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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tankthe house. Supply pipe – this is the water heater inlet pipewith refills the water heater with cold water Note: The TANK

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential gas-fired storage water heater was modeled underin a typical residential storage water heater that meets thereplace a gas-fired storage water heater with a conventional

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

6

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the CFR as being storage water heaters, instantaneous watersupply boilers. Storage water heater means a water heaterAppliance Gas storage water heaters Definition a water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Water heater control module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

Hammerstrom, Donald J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

display the distribution of water heater models by fee typeelectric and gas-fired water heaters, respectively. DeliveryDistribution of Electric Water Heaters by Fee Type Figure B-

Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

13

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

14

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

15

Molded polymer solar water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

16

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

18

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into The2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an electric resistance storage water heater (ESWH) with tankof total electric storage water heater shipments in the nextelectric resistance storage water heaters. The rated storage

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) throughwater heaters, and heat pump water heaters are not typical.water heaters, heat pump water heater (HPWH) technology

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How...

23

Dehumidifying water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

24

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than standard storage water heaters [2]. However, they aredown for both storage-type water heaters and tankless water1]. The typical water heater storage tank wastes energy to

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water heaters, heat-pump water heaters, and instantaneous (Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/New

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaon Eco-Design of Water Heaters”, Task 5 Report, DefinitionTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance. Davis

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...

29

Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,gas water heater and electrical water heater in Guangzhou was compared and the Annual Cost Calculation Method (ACCM)was introduced to explain the remarkable economic benefits. The social benefits of the solar water heater were introduced from a scientific...

Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

price for a condensing commercial water heater is $1,579.For condensing commercial water heaters with a thermalFound products for water heater in any product field and gas

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano,...

32

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

33

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance and heat pump water heaters are not covered.other than commercial heat pump water heaters). 10CFR431.110

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

35

The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Olson, and Stuart Chaitkin (LBNL). We also want to thank ourand Mithra Moezzi, also of LBNL. This work was supported byLBNL – 44749 The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Loan  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar...

37

Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square...

38

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F. Southworh. 2004. Heat pump water heater technology:gas tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters,heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.2004. Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofStar Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiencesstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blankets to electric hot water heaters in South Africa,” J.for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andfor Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andSurvey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andby electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers),

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fixed Electric Storage Water Heaters, South African Nationalinternational electric storage water heater test proceduresefficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents theboth gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pumpliters) for gas storage water heaters and a maximum input

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify forgas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study focusesis predominantly storage water heaters. Regionally, gas-

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experienceslarger market for heat pump water heaters (US Department offurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%; US

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flue natural gas storage water heaters. Battelle developedthe water in a storage water heater is cooling off and

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

52

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater October 8, 2010 - 12:51pm Addthis L.L. Beans flagship store sees...

53

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Virgin Islands Energy Office currently offers rebates to residents for purchasing solar water heaters from local vendors. The program will cover residential, solar water heaters of 120 gallons...

54

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

55

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local...

56

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right' Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

57

Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

58

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.CA. Maxwell, J. 2004. Heat Pump Water Heater Economic Model.water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule," FederalTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

Lutz, Jim

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruaryWater Heaters Heat

66

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

68

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

70

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.Clear Seas Research. 2006. Water Heater Study. Plumbing andJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into the

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asEvaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embeddedwater to be drawn from a water heater to meet a schedule of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

associated with the EU water heater test procedure loadEU test procedure for water heaters. Load No. Delivered Max.period to allow the water heater to adjust completely to

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas and electric storage water heaters, heat-pump watersmall gas-fired storage water heaters with a large burner.such as electric storage water heaters, the comparison of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F. Southworh. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology:a larger market for heat pump water heaters (U.S. Departmentfurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%). (U.S.

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this scheme for operating TANK with HWSim is successful.LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

83

Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

84

Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

85

New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

86

Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

87

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation- Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Blue Ridge Mountain EMC and TVA, its power supplier, offer the Energy Right and In Home Energy Evaluation programs to qualified members. To qualify for water heater rebates provided by the Energy...

88

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

89

Commercial Gas Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance and purchasing specifications for commercial gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

Not Available

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentallyfor interchangeability experiments for storage water heaterfor experiments with storage water heater AW01. 53

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ground Water Management Act (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Under the Ground Water Management Act of 1992, Virginia manages ground water through a program regulating the withdrawals in certain areas called Ground Water Management Areas (GWMA). Currently,...

94

Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize the design for manufacturing. This work included the initiation of a large field testing program (over 125 units) and an in-depth reliability program intended to minimize the risks associated with a new product introduction. At the time of this report, A.O. Smith plans to introduce this product to the marketplace in the early 2006 time period.

Peter Pescatore

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

97

Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

99

Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

100

Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance and purchasing specifications for whole-home gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

Not Available

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER (2} (3) (21 icense in and to any copyright covering the drticle. This paper describes a high-efficiency water heater which uses a design approach quite different from the conventional center-flue water heater. While high

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

104

A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

105

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

107

Clark Public Utilities- Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clark Public Utilities offers a rebate of $500 to customers who install a solar water heating system. Customers must own the residence or business where the solar water heating system is installed...

108

Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil or tank water heater operates by releasing hot water from the top of the tank when the hot water tap is turned on. The hot water is released into the hot water line. As the hot water leaves the tank, cold

109

Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

110

Dehumidifying water heater. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

111

Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

112

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

113

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Heaters 7.0 Glossary of Abbreviations AGA American Gas Association ANSI American National Standards

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Storage Water Heater.draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper waswater heater, gas-fired storage water heater, flue damper,

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »ExchangeDepartmentResolveFuture |Energy Steps toStorage Water

116

Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from the GridwiseSite Management GuideReliability |WindowsSolarSolarSolar Hot Water

117

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

118

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water

119

Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock

122

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock3

123

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock34

124

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock345

125

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Heaters Jim Lutz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory January 25, 2011 The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters.

128

Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

129

Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

Unknown

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Heat pump water heater and method of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

135

Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Burch, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil? Fired Residential Water Heaters. Berkeley Heights, Newof Residential Gas Water Heaters. Chicago, IL, Gas ApplianceDampers for Natural Draft Water Heaters: Technical Report.

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

138

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Authors tried to apply an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimation of state of building systems. The systems used in this study were gas combustion water heaters. Empirical equations to estimate gas consumption from measureble properies...

Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Gibson Electric Membership Corporation- Residential Energy Efficient Water Heater Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Gibson Electric Membership Corporation provides loans to its residential customers to finance new, energy efficient water heaters. The loans are interest-free and can be paid off in as many as 3...

142

Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

143

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Preliminary Modeling, Testing and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional storage-tank water heaters, because thermal losses to the environment are much less. Although standard test results are available to compare tankless heaters with storage tank heaters, actual savings depend on the draw details because energy to heat up the internal mass depends on the time since the last draw. To allow accurate efficiency estimates under any assumed draw pattern, a one-node model with heat exchanger mass is posed here. Key model parameters were determined from test data. Burner efficiency showed inconsistency between the two data sets analyzed. Model calculations show that efficiency with a realistic draw pattern is {approx}8% lower than that resulting from using only large {approx}40 liter draws, as specified in standard water-heater tests. The model is also used to indicate that adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater ameliorates unacceptable oscillations that tankless with feedback control can experience with pre-heated water too hot for the minimum burner setting. The added tank also eliminates problematic low-flow cut-out and hot-water-delay, but it will slightly decrease efficiency. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal protocols for parameter extraction.

Burch, J.; Thornton, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

147

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unit*year) Heavy Metals to Water Heavy Metals to Water mg NiMatter Emissions (Water) Heavy Metals mg Hg/20 /unit*yearMatter Mg/year Emissions (Water) Heavy Metals Gg Hg/20 /year

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use is a function of surrounding air temperature, humidity, hot water usage, and the logic controlling the heat pump

149

Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components ofTankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to collect information regarding energy use and hot water delivery from tankless gas water heaters using the sensors and controls built into the water heaters. This could then be used to determine the water heater efficiency ? the ratio of energy out (hot water delivered) to energy in (energy in the gas) in actual residential installations. The goal was to be as unobtrusive as possible, and to avoid invalidating warranties or exposing researchers to liability issues. If feasible this approach would reduce the costs of instrumentation.This paper describes the limited field and laboratory investigations to determine if using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters is feasible for field monitoring.It was more complicated to use the existing gas flow, water and temperature sensors than was anticipated. To get the signals from the existing sensors and controls is difficult and may involve making changes that would invalidate manufacturer warrantees. The procedures and methods for using signals from the existing gas valves, water flow meters and temperature sensors will vary by model. To be able to monitor different models and brands would require detailed information about each model and brand.Based on these findings, we believe that for field monitoring projects it would be easier, quicker and safer to connect external meters to measure the same parameters rather than using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters.

