effect of the multi-thermal fluid, a concept of effective heating length of a horizontal well is proposed. Then, a sensitivity analysis process is performed to study the influence of reservoir/fluid parameters and operating parameters on the flowing process of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore. Simultaneously, using the method of orthogonal numerical test, differential analysis and variance analysis are also conducted. Results show that the flowing process of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore includes a single-phase flowing process and a gasliquid two-phase flowing process. The influence of oil viscosity on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore is most significant. Thereafter, the solution of our semi-analytical model is compared against the test results of an actual horizontal well from an oilfield in China. It is shown that the model results are in good agreement with the real test results. This model could be used to calculate and predict the flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid (or saturated steam) in a perforated horizontal wellbore.

Xiaohu Dong; Huiqing Liu; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Changjiu Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

446

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

None

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a heat pump water heater in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

448

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

449

Auto-Calibration and Control Strategy Determination for a Variable-Speed Heat Pump Water Heater Using Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper introduces applications of the GenOpt optimizer coupled with a vapor compression system model for auto-calibration and control strategy determination towards the development of a variable-speed ground-source heat pump water heating unit. The GenOpt optimizer can be linked with any simulation program using input and output text files. It effectively facilitates optimization runs. Using our GenOpt wrapper program, we can flexibly define objectives for optimizations, targets, and constraints. Those functionalities enable running extensive optimization cases for model calibration, configuration design and control strategy determination. In addition, we describe a methodology to improve prediction accuracy using functional calibration curves. Using the calibrated model, we investigated control strategies of the ground-source heat pump water heater, considering multiple control objectives, covering the entire operation range.

Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of $0.25kWh?1 electricity and $0.03kWh?1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ~80gCO2eqkWh?1 of electricity and ~10gCO2eqkWh?1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of $1.40m?3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that $0.40$1.90m?3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

Zack Norwood; Daniel Kammen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Development of a technique for ex-reactor heating of electrodes and for obtaining voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of development of a technique for ex-reactor heating with simultaneous recording of voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements (TFE). Heating pulses were applied to electrodes of a thermionic energy converter (TIC), and between these pulses in the antiphase to them there were applied shorter pulses. The TIC emitter was heated by energy of an electric current flowing from the collector (back current heating). Comparison of TIC voltage-current characteristics, obtained for direct (using electric heater) and back current (current from the collector) heating, shows that for the same conditions they differ only slightly. Significant difference may be observed in the case of different profiles along the collector working surface. Results are given of the investigation of multi-cell thermionic fuel assemblies conducted using this technique. The developed technique of the TFE diagnostics can be successfully employed to assess the device quality. Pre-loop testing of multi-cell TFE by the method of back currents allows for cost effective and expeditious thermovacuum treatment of the TFE on thermal stands and for checking of its serviceability prior to its mounting into an irradiation loop or reactor-converter, enables improvements to the TFE design, monitoring of its electric parameters, for example, after vibration testing, and TFE accelerated testing in the most arduous conditions (thermocycling, loss of vacuum, etc.).

Kalandarishvili, A.G.; Mailov, G.M.; Igumnov, B.N.; Bisko, V.A. [I.N. Vekua Sukhumi Inst. for Physics and Engineering, Tbilisi (Georgia)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ter than that of the system using electric resistance water heating. An analytical tinclel predicts of a high-efficiency heat pump'/electric-resistance .waterheater (IIP/IZR) system. TEST FACILITIES#12;/ ABSTRACT An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

453

Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water. In some places the pipeline might be quite near the water table and in others it could be 50-100 feet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

454

Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ?-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (?-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid ? ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ?-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. Water-atomized CuSn powders contained mixed CuSn phases. Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized CuSn powders are explained.

Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Economic analysis of residential combined solar-heating and hot-water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief description of a typical residential solar heating and hot water system and typical cost and performance information are presented. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. The economic evaluation of solar residential systems is presented in increasing levels of complexity. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described so that it can be determined whether the typical system economics are compatible with the particular situation. Methods for calculating the payback period for any non-typical solar system are described. This calculated payback period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the purchaser of the system would receive for a typical economic condition. A nomagraph is presented that performs this calculation. Finally, a method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. It is shown how to develop the relationship between payback period and the effective interest rate for any economic scenario.

None

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

457

Economic analysis of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic evaluation of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Commercial systems are further categorized as taxable and non-taxable applications in recognition of the effect of Federal and state tax incentives and disincentives for solar energy systems. The economic evaluation of each system type is performed utilizing two distinct methods of analysis. The economic analyses follow a brief description of each method. The Cash Flow Analyses provide insight into the short and long term effects of a solar investment on the budget of the solar energy system purchaser while the Return-On-Investment Analyses provide an appropriate method of measuring the attractiveness of a solar investment in comparison to alternative long term investments. Utilizing a typical system for each system type and application the Cash Flow and Return-On-Investment Analyses are presented. The sensitivity of the results on the numerous variables in the economic analyses is shown. Maps provide a graphic display of the results of the economic analysis of typical systems using Federal and state tax credits and average state conventional fuel costs for each system type. Conclusions based on the economic analyses performed and a thorough discussion of the present status of the data required for the complete economic evaluation of solar energy systems are summarized. The current availability and limitations of data and requirements for further work in this area are discussed.

None

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

458

Modelling the impacts of building regulations and a property bubble on residential space and water heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper develops a bottom-up model of space and water heating energy demand for new build dwellings in the Irish residential sector. This is used to assess the impacts of measures proposed in Ireland's National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP). The impact of the housing construction boom, which resulted in 23% of occupied dwellings in 2008 having been built since 2002, and the subsequent bust, are also assessed. The model structure treats separately new dwellings added to the stock after 2007 and pre-existing occupied dwellings. The former is modelled as a set of archetype dwellings with energy end use affected by the relevant set of building regulations that apply during construction. Energy demand of existing dwellings is predicted by a simpler top down method based on historical energy use trends. The baseline scenario suggests residential energy demand will grow by 19% from 3206ktoe in 2007 to 3810ktoe in 2020. The results indicate that 2008 and 2010 building regulations will lead to energy savings of 305ktoe (8.0%) in 2020. Had the 2008 building regulations been introduced in 2002, at the start of the boom, there would be additional savings of 238ktoe (6.7%) in 2020.

D. Dineen; B.P. Gallachir

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers ProMIS/Project No.: DE-NT0005648  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Edward Levy Edward Levy Principal Investigator Director, Lehigh University Energy Research Center RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas usinG condensinG Heat excHanGeRs PRomis/PRoject no.: de-nt0005648 Background As the United States' population grows and demand for electricity and water increases, power plants located in some parts of the country will find it increasingly difficult to obtain the large quantities of water needed to maintain operations. Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. Many coal-fired power plants operate with stack temperatures in the 300 °F range to minimize fouling and corrosion problems due to sulfuric acid condensation and to

460

Numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics inanintermittent turbulent impinging round jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The flow structure and heat transfer of the air pulsed turbulent impinging jet are studied numerically. The gas turbulence is modelled with the Reynolds stress model. The effects of pulse frequency, ratio of on time to total cycle time, distance between pipe outlet and impinging flat plate and Reynolds number on heat transfer are numerically studied. The impingement heat transfer increases with distance from the pipe edge and target surface. The heat transfer decreases at high distance from the pipe edge and target surface. An increase in the Reynolds number causes reduction of heat transfer enhancement. Reduced heat transfer in comparison with the steady-state impinging jet is typical in the range of low frequencies of the pulse impinging jet.

M.A. Pakhomov; V.I. Terekhov

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating characteristics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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461

Water Heating: Energy-efficient strategies for supplying hot water in the home (BTS Technology Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to supply hot water in the home while saving energy.

