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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Modeling Water Withdrawal and Consumption for Electricity Generation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water withdrawals for thermoelectric cooling account for a significant portion of total water use in the United States. Any change in electrical energy generation policy and technologies has the potential to have a major ...

Strzepek, Kenneth M.

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

3

EIS-0092: Conversion to Coal, Holyoke Water Power Company, Mt. Tom Generating Station Unit 1 Holyoke, Hampden County, Massachusetts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Unit 1 of the Mt. Tom Generation Station Unit 1 from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

4

Renewable Electricity Generation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides an overview of the use of renewable energy sources to generate electricity in the United States and a critical analysis of the federal and state policies that have supported the deployment of renewable ...

Schmalensee, Richard

5

Legal Definition of "Traditional Navigable Waters" Waters that Qualify as Waters of the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and United States Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) "Clean Water Act Jurisdiction Following the U.S. Supreme.F.R. § 230.3(s)(1). The guidance also states that, for purposes of the guidance, these "(a)(1) waters" are the "traditional navigable waters." These (a)(1) waters include all of the "navigable waters of the United States

US Army Corps of Engineers

6

United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water Washington, D. C. 20460 United States) OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT I. PURPOSE AND SCOPE. The United States Department of the Army (Army) and the United they determine the geographic jurisdictional scope of waters of the United States for purposes of section 404

US Army Corps of Engineers

7

STOCHASTIC FLOW SEQUENCE GENERATION AND ASPINALL UNIT OPERATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to incorporate paleo #12;iv reconstructed data. The selected methods are then employed to generate syntheticSTOCHASTIC FLOW SEQUENCE GENERATION AND ASPINALL UNIT OPERATIONS By KENNETH C NOWAK B Flow Sequence Generation and Aspinall Unit Operations written by Kenneth C Nowak has been approved

8

Increasing Thermoelectric Generation Water Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. Water Is a Critical Resource · Fast growing demand for clean, fresh water · Increased and energy planning · More watershed/regional planning · New science and technology to support planning. Solving the problem Requires Science and Technology Monitoring & Measurement Science &Technology

Keller, Arturo A.

9

Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield (more)

Li, Liang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Next Generation Rooftop Unit | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S iPartnership Program |MillionNext GenerationNext GenerationNext

12

EIS-0362: Colorado Springs Utilities' Next Generation CFB Coal Generating Unit, CO  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to approve Colorado Springs Utilities design, construction, and operation of their Next- Generation Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Coal Generating Unit demonstration plant near Fountain, El Paso County, Colorado.

13

Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that the Limerick plant could withdraw a larger volume of river water. The report also included a description of several other proposed facilities that were planning to use mine pool water. In early 2006, NETL directed Argonne to revisit the sites that had previously been using mine pool water and update the information offered in the previous report. This report describes the status of mine pool water use as of summer 2006. Information was collected by telephone interviews, electronic mail, literature review, and site visits.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A Feasibility...

15

Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano Martna optimization of second generation bioethanol production plants from lignocellulosic switchgrass when using/gal and with no or low water discharge. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, Water, Ethanol

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

16

EIS-0476: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of construction and startup of the proposed Units 3 and 4 at the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant in Burke County, Georgia. DOE adopted two Nuclear Regulatory Commission EISs associated with this project (i.e., NUREG-1872, issued 8/2008, and NUREG-1947, issued 3/2011).

17

Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

18

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soil water potential that describes the energy status of the soil water and is an important parameterNon-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator S-3120, United States 1. Introduction Knowledge of soil water content is critical to agricultural, hydrological

Johnson, Peter D.

19

33 CFR 2.36: Navigable Waters of the United States, navigable...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigable waters, and territorial watersLegal Abstract This regulation provides the definition for "navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial...

20

Water value in power generation: Experts distinguish water use and consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Winter 2013 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek In Grimes County, the sun sets over Gibbons Creek Reservoir, the cooling water supply for an adjacent power plant. Photo by Leslie Lee. WATER VALUE IN POWER GENERATION Experts distinguish... water use and consumption Having enough water available for municipal and agricultural needs is o#23;en discussed; however, having the water needed to generate electric power and the electricity needed to treat and transport water is a struggle all...

Kalisek, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Test factoring with amock: generating readable unit tests from system tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated unit tests are essential for the construction of reliable software, but writing them can be tedious. If the goal of test generation is to create a lasting unit test suite (and not just to optimize execution of ...

Glasser, David Samuel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Molecular cobalt pentapyridine catalysts for generating hydrogen from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition including the moiety of the general formula. [(PY5Me.sub.2)CoL].sup.2+, where L can be H.sub.2O, OH.sup.-, a halide, alcohol, ether, amine, and the like. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water or sea water can be subject to low electric potentials, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen.

Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Sun, Yujie

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

23

Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions Tao Xie1 of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. Unit testing, a common step in software development, presents a chal- lenge. When produced manually, unit test suites are often insufficient to identify defects. The main

Xie, Tao

24

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

25

EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed Rule to Define "Waters of the United States"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed Rule to Define "Waters of the United States" Claudia Copeland.crs.gov R43455 #12;EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed Rule to Define "Waters of the United States regulatory definition of "waters of the United States" consistent with legal rulings--especially the Supreme

Gilbes, Fernando

26

Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Power conversion unit studies for the next generation nuclear plant coupled to a high-temperature steam electrolysis facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Supercritical-water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) and the Very-high-temperature Reactor (VHTR). An international effort to develop these new... and the hydrogen production plant4,5. Davis et al. investigated the possibility of helium and molten salts in the IHTL2. The thermal efficiency of the power conversion unit is paramount to the success of this next generation technology. Current light water...

Barner, Robert Buckner

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

29

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

Bud'ko, I. O. [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation)] [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. G. [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)] [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Water chemistry of breeder reactor steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water quality requirements will be described for breeder reactor steam generators, as well as specifications for balance of plant protection. Water chemistry details will be discussed for the following power plant conditions: feedwater and recirculation water at above and below 5% plant power, refueling or standby, makeup water, and wet layup. Experimental data will be presented from tests which included a departure from nucleate boiling experiment, the Few Tube Test, with a seven tube evaporator and three tube superheater, and a verification of control and on-line measurement of sodium ion in the ppB range. Sampling and instrumentation requirements to insure adherence to the specified water quality will be described. Evaporator cleaning criteria and data from laboratory testing of chemical cleaning solutions with emphasis on flow, chemical composition, and temperature will be discussed.

Simpson, J.L.; Robles, M.N.; Spalaris, C.N.; Moss, S.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Methodology The electricity generation and distribution network in the Western United States is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methodology The electricity generation and distribution network in the Western United States is comprised of power plants, electric utilities, electrical transformers, transmission and distribution infrastructure, etc. We conceptualize the system as a transportation network with resources (electricity

Hall, Sharon J.

32

Maintenance practices for emergency diesel generator engines onboard United States Navy Los Angeles class nuclear submarines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The United States Navy has recognized the rising age of its nuclear reactors. With this increasing age comes increasing importance of backup generators. In addition to the need for decay heat removal common to all (naval ...

Hawks, Matthew Arthur

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Radioactive Water Treatment at a United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site - 12322  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water treatment system at a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund site impacted by radiological contaminants is used to treat water entering the site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is actively managing the remedial action for the USEPA using contracts to support the multiple activities on site. The site is where former gas mantle production facilities operated around the turn of the century. The manufacturing facilities used thorium ores to develop the mantles and disposed of off-specification mantles and ore residuals in the surrounding areas. During Site remedial actions, both groundwater and surface water comes into contact with contaminated soils and must be collected and treated at an on-site treatment facility. The radionuclides thorium and radium with associated progeny are the main concern for treatment. Suspended solids, volatile organic compounds, and select metals are also monitored during water treatment. The water treatment process begins were water is pumped to a collection tank where debris and grit settle out. Stored water is pumped to a coagulant tank containing poly-aluminum chloride to collect dissolved solids. The water passes into a reaction tube where aspirated air is added or reagent added to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC'S) by mass transfer and convert dissolved iron to a solid. The water enters the flocculent polymer tank to drop solids out. The flocculated water overflows to a fluidized bed contact chamber to increase precipitation. Flocculation is where colloids of material drop out of suspension and settle. The settled solids are periodically removed and disposed of as radioactive waste. The water is passed through filters and an ion exchange process to extract the radionuclides. Several million liters of water are processed each year from two water treatment plants servicing different areas of the remediation site. Ion exchange resin and filter material are periodically replaced and disposed of as radioactive waste. A total of 0.85 m{sup 3} of waste sludge per year requires disposal on average, in addition to another 6.6 m{sup 3} of waste cartridge filters. All water discharges are regulated by a state of New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit implemented by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). Laboratory analyses are required to satisfy requirements of the state NPDES permit. Specific monitoring parameters and discharge rates will be provided. Use of the water treatment systems drastically reduces the amount of contaminated water requiring solidification and water disposal to near zero. Millions of liters of potentially contaminated water from excavation activities is treated and released within permit limits. A small volume of solid radioactive waste (21 cubic meters) is generated annually from water treatment process operations. Management of ground and surface water is effectively controlled in remediation areas by the use of sumps, erosion control measures and pumping of water to storage vessels. Continued excavations can be made as water impacting the site is effectively controlled. (authors)

Beckman, John C. [US Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Solving the Unit Commitment Problem in Power Generation by Primal and Dual Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- storage hydro plants a large-scale mixed integer optimization model for unit commitment is developed optimal scheduling of on/o decisions and output levels for generating units in a power system over on the shares of nuclear, conventional thermal, hydro and pumped-storage hydro power in the underlying

Rmisch, Werner

35

United Nations Association -Nebraska Division Hears Roger Gold's "World's Water Problems"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water problem there is the lack of water during the dry season. In the monsoons, water is collectedUnited Nations Association - Nebraska Division Hears Roger Gold's "World's Water Problems Dictionary (1980), and the New York Times Everyday Dictionary (1982). One-toorders are many of the 54 Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

36

Shockwave generation by a semiconductor bridge operation in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A semiconductor bridge (SCB) is a silicon device, used in explosive systems as the electrical initiator element. In recent years, SCB plasma has been extensively studied, both electrically and using fast photography and spectroscopic imaging. However, the value of the pressure buildup at the bridge remains unknown. In this study, we operated SCB devices in water and, using shadow imaging and reference beam interferometry, obtained the velocity of the shock wave propagation and distribution of the density of water. These results, together with a self-similar hydrodynamic model, were used to calculate the pressure generated by the exploding SCB. In addition, the results obtained showed that the energy of the water flow exceeds significantly the energy deposited into the exploded SCB. The latter can be explained by the combustion of the aluminum and silicon atoms released in water, which acts as an oxidizing medium.

Zvulun, E.; Toker, G.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Operable Generating Units in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 20024.9513BOEOperable Generating

39

Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on Graphics Processing Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed-up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is present.

Demchik, Vadim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on Graphics Processing Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed-up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is present.

Vadim Demchik

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Water Loss Test Results for the West Main Pipeline United Irrigation District of Hidalgo County  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-322 2008 Water Loss Test Results for the West Main Pipeline United Irrigation District of Hidalgo County Eric Leigh Texas AgriLife Extension Associate, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, College... Station Guy Fipps Texas AgriLife Extension Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, College Station March 20, 2007 Water Loss Test Results for the West Main Pipeline United Irrigation...

Leigh, E.; Fipps, G.

42

Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

43

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

Ashish Gupta

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

SYSTEM OPTIMIZTION OF HOT WATER CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this report, we describe the design of a concentrated solar thermoelectric (TE) system which can provide both electricity and hot water. Todays thermoelectric materials have a relatively low efficiency (~6 % for temperature difference across the thermoelement on the order of 300 o C). However since thermoelectrics dont need their cold side to be near room temperature, (in another word, one can chose the particular thermoelectric material to match to the operational temperature) it is possible to use the waste heat to provide hot water and this makes the overall efficiency of the combined system to be quite high. A key factor in the optimization of the thermoelectric module is the thermal impedance matching with the incident solar radiation, and also with the hot water heat exchanger on the cold side of the thermoelectric module. We have developed an analytic model for the whole system and optimized each component in order to minimize the material cost. TE element fill factor is found to be an important parameter to optimize at low solar concentrations (generated per mass of the thermoelectric elements. Similarly the co-optimization of the microchannel heat exchanger and the TE module can be used to minimize the amount of material in the heat exchanger and the pumping power required for forced convection liquid cooling. Changing the amount of solar concentration, changes the input heat flux and this is another parameter that can be optimized in order to reduce the cost of heat exchanger (by size), the tracking requirement and the whole system. A series of design curves for different solar concentration are obtained. It is shown that the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80 % at 200x concentration which is independent of the material ZT (TE figure-of-merit). For a material with ZThot~0.9, the electrical conversion efficiency is ~10%. For advanced materials with ZThot ~ 2.8, the electrical conversion efficiency could reach ~21%. 1.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

47

United: How one computer model makes Texas surface water management possible  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Story by Leslie Lee Summer 2013 tx H2O 3 Photo by Kathleen Phillips, Texas A&M AgriLife UNITED How one computer model makes Texas surface water management possible Managing surface water supplies in Texas is complex, to say the least. Multiple... of conditions. W#15;P enables surface water managers throughout Texas to allocate water resources, plan for the future and ensure there is enough water for environmental as well as human needs. A statewide surface water permitting system is born Prior...

Lee, Leslie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Interim Project Results: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the performance evaluation of United Parcel Service's second-generation hybrid-electric delivery vans. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 of these vans along with 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As a complement to the field study, the team recently completed fuel economy and emissions testing at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) laboratory.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Single-bridge unit-connected HVDC generation with increased pulse number  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A true unit-connected generator-HVdc convertor scheme is proposed which removes the need to use two bridges in series to achieve twelve-pulse operation. Moreover, the combination of a single main bridge and an auxiliary feedback dc ripple reinjection bridge is shown to increase the pulse number from 6 to 18. This is achieved purely by natural commutation and is equally valid for rectification and inversion. The theoretical waveforms are validated by extensive experimental verification.

Villablanca, M.; Arrillaga, J. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Design of Micro-grid System Based on Renewable Power Generation Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- Micro-grid system is currently a conceptual solution to fulfill the commitment of reliable power delivery for future power systems. Renewable power sources such as wind and hydro offer the best potential for emission free power for future micro-grid systems. This paper presents a micro-grid system based on wind and hydro power sources and addresses issues related to operation, control, and stability of the system. The micro-grid system investigated in this paper represents a case study in Newfoundland, Canada. It consists of a small hydro generation unit and a wind farm that contains nine variable- speed, double-fed induction generator based wind turbines. Using Matlab/Simulink, the system is modeled and simulated to identify the technical issues involved in the operation of a micro-grid system based on renewable power generation units. The operational modes, technical challenges and a brief outline of conceptual approaches to addressing some of the technical issues are presented for further investigation.