Lutz, Jim; Biermayer, Peter

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

151

Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules and regulations apply to the management of the state's ground water resources. In addition, the Commissioner of Conservation has recommended that oil and gas operators with an interest...

152

Auto-Calibration and Control Strategy Determination for a Variable-Speed Heat Pump Water Heater Using Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper introduces applications of the GenOpt optimizer coupled with a vapor compression system model for auto-calibration and control strategy determination towards the development of a variable-speed ground-source heat pump water heating unit. The GenOpt optimizer can be linked with any simulation program using input and output text files. It effectively facilitates optimization runs. Using our GenOpt wrapper program, we can flexibly define objectives for optimizations, targets, and constraints. Those functionalities enable running extensive optimization cases for model calibration, configuration design and control strategy determination. In addition, we describe a methodology to improve prediction accuracy using functional calibration curves. Using the calibrated model, we investigated control strategies of the ground-source heat pump water heater, considering multiple control objectives, covering the entire operation range.

Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

David Yuill

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 3. Historical Ground-Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................................................................................................... 9 Mine history and ground-water development ....................................................................................................................................................... 11 Ground-water quality database.......................................................................................................................................................... 29 Compilation of complete database

159

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumer/your_home/water_ heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12980heating is a large source of energy use in California homes.heating is the third largest source of energy use in homes [

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Life cycle assessment of buildings technologies: High-efficiency commercial lighting and residential water heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the life cycle emissions and energy use are estimated for two types of energy technologies. The first technology evaluated is the sulfur lamp, a high-efficiency lighting system under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fusion Lighting, the inventor of the technology. The sulfur lamp is compared with conventional metal halide high-intensity discharge lighting systems. The second technology comparison is between standard-efficiency and high-efficiency gas and electric water heaters. In both cases the life cycle energy use and emissions are presented for the production of an equivalent level of service by each of the technologies. For both analyses, the energy use and emissions from the operation of the equipment are found to dominate the life cycle profile. The life cycle emissions for the water heating systems are much more complicated. The four systems compared include standard- and high-efficiency gas water heaters, standard electric resistance water heaters, and heat pump water heaters.

Freeman, S.L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

164

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

166

Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M. Daneshyar. andOF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M. Daneshyar, tWarm Water Standard Water Heater Tank Hot Water The solar

Place, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters...

Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) offers residential electric customers a point-of-sale rebate of $1,000 for new solar water heating systems.

172

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

New Braunfels Utilities- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Braunfels Utilities offers a rebate for residential customers who purchase and install solar water heating systems on eligible homes. A rebate of the equivalent of $0.265 per kWh is available...

174

Performance Analysis of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Incorporating a Brazed-Plate Gas-cooler.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study focuses on the experimental testing and numerical modeling of a 4.5 kW transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater at Queen’s University in the… (more)

Murray, PORTIA

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m{sup 2} of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

Lounis, M. [LAAR Laboratory-Physics Department-USTOMB 31000 Oran (Algeria); Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider [Genie Climatic Department-CUKM 44000-Khemis Miliana (Algeria)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

179

Case Study/ Ground Water Sustainability: Methodology and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or the lack thereof, of ground water flow systems driven by similar hydrogeologic and economic conditionsCase Study/ Ground Water Sustainability: Methodology and Application to the North China Plain of a ground water flow system in the North China Plain (NCP) subject to severe overexploitation and rapid

Zheng, Chunmiao

180

Which Water Heater Is Right for You? | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-TypeWelcome to Energy.gov/Data WelcomeWhich Water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

International Borders, Ground Water Flow, and Hydroschizophrenia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

beginning to be recognized. The hidden nature of ground water and the lack of international law governingInternational Borders, Ground Water Flow, and Hydroschizophrenia by Todd Jarvis1,2, Mark Giordano3 conducted on transboundary water, transboundary water law, and the mitigation of transboundary water

Wolf, Aaron

182

Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

Not Available

1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

186

Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.

Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

191

Montana Ground Water Assessment Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute establishes a program to systematically assess and monitor the state's ground water and to disseminate the information to interested persons in order to improve the quality of ground...

192

2015-03-25 Issuance: Definitions Regarding Consumer Water Heaters Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding definitions for consumer water heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 25, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

193

2015-03-26 Issuance: Residential Water Heaters; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Withdrawal  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking withdrawal regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

194

2014-06-27 Issuance: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential and commercial water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

195

Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

196

Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

Ashdown, BG

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

197

Special Section on Ground Water Research in China Featured in This Issue of Ground Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ground Water by Xun Zhou1, Jiu J. Jiao2, and Mary P. Anderson3 Contained in this issue of Ground Water, Groundwater Resources and the Related Environ- Hydrogeologic Problems in China, Beijing: Seismological Press

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

198

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

Rapp, VH; Singer, BC

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

Ashdown, BG

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

202

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

204

Ground water protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Ground Water Protection Act (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of the Ground Water Protection Act is to provide substantive provisions and funding mechanisms to the extent that funds are available to enable the state to take corrective action at...

206

MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage water: Heat Flow Cold Water Solar Tank Warm Water Standard Water Heaterstorage tank can also be accom- plished by natural convection. In the compact water heater,

Place, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ag chemical best management practices 7. soil testing 8. voluntary or mandatory educational programs regulate ground water development (well spacing regulations, well drilling prohibitions) and ground water by implementing the above GMA regulations, well drilling may be halted or conditioned. NRD permits are required

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

208

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Storage Water Heater .point for modeling storage water heaters. The algorithmsfired, natural draft storage water heater. Figure 1 shows a

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an energy use pattern study for the subject equipment; an examination of the size distribution of commercial air conditioning equipment; an examination of the different types of commercial air conditioning systems; an evaluation of the effectiveness of economizers in reducing commercial air conditioning system energy consumption in California; an examination of the effects of oversizing commercial air conditioners; a detailed study of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; an evaluation of the economic feasibility of utilizing air conditioner waste heat to heat water; an assessment of the applicability of existing test procedures for small water heaters to large water heaters; and a brief investigation of the marketing and distribution systems for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Results of the efforts are described.

Merrill, P.S.; Rettberg, R.J.; Erickson, R.C.; Toor, J.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

NONE

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

NONE

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings evaluated three newly released heat pump water heater products in order to provide publicly available field data on these products.

213

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada Ralph L. Seiler sources. Tungsten concentrations in 100 ground water samples from all aquifers used as drinking water indicates that W exhibits Tungsten con- centrations are strongly and positively correlated

215

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH Prepared in cooperation with the North Carolina., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology: U .S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220, 86 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data Heath, Ralph C . Basic ground-water hydrology (Geological Survey

Sohoni, Milind

218

DEVELOPMENTS IN GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY : AN OVERVIEW C. P. Kumar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which of storage and circulation as ground water. The large alluvial tract extending over 2000 km in length from which allows ground water storage in the weathered residium and its circulation in the underlying

Kumar, C.P.

219

120 Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 32, no. 1/ Winter 2012/pages 120130 NGWA.org Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

120 Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 32, no. 1/ Winter 2012/pages 120­130 NGWA.org Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article known as emerging contaminants (ECs) to surrounding groundwater and surface water. ECs consist

220

2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures and energy conservation standards for residential solar water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 14, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)over long periods of time when the potential change in ground water storage becomes negligible compared storage other than discharge to streams. One such loss term is evapotranspiration (ET) from ground waterRegional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska by Jozsef Szilagyi1m2,F. Edwin

Szilagyi, Jozsef

222

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecember U.S. Department of EnergyEqualHeaters |

223

Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Review of experiments to evaluate the ability of electrical heater rods to simulate nuclear fuel rod behavior during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Issues related to using electrical fuel rod simulators to simulate nuclear fuel rod behavior during postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors are summarized. Experimental programs which will provide a data base for comparing electrical heater rod and nuclear fuel rod LOCA responses are reviewed.

McPherson, G D; Tolman, E L

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J. (2012). Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

227

Convective heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Convective heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

Thorogood, R.M.