NAHB Research Center; Southface Energy Institute; U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-XXXXX Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water;included a water- side economizer. This model estimated theand without a water-side economizer and including or not

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

algorithm for mineral dehydration is also applied in the modeling. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) is used to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and...

464

Modeling water seepage into heated waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into drifts at Yucca Mountain, Journal of ContaminantEMPLACEMENT DRIFTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN Jens Birkholzer, Sumitfor nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Heating of rock

Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Yvonne

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Brine to Water Heat Pump Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This research project is part of a wider project called Smart Fault Detection and Diagnosis for HeatPump Systems currently under development by the Royal (more)

Vecchio, Daniel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Heat Budget of a Body of Water of Varying Volume  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

internal energy of the system is equal to the net flux of heat ... The internal energy is represented by the temperature .... unit time. The conversion factor is the.

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

467

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Break-even Cost for Residential Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-48986 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Prepared under Task No. SS10.2110 Technical Report

468

Pump and control unit for a solar heating installation for a water tank and particularly for a swimming pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pump and control unit for a solar heating installation system for a water tank, particularly for a swimming pool. The system contains a solar collector, a hydraulic circuit which includes an outward-flow pipe, a return-flow pipe, a pump, a derivative-action control unit and two sensors mounted on the outward-flow pipe and on the return-flow pipe, respectively. The pump, the control unit and the two sensors are integrated into a single case. The case is provided in its top wall with a transparent opening which faces the return-flow sensor and through which said sensor can be exposed to solar radiation, such that the pump may be automatically activated during periods of sunshine, i.e., when the solar collector is heating the water returning to the tank, and stopped due to lack of sunshine.

Cannaux, G.; Calvet, G.

1985-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

469

Performance investigation of thermal energy storage system with Phase Change Material (PCM) for solar water heating application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to harvest solar energy, thermal energy storage (TES) system with Phase Change Material (PCM) has been receiving greater attention because of its large energy storage capacity and isothermal behavior during charging and discharging processes. In the present experimental study, shell and tube TES system using paraffin wax was used in a water heating system to analyze its performance for solar water heating application. Energy and exergy including their cost analyses for the TES system were performed. Accordingly, total life cycle cost was calculated for different flow rates of the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). With 0.033kg/min and 0.167kg/min flow rates of water as HTF, energy efficiencies experienced were 63.88% and 77.41%, respectively, but in exergy analysis, efficiencies were observed to be about 9.58% and 6.02%, respectively. Besides, the total life cycle cost was predicted to be $ 654.61 for 0.033kg/min flow rate, which could be reduced to $ 609.22 by increasing the flow rate to 0.167kg/min. Therefore it can be summarized that total life cycle cost decreases with the increase of flow rate.

M.H. Mahfuz; M.R. Anisur; M.A. Kibria; R. Saidur; I.H.S.C. Metselaar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL): Impact of Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations on Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor Content of the TTL Jiwen Fan Climate Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contributed by: Jennifer Comstock, Mikhail Ovtchinnikov, Sally McFarlane, and Greg McFarquhar OBJECTIVES Look into the effects of the commonly used heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations on anvil properties and water vapor content in the TTL for the deep convective clouds developed in the contrasting environments. Examine the impact of the immersion-freezing on homogeneous freezing process. Homogeneous freezing parameterizations (HFPs) 1) Koop et al. (2000): J r depends on the water activity of the solution and is independent of the nature of solute.

