National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water gas btu

  1. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  2. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01

    -Btu (Lignite) Gas. (August 1979) James Richard Blacksmith, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Francis W. Holm An experimental investigation was conducted to deter- mine the dual-fuel performance characteristics of a one...- cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu gas, such as would be obtained from the underground gasification of lignite. Conventional diesel and dual-fuel engine performance tests were conducted with the engine coupled to a station- ary water...

  3. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  4. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodology forNYMEX FuturesWeek Of

  5. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  6. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  7. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in Nevada

  8. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week

  9. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3

  10. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week

  11. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 WeekDecade

  12. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month Week 1 Week 2

  13. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion Cubic Feet) Havre, MTCitygateYear Jan Feb

  14. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYearthrough2,290,489 2,249,187Week Of Mon Tue

  15. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYearthrough2,290,489 2,249,187Week Of Mon

  16. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYearthrough2,290,489 2,249,187Week Of MonWeek

  17. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYearthrough2,290,489 2,249,187Week Of

  18. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYearthrough2,290,489 2,249,187Week OfWeek Of

  19. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYearthrough2,290,489 2,249,187Week OfWeek

  20. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear JanThousand CubicHealth

  1. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear JanThousand CubicHealthYear-Month Week 1 Week

  2. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23 3.22 3.19

  3. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23 3.22 3.19Year

  4. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23 3.22

  5. Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Corsair

    2005-12-01

    High operating costs are a significant problem for independent operators throughout the U.S. Often, decisions to temporarily idle or abandon a well or lease are dictated by these cost considerations, which are often seen as unavoidable. Options for continuing operations on a marginal basis are limited, but must include non-conventional approaches to problem solving, such as the use of alternative sources of lease power, and scrupulous reduction of non-productive operating techniques and costs. The loss of access to marginal oil and gas productive reservoirs is of major concern to the DOE. The twin difficulties of high operating costs and low or marginal hydrocarbon production often force independent operators to temporarily or permanently abandon existing lease facilities, including producing wells. Producing well preservation, through continued economical operation of marginal wells, must be maintained. Reduced well and lease operating costs are expected to improve oil recovery of the Schaben field, in Ness County, Kansas, by several hundred thousands of barrels of oil. Appropriate technology demonstrated by American Warrior, allows the extension of producing well life and has application for many operators throughout the area.

  6. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  7. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  8. The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, William Russell

    1983-01-01

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... time when I was in need. Finally, the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station for support related to this research. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V1...

  9. Industrial co-generation through use of a medium BTU gas from biomass produced in a high throughput reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Ball, D.A.; Paisley, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A high-throughput gasification system has been developed for the steam gasification of woody biomass to produce a fuel gas with a heating value of 475 to 500 Btu/SCF without using oxygen. Recent developments have focused on the use of bark and sawdust as feedstocks in addition to wood chips and the testing of a new reactor concept, the so-called controlled turbulent zone (CTZ) reactor to increase gas production per unit of wood fed. Operating data from the original gasification system and the CTZ system are used to examine the preliminary economics of biomass gasification/gas turbine cogeneration systems. In addition, a ''generic'' pressurized oxygen-blown gasification system is evaluated. The economics of these gasification systems are compared with a conventional wood boiler/steam turbine cogeneration system.

  10. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Separation, Proved Reserves(Million Barrels) Reserves inBarrels, Except(BTU

  11. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  12. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  13. An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebeker, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    considerations including: coal vs. natural gas prices, economic life of the gas-consuming facility, quantity of gas required, need for desulfurization, location of gasifiers in relation to gas users, existence of coal unloading and storage facilities, etc. Two...

  14. Enabling Clean Consumption of Low Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than in gas turbines. Boilers have inherent fuel flexibility and a low cost. However, a gas turbine operating as a combined heat and power system or in a combined cycle with a...

  15. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion Cubic Feet) Havre, MT Natural Gas

  16. Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. FeetYear

  17. Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu.