Dr. K. Ravich; M. Manasa; Mr. P. Yohan Babu; G. V. P. Anjaneyulu

52

Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with hydrogen economy scenario. 4. Research Approach and Results Survey of fuel cell water ASU lab fuel cell Capacity (kW) 5 ­ 150 5 ­ 250 5 50 ­ 1100 100 ­ 2000 100 ­ 250 PEM Fuel cell Oxygen (From air) Hydrogen Implications of Using water from Fuel Cells in a Hydrogen Economy · Hydrogen as an energy and water carrier

Keller, Arturo A.

55

The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The development of a solar thermal water purification, heating, and power generation system: A case study.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development of a solar thermal water purification, heating, and power generation system: A case, none of the existing concentrated solar power systems (trough, dish, and tower) that have been the potential of an invention directed to a water purification system that also recovers power from generated

Wu, Mingshen

57

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disturbance in water of finite depth. The steady waves take the form of a downstream wavetrain for subcritical and , the subcritical solutions were wavetrains solutions similar to those found in deep water, and became dragStability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water

60

Update report on the performance of 400 megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units. Performance through 1977  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forty-seven nuclear generating units and 125 coal-fired generating plants that have had at least one full year of commercial operation are covered in this report. Their performances are evaluated using the capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate. The data are arranged by state and utility. (DLC)

None

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16

Olden, Julian D.

62

Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its...

Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Energy and Water United States House of Representatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and through job growth in the `clean energy' sector. To accomplish these goals, not only will a comprehensiveCommittee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Energy and Water United States House of Representatives Testimony for the February 28, 2007 Hearing on: A Ten Year Outlook for Energy by Daniel M. Kammen

Kammen, Daniel M.

64

Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A practical design for an integrated HVDC unit - connected hydro-electric generating station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date, several authors (see reference list) have proclaimed benefits which can be achieved by integrating HVDC converter stations directly with generating units. The cost of a significant amount of plant and facilities found in conventional schemes is thereby eliminated. So far as is known however, no detailed studies have been done to quantify these benefits. This paper outlines the results of a study made recently by the Manitoba HVDC Research Centre to determine the practicality of such a scheme. To give credence to the results an actual hydro station design was used incorporating a HVDC thyristor valve scheme in a hypothetical situation. Financial and other benefits were determined for this example together with conclusions and recommendations for future specific projects and further areas of study.

Ingram, L. (Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg (CA))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

69

Planning for a multi-generational future : policies, regulations, and designs for multi-generational housing in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-generational housing is a rising trend that is increasingly being considered as a viable housing option for the Boomerang generation, Baby Boomers and the aging population, and immigrant families. Cultural preferences, ...

Shin, Stephanie H

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Electrochemical investigations of stable cavitation from bubbles generated during reduction of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical investigations of stable cavitation from bubbles generated during reduction April 2014 Keywords: Megasonic cleaning Stable cavitation Microstreaming Hydrogen bubbles Water on wafers without affect- ing the transient cavitation responsible for feature damage. ? 2014 Elsevier B

Deymier, Pierre

71

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Design and Operation of Fan-Coil Units in Using River Water as Chilled Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in P. R. China. The concentrated A/C system utilizing natural cool resource of the river-water was built and put into service in 2000. The A/C system does not need any chiller, and the medium inlet-water provided to terminal equipment is just... The dew-point temperature of air at different dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity lt t ? t ? ? ? ?%? 20 22 24 26 28 40 6.09 7.85 9.62 11.39 13.17 50 9.31 11.13 12.96 14.80 16.63 60 12.02 13.90 15.78 17.66 19.55 70 14.38 16.30 18.22 20...

Jiang, A.; Chen, H.; Ma, W.; Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Water Loss Test Results: West Main Canal United Irrigation District of Hidalgo County  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY CENTER Texas Cooperative Extension ? Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas A&M University System 1 Extension Associate, and Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer... Table 3. Data for Test UN1: West Main District: United Irrigation District of Hidalgo County Test ID: UN1 Canal: West Main Lining Type: Lined Starting Water Span Widths: SG1: 11.21 ft, SG3: 11.24 ft, SG5: 11.26 ft Date...

Leigh, E.; Fipps, G.

76

Evolution of water waves generated by subaerial solid landslide S. Viroulet1,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of water waves generated by subaerial solid landslide S. Viroulet1,* , D. C´ebron1,2 , O solid landslide, which is a relevant quantity for wave forecast. 1 Introduction The modelisation of the mechanism and interac- tions between water and slide. Previous works have been realized on submarine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Hydrogen Generation from Water Disassociation Using Small Currents and Harmonics Trien N. Nguyen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Generation from Water Disassociation Using Small Currents and Harmonics Trien N. Nguyen1 1 Department of Physics, Purdue School of Science Hydrogen can be produced cheaply and efficiently from water sources using a combination of harmonics and small currents. Hydrogen is a clean and virtually

Zhou, Yaoqi

78

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets Andrew M. Duffin and Richard J. Saykally,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of natural gas. These thermal methods are relatively cheap, but they do not mitigate difficulties associatedElectrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets Andrew M. Duffin and Richard J, 2007; In Final Form: May 31, 2007 We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from

Cohen, Ronald C.

79

Water Research 39 (2005) 942952 Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 39 (2005) 942952 Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell Abstract In a microbial fuel cell (MFC), power can be generated from the oxidation of organic matter. Keywords: Bacteria; Biofuel cell; Microbial fuel cell; Electricity; Power output; Shewanella; Fuel cell 1

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Water Research 39 (2005) 49614968 Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 39 (2005) 4961­4968 Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial September 2005 Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a new method for treating animal wastewaters indicated that electricity could be generated from swine wastewater containing 83207190 mg/L of soluble

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Water Research 39 (2005) 16751686 Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 39 (2005) 1675­1686 Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge microbial Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be used to directly generate electricity from the oxidation of dissolved (Geobacter metallireducens) or a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum). Power output with either inoculum

82

33 CFR 2.36: Navigable Waters of the United States, navigable waters, and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights, Substantive Jump to:Species | OpenSubject to

83

Unit Commitment of Generator Sets During Dynamic Positioning Operation Based on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is large (Radan, 2008). A method for selecting the correct units must therefore be used, as testing all

Johansen, Tor Arne

84

Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

The Science Water use and energy production are intrinsically linked. Most electric power plants in the United States generate electricity by means of a steam generator....

85

The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind responsible for the increased wind potential in the study. Developed in collaboration with renewable energy

86

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

Theoretical vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of water near lipid and surfactant monolayer interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the structure of water near cell membranes is crucial for characterizing water-mediated events such as molecular transport. To obtain structural information of water near a membrane, it is useful to have a surface-selective technique that can probe only interfacial water molecules. One such technique is vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. As model systems for studying membrane headgroup/water interactions, in this paper we consider lipid and surfactant monolayers on water. We adopt a theoretical approach combining molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive VSFG to investigate water structure near these interfaces. Our simulated spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal orientational ordering of interfacial water molecules near cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic interfaces. OH bonds of water molecules point toward an anionic interface leading to a positive VSFG peak, whereas the water hydrogen atoms point away from a cationic interface leading to a negative VSFG peak. Coexistence of these two interfacial water species is observed near interfaces between water and mixtures of cationic and anionic lipids, as indicated by the presence of both negative and positive peaks in their VSFG spectra. In the case of a zwitterionic interface, OH orientation is toward the interface on the average, resulting in a positive VSFG peak.

Roy, S.; Gruenbaum, S. M.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, 1101 University Ave., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

From Emergency to Fix: Point-of-Use Water Filtration Technology in Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

faculty and staff for making my graduate experience at Texas A&M University one for the books. vi NOMENCLATURE AWWA American Water Works Association BSF Biosand Filtration CDC United States Center for Disease Control CF Ceramic Filter EPA... FROM EMERGENCY TO FIX: POINT-OF-USE WATER FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY IN COLONIAS ALONG THE UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER A Thesis by EMILY LAUREN VANDEWALLE Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M...

Vandewalle, Emily Lauren

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Estimation of the urban household demand for water in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(bltion, the oric(i of' w" tor ?ias assu!mod con. tar t be( ause 10 of tlio 14 c i. I, le - had idcii tioal rate schedules?mind throe of the remaining 1'our & i ties hud. unite s'iailor &arcs Th?s? tho d mond. fc(' i&i!&Br' w(&s &'&ypctliosiso&i. to br a &1&n...) and evaporaticn from June . hrough Sepl;ember (Grunewald, Haan, Debertin, sno. Carcy). It is evident that this important com- ponent oi' urban water demand deserves additional attention. The moisture available for use ir. turf maintenance (in the ab- sence...

Foster, Henry Sessam

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Networked Power Generators with Remote Measurement Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

provided by Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). The proposed control system is designed in a robust way illustrate its good behavior, and suggest that the new measurement and data transmission devices can bring Measurement Units (PMU). These devices are far beyond SCADA, and let one envisage the use of real time remote

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Soil water and particle size distribution influence laboratory-generated PM10 Nicholaus M. Madden a,*, Randal J. Southard a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on gravimetric soil water content (GWC) and soil texture. A mechanical laboratory dust generator was used to testSoil water and particle size distribution influence laboratory-generated PM10 Nicholaus M. Madden a Soil particle size distribution Soil water content a b s t r a c t Management of soils to reduce

Ahmad, Sajjad

92

Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suiteas well as potential future suitesof thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sectors water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

94

Autonomous Control of Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Generation Units for Harmonic Current Filtering and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compensator consists of a virtual fundamental impedance loop for enhanced sharing of reactive power) units, and also provide a more reliable electricity service [2]. On the other hand, during the islanded

Chen, Zhe

95

Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generator Units using Genetic Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale production units (e.g. fuel cells, micro-CHPs, photovoltaic panels) and the liberalization of the energy reliability, etc. This optimization problem can be solved in different ways like exhaustive searches [14

97

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

98

Pressures on Arizona Water and Energy Policy: Case Study of the Navajo Generating Station  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

largest user of energy in the state of Arizona. It is powered by a coal plant in Northern Arizona1 Pressures on Arizona Water and Energy Policy: Case Study of the Navajo Generating Station Sonya Sustainability Graduate Student Fellowship Program & The Renewable Energy Network, Renewable Energy Policy

Fay, Noah

99

Electrodeposited Cobalt-Sulfide Catalyst for Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation from Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of strong acids and bases, thus reducing their environmental impact and increasing Generation from Water Yujie Sun,,,, Chong Liu,, David C. Grauer,, Junko Yano, Jeffrey R. Long,*,, Peidong, and long-term aqueous stability, offer promising features for potential use in solar energy applications

100

Generation and Initial Evolution of a Mode Water S Anomaly* GREGORY C. JOHNSON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation and Initial Evolution of a Mode Water ­S Anomaly* GREGORY C. JOHNSON NOAA/Pacific Marine. Corresponding author address: Dr. Gregory C. Johnson, NOAA/PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Bldg. 3, Seattle, WA 98115-6349. E-mail: gregory.c.johnson@noaa.gov APRIL 2006

Johnson, Gregory C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, PNNL-11911 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-11911, which was published in September 1998. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to pre-remediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.65 ng/L to 18.1 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 0.65 ng/L to 103 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal of 0.59 ng/L. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found in Lauritzen Canal, and the lowest levels were from the Richmond Inner Harbor Channel water. Unusual amounts of detritus in the water column at the time of sampling, particularly in Lauritzen Canal, could have contributed to the elevated pesticide concentrations and poor analytical precision.

LD Antrim; NP Kohn

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

Impact of unit commitment constraints on generation expansion planning with renewables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growing use of renewables pushes thermal generators against operating constraints - e.g. ramping, minimum output, and operating reserves - that are traditionally ignored in expansion planning models. We show how including ...

Palmintier, Bryan Stephen

106

Study of Linear Equivalent Circuits of Electromechanical Systems for Turbine Generator Units.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The thesis utilizes the analogy in dynamic equations between a mechanical and an electrical system to convert the steam-turbine, micro-turbine, wind-turbine and hydro-turbine generator mechanical (more)

Tsai, Chia-Chun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Stochastic Real-Time Scheduling of Wind-thermal Generation Units ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power produced by thermal unit i in time t (MW). Pps,t. Power .... problem is presented in Section V. Simulation results are pre- sented in section VI ...... operation of a virtual power plant using two stage stochastic programming,. Energy, vol.

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

109

Integrated High Speed Intelligent Utility Tie Unit for Disbursed/Renewable Generation Facilities Worakarn Wongsaichua, Wei-Jen Lee Soontorn Oraintara Chiman Kwan Frank Zhang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated High Speed Intelligent Utility Tie Unit for Disbursed/Renewable Generation Facilities is to rejuvenate the idea of integrated resource planning and promote the distributed generation via traditional or renewable generation facilities for the deregulated utility systems. Fuel cell and photovoltaic are the most

Oraintara, Soontorn

110

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofStar Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of virtual impedance parameters and (ii) higher accuracy in reactive power flow calculation. The improved With larger portion of growing electricity demand which is being fed through distributed generation (DG, in order to decouple real and reactive power, to increase the stability margin and also to improve

Chaudhary, Sanjay

112

Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

Oyama, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Monticello Unit 3 recovery project: The rebuild of a first generation wet flue gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since November 1993, TU Electric and Sargent & Lundy have been engaged in the repair or replacement of equipment that was damaged by the collapse of the Monticello Unit 3 chimney. In addition to the replacement of the chimney, electrostatic precipitator, and various balance-of-plant systems, the scope of the project includes the demolition, engineering and design, procurement, and construction activities to rebuild major equipment within the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This paper reviews and discusses various aspects of the design, procurement and schedule associated with the rebuild of the FGD system. The paper reviews the design selections in the areas of process technology, the absorber island, and technical enhancements to improve the operability of this 1970s-vintage system. Finally, the challenges and solutions in implementing a 17-month schedule for the design, construction, and startup of an FGD system will be discussed.

Guletsky, P.W.; Katzberger, S.M. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Jeanes, R.L. [TU Electric, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Incorporating Wind Generation Forecast Uncertainty into Power System Operation, Dispatch, and Unit Commitment Procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, an approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the "flying-brick" technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through integration with an EMS system illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems from other vendors.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

117

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

118

United Power- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

United Power, together with Tri-State Generation and Transmission (TSGT), offers rebates for the installation of a variety of energy efficient equipment including heating and cooling systems, water...