471

Decadal changes in water mass characteristics at 24{degrees}N in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three transatlantic hydrographic sections across 24{degrees}N through the center of the subtropical gyre are analyzed for evidence of decadal changes in water mass characteristics. In the main thermocline, there has been a steady increase in salinity from 1957 to 1981 to 1992. The salinity at a given potential temperature between 12{degrees}C and 17{degrees}C has increased at a nearly constant rate of 0.010 per decade; at constant potential density, salinity and temperature both increased at rates of 0.018 per decade and 0.065{degrees}C per decade. In the intermediate waters between 800 and 1500 dbar, salinity has increased as well, on average by as much as 0.025 from 1981 to 1992, either on constant potential temperature or constant density surfaces. These changes cannot be due to vertical having of a constant water mass structure and they cannot be easily explained in terms of horizontal shifts in the subtropical gyre water mass structure. Throughout the water column down to 2000 dbar and across the zonal extent of the 24{degrees}N section, salinity and temperature have broadly increased on density surfaces. Below 2000 dbar, there has been slight cooling and freshening on isopycnal surfaces since 1981. Decadal changes in temperature and salinity from 1981 to 1992 are separated into a component due to vertical motion of the isopycnals and a component due to the changes in temperature and salinity on isopycnals. The remarkable interior warming at constant depth with a maximum increase in temperature at 1100 dbar of nearly VC per century reported from earlier analyses of these sections is due to both processes. The continued warming from 1981 to 1992 has principally been due to changes in water mass characteristics, higher salinities and higher temperatures on isopycnal surfaces. 39 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Bryden, H.L.; Griffiths, M.J. [Southampton Oceanography Centre (United Kingdom)] [Southampton Oceanography Centre (United Kingdom); Lavin, A.M. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Santander (Spain)] [and others] [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Santander (Spain); and others

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures can be very low, many heat pipes will have the working fluid in an initially frozen state. To insure that the heat pipes will work as desired, it is important to be able to model the frozen startup. Transient modeling of heat pipe operation has... startup. The same sort of measurements are also rare for transients that do not include frozen conditions, and could be equally important in verifying appropriate transient computational models. The objective of the work presented here is to obtain...

Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

473

Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 1: Characteristics of an open and a recycling watering system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentrations of a number of organic and inorganic compounds in the wastewater from sprinkling of landstored softwood timber was monitored during a period of up to 18 weeks. A recycling system using a watering intensity of 160 mm/24 h, and an open system with intensities between 55 to 12 mm/24 h were studied. The compound classes investigated included dissolved organic carbon; distillable phenols; resin acids; bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); organic and inorganic phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen; and a number of metal ions. In the recycling system, the peak concentrations occurred after 4 to 6 weeks, and the amounts accumulated through refilling of water largely exceeded those present in the wastewater at the end of the storage. In the open system, net loads of compounds occurred during the first weeks, which thereafter turned into uptakes for most compounds. The PLFA increased during the first weeks and clearly responded to the peak concentrations in the waters. Already from the start there were strong uptakes of nitrate, sulfate, and many minerals in the piles, suggesting that the supply of macro- and micronutrients necessary for microbial growth, as well as available terminal electron acceptors, may be a limiting factor for the extent of microbial degradation performed in the pile.

Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

On the collision dynamics of a water droplet containing an additive on a heated solid surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...faces (i.e. various hydrocarbons, emulsified hydrocarbons, surfactants), experimental...investigations that have employed water as the fluid are reviewed...considered a plethora of hydrocarbons in addition to water impact. Makino & Michiyoshi...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device H.C. Coles, S.prototype computer equipment rack-level cooling device withIT equipment cooling, server rack cooling, server cooling,

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1991: Physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the second year of TVA's Reservoir Vital signs Monitoring program, physical/chemical measurements of water and sediment were made on fourteen TVA reservoirs (the nine mainstem Tennessee river reservoirs - Kentucky through Fort Loudoun and five tributary reservoirs - Cherokee, Douglas, Norris, Melton Hill and Tellico). In addition in 1991, limited water quality monitoring was initiated on ten tributary storage impoundments. The objective of the Vital Signs monitoring program is to assess the health or integrity of these aquatic ecosystems. Physical/chemical data collected in 1991 showed the water quality of the majority of TVA's reservoirs to be very good, but pointed out areas for improvement and further investigation.

Meinert, D.L.; Fe