  18. Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - Natural GasYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar

  19. Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - Natural GasYear JanYear Jan Feb

  20. Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas WellsFoot) Decade Year-0

  1. Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas WellsFoot) Decade

  2. Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+Elements) Gas6ProvedDecade Year-0

  3. ,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA -Annual",2014Proved Reserves, WetGas, WetAnnual",2014

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet per

  5. Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved Reserves (BillionFoot) Decade

  6. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved ReservesYearperDataGasolineFoot)

  7. Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion Cubic Feet) Havre,1Bureau of

  8. Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion Cubic Feet)Thousand Cubic

  9. Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion CubicOctober 2015 Estimates ofDecade

  10. Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion CubicOctoberper ThousandStrategic

  11. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillionReserves (Billion Cubic+

  12. Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillionReservesReservesFoot) Decade Year-0

  13. Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1

  14. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTIPeter Gross

  15. Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHNThousandU.S.Decade

  16. Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR:DecadeCubic Foot) Decade Year-0

  17. Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUMProved Reserves (BillionFoot) Decade

  18. Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY,Proved ReservesYear Jan Feb

  19. Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY,Proved ReservesYear Jan

  20. Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46ProductionCrude Oil +Year Jan

  1. Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46ProductionCrude Oil +Year

  2. California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona -ProductionWetReserves (BillionCubic

  3. California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona -ProductionWetReserves (BillionCubicCubic

  4. Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 ConsumptionYear Jan

  5. Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 ConsumptionYear JanCubic

  6. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992Thousand9) U.S.Decade

  7. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992Thousand9)

  8. Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (next release 2:00 p.m.,9,7,3,

  9. Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (next release 2:00 p.m.,9,7,3,Foot) Year

  10. Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (next releaseUnderground5,797 -4,282

  11. Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (next releaseUnderground5,797 -4,282Foot)

  12. New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNet WithdrawalsThousand Cubic

  13. New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNet WithdrawalsThousand CubicCubic

  14. New Jersey Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNetper Thousand Cubic Feet) Year

  15. New Jersey Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNetper Thousand Cubic Feet) YearCubic

  16. New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNetperProduction (BillionCubic Foot)

  17. New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNetperProduction (BillionCubic

  18. New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226UndergroundProductionProvedCrude

  19. New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226UndergroundProductionProvedCrudeFoot) Year

  20. North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6Year6-2015Cubic Foot)

  1. North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6Year6-2015Cubic

  2. North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Net+ LeaseCubic Foot) Decade

  3. North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Net+ LeaseCubic Foot)

  4. Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+ Lease Condensate ProvedFoot) Decade

  5. Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+ Lease Condensate ProvedFoot)

  6. Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+ LeaseWellhead PriceProvedExpectedFoot)

  7. Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+ LeaseWellhead

  8. Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+ LeaseWellhead%TexasCubicDecade Year-0

  9. Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3+ LeaseWellhead%TexasCubicDecade

  10. Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009 2010

  11. South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7, 2013Wind Industry: OnAsianCubic

  12. South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7, 2013WindperDecade Year-0

  13. Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUMProvedFeet) U.S.2 Alaska260

  14. Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUMProvedFeet) U.S.2 Alaska260Cubic

  15. Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved Reserves (Billionoff) ShaleCrude Oil

  16. Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved Reserves (Billionoff) ShaleCrude OilCubic

  17. Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved ReservesFoot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  18. Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved ReservesFoot) Decade Year-0 Year-1

  19. Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved ReservesFoot)Year

  20. Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved ReservesFoot)YearFoot) Year Jan Feb

  1. Tennessee Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1Plant Processing Definitions Keycontains contentDecade

  2. Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1PlantSeparation, Proved(Million(MillionReservesDecade

  3. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData FilesAdjustmentsOriginOriginReserves2009

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010 2011204,348Receipts (MillionYear Jan

  5. Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData20092009 2010Feet)2. Number+Foot) Decade

  6. Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData20092009Reserves Based38(Million2,856 2,764

  7. Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData20092009ReservesThousandFoot) Decade Year-0

  8. Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3December 9,to

  9. West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Year Jan FebBarrels)DecadeCubic

  10. Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2YearWestern States

  11. Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0 Year-1Expected Future Production

  12. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15,Gas9,7 Glossary G L O S S A2009Foot)

  13. Tennessee Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConference Tight Oil1 Soil Water

  14. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  15. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    heaters, or hot water supply boilers. Storage water heaterper gallon of stored water. 2 Hot water supply boiler meansa packaged boiler that has an input rating from 300,000 Btu/

  16. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    forty gallon residential gas-fired storage water heater wasthat could replace a gas-fired storage water heater with adefined a baseline gas-fired storage water heater that meets

  17. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  19. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and...

  1. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Water Heaters Appliance Gas storage water heaters Definitionto use for rating gas-fired storage and instantaneous waterefficiency for all gas-fired storage and instantaneous water

  2. First BTU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, searchSecurities CorporationBTU Jump

  3. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  5. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant...