1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Introduction Application of numerical models of ground water flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Portniaguine and Solomon 1998), and ground water temperature (Doussan et al. 1994). Compared to calibration depended on calibration methodology; models calibrated with multiple targets simulated q more accurately of Calibration Methodology on Ground Water Flow Predictions by James E. Saiers1, David P. Genereux2, and Carl H

Saiers, James

231

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air source to be added Discharge Includes: Source energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Simplifying Ground Water Transfers in Integrated Management Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-714 need new high-capacity wells in FA basins for e.g. ethanol plants so ethanol plant buys water and/or ground water rights from local irrigators buying water: use on-site former irrigation well for ethanol plant or else pipe water from existing from irrigation well to ethanol plant buying rights: cap

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

233

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Ground and Surface Water Protection (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation implements the New Mexico Water Quality Act. Any person intending to make a new water contaminant discharge or to alter the character or location of an existing water contaminant...

235

GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (electricity (42% of homes) for water heating. (DOE EIA 2005)

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Performance of Gas-fired Water Heaters in a 10-home Field Study  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

239

An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5.5 Dewatering Pump 6. ELECTRICAL HEATER CONTROL SYSTEMS 6.1water influx ABSTRACT Electrical heaters were installed atcanister) which houses the electrical heater elements; c. d.

Burleigh, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

EPA Final Ground Water Rule Available Online, 3/07  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On November 8, 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final Ground Water Rule (GWR) to promote increased protection against microbial pathogens that may be present in...

242

Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Rating Residential Water Heaters. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE,for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andthe Energy Consumption of Water Heaters. Title 10 Code of

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A Water Conservation Scenario for the Residential and Industrial Sectors in California: Potential Saveings of Water and Related Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Residential Hot Water Heaters. Berkeley, CA: Lawrenceelectricity savings because gas hot water heaters are moreprevalent than electric water heaters in California. Bathing

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters. Center for Energy andEnvironment: Tankless Water Heaters. Coughlin, K. (2006).Compatibility with tankless water heaters Water waste with

Williams, Alison

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruary

247

Electric Storage Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLEEFFECTS OFElaineElectric

248

Residential Absorption Water Heater  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR HIGH SCHOOL| DepartmentResidential

249

Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hawaii Energy, a third-party administered public benefits fund, provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation to customers of the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and its subsidiaries,...

250

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

251

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

253

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1979). retort water, boiler blowdown, and heater- treaterGeokinetics Retort Water Occidental Heater-Treater :ss.ssa) situ Occidental Heater-Treater Water Retort 6 modified

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two Demand Electric Water Heaters for Northeast Utilities.Two Demand Electric Water Heaters for Northeast Utilities.Johnson. Heat Pump Water Heater Field Test: 30 Crispaire

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas or electric storage water heaters. The study’s goal washouses used a storage water heater. Without includinghouseholds which have storage water heaters, although this

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Document Number Q0029500 Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water Model  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofofOxford SiteToledo SiteTonawanda North SiteD&Dir^0 0 039Ground

258

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioners and heat pumps, and water heaters We modifiedConditioners and Heat Pumps NAECA 1987 Water Heaters NAECAConditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters, Hot

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioners and heat pumps, and water heaters We modifiedConditioning Heat Pumps NAECA 1987 Water Heaters NAECA 1987Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters, Hot

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioners and heat pumps, and water heaters We modifiedConditioners and Heat Pumps NAECA 1987 Water Heaters NAECAConditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters, Hot

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Grouped exposed metal heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

262

Grouped exposed metal heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, ML); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

E-Print Network 3.0 - african ground water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ground water Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: african ground water Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Differences between European and...

265

Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

Uherka, K.L.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

Kavanaugh, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using a Room-Air Natural Convection Loop: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze prevention for passive solar domestic water heating systems.

Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger, Ground coupled heat pump Corresponding author, Tel.: +1-617-308-7214, Fax: +1-617-253-3484, E calibration DAS data acquisition system g ground H heater loss1 losses from the heating section loss2 losses heating and cooling, water heating, crop drying, agricultural greenhouses, etc. In vertical U

Al-Shayea, Naser Abdul-Rahman

271

Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Explosives tester with heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Multiscale Investigation of Ground Water Flow at Clear Lake, Iowa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

targets. The model produced ground water inflow and outflow rates of 14,300 and 9200 m3/d, respectively­related problems in the lake and its water- shed, their likely causes, and potential remedial measuresA Multiscale Investigation of Ground Water Flow at Clear Lake, Iowa by William W. Simpkins Abstract

Simpkins, William W.

274

Dynamics of Transboundary Ground Water Management: Lessons from1 North America2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Society-Science in Transition. Water Resources Development and8 Management Series, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 167-196]9 101 Dynamics of Transboundary Ground Water Management: Lessons from1 North America2 Michael E Abstract11 Transboundary ground water management in the North American countries of Canada, the United

Kurapov, Alexander

275

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Northward Market Extension for Passive Solar Water Heaters by Using Pipe Freeze Protection with Freeze-Tolerant Piping: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in freeze-protection methods that could extend market acceptance for passive solar domestic water heating systems in more northern climates if the U.S.

Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Dolomitization by ground-water flow systems in carbonate platforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dolomite occurs throughout the subsurface of modern carbonate platforms such as the Bahamas. Groundwater flow systems must be responsible for delivery of reactants needed for dolomitization. Reflux, freshwater lens flows, and thermal convection are large-scale flow systems that may be widespread in active platforms. The author has evaluated some aspects of the dynamics and characteristics of these processes with ground-water flow theory and by scaled sandbox experiments. Reflux is not restricted to hypersaline brines, but can occur with bankwaters of only slightly elevated salinity such as those found on the Bahama Banks today (42%). The lack of evaporites in a stratigraphic section, therefore, does not rule out the possibility that reflux may have operated. Flows associated with freshwater lenses include flow in the lens, in the mixing zone, and in the seawater beneath and offshore of the lens. Upward transfer of seawater through the platform margins occurs when surrounding cold ocean water migrates into the platform and is heated. This type of thermal convection (Kohout convection) has been studied by Francis Kohout in south Florida. The ranges of mass flux of magnesium in these processes are all comparable and are all sufficient to account for young dolomites beneath modern platforms. Each process yields dolomitized zones of characteristic shape and location and perhaps may be distinguishable in ancient rocks. The concepts presented here may have application to exploration for dolomite reservoirs in the Gulf Coast and elsewhere.

Simms, M.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline ground waters Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water from the Lake Calumet... , and ground ... Source: Bethke, Craig - Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

279

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for space heating. 14. Do not use space heaters or any other electric appliance around water. 15Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted

de Lijser, Peter

282

Pilot Phase of a Field Study to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential Hot-Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

end use point, at the water heater in one second intervalsand monitoring at the water heater and hot water end uses.of water at the trunk (water heater) and twigs (individual

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters. Center for Energy andhot water from the water heater to each end-use locationMixed Temperature Water Water Heater Drain Indoor Boundary

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Energy Conservation in Process Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PROCESS HEATERS Roger l~. Bagge Neste Engineering Porvoo, Finland ABSTRACT OPTIMIZATION OF EMER~Y USE Energy savings in refinery and petrochemical fired heaters can basically be achieved in two ways: Thru optimization...

Bagge, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards., 2007, Characterizing hydraulic properties and ground-water chemistry in fractured-rock aquifers: A user

286

Improved estimates of the total correlation energy in the ground state of the water molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved estimates of the total correlation energy in the ground state of the water molecule Arne National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 Received 1 October 1996; accepted 5 February 1997 Two new calculations of the electronic energy of the ground state of the water molecule yield energies lower than those

Anderson, James B.

287

"Hot Water" in Lassen Volcanic National Park--Fumaroles, Steaming Ground, and Boiling Mudpots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Hot Water" in Lassen Volcanic National Park-- Fumaroles, Steaming Ground, and Boiling Mudpots U, ydrothermal (hot water) and steaming ground. These features are re- lated to active volcanism, the largest fumarole (steam and volcanic-gas vent) in the park. The temperature of the high-velocity steam

Torgersen, Christian

288

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Simulation of a Smart Water Heater. ” In Workshop inFreezers, Furnaces, Water Heaters, Room and Central AirNovember. ADL. 1982b. Water Heater Computer Model User’s

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas or electric storage water heaters. The goal was to helpa demand and a storage water heater. For each case ofof natural gas storage and tankless water heaters 24 water

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets Federal efficiency...

295

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) activities related to sources of ground-water contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report contains a listing of EPA programs and activities, as of October 1986, that address 33 sources of potential ground-water contamination. The information on each activity is presented in a matrix format that is organized by type of contamination source. The following information is presented for each program and activity listed: title, lead office, contact person, type of activity (study, regulation, guidance, strategy, etc.) status, and a summary of the activity. The 33 sources of ground-water contamination are discussed in the 1984 EPA Office of Technology report: Protecting the Nations Ground Water from Contamination.