119

Testing Thermo-acoustic Sound Generation in Water with Proton and Laser Beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments were performed at a proton accelerator and an infrared laser acility to investigate the sound generation caused by the energy deposition of pulsed particle and laser beams in water. The beams with an energy range of 1 PeV to 400 PeV per proton beam spill and up to 10 EeV for the laser pulse were dumped into a water volume and the resulting acoustic signals were recorded with pressure sensitive sensors. Measurements were performed at varying pulse energies, sensor positions, beam diameters and temperatures. The data is well described by simulations based on the thermo-acoustic model. This implies that the primary mechanism for sound generation by the energy deposition of particles propagating in water is the local heating of the media giving rise to an expansion or contraction of the medium resulting in a pressure pulse with bipolar shape. A possible application of this effect would be the acoustical detection of neutrinos with energies greater than 1 EeV.

K. Graf; G. Anton; J. Hoessl; A. Kappes; T. Karg; U. Katz; R. Lahmann; C. Naumann; K. Salomon; C. Stegmann

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)

Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Water footprint of electric power generation : modeling its use and analyzing options for a water-scarce future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interdependency between water and energy, sometimes called the water-energy nexus, is growing in importance as demand for both water and energy increases. Energy is required for water treatment and supply, while virtually ...

Delgado Martn, Anna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Bordering on Water Management: Ground and Wastewater in the United States - Mexico Transboundary Santa Cruz Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have been caused to a lack of water; rather it is believedconsider how, given a lack of clear water management goals,incomplete due to a lack of surface water measurements. Not

Milman, Anita Dale

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Bordering on Water Management: Ground and Wastewater in the United States - Mexico Transboundary Santa Cruz Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Board (2005). Water Resources Management onEnvironmental Valuation and Its Economic Critics. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management,Environmental Cooperation Commission, has encouraged unilateral decision making, as water management

Milman, Anita Dale

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F. Southworh. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology:a larger market for heat pump water heaters (U.S. Departmentfurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%). (U.S.

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system for a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with quartz...

Payne, Stephen Ellis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite pressure distribution moving with constant speed U in water of finite depth h . Localized solitary waves can only exist in subcritical flows where the Froude number F = U/(gh)1/2

130

International Environmental Evaluation for the Helical Screw Expander Generator Unit Projects in Cesano, Italy and Broadlands, New Zealand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the Helical Screw Expander (HSE) Generator Program are (1) to accelerate the development of geothermal resources by introducing this advanced conversion technology, (2) to provide operating experience to prospective users of the equipment, and (3) to collect data on the performance and reliability of the equipment under various geothermal resource conditions. The participants hope to achieve these goals by testing a small-scale, transportable HSE generator at existing geothermal test facilities that produce fluids of different salinity, temperature and pressure conditions. This Environmental Evaluation has been prepared, using available information, to analyze the environmental consequences of testing the HSE generator. Its purpose is to support a decision on the need for a complete environmental review of the HSE program under the terms of Executive Order 121 14, ''Environmental Effects Abroad of Major federal Actions''. This Executive Order requires review of projects which involve the release of potentially toxic effluents that are strictly regulated in the United States, or which may have significant environmental effects on the global commons, on natural or ecological resources of international significance, or on the environment of non-participating countries. The final guidelines implementing the provisions of the Executive Order for DOE have been published. This evaluation deals with testing to be conducted at Cesano, Italy by the designated contractor of the Italian government, the Ente Narionale per l'Energia Ellectrica (ENEL), and at Broadlands, New Zealand by the Ministry of Works and Development of New Zealand. Testing at Cerro Prieto, Mexico has already been completed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad and is not evaluated in this report.

Webb, J.W.; Mezga, L.J.; Reed, A.W.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Spectroscopic study of unique line broadening and inversion in low-pressure microwave generated water plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It was demonstrated that low pressure (~0.2 Torr) water vapor plasmas generated in a 10 mm inner diameter quartz tube with an Evenson microwave cavity show at least two features which are not explained by conventional plasma models. First, significant (> 0.25 nm) hydrogen Balmer_ line broadening, of constant width, up to 5 cm from the microwave coupler was recorded. Only hydrogen, and not oxygen, showed significant line broadening. This feature, observed previously in hydrogen-containing mixed gas plasmas generated with high voltage dc and rf discharges was explained by some researchers to result from acceleration of hydrogen ions near the cathode. This explanation cannot apply to the line broadening observed in the (electrodeless) microwave plasmas generated in this work, particularly at distances as great as 5 cm from the microwave coupler. Second, inversion of the line intensities of both the Lyman and Balmer series, again, at distances up to 5 cm from the coupler, were observed. The line inversion suggest...

Mills, R L; Mayo, R M; Nansteel, M; Dhandapani, B; Phillips, J; Phillips, Jonathan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Center for Water-Energy Efficiency is a not-for-profit research and development unit at the University of California, Davis, leading innovations in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Center for Water-Energy Efficiency is a not-for-profit research and development unit at the University of California, Davis, leading innovations in water and energy efficient technologies and policies of integrated water and energy efficiency. CWEE AFFILIATE GIFT PROGRAM Supporting innovations in integrated

California at Davis, University of

136

Next Generation Rooftop Unit  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32DepartmentWells |ofDepartment of Energy NextAtticsNext

137

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Evaluation of cracking in steam generator feedwater piping in pressurized water reactor plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking in feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to steam generators in 15 pressurized water reactor plants. Sections with cracks from nine plants are examined with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Using transmission electron microscopy, fatigue striations are observed on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a cyclic stress value of 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses and it is concluded that the overriding factor in the cracking problem was the presence of such undocumented cyclic loads.

Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Laser-driven shock experiments in pre-compressed water: Implications for magnetic field generation in Icy Giant planets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-driven shock compression of pre-compressed water (up to 1 GPa precompression) produces high-pressure, -temperature conditions in the water inducing two optical phenomena: opacity and reflectivity in the initially transparent water. The onset of reflectivity at infrared wavelengths can be interpreted as a semi-conductor to electronic conductor transition in water and is found at pressures above {approx}130 GPa for single-shocked samples pre-compressed to 1 GPa. This electronic conduction provides an additional contribution to the conductivity required for magnetic field generation in Icy Giant planets like Uranus and Neptune.

Lee, K; Benedetti, L R; Jeanloz, R; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Hicks, D G; Moon, S J; Mackinnon, A; Henry, E; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Collins, G W

2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

142

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

early 300 species of mussels inhabit fresh-water rivers, streams, and lakes in the United  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remnant populations of mussels. Dam construction, siltation, water pollution, mining and industrial wastes important commercial value in the cul- tured pearl and jewelry industry. Our pearly mussels are of unique mussels are underway. However, water pollution continues to threaten streams crucial to their survival

Liskiewicz, Maciej

145

EIS-0086: Conversion to Coal, New England Power Company, Salem Harbor Generating Station Units 1, 2, and 3, Salem, Essex County, Massachusetts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Units I, 2, and 3 of the Salem Harbor Generating Station from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

146

EIS-0105: Conversion to Coal, Baltimore Gas & Electric Company, Brandon Shores Generating Station Units 1 and 2, Anne Arundel County, Maryland  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energys Economic Regulatory Administration Office of Fuels Program, Coal and Electricity Division prepared this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with prohibiting the use of petroleum products as a primary energy source for Units 1 and 2 of the Brandon Shores Generating Station, located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

147

Belgian approach to steam generator tube plugging for primary water stress corrosion cracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For a number of years, three Belgian nuclear power plants have experienced primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in the expansion transition area on a very large number of tubes. One of the plants has part depth rolled tubes and the others have full depth expansion. The report presents a review of the leakage experience associated with (PWSCC) in the Doel 2, Doel 3 and Tihange 2 Nuclear Power Plants and illustrates the type of cracking observed on pulled tubes from Doel 2 and Doel 3. The Belgian units operate with numerous through wall cracks without impairing the safety and the reliability of the plants. This is achieved by a safety approach based on the extensive use of advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques and the development of new plugging limits. These limits are derived from a realistic interpretation of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.121 and are backed up by a substantial experimental program. The report summarizes the establishment of plugging limits for both axial and circumferential cracks in the roll transition area of full depth rolled tubes. The LABORELEC eddy current rotating probe (RPC) technology and associated crack sizing methodology are also described. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Frederick, G. (TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)); Hernalsteen, P.; Dobbeni, D. (Laboratoire Belge de l'Industrie Electrique (LABORELEC), Linkebeek (Belgium))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Application of simultaneous active and reactive power modulation of superconducting magnetic energy storage unit to damp turbine-generator subsynchronous oscillations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An active and reactive power (P-Q) simultaneous control scheme which is based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is designed to damp out the subsynchronous resonant (SSR) oscillations of a turbine-generator unit. In order to suppress unstable torsional mode oscillations, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is employed to modulate the active and reactive power input/output of the SMES unit according to speed deviation of the generator shaft. The gains of the proposed PID controller are determined by pole assignment approach based on modal control theory. Eigenvalue analysis of the studied system shows that the PID controller is quite effective over a wide range of operating conditions. Dynamic simulations using the nonlinear system model are also performed to demonstrate the damping effect of the proposed control scheme under disturbance conditions.

Wu, Chijui; Lee, Yuangshung (National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipie (Taiwan, Province of China))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

150

The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the Western United States: An Application to Ridge Regression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the form of a multiplicative function with nine domain variables, i.e., irrigation water applied, value of land and buildings, hired labor expenditures, fuel and lubricant expenditures, fertilizer and lime expenditures, feed expenditures, value of machinery...

Frank, M. D.; Beattie, B. R.

151

Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States *Barbara L. Rowe1 , Patricia L. Toccalino2 , Michael J. Moran1 , John S. Zogorski1 , Curtis V. Price1 1 United States Geological Survey, Road, Rapid City, SD 57702 USA

153

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

154

International cooperation between the United States and Mexico: addressing water quality of the Lower Rio Grande  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concerns, and later concentrates on the United States/Mexico border and transboundary issues in the Rio Grande Basin. Policy Building and Sttstainable Development Ascher and Healy (1990), focusing their analysis on third world nations, approach... provides insight into pitfalls of policy development in third world nations. The 19 pitfalls often are apparent in natural resource depletion, environmental degradation, and inefficiencies in aiding populations, usually poor, who were to benefit from...

Crouch, Kellie Gene

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A bio-inspired molecular water oxidation catalyst for renewable hydrogen generation: An examination of salt effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, purification, and/or burning processes. The generation of hydrogen using solar energy to split water, ideally. Swiegersc , Leone Spicciaa * a School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia b, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia ABSTRACT Most transport fuels are derived from

Lawson, Catherine L.

156

Solving chemical and mechanical problems of PWR steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam generators in power plants, based on pressurized water reactors (PWRs), transfer heat from a primary coolant system (pressurized water) to a secondary coolant system. Primary coolant water is heated in the core and passes through the steam generator that transfers heat to the secondary coolant water to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that turns an electric generator. Steam is condensed and returned to the steam generator as feedwater. Two types of PWR steam generators are in use: recirculating steam generators (RSGs) and once-through steam generators (OTSGs). Since most of the units are vertical, only vertical units are discussed in this article. Some vertical units have operated with a minimum of problems, while others have experienced a variety of corrosion and mechanically-induced problems that have caused unscheduled outages and expensive repairs.

Green, S.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States--  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed on temperature include viscosity, density, and surface tension, all of which affect hydraulic conductivity the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspi- ration, in addition to the advective and conductive

160

Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW)!in!the!United!States!A!National!Survey!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! 1! ! Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generation and Disposition in the U.S., in collaboration with Ms. Nora Goldstein was not carried out in 2012 and in 2013 EEC and BioCycle agreed that the 2013 Survey of Waste Generation

Columbia University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW)!in!the!United!States!A!National!Survey!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! 1! ! Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW Waste (MSW) Generation and Disposition in the U.S., in collaboration with Ms. Nora Goldstein of Bio in 2012 and in 2013 EEC and BioCycle agreed that the 2013 Survey of Waste Generation and Disposition

162

Thermo-acoustic Sound Generation in the Interaction of Pulsed Proton and Laser Beams with a Water Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generation of hydrodynamic radiation in interactions of pulsed proton and laser beams with matter is explored. The beams were directed into a water target and the resulting acoustic signals were recorded with pressure sensitive sensors. Measurements were performed with varying pulse energies, sensor positions, beam diameters and temperatures. The obtained data are matched by simulation results based on the thermo-acoustic model with uncertainties at a level of 10%. The results imply that the primary mechanism for sound generation by the energy deposition of particles propagating in water is the local heating of the medium. The heating results in a fast expansion or contraction and a pressure pulse of bipolar shape is emitted into the surrounding medium. An interesting, widely discussed application of this effect could be the detection of ultra-high energetic cosmic neutrinos in future large-scale acoustic neutrino detectors. For this application a validation of the sound generation mechanism to high accur...

Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Mecke, K; Schwemmer, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Running on water: Three-dimensional force generation by basilisk lizards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-averaged force produced by juvenile plumed basilisk lizards (Basiliscus plu- mifrons) while running across water into the water; they also produce large transverse reaction forces that change from medial (79% body weight that the initial water contact impulse is small. When combined with impulses theoretically produced during

Lauder, George V.

164

Automatic system for regulating the frequency and power of the 500 MW coal-dust power generating units at the Reftinskaya GRES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The monitoring and control systems at the 500 MW coal-dust power generating units No. 7, 8, and 9 at the Reftinskaya GRES have been modernized using information-regulator systems. Layouts for instrumental construction of these systems and expanded algorithmic schemes for the automatic frequency and power control system and for the boiler supply and fuelling are discussed. Results from tests and normal operation of the automatic frequency and power control system are presented.

Bilenko, V. A.; Gal'perina, A. I.; Mikushevich, E. E.; Nikol'skii, D. Yu. [JSC 'Interavtomatka' (Russian Federation); Zhugrin, A. G.; Bebenin, P. A.; Syrchin, M. V. [JSC 'Reftinskaya GRES' (Russian Federation)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

33 CFR 329: Definition of Navigable Waters of the United States | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights, Substantive Jump to:Species | OpenSubject to-332

166

Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters and Sediment Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, PNNL-1 3059 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-1 3059 which is dated October 1999. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathom Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissue s) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 ng/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both DDT and dieldrin were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. PCBS were not detected in water samples in 1999.

LD Antrim; NP Kohn

2000-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

167

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

Robertson, Eric P

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

169

Foreign offshore worker injuries in foreign waters: why a United States forum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When foreigners are injured or killed in offshore oil operations in foreign jurisdictional waters, US laws do not always apply as they would if the plaintiffs are American or resident aliens. The courts must first consider whether the Jones Act, Death on the High Seas Act, general maritime law, or a combination of laws applies and whether the court should assume jurisdiction or use the doctrine of forum non conveniens. Cases involving foreign offshore workers are used to illustrate the factors involved in each application and to consider the foreign-policy implication when foreign nationals assume that American laws and morality accompany multinational business. Congress has yet to resolve the issues, although a bill was proposed in 1980. 75 references. (DCK)

Sutterfield, J.R.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and with the exception of CPVC, no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied. The testing shows no major concerns for compatibility over the short duration of these tests but does indicate that longer duration exposure studies are warranted, especially for Tefzel. However, the physical changes experienced by Tefzel in the improved solvent were comparable to the physical changes obtained when Tefzel is placed in CSSX baseline solvent. Therefore, there is no effect of the improved solvent beyond those observed in CSSX baseline solvent.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

171

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

172

Rehabilitation project of some coal fired electricity generating units in compliance with RENEL`s development strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Romanian Authority of Electricity (RENEL) is a state-owned company for generation, transport, and distribution of electric and thermal power in Romania. The paper discusses the present situation regarding energy supply in Romania based on fossil fuels and RENEL`s strategy for energy sector development, namely, the rehabilitation of existing generating plants rather than new investments. The paper briefly describes RENEL`s rehabilitation programs, and the analysis of solutions suited for expanding RENEL`s rehabilitation program.