  6. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  7. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    including delivered hot water and energy losses. Waterand 17% if hot water energy is included. INTRODUCTION Thedrawn, determines the hot water energy output. The current

  8. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

  9. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    B: Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1.no baffle present SCREEN G: WATER SUPPLY AND DRAW PIPEfor EIDs (sec) 0.0 9. Supply Water Temperature (F) 58.00 10.

  10. Production of low BTU gas from biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yung N.

    1981-01-01

    and transported with little difficulty. It was decided to use a fluidized bed reactor for the gasification. Fluidized bed reactors offer many advantages when utilized as a medium for gasifi- cation of solid fuels. Some of them are excellent mixing...6 (g) n m +CH8 (g) + Reactions (1) and (2) were reported to be rapid and proceed to completion. Jensen (1975) studied the gasifi- cation of coal with steam. A batch fluidized bed re- actor was used to alleviate the fusion problem usually...

  11. Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas...

  12. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

  13. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  14. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program was intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research was to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately characterizing the performance of SynCoal over a full range of operating conditions.

  15. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualifyboth a gas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study

  16. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  18. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic; Davy, C.A.; Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  19. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    water-gas-shift.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry...

  20. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  1. Optimization Models for Shale Gas Water Management Linlin Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization Models for Shale Gas Water Management Linlin Yang , Jeremy Manno and Ignacio E With the advancement in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, shale gas is predicted to provide 46% of the United States natural gas supply by 20351 . The number of wells drilled in the Marcellus shale play has

  2. Water's Journey Through the Shale Gas Drilling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Water's Journey Through the Shale Gas Drilling and Production Processes in the Mid-Atlantic Region: Marcellus shale drilling in progress, Beaver Run Reservoir, Westmoreland County. Credit: Robert Donnan. Gas in the Marcellus shale natural gas industry in the Mid-Atlantic region. Using publicly available information, we

  3. Bidimensional electronic spectroscopy on indole in gas phase and in water from first principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenov, A; Rivalta, I; Mukamel, S; Garavelli, M

    2014-01-01

    level. E (gas-phase) E (water) TDM (gas-phase) from GS L aindole in gas phase and in water from ?rst principles Arturdielectric constant of water ( Ľ 78:39) and for the areas of

  4. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems (both for domestic and pool heating uses) on their newly-constructed homes. Rebates of...

  5. Analysis of Water Flowback Data in Gas Shale Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldaif, Hussain

    2014-09-24

    Properties of both shale gas reservoirs and hydraulic fractures are usually estimated by analyzing hydrocarbon production data while water data is typically ignored. This study introduces a new method to estimate the effective fracture volume...

  6. A study of water driven oil encroachment into gas caps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritch, Harlan J

    1958-01-01

    A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS LIBRARY A S I COLLEGE OF TEXAS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH ~ ~ ~ Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  7. Water-Gas Samples At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Samples At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas Samples...

  8. Water-Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas Sampling At...

  9. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  10. Management of produced water in oil and gas operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Chirag V.

    2005-02-17

    Produced water handling has been an issue of concern for oil and gas producers as it is one of the major factors that cause abandonment of the producing well. The development of effective produced water management strategies poses a big challenge...

  11. Water in Alberta With Special Focus on the Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieg, Lisa

    ................................................................................................................................18 Shale Gas ................................................................................................................................................19 How much water is used in deep shale gas development?..................................................................20 Problems Associated with Hydraulic-Fracturing in Shale Gas Formations

  12. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, Raymond M. (McKeesport, PA)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  13. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this draft environmental impact statement that evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky. DOE cancelled this project after publication of the draft.

  14. Storage Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE| DepartmentHigh ImpactStopElectricGas

  15. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make-up water for successive fracs. RFW, however, contains dissolved salts, suspended sediment and oils that may interfere with fracking fluids and/or clog fractures. This would lead to impaired well productivity. The major technical constraints to recycling RFW involves: identification of its composition, determination of industry standards for make-up water, and development of techniques to treat RFW to acceptable levels. If large scale RFW recycling becomes feasible, the industry will realize lower transportation and disposal costs, environmental conflicts, and risks of interruption in well development schedules.

  16. Gas Drill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    .C. Wang, B.T. Lovell, Program, Summary Report TE4258-5-84, J. McCrank, "Topping of a Combined Gas DOE/ET/11292, Oct. 1984. and Steam Turbine Powerplant using a TAM Combustor," Thermo Electron [4J Final Report: "Thermionic Energy Report No. 4258... for each Btu fired in the burners has been cal culated with the process gas temperature as a variable. It was shown [2 ] that the maximum thermionic power produced is 18 kW per million Btu fired per hour. All com bustors are similar but progressively...