Black-Coleman, W.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601Department ofEnergy PHEVAbengoaAbsocold:

297

Water Heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save EnergyGlouster,Winside,Warren County Rural EHeaters Jump to:

298

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hr) 2. Pilot Input Rate (Btu/hr) 3. Excess Air (%) 4. Off-atm) 14. Higher Heating Value (Btu/SCF) 1028.0 15. SpecificProtection Tubes R (hr*ft2*F/Btu)? Fitting Emissivity SCREEN

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

GROUND WATER USE FOR COOLING: ASSOCIATED AQUIFER TEMPERATURE CHANGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam-electric power plants, large voluMes of surface waters are used for cooling the planes condensers

Lippmann, Marcelo J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of selecting a ground water compliance strategy for the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) discusses two alternatives and the effects associated with each. The two alternatives are (1) natural flushing coupled with institutional controls and continued monitoring and (2) no action. The compliance strategy must meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards defined in Title 40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' Part 192, Subpart B, in areas where ground water beneath and around the site is contaminated as a result of past milling operations. It has been determined that contamination in the ground water at the Gunnison site consists of soluble residual radioactive material (RRM) as defined in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA).

N /A

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

EA-1155: Ground-water Compliance Activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water standards set forth in 40 CFR 192 at the Spook, Wyoming Uranium Mill...

304

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Fruland, R.M.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROUND-WATER HYDROGEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF A RECLAIMED LIGNITE SURFACE MINE A Thesis by CLIFFORD RALPH POLLOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Geology GROUND-WATER HYDROGEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF A RECLAIMED LIGNITE SURFACE MINE A Thesis by CLIFFORD RALPH POLLOCK Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ember) (Member (Member) F...

Pollock, Clifford Ralph

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

310

Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

How to Make Appliance Standards Work: Improving Energy and Water Efficiency Test Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supplyheat pump water heaters). http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2004/CSA 4.3- 2004 Gas Water Heaters - Volume III, Storage

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

314

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation, soil, animals, cistern water, and ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is intended as a resource document for the eventual cleanup of Bikini Atoll and contains a summary of the data for the concentrations of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in vegetation through 1987 and in soil through 1985 for 14 islands at Bikini Atoll. The data for the main residence island, Bikini, and the most important island, Eneu, are extensive; these islands have been the subject of a continuing research and monitoring program since 1974. Data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, and pigs from Bikini and Eneu Islands are presented. Also included are general summaries of our resuspension and rainfall data from Bikini and Eneu Islands. The data for the other 12 islands are much more limited because samples were collected as part of a screening survey and the islands have not been part of a continuing research and monitoring program. Cesium-137 is the radionuclide that produces most of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake by terrestrial foods and secondly by direct external gamma exposure. Remedial measures for reducing the /sup 137/Cs uptake in vegetation are discussed. 40 refs., 32 figs., 131 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for residential water heaters and certain commercial water heaters. 78 FR 66201 (November 4, 2013). DOE...

317

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Heat Pumps NAECA 1987 Water Heaters NAECA 1987 FurnacesPumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers andand heat pumps, and water heaters We modified the analytical

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Bioremediation of ground water contaminants at a uranium mill tailings site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground water contaminated with uranium from milling operations must be remediated to reduce the migration of soluble toxic compounds. At the mill tailings site near Tuba City, Arizona (USA) the approach is to employ bioremediation for in situ immobilization of uranium by bacterial reduction of uranyl, U(VI), compounds to uraninite, U(IV). In this initial phase of remediation, details are provided to indicate the magnitude of the contamination problem and to present preliminary evidence supporting the proposition that bacterial immobilization of uranium is possible. Additionally, consideration is given to contaminating cations and anions that may be at toxic levels in ground water at this uranium mill tailing site and detoxification strategies using bacteria are addressed. A model concept is employed so that results obtained at the Tuba City site could contribute to bioremediation of ground water at other uranium mill tailings sites.

Barton, L.L.; Nuttall, H.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Lutze, W. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ground water impact assessment report for the 216-B-3 Pond system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground water impact assessments were required for a number of liquid effluent receiving sites according to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestones M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed upon by the US Department of Energy. This report is one of the last three assessments required and addresses the impact of continued discharge of uncontaminated wastewater to the 216-B-3C expansion lobe of the B Pond system in the 200 East Area until June 1997. Evaluation of past and projected effluent volumes and composition, geohydrology of the receiving site, and contaminant plume distribution patterns, combined with ground water modeling, were used to assess both changes in ground water flow regime and contaminant-related impacts.

Johnson, V.G.; Law, A.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Evelo, S.D.; Barnett, D.B.; Sweeney, M.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Evidence for ground-water circulation in the brine-filled aquitard, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical methods were used to assess active ground-water circulation in a brine-filled, deep (> 50 m below land surface) aquitard underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. In places, the brine which was presumed to be stagnant in the past, contains various contaminants. If ground-water circulation is viable in the brine-containing formations, then remediation or containment of the deep-seated contaminants should be considered a high priority. Data used to determine this included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the aquitard, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) vertical temperature gradients, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline ground water. Conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-(< 500 mg/l) bearing units. Consequently, influx of young water (and contamination) from land surface does occur. Potential discharge into the shallow aquifers was assumed where the hydraulic head of the saline water was higher than that in the shallow aquifers, accounting for temperature and salinity anomalies observed close to land surface. The confined water (and dissolved solutes) move along open conduits at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

324

Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High efficiency solar air heaters with novel built-in heat storage for use in a humidification-dehumidification desalination cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compared to solar water heaters, solar air heaters have received relatively little investigation and have resulted in few commercial products. However, in the context of a Humidification-Dehumidification (HD) Desalination ...

Summers, Edward K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

How to Make Appliance Standards Work: Improving Energy and Water Efficiency Test Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volume III, Storage Water Heaters With Input Ratings AboveVolume III, Storage Water Heaters With Input Ratings AboveVolume III, Storage Water Heaters With Input Ratings Above

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and R.K. Johnson. Heat Pump Water Heater Field Test: 30a Market-Optimized Heat- Pump Water Heater. Prepared by TIAXcost savings of heat pump water heaters Field test of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Heater head for stirling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

329

Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as Attachment 1.

None

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

330

Environmental controls for underground coal gasification: ground-water effects and control technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground coal gasfication (UCG) promises to provide economic access to an enormous deep-coal resource. It is, therefore, of considerable importance to develop appropriate environmental controls for use in conjunction with the UCG process. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has conducted three UCG experiments at its Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Environmental studies are being conducted in conjunction with these UCG experiments, including an investigation of changes in local ground-water quality and subsidence effects. Ground-water monitoring and geotechnical measurements have helped to clarify the environmental significance of reaction-product contaminants that remain underground following gasification, and the implications of cavity roof collapse and aquifer interconnection. These investigations have led to the development of preliminary plans for a specific method of ground water quality restoration utilizing activated carbon adsorption. Unconventional technologies are also being investigated that may be appropriate for restoring ground water that has been contaminated as a result of UCG operations. These water treatment technologies are being explored as possible supplements to natural controls and process restrictions.

Mead, W.; Raber, E.

1980-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

331

Phase change material storage heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

LRH: WETLANDS, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2002 RRH: Barbiro et al., GEOCHEMISTRY OF WATER AND GROUND WATER IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LRH: WETLANDS, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2002 RRH: Barbiéro et al., GEOCHEMISTRY OF WATER AND GROUND WATER of the Nhecolândia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, is the presence of both saline and freshwater manuscript, published in "Wetlands 22, 3 (2002) 528-540" DOI : 10.1672/0277-5212(2002)022[0528:GOWAGW]2.0.CO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1990 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine what remedial actions are necessary for contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

NONE

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil. Quarterly report No. 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

340

Status of the ground water flow model for the UMTRA Project, Shiprock, New Mexico, site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-dimensional numerical model was constructed for the alluvial aquifer in the area of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Shiprock, New Mexico, site. This model was used to investigate the effects of various hydrologic parameters on the evolution of the ground water flow field. Results of the model are useful for defining uncertainties in the site conceptual model and suggesting data collection efforts to reduce these uncertainties. The computer code MODFLOW was used to simulate the two-dimensional flow of ground water in the alluvium. The escarpment was represented as a no-flow boundary. The San Juan River was represented with the MODFLOW river package. A uniform hydraulic conductivity distribution with the value estimated by the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and a uniform recharge distribution was used. Infiltration from the flowing artesian well was represented using the well package. The ground water flow model was calibrated to ground water levels observed in April 1993. Inspection of hydrographs shows that these levels are representative of typical conditions at the site.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Durango, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing a ground water compliance strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Durango, Colorado. DOE has prepared this environmental assessment to provide the public with information concerning the potential effects of this proposed strategy.