Octavian, P.; Cristian, T.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Bio-Inspired Polymer Composite Actuator and Generator Driven by Water Gradients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we describe the development of a water-responsive polymer film. Combining both a rigid matrix (polypyrrole) and a dynamic network (polyol-borate), strong and flexible polymer films were developed that can exchange ...

Ma, Mingming

174

An integrated model to compare net electricity generation for CO?- and water-based geothermal systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed byBrown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him (more)

Agarwal, Vikas, 1986-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality in the United States - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of structural storm-water best management practices. Waterbest management practices (BMPs) for removing them. Storm-water

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

None

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Removal of Filter Cake Generated by Manganese Tetraoxide Water-based Drilling Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three effective solutions to dissolve the filter cake created by water-based drilling fluids weighted with Mn3O4 particles were developed. Hydrochloric acid at concentration lower than 5 wt% can dissolve most of Mn3O4-based filter cake. Dissolving...

Al Mojil, Abdullah Mohammed A.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from water using a cobalt pentapyridine complex in combination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alternative carbon-neutral energy tech- nologies. Harnessing solar energy to synthesize sustainable chemical multiple redox features on glassy carbon, including a one-proton, one-electron coupled oxidative wave systems into sustainable energy generation devices. Introduction The combination of rising global energy

180

Consistency in the Sum Frequency Generation Intensity and Phase Vibrational Spectra of the Air/Neat Water Interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tremendous progresses have been made in quantitative understanding and interpretation of the hydrogen bonding and ordering structure at the air/water interface since the first sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) measurement on the neat air/water interface by Q. Du et al. in 1993 (PRL, 70, 2312-2316, 1993.). However, there are still disagreements and controversies on the consistency between the different experiment measurements and the theoretical computational results. One critical problem lies in the inconsistency between the SFG-VS intensity measurements and the recently developed SFG-VS phase spectra measurements of the neat air/water interface, which has inspired various theoretical efforts trying to understand them. In this report, the reliability of the SFG-VS intensity spectra of the neat air/water interface is to be quantitatively examined, and the sources of possible inaccuracies in the SFG-VS phase spectral measurement is to be discussed based on the non-resonant SHG phase measurement results. The conclusion is that the SFG-VS intensity spectra data from different laboratories are now quantitatively converging and in agreement with each other, and the possible inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the SFG-VS phase spectra measurements need to be carefully examined against the properly corrected phase standard.

Feng, Ranran; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

AIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to : , with the air-density, u and w the horizontal and vertical components of the wind speed, u* the friction and the viscous drag at the sea sur- face, we build two new microphysical devices: 1) the wind-speed vertical of the vertical profile of the normalized phase-averaged wind-speed in the air-viscous layer (1mm above water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

The Trans-Africa Pipeline: Building a Sustainable Water Generation and Distribution Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Trans-Africa Pipeline (TAP), the vision of University of Toronto professor emeritus Rod Tennyson, aims to mitigate poverty, disease, desertification, and conflict in Africas Sahel1 region through the daily provision of roughly one billion litres of fresh water to 20 million people for domestic and agricultural use (Tennyson, n.d; Tennyson et al, n.d). As the effects of climate change become more pronounced,

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 4-Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using relevant and well-documented critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors. The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SCALE-4 SAS2H analytical sequence. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code family was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all calculations. This volume of the report documents a reactor critical calculation for GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) during hot, zero-power startup testing for the beginning of cycle 5. This unit and cycle were selected because of their relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) cycle 5 startup occurred after an especially long downtime of 6.6 years; and (2) the core consisted primarily (75%) of burned fuel, with all fresh fuel loaded on the core outer periphery. A k{sub eff} value of 0.9978 {+-} 0.0004 was obtained using two million neutron histories in the KENO V.a model. This result is close to the known critical k{sub eff} of 1.0 for the actual core and is consistent with other mixed-oxide criticality benchmarks. Thus this method is shown to be valid for spent fuel applications in burnup credit analyses.

DeHart, M.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Accuracy Based Generation of Thermodynamic Properties for Light Water in RELAP5-3D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

RELAP5-3D interpolates to obtain thermodynamic properties for use in its internal calculations. The accuracy of the interpolation was determined for the original steam tables currently used by the code. This accuracy evaluation showed that the original steam tables are generally detailed enough to allow reasonably accurate interpolations in most areas needed for typical analyses of nuclear reactors cooled by light water. However, there were some regions in which the original steam tables were judged to not provide acceptable accurate results. Revised steam tables were created that used a finer thermodynamic mesh between 4 and 21 MPa and 530 and 640 K. The revised steam tables solved most of the problems observed with the original steam tables. The accuracies of the original and revised steam tables were compared throughout the thermodynamic grid.

Cliff B. Davis

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins at Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 2 Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy2.1. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational SpectroscopyIntroduction Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational

Holinga, George J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Sweeney LUBRICATION OF STEAM, GAS AND WATER TURBINES IN POWER GENERATION- A CHEVRONTEXACO EXPERIENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On 9 October 2001 two US oil companies Chevron and Texaco merged. Their long-term joint venture operation, known as Caltex (formed in 1936 and operating in East and Southern Africa, Middle East, Asia and Australasia), was incorporated into the one global energy company. This global enterprise will be highly competitive across all energy sectors, as the new company brings together a wealth of talents, shared values and a strong commitment to developing vital energy resources around the globe. Worldwide, ChevronTexaco is the third largest publicly traded company in terms of oil and gas reserves, with some 11.8 billion barrels of oil and gas equivalent. It is the fourth largest producer, with daily production of 2.7 million barrels. The company also has 22 refineries and more than 21,000 branded service stations worldwide. This paper will review the fundamentals of lubrication as they apply to the components of turbines. It will then look at three turbine types, steam, gas and water, to address the different needs of lubricating oils and the appropriate specifications for each. The significance of oil testing both for product development and in-service oil monitoring will be reviewed, together with the supporting field experience of ChevronTexaco. The environmental emissions controls on turbines and any impact on the lubricants will be discussed. Finally, the trends in specifications for lubricating oils to address the modern turbines designs will be reviewed. Key Words: geothermal, lubrication, turbines, in-service testing 1.

Peter James Sweeney

187

Year 5 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and other Contaminants in Marine Waters near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was completed in April 1997. The Record of Decision included a requirement for five years of post-remediation monitoring be conducted in the waterways near the site. The present monitoring year, 2001? 2002, is the fifth and possibly final year of post-remediation monitoring. In March 2002, water and mussel tissues were collected from the four stations in and near Lauritzen Channel that have been routinely monitored since 1997-98. A fifth station in Parr Canal was sampled in Year 5 to document post-remediation water and tissue concentrations there. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples and in tissue samples from resident (i.e., naturally occurring) mussels. As in Years 3 and 4, mussels were not transplanted to the study area in Year 5. Year 5 concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with those from Years 1 through 4 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch Program and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site. Year 5 water samples and mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples during Year 2 monitoring and were added to the water and mussel tissue analyses in 1999. Contaminants of concern in Year 5 water samples were analyzed in both bulk (total) phase and dissolved phase, as were total suspended solids, to evaluate the contribution of particulates to the total contaminant concentration.

Kohn, Nancy P.; Kropp, Roy K.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

189

Proposed changes to generating capacity 1980-1989 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1980 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The changes in generating capacity projected for 1980 to 1989 are summarized. Tabulated data provide summaries to the information on projected generating unit construction, retirements, and changes, in several different categories and groupings. The new generating units to be completed by the end of 1989 total 699, representing 259,490 megawatts. This total includes 10 wind power and one fuel cell installations totaling 48.5 MW to be completed by the end of 1989. There are 321 units totaling 13,222 MW to be retired. There are capacity changes due to upratings and deratings. Summary data are presented for: total requirement for electric energy generation for 1985; hydroelectric energy production for 1985; nuclear energy production for 1985; geothermal and other energy production for 1985; approximate non-fossil generation for 1985; range of fossil energy requirements for 1985; actual fossil energy sources 1974 to 1979; estimated range of fossil fuel requirements for 1985; coal capacity available in 1985; and computation of fuel use in 1985. Power plant capacity factors are presented. Extensive data on proposed generating capacity changes by individual units in the 9 Regional Electric Reliability Councils are presented.

None

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

Cannon, T.J.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

192

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

193

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

11 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

194

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

195

Energy Management in Olefins Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the point where waste heat from pyrolysis generates more than enough steam to power the olefins unit recovery section. Furthermore, incorporating gas turbine driven electrical generators or process compressors adds to the utility export potential of the unit...

Wells, T. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water...

197

Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Learn about the Energy Department's commitment to develop and deploy clean, domestic power generation from hydropower, waves, and tides.

198

The role of the United States Water Resources Engineering Community in responding to the water related needs of the developing world  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 5 Structure of Research. ? II DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS. . . . . 2. 1 Defining Development. . 2. 2 Defining World Regions. 2. 3 Development Indicators . . 2. 4 The Process of Development. 20 34 IH THE ROLE OF WATER... Benefits. . 4. 3 The Interrelationship of Benefits. . 57 57 63 CHAPTER V U. S. INVOLVEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES??. 5. 1 Need For U. S. Involvement. . 5. 2 General Assistance 5. 3 Water Resources Sector. Page 66 66 71 VI CHANNELS...

Ormond, Timothy Paul

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

200

POST-REMEDIATION BIOMONITORING OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENT NEAR THE UNITED HECKATHORN SUPERFUND SITE, RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. Sediment analyses showed the presence of elevated DDT, dieldrin, PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.

Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

2000-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Probability distributions of hydraulic conductivity for the hydrogeologic units of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of geologic information such as lithology and rock properties is important to constrain conceptual and numerical hydrogeologic models. This geologic information is difficult to apply explicitly to numerical modeling and analyses because it tends to be qualitative rather than quantitative. This study uses a compilation of hydraulic-conductivity measurements to derive estimates of the probability distributions for several hydrogeologic units within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, a geologically and hydrologicaly complex region underlain by basin-fill sediments, volcanic, intrusive, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Probability distributions of hydraulic conductivity for general rock types have been studied previously; however, this study provides more detailed definition of hydrogeologic units based on lithostratigraphy, lithology, alteration, and fracturing and compares the probability distributions to the aquifer test data. Results suggest that these probability distributions can be used for studies involving, for example, numerical flow modeling, recharge, evapotranspiration, and rainfall runoff. These probability distributions can be used for such studies involving the hydrogeologic units in the region, as well as for similar rock types elsewhere. Within the study area, fracturing appears to have the greatest influence on the hydraulic conductivity of carbonate bedrock hydrogeologic units. Similar to earlier studies, we find that alteration and welding in the Tertiary volcanic rocks greatly influence conductivity. As alteration increases, hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease. Increasing degrees of welding appears to increase hydraulic conductivity because welding increases the brittleness of the volcanic rocks, thus increasing the amount of fracturing.

Belcher, W.R.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Elliott, P.E.

2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were dramatically lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. The lowest levels were found at the Richmond Inner Harbor Channel station (4.1 {micro}g/kg total DDT and 0.59 {micro}g/kg dieldrin, wet weight; mean of resident and transplant mussels). Mean chlorinated pesticide concentrations were highest at Lauritzen Canal/End (82 {micro}g/kg total DDT and 7.1 {micro}g/kg dieldrin, wet weight), followed by Lauritzen Canal/Mouth (22 {micro}/kg total DDT and 1.7 {micro}g/kg dieldrin, wet weight) and Santa Fe Channel/End (7.5 {micro}g/kg total DOT and 0.61 {micro}g/kg dieldrin, wet weight). These levels are 95% to 99% lower than those recorded by the California State Mussel Watch program prior to EPA's response actions. The levels of PCBs in mussel tissue were also reduced by 93% to 97% from preremediation levels. Surface sediment concentrations of dieldrin and DDT in November 1998 were highest in samples from the head or north end of Lauritzen Canal and progressively lower toward the mouth, or south end. Total DDT ranged from 130 ppm (dry weight) at the north end to 3 ppm at the south end. Dieldrin concentrations decreased from 3,270 ppb (dry weight) at the north end to 52 ppb at the south end. These results confirmed elevated pesticide concentrations in sediments collected from Lauritzen Channel by Anderson et al. (1999). The pesticide concentrations were lower than maximum concentrations found in the 1993 Remedial Investigation but comparable to the median levels measured before remediation was completed. Sediment analyses also showed the presence of elevated PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.

LD Antrim; NP Kohn

2000-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

205

Evaluation of cracking in feedwater piping adjacent to the steam generators in Nine Pressurized Water Reactor Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking in ASTM A106-B and A106-C feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to the steam generators in a number of pressurized water reactor plants. We received sections with cracks from nine of the plants with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Variations were observed in piping surface irregularities, corrosion-product, pit, and crack morphology, surface elmental and crystal structure analyses, and steel microstructures and mechanical properties. However, with but two exceptions, namely, arrest bands and major surface irregularities, we were unable to relate the extent of cracking to any of these factors. Tensile and fracture toughness (J/sub Ic/ and tearing modulus) properties were measured over a range of temperatures and strain rates. No unusual properties or microstructures were observed that could be related to the cracking problem. All crack surfaces contained thick oxide deposits and showed evidence of cyclic events in the form of arrest bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fatigue striations on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces from one plant and possibly from three others. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a value of ..delta..sigma = 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses. Although surface irregularities and corrosion pits were sources for crack initiation and corrosion may have contributed to crack propagation, it is proposed that the overriding factor in the cracking problem is the presence of unforeseen cyclic loads.

Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.; Scott, R.G.

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

206

Correlation between water-vapor transport from the Gulf of Mexico and precipitation in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation inland, are very much appreciated. There is little doubt that the Gulf has a great influence on the amount and character of precipit. tion that does occur in the eastern United States, i. e. , the area generally east of the Rocky Mountains... moisture flux. Cobb found that precipitation which is signif icantly greater than normal did not occur when the flux of moisture was unusually small, and that a large moisture flux does not result in abnormally high precipitation if it is associated...