N /A

2002-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

342

Evaluation of ground-based remotely sensed liquid water cloud properties using shortwave radiation measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties of low level water clouds. A number of remote sensing retrieval techniques provide either radar-only retrie- vals or combine millimeter-wave radar with microwave radiometer measurements (Frisch et al., 1995 radiation measurements from the ground. The remote sensing observations of radar reflectivity, microwave

Haak, Hein

343

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This risk assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site caused by the burning of coal containing uranium to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities and not for those constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Because background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking, any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background. The incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination and disposing of the contaminated soils in an engineered disposal cell. The UMTRA Ground Water Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under the UMTRA Ground Water Project, results of this risk assessment will help determine what ground water compliance strategy may be applied at the site.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Holding Pen Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Open lots or holding pens for feeding or holding livestock can be sources of ground water contamination. The safety of such operations depends on their separation from water wells, characteristics of the site, and proper management. This publication...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Ground Water Surveillance Monitoring Implementation Guide for Use with DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Guide assists DOE sites in establishing and maintaining surveillance monitoring programs to detect future impacts on ground water resources from site operations, to track existing ground water contamination, and to assess the potential for exposing the general public to site releases. Canceled by DOE N 251.82.

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

349

Ground-water temperature fluctuations at Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The well field serving the Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery has experienced reduced water temperatures following continued, periodic withdrawal of large volumes of water. In January 1985, the well field temperature was 49/sup 0/F, which is less than the optimal 52/sup 0/F for raising salmon and steelhead trout. The aquifer supplying the hatchery is in hydraulic and thermal connection with the Snake River and a flooded embayment of the Palouse River. Ground-water temperatures in the well field cycle on an annual basis in response to changes in surface water temperature and pumping rate. Numerical simulation of the well field, using a simplified mixing cell model, demonstrates the coupling of well field hydraulics and aquifer thermal response. Alternative pumping schedules indicate that it is feasible to adjust ground-water pumping to effectively store heat in the aquifer during the summer months when surface water temperatures are elevated. Sensitivity analysis of this model indicated that the primary controls of the system's thermal response are the volume of the aquifer assumed to contribute to the well field and temperature of the overlying surface water body.

Oberlander, P.L.; Myers, D.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Heater head for Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Water Heating Requirements – Overview Page 5-1 5. Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Electric heat pump water heaters, however, are closer to the efficiency of typical gas systems, because

unknown authors

353

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

TECHNICAL EVALUATION REPORT TUBA CITY FINAL PHASE I GROUND-WATER COMPLIANCE ACTION PLAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remediation at the site, and is expected to last approximately 3 years. Phase I includes installation of additional recovery wells and Phase II will include expansion of remediation capacity and monitoring to ensure the aquifer restoration standards are met. Phases I and II of ground-water remediation are expected to last approximately 12 years. DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUEST: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has requested concurrence from the U.S. Nuclear

unknown authors

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Hazardous Waste Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or unwanted chemicals can become a big problem. Some common disposal practices not only threaten ground water but also may be illegal. Small, unusable amounts of these products often wind up spilled, buried, dumped, or flushed onto a property. Minimizing... rules require that environmentally protective conditions be met before some disposal practices are permit- ted. Other previously common disposal prac- tices are now illegal because of their potential risks to human health and the environment. This new...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

356

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Household Wastewater Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This publication covers the following topics: 1. Septic tanks/soil absorption systems 2. Quantity of wastewater 3. Quality of wastewater 4. Collection of wastewater 5. Treatment systems 6. Disposal system 7. Assistance with failing systems or new designs 8.... Evaluation table Septic Tanks/Soil Absorption Systems The most common form of on-site waste- water treatment is a septic tank/soil absorption system. In this system, wastewater flows from the household sewage lines into an under- ground septic tank...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hydrogeological restrictions to saline ground-water discharge in the Red River of the North drainage basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discharge of saline water from bedrock aquifers along the eastern margin of the Williston basin is restricted by surficial glacial till and lacustrine deposits in the Red River of the North drainage basin. Water from these aquifers reaches the surface by (1) diffusion; (2) slow, upward seepage along zones of relatively larger hydraulic conductivity in the till and lacustrine deposits; or (3) flow from artesian wells. Ground-water quality varies near the surface because of mixing of water being discharged from bedrock aquifers with shallower ground water in the surficial deposits. Ground-water quality, hydraulic-gradient, and hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from pumped-well and slug tests indicate that flow in the surficial deposits is eastward, but at slow rates because of small hydraulic conductivities. Base-flow and specific-conductance measurements of water in tributaries to the Red River of the North indicate that focused points of ground-water discharge result in substantial increases in salinity in surface water in the northern part of the basin in North Dakota. Core analyses and drillers' logs were used to generalize hydrogeologic characteristics of the deposits in the basin, and a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the basin's geohydrologic processes. Model results indicate that the ground-water flow paths in the bedrock aquifers and surficial deposits converge, and that water from the bedrock aquifers contributes to the overall increase in ground-water discharge toward the east. Model results are supported by water-quality data collected along an east-west hydrogeologic section.

Strobel, M.L. (Geological Survey, Grand Forks, ND (United States) Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM`s after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide`s scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The detection and modelling of surface thermal structures and ground water discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Montana and northern Idaho. The infrared imagery was collected in the 8. 5 to 11, 7 um region and recorded on film negative and magnetic tape. Sections of the film record were digitized using a vidicon camera to facilitate its digital image processing... over a water body for influx of 'thermal poilu . ants', such as ground water or power plant effluents, which are at a different temperature than the receiving body. In fact, the data collected by the sensor displays a nearly instantaneous record...

Roberts, Douglas Vincent

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Use of Mini-Sprinklers to Strip Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene from Contaminated Ground Water.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Berisford, Y.C., P.B. Bush, J.I. Blake, and C.L. Bayer. 2003. Use of mini-sprinklers to strip trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from contaminated ground water. J. Env. Qual. 32:801-815. Three low-volume mini-sprinklers were tested for their efficacy to strip trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from water. Deionized water spiked with TCE and PCE was pumped through a mini-sprinkler supported on top of a 1.8-m-tall. Water was collected in collection vessels at 0.61 and 1.22 m above the ground on support columns that were spaced at 0.61-m intervals from the riser base, and samples were composited per height and distance from the riser. Overall, air-stripping reduced dissolved concentrations of TCE and PCE by 99.1 to 100 and 96.9 to 100%, respectively. Mini-sprinklers offer the advantages of (i) easy setup in series that can be used on practically any terrain; (ii) operation over a long period of time that does not threaten aquifer depletion; (iii) use in small or confined aquifers in which the capacity is too low to support large irrigation or pumping systems; and (iv) use in forests in which the small, low-impact droplets of the mini-sprinklers do not damage bark and in which trees can help manage (via evapotransporation) excess waste water.

Brerisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Blake, John, I.; Bayer, Cassandra L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Large Plate Lysimeter Efficiency for Collecting Water Transported from Soil to Ground Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large, zero-tension, plate lysimeter (3.05 x 2.13 m) was installed to intercept percolating soil water at Bikini Atoll (11 35'N, 165 25'E), a former nuclear test-site. In two experiments controlled amounts of irrigation water were applied over the lysimeter and leachate water was collected. Evapotranspiration (ET) calculations were made using the Penman-Monteith equation and climate data collected at the atoll. The efficiency of the lysimeter was essentially 100% in contrast to low efficiencies reported for smaller plate lysimeters. Lysimeter design, installation, and water balance results are discussed.

Robison, W; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T

2004-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

364

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey, in support of the US Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1996. Data collected prior to 1996 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992--96. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1996 were slightly lower (0.3 to 0.4 foot) than for the respective baseline periods. At four other wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1996 were unchanged, slightly lower (0.2 foot), and slightly higher (0.2 and 0.7 foot) than for the respective baseline periods.

LaCamera, R.J.; Locke, G.L.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

BOILING CRISIS:THEORY,SIMULATION,AND EXPERIMENTSBOILING CRISIS: THEORY, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTS Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that separates the liquid from the heater. Film boiling can be also observed in the kitchen by sprinkling water onto a hot frying pan. In spite of the large temperature of the heater (the pan) the water drops Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss

Nikolayev, Vadim S.

371

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Fertilizer Storage and Handling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fertilizer is a major source of ground water contamination. This publication emphasizes the best management practices for storing fertilizers, whether you are building a new facility or modifying an existing one. It also includes information on safe...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improperly managed manure can contaminate both ground and surface water. Storing manure allows producers to spread it when crops can best use the nutrients. This publication explains safe methods of manure storage, as well as specifics about safe...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ground Water Protection Programs Implementation Guide for Use with DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Guide provides a description of the elements of an integrated site-wide ground water protection program that can be adapted to unique physical conditions and programmatic needs at each DOE site. Canceled by DOE N 251.82.

2005-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

378

Environmental assessment of ground water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is an environmental assessment of the Spook, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. It analyzes the impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action for ground water compliance. The proposed action is to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the UMTRA Project sites (40 CFR Part 192) by meeting supplemental standards based on the limited use ground water at the Spook site. This proposed action would not require site activities, including ground water monitoring, characterization, or institutional controls. Ground water in the uppermost aquifer was contaminated by uranium processing activities at the Spook site, which is in Converse County, approximately 48 miles (mi) (77 kilometers [km]) northeast of Casper, Wyoming. Constituents from the site infiltrated and migrated into the uppermost aquifer, forming a plume that extends approximately 2500 feet (ft) (800 meters [m]) downgradient from the site. The principal site-related hazardous constituents in this plume are uranium, selenium, and nitrate. Background ground water in the uppermost aquifer at the site is considered limited use. It is neither a current nor a potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed in public water supply systems (40 CFR {section} 192.11 (e)). Background ground water quality also is poor due to first, naturally occurring conditions (natural uranium mineralization associated with an alteration front), and second, the effects of widespread human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). There are no known exposure pathways to humans, animals, or plants from the contaminated ground water in the uppermost aquifer because it does not discharge to lower aquifers, to the surface, or to surface water.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Welding shield for coupling heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Performance improvement of direct- and indirect-fired heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct-and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

Sams, G.W.; Hunter, J.D.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

383

Geohydrology and ground-water geochemistry at a sub-Arctic Landfill, Fairbanks, Alaska. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fairbanks-North Star Borough landfill is located on silt, sand, and gravel deposits of the Tanana River flood plain, about 3 miles south of the city of Fairbanks water-supply wells. The landfill has been in operation for about 25 years in this sub-arctic region of discontinuous permafrost. The cold climate limits biological activity within the landfill with corresponding low gas and leachate production. Chloride concentrations, specific conductance, water temperatures, and earth conductivity measurements indicate a small plume of leachate flowing to the northwest from the landfill. The leachate remains near the water table as it flows northwestward toward a drainage ditch. Results of computer modeling of this local hydrologic system indicate that some of the leachate may be discharging to the ditch. Chemical data show that higher-than-background concentrations of several ions are present in the plume. However, the concentrations appear to be reduced to background levels within a short distance along the path of ground-water flow from the landfill, and thus the leachate is not expected to affect the water-supply wells.

Downey, J.S.; Sinton, P.O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

works well with all types of water heaters, especially with demand and solar water heaters. Drain-water heat exchangers can recover heat from the hot water used in showers,...

389

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Drain Water Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

household, the NPV of DWHR is -$203.68 for homes with electric water heaters and -$464.88 for homes with natural gas water heaters. DWHR is much more economical for households with electric hot water heaters as their energy costs are much higher. A household of 4 or more people with an electric hot water heater would

390

A review and assessment of variable density ground water flow effects on plume formation at UMTRA project sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A standard assumption when evaluating the migration of plumes in ground water is that the impacted ground water has the same density as the native ground water. Thus density is assumed to be constant, and does not influence plume migration. This assumption is valid only for water with relatively low total dissolved solids (TDS) or a low difference in TDS between water introduced from milling processes and native ground water. Analyses in the literature suggest that relatively minor density differences can significantly affect plume migration. Density differences as small as 0.3 percent are known to cause noticeable effects on the plume migration path. The primary effect of density on plume migration is deeper migration than would be expected in the arid environments typically present at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, where little or no natural recharge is available to drive the plume into the aquifer. It is also possible that at some UMTRA Project sites, a synergistic affect occurred during milling operations, where the mounding created by tailings drainage (which created a downward vertical gradient) and the density contrast between the process water and native ground water acted together, driving constituents deeper into the aquifer than either process would alone. Numerical experiments were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey saturated unsaturated transport (SUTRA) model. This is a finite-element model capable of simulating the effects of variable fluid density on ground water flow and solute transport. The simulated aquifer parameters generally are representative of the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site where some of the highest TDS water from processing has been observed.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Joint used for coupling long heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

Menottie, James Louis

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

392

Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots,  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofofOxford SiteToledo SiteTonawanda North Site This pageSurface Water

393

5 CCR 1002-42 Site Specific Water Quality Standards for Ground Water | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights, Substantive Jump to:Species |2008 |44 Basic Standards

394

Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Implications of ground-water measurements at the Hoe Creek UCG site in northeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) promises to become an important source of synthetic fuels. In an effort to provide timely information concerning the environmental implications of the UCG process, we are conducting investigations in conjunction with the UCG experiments carried out in northeastern Wyoming by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. Cavity roof collapse and aquifer interconnection were also investigated, using surface and subsurface geotechnical instruments, post-burn coring, and hydraulic head measurements. We have found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. Fortunately, the concentrations of many of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, some of these materials seem likely to remain in the local groundwater, at low concentrations, for several years. We have attempted to interpret our results in terms of concepts that will assist in the development of effective and practicable control technologies.

Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.; Raber, E.; Ganow, H.C.; Stone, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

What is Nonpoint Source Pollution? Nonpoint Source Pollution, or people pollution, is a contamination of our ground water,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, recreational water activities, the fishing industry, tourism and our precious drinking water resources, humans and fish. Do not dump used motor oil down storm drains or on the ground. Recycle all used motor such as fertilizing the lawn, walking pets, changing motor oil and littering. With each rainfall, pollutants generated

Rainforth, Emma C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Complete characterization of the water dimer vibrational ground state and testing the VRT(ASP-W)III,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complete characterization of the water dimer vibrational ground state and testing the VRT(ASP-W)III, SAPT-5st, and VRT(MCY-5f) surfaces FRANK N. KEUTSCH1 , NIR GOLDMAN2 , HEATHER A. HARKER3 , CLAUDE of the water dimer very well. The VRT(MCY-5f) and especially the VRT(ASP-W)III potentials show larger

Cohen, Ronald C.

402

SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

J.B. Cho

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

404

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Simulated effects of climate change on the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional flow system as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. As part of the hydrologic investigation, regional, three-dimensional conceptual and numerical ground-water-flow models have been developed to assess the potential effects of past and future climates on the regional flow system. A simulation that is based on climatic conditions 21,000 years ago was evaluated by comparing the simulated results to observation of paleodischarge sites. Following acceptable simulation of a past climate, a possible future ground-water-flow system, with climatic conditions that represent a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, was simulated. The steady-state simulations were based on the present-day, steady-state, regional ground-water-flow model. The finite-difference model consisted of 163 rows, 153 columns, and 3 layers and was simulated using MODFLOWP. Climate changes were implemented in the regional ground-water-flow model by changing the distribution of ground-water recharge. Global-scale, average-annual, simulated precipitation for both past- and future-climate conditions developed elsewhere were resampled to the model-grid resolution. A polynomial function that represents the Maxey-Eakin method for estimating recharge from precipitation was used to develop recharge distributions for simulation.

D`Agnese, F.A.; O`Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; San Juan, C.A.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A Study on the Failure of Industrial Electric Heater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The break down mechanism of a cylindrical electric heater is investigated by studying the uneven heating behavior of the heater by measuring the surface temperature variation of the heater when it is subjected to a boundary condition of constant...

Chyu, M. C.

409

Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment,...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

directly replace the existing forced air furnace and water heater, and consist of a high efficiency water heater or boiler and an optimized hydronic air handler. The air handlers...

410

Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in accordance with the final standards. The EPA reserves the right to modify the ground water standards, if necessary, based on changes in EPA drinking water standards. Appendix A contains a copy of the 1983 EPA ground water compliance standards, the 1987 proposed changes to the standards, and the 1995 final rule. Under UMTRA, DOE is responsible for bringing the designated processing sites into compliance with the EPA ground water standards and complying with all other applicable standards and requirements. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must concur with DOE's actions. States are full participants in the process. The DOE also must consult with any affected Indian tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Uranium processing activities at most of the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as but not limited to uranium and nitrates. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate or reduce to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA ground water standards.