Wright, John Vinson

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Water, chloroform, acetonitrile, and atrazine adsorption to the amorphous silica surface studied by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water, chloroform, acetonitrile, and atrazine adsorption to the amorphous silica surface studied the air­silica interface before, during, and after adsorption of water, chloroform, acetonitrile the compounds. Adsorption of chloro- form and acetonitrile was weaker compared to water. Binding to the surface

209

"Table HC4.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World9, 2014 International PetroleumFuel Oil8Status2.94.984348 Water

210

Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate Change Projections on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States.I. Climate change scenarios and impacts on irrigation water supply simulated with the HUMUS model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes methodology and results of a study by researchers at PNNL contributing to the water sector study of the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change. The vulnerability of water resources in the conterminous U.S. to climate change in 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095--as projected by the HadCM2 general circulation model--was modeled with HUMUS (Hydrologic Unit Model of the U.S.). HUMUS consists of a GIS that provides data on soils, land use and climate to drive the hydrology model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The modeling was done at the scale of the 2101 8-digit USGS hydrologic unit areas (HUA). Results are aggregated to the 4-digit and 2-digit (Major Water Resource Region, MWRR) scales for various purposes. Daily records of temperature and precipitation for 1961-1990 provided the baseline climate. Water yields (WY)--sum of surface and subsurface runoff--increases from the baseline period over most of the U.S. in 2030 and 2095. In 2030, WY increases in the western US and decreases in the central and southeast regions. Notably, WY increases by 139 mm from baseline in the Pacific NW. Decreased WY is projected for the Lower Mississippi and Texas Gulf basins, driven by higher temperatures and reduced precipitation. The HadCM2 2095 scenario projects a climate significantly wetter than baseline, resulting in WY increases of 38%. WY increases are projected throughout the eastern U.S. WY also increases in the western U.S. Climate change also affects the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle. Early snowmelt is induced in western basins, leading to dramatically increased WYs in late winter and early spring. The simulations were run at current (365 ppm) and elevated (560 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to account for the potential impacts of the CO2-fertilization effect. The effects of climate change scenario were considerably greater than those due to elevated CO2 but the latter, overall, decreased losses and augmented increases in water yield.

Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Thomson, Allison M.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Nanomaterial Composites for Next Generation Water Filters: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-197  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under this CRADA, the Parties will produce and test a composite filter element that will remove particles, bacteria and viruses to produce safe drinking water.

Ginley, D.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane processes such as microfil- tration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis con. Such a water movement does not require external energy input like that in reverse osmosis; thus, FO is a low Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic microbial fuel cell Wastewater treatment Water flux Draw solution a b

213

Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill concentration distribution of toxicant in a cell test chamber, (2) an electroosmotic (EO) pump chip

Le Roy, Robert J.

214

Effect on the condition of the metal in A K-300-3.5 turbine owing to multicycle fatigue from participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect on the condition of the rotor material owing to multicycle fatigue caused by variable stresses during participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation is evaluated using the K-300-23.5 steam turbine as an example. It is shown that during normalized primary frequency regulation the safety factor is at least 50, while during automatic secondary regulation of frequency and power there is essentially no damage to the metal.

Lebedeva, A. I.; Zorchenko, N. V.; Prudnikov, A. A.

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

Douglas G. Hall

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

217

The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

Haemapun, C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

United States Environmental Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risksUnited States Environmental Protection Agency Hydrogeologic Framework, Ground-Water Geochemistry

219

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than...

220

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

222

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

223

CONVERT 15 WELLS TO BORS PUMPING UNITS AND TEST/COMPARE TO CONVENTIONAL UNITS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of fluid lifting equipment called Balanced Oil Recovery System (trade named BORS Lift{trademark}) was installed on several idle oil wells to demonstrate the operating efficiency of this innovative equipment technology. The BORS Lift system is designed to bring oil to the surface without the accompanying formation water. The BORS Lift system uses an innovative strap mechanism that takes oil from the top of the downhole oilwater column and lifts it to the surface, eliminating production of the formation water. Eliminating salt water production could potentially increase oil production, reduce operational costs, benefit the environment, and cut salt water disposal costs. Although the BORS Lift units did not function as intended, lessons learned during the course of the field demonstration project resulted in improvements in the technology and redesign of subsequent generation BORS Lift units which are reported to have significantly improved their performance characteristics. BORS Lift units were installed on 15 temporarily abandoned wells which had been shut down due to low oil production, high water production, and uneconomic operating conditions. The wells had been producing with artificial lift at a high watercut from a shallow (850-900 feet), pressure depleted oil sand reservoir prior to being shut down. The electrical motor driven BORS Lift units provided a possible approach for economically returning the shallow, low-volume oil wells to production. The BORS Lift units used in this field demonstration were designed to recover up to roughly 22 barrels of fluid per day from depths ranging to 1,700 feet, ideal for many marginal stripper well operations. The BORS units were first-production-model test units, operated under oil field conditions for the first time, and were naturally expected to experience some design problems. From the onset, the operator experienced mechanical, design, and operational problems with the BORS Lift units and was unable to maintain un-interrupted production operations. The inventor provided considerable on-site technical support in an ongoing effort to correct the problems with the units and the inventor worked extensively with the operator to make design and manufacturing changes to the units to try to improve their reliability and performance. The operational problems were mostly related to the durability of the various components under oil field operating conditions such as inadequate mechanical, electrical, and electronic design for rough service, extended operation, and severe weather conditions. During the course of the demonstration project, it further appeared that the producing formation lacked sufficient reservoir energy and/or favorable oil properties to mobilize and displace oil from the formation into the well bore in order to recharge the oil column in the well. The BORS Lift units were then moved to a second lease which appeared to have more favorable WTI quality oil properties. Eight of these units were reported to have been installed and placed in operation on the second lease, however, operational difficulties continued. It was determined that the units were inadequately designed and would need to be replace by improved second generation units. Due to the lack of success with the first generation units and the extra cost to replace them with the redesigned units, the operators decided not to continue with the project and the project was terminated at that point.

Walter B. North

2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

224

3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it is essential to find a cost-effective and clean method for mass production of hydrogen.6 Techniques for directly con- verting water to hydrogen using solar energy, known as photo- electrolysis, are receiving dimensional branched ZnO/Si heterojunction nanowire array by a two-step, wafer-scale, low-cost, solution

Wang, Deli

225

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power plants, water withdrawals for electricity generationelectricity generation in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric power plantsplant with CCS technologies requires roughly 1,000 gallons of water for every megawatt-hour of electricity generation (

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

227

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrates beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60C, 80C, and 95C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80C and ~95C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

228

According to the United Nations, universities have a vital role to play in shaping the way in which future generations cope with the complexi-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are key in relation to sustainability in order to decide whether specific initiatives, for example energy future generations cope with the complexi- ties of sustainable development. Aarhus University's BSc programme in Economics and Business Administration ­ Sustainability combines classic business administration

229

Response of the water balance to climate change in the United States over the 20th and 21st centuries: Results from the VEMAP Phase 2 model intercomparisons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution: The role of the water balance, Am. Nat. , 135,NPP): The importance of water avail- ability, Global Change1982a), Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-

Gordon, W. S; Famiglietti, J. S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hydordesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using hydrogen generated in situ by the water-gas shift reaction in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is presented in Figure 3. The reactor used was a 63. 5 cm long, L91 cm O. D. stainless steel seamless tube placed vertically in a 45. 72 cm deep (10. 23 cm LD. ) bath filled with a molten eutectic salt. The reactor tube had an inside diameter of 1. 575 cm... simultaneously with a tube wrapped in heating tape prior to entering the reactor at the top. The gas feed was passed through a coil submerged in the molten salt bath and then introduced to the hydrocarbon and water feed upstream of the reactor entrance. Both...

Hook, Bruce David

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water power technologies harness energy from rivers and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses, and can help the United States meet its pressing energy, environmental, and economic challenges. Water power technologies; fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower uses dams or impoundments to store river water in a reservoir. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients.

Not Available

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unit*year) Heavy Metals to Water Heavy Metals to Water mg NiMatter Emissions (Water) Heavy Metals mg Hg/20 /unit*yearMatter Mg/year Emissions (Water) Heavy Metals Gg Hg/20 /year

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

An Assessment of Use, Need for, and Capacity to Integrate Climate Information Among Water Managers in Southeastern United States and the ACF Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Assessment of Use, Need for, and Capacity to Integrate Climate Information Among Water Managers-year droughts, floods, and associated water management decisions have long concerned water managers in Western states. Similar concerns are now facing water managers in Southeastern states, including those in Georgia

Miami, University of

234

Redox cycle stability of mixed oxides used for hydrogen generation in the cyclic water gas shift process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with CaO, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in cyclic water gas shift reactor. For the first time stability of such oxides were tested for 100 redox cycles. Optimally added oxides significantly improved the activity and the stability of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Increased stability was attributed to the impediment of neck formation. - Abstract: Repeated cycles of the reduction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with reductive gas, e.g. hydrogen and subsequent oxidation of the reduced iron material with water vapor can be harnessed as a process for the production of pure hydrogen. The redox behavior of iron oxide modified with various amounts of SiO{sub 2}, CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in the present study. The total amount of the additional metal oxides was always below 15 wt%. The samples were prepared by co-precipitation using urea hydrolysis method. The influence of various metal oxides on the hydrogen production capacity and the material stability was studied in detail in terms of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis. Furthermore, the activity and the stability of the samples were tested in repeated reduction with diluted H{sub 2} and re-oxidation cycles with H{sub 2}O. The results indicate that combination of several oxides as promoter increases the stability of the iron oxide material by mitigating the sintering process. The positive influence of the oxides in stabilizing the iron oxide material is attributed to the impediment of neck formation responsible for sintering.

Datta, Pradyot, E-mail: pradyot.datta@gmail.com

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Year 4 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is fourth in a series of annual reports describing the results of biomonitoring following remediation of the United Heckathorn Superfund Site.

Kohn, Nancy P.; Kropp, Roy

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

236

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

Holinga IV, G.H.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A study of the future water requirements of the state of Texas and the projected plan to meet them as presented by the United States Study Commission - Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that my education could be continued. G. W. August, 1963 111 CONTENTS Page List of Tables List of Plates Chapter vi I. Introduction II. Water Resources I II. Water Requirements IV. The Water Development Plan 15 31 34 V. Views and Comments... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Sanuary, 1964 Major Subject Business Adzninistration A STUDY OF THE FUTURE WATER REQUIREMENTS. OF THE STATE OF TEXAS AND THE PROJECTED PLAN TO MEET...

Wortham, Gene Rye

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Kansas Nuclear Profile - Wolf Creek Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

April 2012" "Next Release Date: February 2013" "Wolf Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor...

239

Washington Nuclear Profile - Columbia Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Columbia Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

240

Illinois Nuclear Profile - Dresden Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dresden Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Illinois Nuclear Profile - Braidwood Generation Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Braidwood Generation Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

242

UNIT NUMBER:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

193 UNIT NUMBER: 197 UNIT NAME: CONCRETE RUBBLE PILE (30) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside plant security fence, north of the plant on Big Bayou Creek on private property....

243

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

time of use United States Postal Service v Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Invited paper in the Proceedings of the United Engineering Foundation Conference on Risk-Based Decision-Making in Water Resources IX, "20-Year Retrospective and Prospective of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Invited paper in the Proceedings of the United Engineering Foundation Conference on Risk- Based with information from other sources, in the form of a business case [Bowles 2000b] for proceeding with dam safety

Bowles, David S.

245

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Comparative Water Law and Management: The Yellow River Basin In Western China and the State of Kansas In the Western United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these canal systems ranges between 0.38 to 0.45 and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. 42 In other words, between 50-60% of Yellow River water is lost TRANSFER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION 32-38 (Yellow River Conservancy Press 2008) (P.R.C.) [hereinafter YRCC...-supply problems in the Basin and in Kansas. Part III surveys their respective water laws and water management and allocation programs, with particular attention to water rights transfers, to show how the Chinese and Kansas systems have sought to address...

Griggs, Burke W.; Peck, John C.; Yupeng, Xue

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Tsunami Information Sources: Part 4 (With a section on impulsively generated waves by a rapid mass movement, either submerged, or into a body of water)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation, Modeling, Risk and Mitigation, NATO Science Series, IV,Generation, Modeling, Risk and Mitigation, NATO Science Series, IV,Generation, Modeling, Risk and Mitigation, Istanbul, Turkey, May 23-26, 2001, NATO Science Series, IV,

Wiegel, Robert L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

were completed while Unit 1 was operating at 90% of full load (84MW) or greater. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria,...

250

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2003  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric PowerStocksSep-14Initial

251

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2004  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric PowerStocksSep-14Initial4"

252

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric

253

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric6" "Note: Descriptions of field

254

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2007  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric6" "Note: Descriptions of

255

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric6" "Note: Descriptions

256

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric6" "Note: Descriptions9"

257

Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric6" "Note:

258

EFFICIENT PARALLELIZATION OF STOCHASTIC SIMULATION ALGORITHM FOR CHEMICALLY REACTING SYSTEMS ON THE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REACTING SYSTEMS ON THE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT H. Li ? L.The current generation of graphics processing units (GPU) issystems on the low cost graphics processing unit (GPU)

Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry, universities, other federal agencies, and DOE's national laboratories to promote the development and deployment of technologies capable of generating environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity from the nation's water resources.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Power systems simulations of the western United States region.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

UNIT NUMBER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 UNIT NAME C-611 Underaround Diesel Tank REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Immediately southeast of C-611 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 1000 gallon FUNCTION: Diesel storage OPERATIONAL...

262

The challenges of a water system management handover in eastern Ethiopia : from the United Nations Refugee Agency to a local community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the height of a political crisis in the late 1980s, hundreds of thousands of Somali refugees crossed into eastern Ethiopia. A humanitarian crisis soon unfolded as water was in short supply in the arid region. In ...

Chung, Christophe (Christopher J.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

1.2 What pressure difference must be generated across the length of a 15 cm vertical drinking straw in order to drink a water-like liquid of density 1.0 g cm-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in order to drink a water-like liquid of density 1.0 g cm-3 ? 1.6 Charles' law is sometimes expressed1.2 What pressure difference must be generated across the length of a 15 cm vertical drinking straw

Findley, Gary L.

264

Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Next Generation Rooftop Unit | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32DepartmentWells |ofDepartment of EnergyEmerging

266

Efficiency United (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Efficiency United program is intended to provide assistance and incentives to customers who employ energy efficient measures. Programs offer rebates on natural gas water heaters, clothes...

267

Regional terrestrial water storage change and evapotranspiration from terrestrial and atmospheric water balance computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

like to thank Illinois State Water Survey for providing thecollected by the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) fromSurface water balance of the continental United States,

Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

United Power- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

United Power, in conjunction with wholesale power supplier Tri-State Generation and Transmission (TSGT), offers rebates for the installation of a variety of commercial energy efficient equipment...

269

Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion ...

Pacsi, Adam P

270

Biorefinery Grey Water Analysis | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

options for grey water generated from a biorefinery with fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating Wastewater treatment options for grey water generated from a biorefinery...

271

UNIT NUMBER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 UNIT NAME C-632-8 Sulfuric Acid Storaqe TaD REGULATORY STATUS CERCLA LOCATION Southwest of C-631 coolin location 76 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS 5000 Qal - FUNCTION Sulfuric acid...

272

UNIT NUMBER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 C-750B Diesel UST UNIT NAME REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Southeast corner of C-750 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 10,000 gallon FUNCTION: Diesel storage OPERATIONAL STATUS: Removed...

273

UNIT NUMBER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 UNIT NAME C-633 PCB So111 Site REGULATORY STATUS CERCLA LOCATION C-633 Transformer area (Mac location 75) APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS I Unknown FUNCTION Soill site OPERATIONAL STATUS...

274

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar panels not enough Generates heat energy Captures heat from generator and transfers it to water Stores Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

275

UNIT NUMBER:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10 feet wide by 30 feet long FUNCTION: Provide cooling water for computer systems and HVAC systems various plant buildings. OPERATIONAL STATUS: Active DATES OPERATED: 1953 to...

276

Water Loss Test Results for the Pipeline Units: I-19/I-18, I-7A, and I-22 Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................... ..9 Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................................... 13 List of Figures Figure 1. Photo of leaking pipeline control structure... I-19/I-18 52080 63653 58.4 71.3 SJ17 I-7A 50193 61347 56.2 68.7 J18 I-22 36490 44599 40.9 50.0 * Water loss rates given are based on an in-service use of 24 hours/day and 365 days/year. Figure 1 shows a leaking pipeline control structure...

Fipps, G.; Leigh, E.

277

Renewable Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

ransmission, rather than generation, is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T ransmission, rather than generation, is generally the con- straint preventing cus- tomers from to expand transmission capacity adequately: Over 40 years, the amount of electricity generated in the United customers, with a few ties to neighbors in case a generator went down. That system was never designed for

279

Total Petroleum Systems and Assessment Units (AU)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Surface water Groundwater X X X X X X X X AU 00000003 Oil/ Gas X X X X X X X X Total X X X X X X X Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Total undiscovered petroleum (MMBO or BCFG) Water per oil

Torgersen, Christian

280

Reorientation of the free OH group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called free O-H group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the free O-H group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the free O-H changes from about 35.3 degrees 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Photo of hydrogen beam generated from PV cell In this process, hydrogen is produced from water using...

282

Diophantine Generation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal

Shlapentokh, Alexandra

283

Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mulac, Anthony J. (Tijeras, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

UNIT NUMBER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

basement floor on stanchions. TCE from the C-720 degreaser was drained via aboveground piping to the C-720 compressor pit water storage tank (swmu 31), which i s located outside...

285

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Salem Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PSEG Salem Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

287

California Nuclear Profile - San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

288

New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

289

Illinois Nuclear Profile - LaSalle Generating Station  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

LaSalle Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

290

REQUEST BY WESTINGHOUSE POWER GENERATION, A FORMER DIVISION OF...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

position in the power generation field. It is the second largest commercial supplier of power generation gas turbines in the United States and the fourth single largest supplier...

291

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

Hart, M.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

Hart, M.M.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

Hart, Mark M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Development of enclosed life support system for underground rescue employing a photocatalytic metal oxide thin film to generate oxygen from water and reduce carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite major improvements in technology and safety regulations, coal mining continues to be a hazardous industry. Catastrophic accidents, related largely to underground explosions and generation of toxic gases, commonly ...

Trivedi, Meghna S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not necessarily be used to predict conditions at power plants in other areas (Bauereis 1975; Davies and Jensen 1975). Aquatic organisms drawn into the current of cooling water flowing towards the intake structure of a power plant are sus- ceptible... organisms are those that are located in the dilution water contributing to the turbulent mixing and cooling at the discharge from the power plant (Coutant 1974). Damage to intake-entrained organisms can be re- lated to the individual or synergistic...

Chase, Cathleen Louise

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

Milliwatt Generator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTGs. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTGs). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

Latimer, T.W.; Rinehart, G.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Thermoelectric generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator unit is described comprising: a hot side heat exchanger including a plate having extruded retention posts projecting from one surface of the plate, and fins adapted for contact with a heating source. The fins are positioned between two of the retention posts. Retention rods are inserted between the retention posts and the base of the fins to retain the fin in thermal contact with the plate surface upon insertion of the retention rod between the engaging surface of the post and the corresponding fin. Thermoelectric semi-conductor modules are in thermal contact with the opposite side of the hot side heat exchanger plate from the contact with the fins. The modules are arranged in a grid pattern so that heat flow is directed into each of the modules from the hot side heat exchanger. The modules are connected electrically so as to combine their electrical output; and a cold side heat exchanger is in thermal contact with the modules acting as a heat sink on the opposite side of the module from the hot side heat exchanger plate so as to produce a thermal gradient across the modules.

Shakun, W.; Bearden, J.H.; Henderson, D.R.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

United States  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy 1n n d d eAlan8 United

299

Improving water quality with a "territorial" agri-environmental policy? Insights from the new generation AES in South-West France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Improving water quality with a "territorial" agri-environmental policy? Insights from the new with the Local Agri-Environmental Schemes (LAES), the French contractual policy instrument within the European underlie the French agri-environmental policy, from a retrospective of the successive national schemes set

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

300

Ris Energy Report 4 Distributed generation 1 What is distributed generation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation (DG) refers to an emerging evolu- tion of the electric power generation systems, in which all electricity generation it is obviously understood as consisting of small size generation units only, but when referred to as large-scale electricity generation it is usually understood as containing a high proportion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Water watch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

1. Generation 1 1. Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Generation 1 _________________________________________________________________________ 1. Generation Sound and vibrations or, in more general terms, oscillations of matter (solids or fluids) are generated in many different dynamic processes. The basic mechanisms which underlie these oscillations

Berlin,Technische Universität

303

Projected freshwater withdrawals in the United States under a changing climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

withdrawals in the United States under a changing climate, Water Resour. Res., 49, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20076. 1. Introduction [2] Offstream water use in the United States increased over 10-fold during the twentieth century future water use in the United States assuming that water supply will be no less limiting to future

Ramírez, Jorge A.

304

Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tests with Outdoor Fan Coil Unit ............. ................. 2 1.2.1 Space and water heating ....................... ... ........ .......................... 10 4. Outdoor Fan Coil Unit Tests ...... ......... ......... . ........................ . 11 4

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

305

Sandia National Laboratories: Energy and Water Data Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

InterconnectsEnergy and Water Data Portal Energy and Water Data Portal Electric Power Generation and Water Use Data Electric Power Generation and Water Use Data The purpose of this...

306

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

307

Corrective Action Management Units and Temporary Units. RCRA Information Brief  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On February 16, 1993 the EPA published a final rule that allows either the EPA Regional Administrator or the authorized State to designate areas as corrective action management units (CAMUs) at hazardous waste management facilities for the specific purpose of managing remediation waste that has been generated as part of the facility`s corrective action activities. According to the rule, placement of remediation wastes into or within a CAMU does not constitute land disposal of hazardous waste and is not subject to RCRA land disposal restrictions. In addition, waste disposal units located within CAMUs are not required to be designed in accordance with RCRA minimum technological requirements applicable to land disposal units. This Information Brief explains the advantages of a CAMU designation, defines a Temporary Unit (TU) and explains the advantages of a TU designation. The process for initiating a CAMU or TU designation is described for DOE sites and interim status facilities.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Water-splitting using photocatalytic porphyrin-nanotube composite devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating hydrogen by photocatalytic decomposition of water using porphyrin nanotube composites. In some embodiments, both hydrogen and oxygen are generated by photocatalytic decomposition of water.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Zhongchun (Albuquerque, NM); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

309

Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Under Contract with the United States Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 #12;BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells December 27, 2000

310

Termination unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings...

312

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

313

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

315

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

Steam generator tube failures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Large-Scale in the United  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS, including 10% post consumer waste. #12;Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States ASSESSMENT Energy, Office of Wind and Water Power Technologies for their financial and technical support

318

United Nations A/67/L.75* General Assembly Distr.: Limited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and related fields Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize water resources, Appreciating the ongoing work of the organizations of the United Nations system

Cambridge, University of

319

Vadose zone water fluxmeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

Faybishenko, Boris A.

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

320

Shaft generator transmissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economical on-board power can be generated from two-stroke, low-speed engines by installing a multistage hollow-shaft gearbox on the propeller intermediate shaft to drive the generator. Gearbox manufacturer Asug, based in Dessau, Germany, has designed units specifically for this purpose. The Asug shaft generator drive concept for generator drives at the front end of the engine is designed to reduce installation costs and uses an integrated engine-gearbox foundation. The complete propulsion system, consisting of the diesel engine, gear with coupling and generator, can be completely or partially preassembled outside the ship`s engine room to reduce onboard assembly time. A separate foundation for this arrangement is not necessary. The company offers a full range of gearboxes to generate power from 500 kW up to 5000 kW. Gearboxes driven from the forward engine end often incorporate an additional gear stage to gain energy from an exhaust turbine. This arrangement feeds part of the exhaust energy back into the system to increase efficiency. Latest installations of Asug shaft generator gears are in container ships and cargo/container ships built in Turkey and China.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Second generation PFB for advanced power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) contract to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant-called an advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plant-offers the promise of 45-percent efficiency (HHV), with emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant. Although pilot plant testing is still underway, preliminary estimates indicate the commercial plant Will perform better than originally envisioned. Efficiencies greater than 46 percent are now being predicted.

Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Parallel Simulation for a Fish Schooling Model on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Hong LiThe current generation of graphics processing units is well-we will describe how a Graphics Pro- cessor Unit (GPU) can

Li, Hong; Kolpas, Allison; Petzold, Linda; Moehlis, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

United States Department of Correlation and Prediction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

United States Department of Correlation and Prediction Agriculture Forest Service of Snow Water L. Azuma #12;McGurk, Bruce J.; Azuma, David L. 1992. Correlation and prediction of snow water" and, by implication, prediction of wilderness snow data by nonwilderness sensors that are typically

Standiford, Richard B.

327

Abundance and distribution of macro-crustaceans in the intake and discharge areas before and during early operation of the Cedar Bayou Generating Station  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Discharge Areas Before and During Early Operation of the Cedar Bayou Generating Station. (May 1972) Monroe Schmidt, A. A. , Blinn College; B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Kirk Strawn Two trawl and 1 seine station in Tabbs Bay, 2 trawl... were collected twice monthly from May through October 1970. Genera- tion of electric power (and discharge of heated water) by Unit 1, a 750 MW steam-electric unit of the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station, began...

Schmidt, Monroe

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Distributed Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain...

329

Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

330

Optimizing with constraints: a case study in scheduling maintenance of electric power units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industry is that of optimally schedul­ ing preventative maintenance of power generating units within of the electric power industry: optimally scheduling preventative maintenance of power generating units within or two dozen power generating units which can be individually scheduled for preventive maintenance. Both

Dechter, Rina

331

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

David B. Burnett

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

332

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Compact neutron generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Design and Modeling of Infrastructure for Residential and Community Water Reuse.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Water scarcity and deteriorating water infrastructure are of growing concern in the United States. The conventional methods of treating and transporting potable water and wastewater (more)

Killion, Shannon M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Feasibility of rainwater harvesting for urban water management in Salt Lake City.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Water managers in the western United States are being challenged by rapid urban growth and limited water availability. The development of new water resources is (more)

Jensen, Mark A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Ice, Snow and Water: impacts of climate change on California and Himalayan Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Climate Change on Water, Biodiversity and LivelihoodsDallas 5. The United Nations World Water Development Report3 (2009) Water in a Changing World Unesco Publishing (

Fenner, R. A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

338

MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay heat of the fuel in the pool was, at the time of the accident, 2.284 MWt, of which 1.872 MWt were from the 548 assemblies of the last core discharged and 0.412 MWt were from the older 783 assemblies. These decay heat values were calculated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORIGEN2.2 code (Ref. 2) - they agree with values reported elsewhere (Ref. 3). The pool dimensions are 9.9 m x 12.2 m x 11.8 m (height), and with the water level at 11.5 m, the pool volume is 1389 m3, of which only 1240 m3 is water, as some volume is taken by the fuel and by the fuel racks. The initial water temperature of the SFP4 was assumed to be 301 K. The fuel racks are made of an aluminum alloy but are modeled in MELCOR with stainless steel and B4C. MELCOR calculations were completed for different initial water levels: 11.5 m (pool almost full, water is only 0.3 m below the top rim), 4.4577 m (top of the racks), 4.2 m, and 4.026 m (top of the active fuel). A calculation was also completed for a rapid loss of water due to a leak at the bottom of the pool, with the fuel rapidly uncovered and oxidized in air. Results of these calculations are shown in the enclosed Table I. The calculation with the initial water level at 11.5 m (full pool) takes 11 days for the water to boil down to the top of the fuel racks, 11.5 days for the fuel to be uncovered, 14.65 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen and 19 days for the pool to be completely dry. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.4577 m, takes 1.1 days to uncover the fuel and 4.17 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.02 m takes 3.63 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen this is exactly the time when the actual explosion occurred in Unit 4. Finally, fuel oxidation in air after the pool drained the water in 20 minutes, generates only 10 kg of hydrogen this is because very little steam is available and Zircaloy (Zr) oxidation with the oxygen of the air does not generate hydrogen. MELCOR calculated water levels and hydrogen generated in the SFP4 as a function of time for initial water le

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in...

340

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Not Asked (Apartments in Buildings" "With 5 or More Units)",19.1,4.4,3.7,6.2,4.7 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Not Asked (Apartments in Buildings" "With 5 or More Units)",19.1,9.6,5,2.2,1.5,0.8 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

342

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

343

United States Department of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, WI #12;2 International system of units (SI conversion factors) Conversion English unit factor SI unit acre 4,046 square meter (m2 ) board foot 0.002 cubic meter (m3 ) bushel (U

344

Biological pretreatment of produced water for reuse applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry represents a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced water is characterized by high levels of (more)

Kwon, Soondong, 1973-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Water Works! Water Resources Engineering and Turbine Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Works! Water Resources Engineering and Turbine Energy Facilitators: Dr. Jairo Hernandez. This energy can be used to generate electricity (dams and turbines), produce mechanical work (wells), as well

Barrash, Warren

346

Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.; Mulac, A.J.