None

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Comment and response document for the ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) responses to comments from both the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Utah are provided in this document. The Proposed Ground Water Protection Strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah, presents the proposed (modified) ground water protection strategy for the disposal cell at the Green River disposal site for compliance with Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192. Before the disposal cell was constructed, site characterization was conducted at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to determine an acceptable compliance strategy. Results of the investigation are reported in detail in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a). The NRC and the state of Utah have accepted the final RAP. The changes in this document relate only to a modification of the compliance strategy for ground water protection.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project. Revision 1, Version 1: Final project plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date.

Not Available

1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

A ground-coupled storage heat pump system with waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an experimental single-family residence that was constructed to demonstrate integration of waste heat recovery and seasonal energy storage using both a ventilating and a ground-coupled heat pump. Called the Idaho energy Conservation Technology House, it combines superinsulated home construction with a ventilating hot water heater and a ground coupled water-to-water heat pump system. The ground heat exchangers are designed to economically promote seasonal and waste heat storage. Construction of the house was completed in the spring of 1989. Located in Moscow, Idaho, the house is occupied by a family of three. The 3,500 ft{sup 2} (325 m{sup 2}) two-story house combines several unique sub-systems that all interact to minimize energy consumption for space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water.

Drown, D.C.; Braven, K.R.D. (Univ. of Idaho, ID (US)); Kast, T.P. (Thermal Dynamic Towers, Boulder, CO (US))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is no longer available. Please contact Cheryn.Metzger@nrel.gov for further information.

Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on July 24-26, 2012.

417

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerTypePonsa,Home Aimeebailey's pictureWiki Page

418

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »ExchangeDepartmentResolveFuture | DepartmentSo Simple It

419

Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codesthe NaturalCommercial Building1Program

420

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many autoThisTheDecember 29, 2014Standardized

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende New EnergyAnatoliaSciraShenhuaWindPowerSohamBG JumppoolJump

422

Water Heaters (Storage Electric) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy While dryWashington'sResultsEnergyEfficiencyTheThe

423

Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy While

424

Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy WhileTankless Electric - v1.0.xlsx More Documents &

425

DOE_Water_Heater_Meeting_111612.pdf  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Deliciouscritical_materials_workshop_presentations.pdfSTD-1040-93Decemberof EnergySeptember 6, 2012 ScottNovember

426

Water Heater Controller - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition Information

427

Storage Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScopingOverviewFranklinStatusJ.R.StevenStop.Storage

428

Tankless Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClient updateTRI-STATE GENERATION 1.Take9/09Audit

429

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomenthe House Committee on Energy andDepartment ofAnShare yourA NewGrowthIllustration

430

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd:June 2015 <Ones |Laboratory, June 2011TO0CNG and3, 2015CO2CO

431

Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR HIGHResidentialFreezersofResidential

432

Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

433

Warren RECC- Electric Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Warren Rural Electric Cooperative Corporation (RECC) provides service to customers in the south-central Kentucky counties of Ohio, Butler, Grayson, Edmonson, Warren, Simpson, Logan and Barren. Upon...

434

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC HOT WATER (DHW)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000 Btu/hr), electric resistance and heat pump water heaters, list Energy Factor (EF). For large gas storage water heaters (rated input of greater than 75,000 Btu/hr), list Recovery Efficiency (RE), Thermal Efficiency, Standby Loss and Rated Input. For instantaneous gas water heaters, list the Thermal Efficiency

435

Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

Not Available

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual Progress Report for 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the progress during 1989 of 16 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 25 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility. Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 40 refs., 75 figs., 6 tabs.

Smith, R.M.; Gorst, W.R. (eds.)

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Atmospheric bromine flux from the coastal Abu Dhabi sabkhat: A ground-water mass-balance investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007; published 31 July 2007. [1] A solute mass-balance study of ground water of the 3000 km2 coastal area of active salt flats then it is a significant, and generally under recognized, input to the global., 2000; Keppler et al., 2000]. More relevant to this study area are reports in which bromide appears

439

Brine contamination of ground water and streams in the Baxterville Oil Field Area, Lamar and Marion Counties, Mississippi. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report defines the extent of oil-field-brine contamination in ground water and streams in the Baxterville oil field area. The report is based largely on data collected during the period October 1984 through November 1985. Water samples were collected from streams and wells in the study area. Data from a previous study conducted in the vicinity of the nearby Tatum Salt Dome were used for background water-quality information. Natural surface-water quality was determined by sampling streamflow from a nearby basin having no oil field activities and from samples collected in an adjacent basin during a previous study.

Kalkhoff, S.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Acoustically enhanced remediation of contaminated soils and ground water. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Phase 1 laboratory bench-scale investigation results have shown that acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology can significantly accelerate the ground water remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in unconsolidated soils. The testing also determined some of the acoustic parameters which maximize fluid and contaminant extraction rates. A technology merit and trade analysis identified the conditions under which AER could be successfully deployed in the field, and an analysis of existing acoustical sources and varying methods for their deployment found that AER technology can be successfully deployed in-situ. Current estimates of deployability indicate that a NAPL plume 150 ft in diameter can be readily remediated. This program focused on unconsolidated soils because of the large number of remediation sites located in this type of hydrogeologic setting throughout the nation. It also focused on NAPLs and low permeability soil because of the inherent difficult in the remediation of NAPLs and the significant time and cost impact caused by contaminated low permeability soils. This overall program is recommended for Phase 2 which will address the technology scaling requirements for a field scale test.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Ground-water hydraulics of the deep-basin brine aquifer, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin (Texas Panhandle) underlies thick Permian bedded evaporites that are being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste isolation repository. Potentiometric surface maps of 5 units of the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer were drawn using drill-stem test (DST) pressure data, which were analyzed by a geostatistical technique (kriging) to smooth the large variation in the data. The potentiometric surface maps indicate that the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer could be conceptually modeled as 5 aquifer units; a Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) aquifer, upper and lower Pennsylvanian aquifers, a pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer, and a Pennsylvanian to Wolfcampian granite-wash aquifer. The hydraulic head maps indicate that ground-water flow in each of the units is west to east with a minor northerly component near the Amarillo Uplift, the northern structural boundary of the basin. The Wolfcamp potentiometric surface indicates the strongest component of northerly flow. Inferred flow direction in Pennsylvanian aquifers is easterly, and in the pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer near its pinch-out in the basin center, flow is inferred to be to the north. In the granite-wash aquifer the inferred flow direction is east across the northern edge of the basin and southeast along the Amarillo Uplift.

Smith, D.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Is your electric process heater safe?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past 35 years, electric process heaters (EPHs) have been used to heat flowing fluids in different sectors of the energy industry: oil and gas exploration and production, refineries, petrochemical plants, pipeline compression facilities and power-generation plants. EPHs offer several advantages over fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers, which have been around for many years, including: smaller size, lighter weight, cleaner operation, lower capital costs, lower maintenance costs, no emissions or leakage, better control and improved safety. However, while many industrial standards have addressed safety concerns of fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers (API, TEMA, NFPA, OSHA and NEC), no standards address EPHs. The paper presents a list of questions that plant operators need to ask about the safety of their electric process heaters. The answers are also given.

Tiras, C.S.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety guidelines, the University Fire Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EHS 1/2012 Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety approved a limited selection of space heaters for use within the University, which are available at Central Stores. The following Space Heaters are approved for use in University of Connecticut buildings provided

Holsinger, Kent

445

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

446

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

447

Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Preliminary final  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (52 FR 36000 (1987)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, 42 USC {section}7901 et seq., the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. The following site characterization activities are discussed in this attachment: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment, including hydrostratigraphy, ground water occurrence, aquifer parameters, and areas of recharge and discharge. Characterization of existing ground water quality by comparison with background water quality and the maximum concentration limits (MCL) of the proposed EPA ground water protection standards. Definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source, including concentration and leachability of the source in relation to migration in ground water and hydraulically connected surface water. Description of local water resources, including current and future use, availability, and alternative supplies.

Not Available

1994-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

450

Estimating the Annual Water and Energy Savings in Texas A & M University Cafeterias using Low Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU).1 Therm is equal to 29.3 kWh Temperature rise through Heater The difference in the water temperature supplied to the water heater, and the water exiting the water heater. This is typically 70*F, which... assumes a water line temperature of 75*F and a water heater setting of 145*F Water Heater Efficiency The percentage of energy delivered to the water divided by the amount of energy consumed by the water heater viii TABLE OF CONTENTS...

Rebello, Harsh Varun

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

451

Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Bordering on Water Management: Ground and Wastewater in the United States - Mexico Transboundary Santa Cruz Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have been caused to a lack of water; rather it is believedconsider how, given a lack of clear water management goals,incomplete due to a lack of surface water measurements. Not

Milman, Anita Dale

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Bordering on Water Management: Ground and Wastewater in the United States - Mexico Transboundary Santa Cruz Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Board (2005). Water Resources Management onEnvironmental Valuation and Its Economic Critics. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management,Environmental Cooperation Commission, has encouraged unilateral decision making, as water management

Milman, Anita Dale

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Soil science Disinfection of drain water in greenhouses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil science Disinfection of drain water in greenhouses using a wet condensation heater C Steinberg November 1994) Summary — A wet condensation heater has been modified to disinfect drain water were introduced into the disinfection circuit above the heater. Water was checked downstream

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Ground Water Compliance at the Slick Rock, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This environmental assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites. The sites consist of two areas designated as the North Continent (NC) site and the Union Carbide (UC) site. In 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at both sites and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 5 miles east of the original sites. Maximum concentration limits (MCLs) referred to in this environmental assessment are the standards established in Title 40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' Part 192 (40 CFR 192) unless noted otherwise. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the NC site are uranium and selenium. Uranium is more prevalent, and concentrations in the majority of alluvial wells at the NC site exceed the MCL of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Selenium contamination is less prevalent; samples from only one well had concentrations exceeding the MCL of 0.01 mg/L. To achieve compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 192 at the NC site, DOE is proposing the strategy of natural flushing in conjunction with institutional controls and continued monitoring. Ground water flow and transport modeling has predicted that concentrations of uranium and selenium in the alluvial aquifer will decrease to levels below their respective MCLs within 50 years.

N /A

2003-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

457

Development and chemical quality of a ground-water system in cast overburden as the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-water conditions which develop in response to surface mining. TMPA has supported research at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in order to meet the needs of mine develop- ment and permitting, Most of the data on ground-water conditions 1n reclaimed spoil has been... on the west by the Navasota River, on the south by Gibbons Creek, and on the north by State Highway 30 (Figure 1). This area includes the Gibbons Creek Steam Electric Station. Lignite is extracted from two pits within the permit boundary, termed the A...

Borbely, Evelyn Susanna

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that the observed surface Pu residue was from the buried sources, not atmospheric fallout. (6) The

Fred J. Molz, III

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG&G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). [Contaminant transport computer codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

Armitage, D.M.; Bacon, D.J.; Massey-Norton, J.T.; Miller, J.D.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

465

Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of feedwater heaters has a direct bearing on the thermal efficiency of the plant. A typical feedwater heater may have three distinct regions of heat transfer, namely desuperheating, condensing and subcooling zones. The design...

Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Let's start with a basic tenet: electric space heaters are less efficient than HVAC systems. I cannot replace my heating system with room heaters if I want to save money....

467

Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 1. Primer. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the first part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for electric power generating plants. This volume is a primer to the subject of feedwater heaters and their integration into the plant. 24 refs.

Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Chlorofluorocarbons, Sulfur Hexafluoride, and Dissolved Permanent Gases in Ground Water from Selected Sites In and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994 - 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From July 1994 through May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperations with the Department of Energy, sampled 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The wells were sampled for a variety of constituents including one- and two-carbon halocarbons. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and trichlorotrifluororoethane (CFC-113) were determined. The data will be used to evaluate the ages of ground waters at INEEL. The ages of the ground water will be used to determine recharge rates, residence time, and travel time of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in and near INEEL. The chromatograms of 139 ground waters are presented showing a large number of halomethanes, haloethanes, and haloethenes present in the ground waters underlying the INEEL. The chromatograms can be used to qualitatively evaluate a large number of contaminants at parts per trillion to parts per billion concentrations. The data can be used to study temporal and spatial distribution of contaminants in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Representative compressed chromatograms for all ground waters sampled in this study are available on two 3.5-inch high density computer disks. The data and the program required to decompress the data can be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in selected wells to determine the feasibility of using this environmental tracer as an age dating tool of ground water. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were measured in 79 ground waters. Concentrations of dissolved permanent gases are tabulated and will be used to evaluate the temperature of recharge of ground water in and near the INEEL.

Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Wayland, J.E.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

VARIATIONS IN RADON-222 IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water 222Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearlyradioelement content by gamma-ray spectrometry. Results are

Wollenberg, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Rev. 02/15/10 Construction: Any construction project regardless of size that disturbs soil, ground cover, or uses water (including pressure washing) that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rev. 02/15/10 Construction: Any construction project regardless of size that disturbs soil, ground/proposed construction project: EHS Office Use Only Recommendations: ______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ _____________________ Approval Date Storm Water Management Program The University of Texas at Austin Notification of Construction

471

Fired heater for coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Ground water of Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?; Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the geology, hydrology, and possible rise of the water tables at Yucca Mountain. The possibilities of rainfall and earthquakes causing flooding is discussed.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview

476

Development and Field Testing of a Hybrid Water Heating and Dehumidification Appliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

standard system is replaced by a Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH), the performance can be increased by 140

Aaron K. Ball; Chip Ferguson; William Mcdaniel

477

Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

User`s Guide: Database of literature pertaining to the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since its beginnings in 1949, hydrogeologic investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have resulted in an extensive collection of technical publications providing information concerning ground water hydraulics and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy through the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office in a grant to compile an INEL-wide summary of unsaturated zone studies based on a literature search. University of Idaho researchers are conducting a review of technical documents produced at or pertaining to the INEL, which present or discuss processes in the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions. Results of this review are being compiled as an electronic database. Fields are available in this database for document title and associated identification number, author, source, abstract, and summary of information (including types of data and parameters). AskSam{reg_sign}, a text-based database system, was chosen. WordPerfect 5.1{copyright} is being used as a text-editor to input data records into askSam.

Hall, L.F.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-01 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000 Btu/hr), electric resistance and heat pump water heaters, list Energy Factor (EF). For large gas storage water heaters (rated input of greater than 75,000 Btu/hr), list Recovery Efficiency (RE), Thermal Efficiency, Standby Loss and Rated Input. For instantaneous gas water heaters, list the Thermal Efficiency

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heaters ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such use can be expected. Process Heater Combustion Control Systems The recommended approach today differs only in detail from a combustion control system installed on a process heater in 1946 at Shell Oil Co., Wood River Refinery. In their 1948 paper... Net + 15% Excess Natural Gas 7.18 7.88 9.06 ., (l000 Btu) Refinery Gas 7.21 7.84 9.02 (l600 Btu) Fuel Oil No. 6 7.31 7.75 8.91 (18,000 Btu) Coal 7.56 7.79 8.96 (11,500 Btu) 184 ESL-IE-79-04-20 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy...

Dukelow, S. G.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PERFORMANCE CORRELATION OF HORIZONTAL SOLAR HEATERS A Thesis by WILFORD HUGO GOPFFARTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to determine design parameters for flat plastic covered solar collectors. First, the transmittance ? absorp- tion product as a function of the angle of incidence was determined...

Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

, Stephen Meyers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

Phillips, T.D.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

489

Copyright 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation 2009 National Ground Water Association.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following a Release of Neat Ethanol onto Pre-existing NAPL by Brent P. Stafford, Natalie L. Cápiro, Pedro J.J. Alvarez, and William G. Rixey Abstract Neat ethanol (75.7 L) was released into the upper capillary zone the capillary zone to 10 cm below the water table. Maximum aqueous concentrations of ethanol were 20% v

Alvarez, Pedro J.

490

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States--  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed on temperature include viscosity, density, and surface tension, all of which affect hydraulic conductivity the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspi- ration, in addition to the advective and conductive

491

Prediction of postmine ground-water quality at a Texas surface lignite mine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The predominant factors which affect spoil water quality have not been completely identified to date. Therefore, the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas was chosen as a test site to evaluate the potential factors that can affect the geochemical...

Wise, Clifton Farrell

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Emergency Factsheet for Disinfecting Water Wells by Shock Chlorination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an alternate water source during the treatment period. Most water treatment equipment (such as water heaters, release the air to allow the tank to be filled with chlorinated water. Drain all hot water heatersEmergency Factsheet for Disinfecting Water Wells by Shock Chlorination Mark L. McFarland, Associate

493

INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

J. Stene

494

Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

495

Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); DeRossi, Raymond S. (Amsterdam, NY); Mullins, Lawrence E. (Middle Grove, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Is My Water Safe? disaster may disrupt the electricity needed to pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

food, brushing teeth and keeping clean. Water storage You can store water ahead for use in emergencies. Emergency water Your hot water heater or water pressure tank could supply many gallons of safe water during an emergency. Before using water from the water heater, switch off the gas or elec- tricity that heats