1980-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Thermoelectric Generators 1. Thermoelectric generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Cold Hot I - -- - - - - -- Figure 1 Electron concentration in a thermoelectric material. #12;2 A large1 Thermoelectric Generators HoSung Lee 1. Thermoelectric generator 1.1 Basic Equations In 1821 on the direction of current and material [3]. This is called the Thomson effect (or Thomson heat). These three

Lee, Ho Sung

348

Iowa Water Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

influence water quality and restoration potential? How does stream channelization influence water quality of the United States. Human activities have altered stream hydrology that affects water quality. Stream-2010 Iowa Water Center research program is on stream dynamics affecting water quality. We are interested

349

Spatial Water Balance in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water availability is critical to the economy in the state of Texas. Numerous reservoirs and conveyance structures have been constructed across the State to meet the water supply needs of farmers, municipalities, industries, and power generating...

Reed, Seann; Maidment, David; Patoux, Jerome

350

MONITORING A TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA BLOOM IN LAKE BOURGET (FRANCE) AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR WATER QUALITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the turbidity of the water in treatment units providing drinking water. These central supplies obtain their lake of Feuillade et al. [3]. The samples were taken in the water treatment units, before (water intake in treatment unit) and at the end of the treatment steps (in water reaching the consumers). Intracellular

Jacquet, Stéphan

351

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

352

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

MHD Generating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL); Pierson, Edward S. (Chicago, IL); Schreiner, Felix (Mokena, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Reliability Evaluation of Electric Power Generation Systems with Solar Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional power generators are fueled by natural gas, steam, or water flow. These generators can respond to fluctuating load by varying the fuel input that is done by a valve control. Renewable power generators such as wind or solar, however...

Samadi, Saeed

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

356

Irrigation in California's Central Valley strengthens the southwestern U.S. water cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water resources management in the southwestern United States andStates, a better understanding of how irrigation impacts local-to- remote climate and waterUnited States, or more generally for accelerating the water

Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

David B. Burnett

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

358

Water Resource Management (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Water may be used in reasonable amounts for beneficial purposes, which are defined by the state of Indiana to include power generation and energy conversion. This section describes other...

359

Model Catalysis of Ammonia Synthesis ad Iron-Water Interfaces - ASum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Solid-GasInterfaces and Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Selected Anionclusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ammonia synthesis reaction has been studied using single crystal model catalysis combined with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. The adsorption of gases N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH{sub 2} ({approx}3325 cm{sup -1}) and NH ({approx}3235 cm{sup -1}) under high pressure of ammonia or equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products on Fe(111) surfaces. Special attention was paid to understand how potassium promotion of the iron catalyst affects the intermediates of ammonia synthesis. An Fe(111) surface promoted with 0.2 monolayers of potassium red shifts the vibrational frequencies of the reactive surface intermediates, NH and NH{sub 2}, providing evidence for weakened the nitrogen-hydrogen bonds relative to clean Fe(111). Spectral features of these surface intermediates persisted to higher temperatures for promoted iron surfaces than for clean Fe(111) surfaces implying that nitrogen-iron bonds are stronger for the promoted surface. The ratio of the NH to NH{sub 2} signal changed for promoted surfaces in the presence of equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products. The order of adding oxygen and potassium to promoted surfaces does not alter the spectra indicating that ammonia induces surface reconstruction of the catalyst to produce the same surface morphology. When oxygen is co-adsorbed with nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia or potassium on Fe(111), a relative phase shift of the spectra occurs as compared to the presence of adsorbates on clean iron surfaces. Water adsorption on iron was also probed using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. For both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, the only spectral feature was in the range of the free OH or free OD. From the absence of SFG spectra of ice-like structure we conclude that surface hydroxides are formed and no liquid water is present on the surface. Other than model catalysis, gas phase anion photoelectron spectroscopy of the Cl + H{sub 2} van der Waals well, silicon clusters, germanium clusters, aluminum oxide clusters and indium phosphide clusters were studied. The spectra help to map out the neutral potential energy surfaces of the clusters. For aluminum oxide, the structures of the anions and neutrals were explored and for silicon, germanium and indium phosphide the electronic structure of larger clusters was mapped out.

Ferguson, Michael James

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Microwave generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

GCFR steam generator conceptual design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Operational control and maintenance integrity of typical and atypical coil tube steam generating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coil tube steam generators are low water volume to boiler horsepower (bhp) rating, rapid steaming units which occupy substantially less space per boiler horsepower than equivalent conventional tire tube and water tube boilers. These units can be retrofitted into existing steam systems with relative ease and are more efficient than the generators they replace. During the early 1970's they became a popular choice for steam generation in commercial, institutional and light to medium industrial applications. Although these boiler designs do not require skilled or certified operators, an appreciation for a number of the operational conditions that result in lower unscheduled maintenance, increased reliability and availability cycles would be beneficial to facility owners, managers, and operators. Conditions which afford lower operating and maintenance costs will be discussed from a practical point of view. An overview of boiler design and operation is also included. Pitfalls are provided for operational and idle conditions. Water treatment application, as well as steam system operations not conducive to maintaining long term system integrity; with resolutions, will be addressed.

Beardwood, E.S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to followmolecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currentlycurrently available hydrogen production routes that can be

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The preliminary design of thermoelectric generation system using the fluid heat sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the preliminary design of a thermoelectric generation system using the fluid heat sources available as the waste heat of the phosphoric acid fuel cells. The thermoelectric generator consists of many thermoelectric generation units. For estimating the output performance of the thermoelectric generator, an equilibrium thermal circuit was derived from an analytic model of a thermoelectric generation unit. Based on the equivalent thermal circuit, the output performance at thermal equilibrium was calculated by iteration. In this paper, the output performance was estimated considering the cold side pumping power. The calculation was done by assuming a heat source temperature of about 450K on the hot side, about 310 K on the cold side, and 2,000kWth as heat exchange capacity. The electric power of the generator with a size of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.4 (h) m{sup 3} was found to be about 70 kW and its power density, about 1.5 kW/m{sup 2} excepting the pumping power on the cold water side.

Hori, Y.; Ito, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Accelerating the Fourier split operator method via graphics processing units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Current generations of graphics processing units have turned into highly parallel devices with general computing capabilities. Thus, graphics processing units may be utilized, for example, to solve time dependent partial differential equations by the Fourier split operator method. In this contribution, we demonstrate that graphics processing units are capable to calculate fast Fourier transforms much more efficiently than traditional central processing units. Thus, graphics processing units render efficient implementations of the Fourier split operator method possible. Performance gains of more than an order of magnitude as compared to implementations for traditional central processing units are reached in the solution of the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and the time dependent Dirac equation.

Heiko Bauke; Christoph H. Keitel

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

366

A REVIEW OF LIGHT-WATER REACTOR SAFETY STUDIES. VOLUME 3 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACTS OF FOSSIL-FUEL NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA Energy and Environment

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

368

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to declineeven with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energys Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administrations energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Programs plans.

McCarthy, Kathryn A. [INL; Busby, Jeremy [ORNL; Hallbert, Bruce [INL; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [INL; Smith, Curtis [INL; Barnard, Cathy [INL

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to declineeven with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energys Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administrations energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Programs plans.

Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,," Detached"," Attached"," 2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Televisions" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19.1,6.9 "Televisions" "Number of...

372

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in Buildings With" ,,,,"Detached",,"Attached",,"2 to 4 Units",,"5 or More Units",,"Mobile Homes" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" "Fuels Used and End Uses",,"Own","Rent","Own","Rent",...

373

The waters of Southeastern Wisconsin are vast but vulnerable. We depend on our waters for drinking water, irrigation, industry, transportation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The waters of Southeastern Wisconsin are vast but vulnerable. We depend on our waters for drinking for drinking water is rising in the United States and around the world due to population growth. At the same water, irrigation, industry, transportation, power production, recreation and scenic beauty

Saldin, Dilano

374

Water as Property Sandra B. Zellmer, Professor UNL College of Law and Jessica Harder, J.D., Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be characterized as property under the law raises considerable controversy. In the western United States, water that jurisdictions that recognize private property rights in water, as in the western United States, haveWater as Property Sandra B. Zellmer, Professor UNL College of Law and Jessica Harder, J.D., Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

375

Optimizing with constraints: a case study in scheduling maintenance of electric power units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is that of optimally schedul- ing preventative maintenance of power generating units within a power plant. We show how: optimally scheduling preventative maintenance of power generating units within a power plant. We de ne can be individually scheduled for preventive maintenance. Both the required duration of each unit

Dechter, Rina

376

Unit Testing Discussion C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unit Testing Discussion C #12;Unit Test public Method is smallest unit of code Input/output transformation Test if the method does what it claims Not exactly black box testing #12;Test if (actual result Expected Computed Input #12;Functionality Computation ­ Easy to test Time based Asynchronous interaction

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

377

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in Buildings" "With 5 or More Units)",19.1,4.4,1,0.5,0.5,3.4,2.4,0.6,0.5 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

378

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"With 5 or More Units)",19.1,2.3,16.8,"N","N","N","N","N","N",2.3,16.8,"N","N" "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

379

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in Buildings" "With 5 or More Units)",19.1,2,0.7,1.3,2.6,4.1,3.5,2.5,2.4 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

380

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"With 5 or More Units)",19.1,6.2,3.5,0.5,0.5,1.1,0.6,"Q",0.7,0.4,0.2,2,1.4,0.6 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Buildings" "With 5 or More Units)",19.1,4.7,0.9,0.4,0.3,"Q",0.6,0.4,"Q",3.8,2.9,0.9 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

382

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in Buildings" "With 5 or More Units)",19.1,3.7,2.7,0.9,0.6,0.3,0.9,1,0.2,0.6,0.2 "FoundationBasement of Single-Family" "Units and Apartments in Buildings With" "2 to 4 Units...

383

Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Natural Resources Commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in...

384

The effects of an intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality in Tamale, Ghana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include a target to halve the number of people without access to "improved" water sources, which include piped water supply. However, an "improved" source of water does not ...

Vacs Renwick, Deborah Alexandra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Green energy: The implementation and utilization of renewable energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Renewable energy has become a viable solution for the United States (US) increasing demand for energy. Often referred to as Green Energy, renewable energy uses the earth`s natural resources to create energy. The wind, sun, water, and the earth`s molten core each offer an attainable form of energy. Hydroelectricity uses running water, wind power uses high speed winds, solar panels collect solar energy as heat, and geothermal energy uses the earth`s molten core to heat water. The Department of Energy classifies Renewable Energy into the following sections: Geothermal Energy, Fuel from Biomass, and Solar Electric. Solar Electric is further subdivided into Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics (Solar Cells), Wind/Windmills, Ocean Thermal Electric and Hydropower/Hydroelectric Dams. Currently, renewable energy provides only 12% of the US electricity supply. Approximately 10% of this is supplied by hydroelectric sources, 1% of this is supplied by hydroelectric sources, 1% is supplied by biomass, and less than 1% is supplied by geothermal, wind and solar combined. Nationally, the generating capacity of renewable energy has increased slightly during the 1990`s. Renewable energy generation contributes to approximately 94 thousand Megawatts of electricity compared to approximately 682 thousand Megawatts of electricity generated from nonrenewables in the year 1996. The continued implementation and utilization of renewable energy in the US are dependent upon several variables. These variables include: the support from Federal and State governments, utility purchase requirements if utility deregulation is passed, and consumer education on the environmental benefits of renewable energy.

Murry, N.L. [Coastal Contractors and Engineers, Inc., West Berlin, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OITs Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the waste water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the waste water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

Boyd, Tonya

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Generation Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many local governments are using green power in their facilities and providing assistance to local businesses and residents to do the same. Green power is a subset of renewable energy that is produced with no GHG emissions, typically from solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, biomass, or low-impact small hydroelectric sources, includes three types of products: utility products (i.e., green power purchased from the utility through the electricity grid), renewable energy certificates (RECs), and on-site generation. Opportunities to purchase these products are increasing significantly, with annual green power market growth rates

Green Power

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

389

Horizontal Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulics at Various Steady-State Power Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional computer simulation and analyses of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics of the WWER 1000 nuclear power plant have been performed for 50% and 75% partial loads, 100% nominal load and 110% over-load. Presented results show water and steam mass flow rate vectors, steam void fraction spatial distribution, recirculation zones, swell level position, water mass inventory on the shell side, and other important thermal-hydraulic parameters. The simulations have been performed with the computer code 3D ANA, based on the 'two-fluid' model approach. Steam-water interface transport processes, as well as tube bundle flow resistance, energy transfer, and steam generation within tube bundles are modelled with {sup c}losure laws{sup .} Applied approach implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. The model is solved by the control volume procedure, which has been extended in order to take into account the 3D flow of liquid and gas phase. The methodology is validated by comparing numerical and experimental results of real steam generator operational conditions at various power levels of the WWER Novovoronezh, Unit 5. One-dimensional model of the horizontal steam generator has been built with the RELAP 5 standard code on the basis of the multidimensional two-phase flow structure obtained with the 3D ANA code. RELAP 5 and 3D ANA code results are compared, showing acceptable agreement. (authors)

Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

391

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

392

dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and is on the verge of a major water shortage. As vineyards consume more rural acre- age, competition for water irrigation. However, California uses the largest volume of water of any state in the nation resources is increasing, which has increased the pres- sure on California vintners to use water more

Hubbard, Susan

393

Economic and Financial Costs of Saving Water and Energy: Preliminary Analysis for Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2 (San Juan) Replacement of Pipeline Units I-7A, I-18, and I-22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2 (San Juan) Replacement of Pipeline Units I-7A, I-18, and I-22 Introduction This report documents the analysis conducted for a project anticipated to be proposed to the Border Environmental Cooperative Commission...). Installation Periods: It is anticipated that it will take one year after purchase and project initiation for each of the three new pipeline segments to be installed and fully implemented (Table 4). No loss of operations or otherwise adverse impacts...

Sturdivant, Allen W.; Rister, M. Edward; Lacewell, Ronald D.

394

Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation.

Wu, X.; Diak, G.R.; Hayden, C.M.; Young, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Has Restructuring Improved Operating Efficiency at U.S. Electricity Generating Plants?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in electricity generation, relative to IOU plants in stateselectricity generation sector restructuring in the United States on plant-plant over the year, measured by annual net megawatt-hours of electricity generation,

Fabrizio, Kira; Rose, Nancy; Wolfram, Catherine

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

H. R. 3113: an act providing for the coordinated operation of the Central Valley project and the State water project in California. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 25, 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The House Committee on Energy and Natural Resources rewrote the Bill coordinating operations of the Central Valley Project in California and the state water project, and limited the Secretary of the Interior to no more than 75% of the Central Valley Project's annual yield. The Bill specifies procedures for water delivery contracts and reimbursements. Title II deals with the preservation of the Suisin Marsh District; Title III with the reclamation of small projects; and Title IV with contract validation. The document contains both the original and the amended wording of H.R. 3113.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Response to ISRP Questions Generated from the May 16 17, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(a relatively high water year) and 2005 (an extreme low water year) measured at the United States for both years along with both the UBP target flows for each month and the Stored Water Release Guidelines time period (water years 1983-1992), Phase I only (water years 1993-1995), and post-Phase II (water

398

WHO OWNS "YOUR" WATER? RECLAIMING WATER AS A PUBLIC GOOD UNDER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to export water from its lakes and rivers to the United States if the US demanded it? This issue became so, and with foreign investment becoming a dominant part of water and wastewater management in many countries

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

399

Water: May be the Best Near-Term Benefit and Driver of a Robust Wind Energy Future (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water may be the most critical natural resource variable that affects the selection of generation options in the next decade. Extended drought in the western United States and more recently in the Southeast has moved water management and policy to the forefront of the energy options discussions. Recent climate change studies indicate that rising ambient temperatures could increase evapotranspiration by more than 25% to 30% in large regions of the country. Increasing demand for electricity, and especially from homegrown sources, inevitably will increase our thermal fleet, which consumes 400 to 700 gal/MWh for cooling. Recovering the vast oil shale resources in the West (one of the energy options discussed) is water intensive and threatens scarce water supplies. Irrigation for the growing corn ethanol industry requires 1,000 to 2,000 gallons of water for 1 gallon of production. Municipalities continue to grow and drive water demands and emerging constrained market prices upward. As illustrated by the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 analysis, wind offers an important mitigation opportunity: a 4-trillion-gallon water savings. This poster highlights the emerging constrained water situation in the United States and presents the case for wind energy as one of the very few means to ameliorate the emerging water wars in various U.S. regions.

Flowers, L.; Reategui, S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Unit selection in a concatenative speech synthesis system using a large speech database  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One approach to the generation of natural-sounding synthesized speech waveforms is to select and concatenate units from a large speech database. Units (in the current work, phonemes) are selected to produce a natural realisation of a target phoneme...

Hunt, Andrew; Black, Alan W

403

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator F7 Flight Unit Acceptance Buy Off  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These are viewgraphs from the subject presentation. The LMMS E-7 history is outlined; Qualification and use of the F-7 GPHS-RTG for the Cassini mission; and the F-7 acceptance test program and performance are described.

none,

1997-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION POWER UNITS AT MARGINAL OIL WELL SITES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CEC approved funding on April 9, 2003 for $1,000,000.00 instead of the $1,500,000.00 COPE requested for the project. A kickoff meeting with the California Energy Commission (CEC) was held on Monday, April 14, 2003, in their Sacramento, CA offices. Mark Carl, IOGCC project manager for the DOE grant, attended this meeting, along with Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu, Mike Merlo and CEC officials. The change in funding by the CEC required a modification in the scope of work and an amended form DOE F 4600.1. The modifications were completed and the IOGCC received approval to commence work on the project on May 9, 2003. On May 29, 2003, Virginia Weyland with DOE/NETL, Mark Carl with IOGCC, and Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu and Mike Merlo, consultants with COPE, participated in a teleconference kick-off meeting. During May, 2003, COPE canvassed its membership for potential locations for the four test sites. They received a very good response and have identified at least two potential sites for each of the four test sites. COPE has been obtaining gas samples from the various potential lease sites for analyses to verify the chemical properties analyses which the oil and gas producers provided during the initial contact period. The St. James project located at 814 W. 23 rd Street in Los Angeles, California, was selected as the first test site for the project. A Project Advisory Committee (PAC) was established in May, 2003. The following representatives from each of the following areas of expertise comprise the PAC membership. Acquisition of permits for the initial test site has required drawn out negotiations with CEC which has hindered progress on the technical aspects of the project. The technical aspects will begin aggressively beginning in October, 2003. The Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) donated three Capstone micro-turbines to the project. These micro-turbines will be utilized at the St. James Project site located in Los Angeles, California. This site will fulfill the requirements of the medium BTU test site. It is anticipated that start-up of operations will begin during late December, 2003 or early January, 2004.

Mark A. Carl

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Large Steam Generating Units for the Combustion of Refuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Many by-products of our economy are considered ""waste"" and are disposed of as landfill or by incineration. A shortage of landfill sites and increasingly higher fuel prices have stimulated interests in the conversion of burnable waste products...

Adams, P. J.; Robinson, C. C.

406

Large Steam Generating Units for the Combustion of Refuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many by-products of our economy are considered 'waste' and are disposed of as landfill or by incineration. A shortage of landfill sites and increasingly higher fuel prices have stimulated interests in the conversion of burnable waste products...

Adams, P. J.; Robinson, C. C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Next Generation Rooftop Unit - 2013 Peer Review | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment of Energy Advanced Framing - Building AmericaWinnersRooftop

408

Property:NbrGeneratingUnits | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County,ContAddr2 Jump

409

Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

410

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Fuels Used and End Uses in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

411

United States Department of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Ashland, OR 97520 and Gwyneth Myer, Consultant, 220 W. Rapp Rd. Unit 3, Talent, OR 97540. #12;2 THE FIRE

412

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census...

413

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census...

414

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

415

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

416

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Air Conditioning in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific Census...

417

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census Division",,,"Middle...

418

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

419

" Million Housing Units, Final"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Air Conditioning in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

420

Transmission Business Unit Manager  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

(See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Region Transmission Services, (J7300) Transmission Busiess Unit 615...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Hardness of water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project is helpful to those people who live in the coastal based and they are suffering every year with problem of safe drinking water and not available throughout the year. It has given ideas, technology and economical way of solution for water crisis and its also solving problem of scare by use of different methods to development evelopment new water source in water scare area of Saurashtra and Kutch in Gujarat. Saurashtra land is containing of different types of minerals specially bauxite, calcite, fluoride so many mineral based industries are developed here and those who continuous nuous need this as raw materials and they used many mines and processes units. These minerals are creating problem to polluted ground water some are melting and increasing TDS more than 6000 mg/l and

Rahul Oza

422

A REVIEW OF LIGHT-WATER REACTOR SAFETY STUDIES. VOLUME 3 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charges Relating to Nuclear Reactor Safety," 1976, availablestudies of light-water nuclear reactor safety, emphasizingstudies of overall nuclear reactor safety have been

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Renewable Electricity Generation Success Stories | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Read more water success stories Wind February 18, 2015 Mapping the Frontier of New Wind Power Potential June 17, 2014 Enhanced Efficiency of Wind-Diesel Power Generation in...

424

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEELs drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Surveys Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agencys Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEELs Source Water Assessment. Of the INEELs 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEELs public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

426

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

rom the beginning of time, the power of water has captured the human imagination and influenced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an essential water-supply reservoir for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation,81 and municipal demands

428

Smart Schools: Water Use Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Occupan cy (ppl/unit) Landscap ing Area Single-Family Residence 1 2.5 830 ft2 Multifamily Complex 540 3.5 #12;Baseline water use and zero-net water use goals UC Davis West Village Case Study Site Site Area.065 Multifamily Complex 20 acres 9.24 51.9 Overall Community 220 acres 102.1 154.3 #12;Indoor water use duration

California at Davis, University of

429

Reduced Spill at Hydropower Dams: Opportunities for More Generation and Increased Fish Population  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report indicates that reduction of managed spill at hydropower dams can speed implementation of technologies for fish protection and achieve economic goals. Spill of water over spillways is managed in the Columbia River basin to assist downstream-migrating juvenile salmon, and is generally believed to be the most similar to natural migration, benign and effective passage route; other routes include turbines, intake screens with bypasses, and surface bypasses. However, this belief may be misguided, because spill is becoming recognized as less than natural, with deep intakes below normal migration depths, and likely causing physical damages from severe shear on spillways, high turbulence in tail waters, and collisions with baffle blocks that lead to disorientation and predation. Some spillways induce mortalities comparable to turbines. Spill is expensive in lost generation, and controversial. Fish-passage research is leading to more fish-friendly turbines, screens and bypasses that are more effective and less damaging, and surface bypasses that offer passage of more fish per unit water volume than does spill (leaving more water for generation). Analyses by independent economists demonstrated that goals of increased fish survival over the long term and net gain to the economy can be obtained by selectively reducing spill and diverting some of the income from added power generation to research, development, and installation of fish-passage technologies. Such a plan would selectively reduce spill when and where least damaging to fish, increase electricity generation using the water not spilled and use innovative financing to direct monetary gains to improving fish passage.

Coutant, Charles C [ORNL; Mann, Roger [RMecon, Davis, California; Sale, Michael J [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Associative list processing unit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

431

United States Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency United · What you can do to protect your family · Where to go for more information Before renting or buying Family from Lead Hazards If you think your home has lead-based paint: · Don't try to remove lead

Loudon, Catherine

432

United States Department of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment Thomas M. Quigley, Editor U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research, and Andy Wilson. Thomas M. Quigley Editor United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service United Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 120 p. (Quigley, Thomas M., ed.; Interior Columbia Basin

Brown, Gregory G.

433

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Generating Revenue for Generating Green Electricity: Evidence from Laboratory Experiments on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Programs The first generation of green electricity programs were established over the last fifteen years generation. As of 2009, 860 such programs were operating in the United States (Bird and Sumner, 2010 per kilowatt-hour and decides the fraction of monthly electricity consumption to which the premium

Edwards, Paul N.

435

Introduction Minimal generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Minimal generation Random generation Minimal and probabilistic generation of finite generation of finite groups #12;Introduction Minimal generation Random generation Some motivation Let x1 random elements of G = x1, . . . , xk . (G is the group generated by x1, . . . , xk : all possible

St Andrews, University of

436

Combined desalination and power generation using solar energy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Integrated desalination and power generation using solar energy is a prospective way to help solve the twin challenges of energy and fresh water shortage, while (more)

Zhao, Y

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Are water simulation models consistent with steady-state and ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy experiments?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Are water simulation models consistent with steady-state and ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy, United States b Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States Received

Fayer, Michael D.

439

Water protection in coke-plant design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The United States' Biofuel Policies and Compliance Water Impacts of Biofuel Extend Beyond Irrigation." for assessing sustainable biofuel production."

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 23, 2011 ... managing water resources for hydroelectric power generation. SWE over ..... of the surrogate is very low and testing in a parallel environment is.

Alarie et al.

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

443

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2003  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The FormVehicles3" "Note:

444

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2004  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The FormVehicles3"

445

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The FormVehicles3"5"

446

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The

447

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2007  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note: Descriptions of

448

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note: Descriptions

449

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note:

450

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note:10"

451

Generating Unit Additions in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric PowerStocksSep-14Initial Month of

452

Generating Unit Additions in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric PowerStocksSep-14Initial Month

453

Wyoming Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the United States Geological Survey, State Water Resources Research Institute Program allowed the Wyoming and Natural Resources, and at Wyoming State Water Plan meetings. We attended conferences hosted by the WyomingWyoming Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction Research Program

454

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Water Channel Blockers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/AQP2/AQP4, whereas the water permeability of AQP3 and AQP5, which lack a corresponding TyrQuaternary Ammonium Compounds as Water Channel Blockers SPECIFICITY, POTENCY, AND SITE OF ACTION, West Mains Road, EH9 3JJ Scotland, United Kingdom Excessive water uptake through Aquaporins (AQP) can

de Groot, Bert

455

Mobile inspection and repackaging unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Storage of large volumes of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated over the past 20 years at the Hanford Site has resulted in various waste management challenges. Presently, disposal capacity for RMW does not exist. Containers holding RMW will be stored until processing facilities can be completed to provide treatment and final disposal. Because of the complexity of these wastes, special projects have been initiated to properly manage them. This paper addresses one such project. The goal of this project is to develop a mobile inspection and repackaging unit (IRU) for solid RMW. The paper describes the structural design, equipment, ventilation system, instruments and electrical systems, video monitors and recorders, materials handling, and waste processing of containers.

Whitney, G.A.; Roberts, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States). Solid Waste Disposal Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

457

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry" "Fuels Used and End Uses",,"Cold",,"Hot-Dry","Hot-Humid...

458

" Million Housing Units, Preliminary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, By Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Preliminary" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)"...

459

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before...

460

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South"...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

" Million Housing Units, Final"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty...

462

Voltage verification unit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

464

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Air...

465

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

466

" Million Housing Units, Final"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less...

467

Associative list processing unit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

469

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

470

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Household Demographics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

471

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

472

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 3Housing units are classified as urban or rural using definitions created...

473

Name:______________________________________ _ Unit:___________________________________ Address:_ ___________________________________________________________________________  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Poultry Name:______________________________________ _ Unit_Project_Began:_ __________________________ _ Ended:_________________________________ (Check All That Apply) Type of Project: Type of Poultry Raised: _____ Raising and Rearing Poultry _____ Commercial Egg Chickens _____ Poultry and Egg Consumer Projects

Liskiewicz, Maciej

474

Miscellaneous reclamation legislation. Part 4. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on S. 1884, S. 1981, and S. 2643, September 20, 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Part 4 of the hearing record covers the first session of hearings on S. 1884, S. 1981, and S. 2643, which affect reclamation projects at Elephant Butte Irrigation District, projects covered by the Small Reclamation Projects Act of 1956, the San Luis Unit of the Central Valley Project in California, and other purposes. The text of each bill is inserted in the record along with the testimony of 13 witnesses representing water agencies, environmental groups, and the Department of Interior's Bureau of Reclamation. Senators from several affected states also made statements. At issue was the need to authorize additional funds for the projects because repayment funds are not credited to the program, making it necessary to raise the authorization ceiling. Witnesses noted the merits of the small projects program in promoting conservation by securing funding on the open market and encouraging local initiative. Critics objected to the piecemeal effect of this approach.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for 1985 Power Plant Type Electricity Generation (1015BTU)Electricity Generation and Capacity for Po'". :cr Plant Typeelectricity generation energy will form the major por- tion of water requirements Since coast, almost all the power for future plants

Sathaye, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Act, when high stream flows, wind generation, and insufficient load combine to endanger fish protected under Federal environmental law. Complainants challenge Bonneville's...

478

Unit hydrograph application to stormwater collection system design and analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

review of each model studied and its capabilities follows. Storm Water Management Model. ? The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the analysis of urban stormwater runoff... backwater analysis option uses the Direct Step Method to compute the water surface profiles in the storm sewer system. Two case studies with complex stormwater collection systems were modeled to verify and validate the hydrologic and hydraulic methods...

Spinks, Melvin Gerald

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Understanding and Managing Generation Y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are four generations in the workplace today; they consist of the Silent Generation, Baby Boom Generation, Generation X, and Generation Y. Generation Y, being the newest generation, is the least understood generation although marketers...

Wallace, Kevin

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

480

Best Buys and Unit Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This guide explains how to determine a unit price--the cost of an item based on a specific unit such as pound or ounce. Unit pricing can be used to identify foods that are the most economical....

Anding, Jenna

2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water generating units" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Beyond the Aquifer : planning for San Antonio's future water supply.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This report examines water supply planning issues in San Antonio, Texas. San Antonio is unique among large cities in the United States in that it