  17. Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of drinking water associated with shale- gas extraction. In active gas-extraction areas (one or more gas wells. groundwater organic-rich shale isotopes formation waters water chemistry Increases in natural-gas extraction of such extraction (6, 7) are public concerns about drinking-water contamination from drilling and hydraulic

  18. Spatial and Temporal Impacts on Water Consumption in Texas from Shale Gas Development and Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in water consumption if the increased natural gas production is used at natural gas combined cycle power water consumption in natural gas production have focused on quantifying the total water used4Spatial and Temporal Impacts on Water Consumption in Texas from Shale Gas Development and Use Adam

  19. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand Cubic Feet) DecadeThousand

  20. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in Arkansasthrough 1996) inthroughDecade

  1. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in Arkansasthrough 1996)Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  2. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in Arkansasthrough 1996)Year Jan Feb Mar

  3. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent) |

  4. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent) |monitoring. (Technical Report) | SciTech

  5. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-DoseOptions forHeavy-Duty WasteHelpingHenry C. Honeck,

  6. Gas block mechanism for water removal in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Issacci, Farrokh; Rehg, Timothy J.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention is directed to apparatus and method for cathode-side disposal of water in an electrochemical fuel cell. There is a cathode plate. Within a surface of the plate is a flow field comprised of interdigitated channels. During operation of the fuel cell, cathode gas flows by convection through a gas diffusion layer above the flow field. Positioned at points adjacent to the flow field are one or more porous gas block mediums that have pores sized such that water is sipped off to the outside of the flow field by capillary flow and cathode gas is blocked from flowing through the medium. On the other surface of the plate is a channel in fluid communication with each porous gas block mediums. The method for water disposal in a fuel cell comprises installing the cathode plate assemblies at the cathode sides of the stack of fuel cells and manifolding the single water channel of each of the cathode plate assemblies to the coolant flow that feeds coolant plates in the stack.

  7. Analysis of a duo-selecting membrane reactor for the water-gas shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    The water-gas shift reaction is an exothermic and reversible catalytic process that converts carbon monoxide and water (steam) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In regard to energy-related issues, the water-gas shift is part ...

  8. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  9. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  10. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  11. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  12. Produced Water Radioactivity Regulation Lax as Gas Wells' Tainted Water Hits Rivers, Ian Urbina, NYT, 2/26/11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Produced Water Radioactivity Regulation Lax as Gas Wells' Tainted Water Hits Rivers, Ian Urbina-rich drilling mud(?) Airborne (not water-dissolved) radon is responsible for the majority of the public exposure

  13. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  14. Performance of an integrated heat pump gas-fired water heater system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torab, H.; Sonntag, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    The unsatisfactory performance of the heat pump water heaters (air-to-water) in colder ambient temperatures is the main obstacle to the expansion of the residential market for this device. On the other hand, the price increase of natural gas in the 1980's encourages retrofitting or replacing the existing gas-fired water heaters. The present study examines the possibility of retrofitting the gas-fired water heater with a heat pump water heater. The result of the investigation on the thermodynamic and economic performance of a water heater system comprised of a heat pump water heater and a gas-fired water heater is presented in this paper.

  15. Spin states of para-water and ortho-water molecule in gas and liquid phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. K. Konyukhov

    2009-09-23

    Spin degrees of freedom of water molecule in gas and liquid state were investigated in order to provide a reasonable answer about the unsolved problem of a long-term behavior of water spin isomers. The approach used involves an assumption that molecules change their spin state from a pure state to a mixed one when they interact with some sorts of adsorbent surface. Some models and conceptions of the quantum information processing were used.

  16. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gostick, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers J. T.has a major impact on PEMFC performance. Liquid water

  17. Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 Jump to: navigation, search This is aAnnualGenGwhYr Jump to:CapacityBtuHr

  18. THEORY OF THREE-PHASE FLOW APPLIED TO WATER-ALTERNATING-GAS ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THEORY OF THREE-PHASE FLOW APPLIED TO WATER-ALTERNATING-GAS ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY D. MARCHESIN is the key to this improvement. 1. Introduction In secondary oil recovery, water or gas is injected in three-phase ow in a porous medium, we consider the idealized ow of water, oil, and gas

  19. The fate of residual treatment water in gas shale Terry Engelder a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelder, Terry

    The fate of residual treatment water in gas shale Terry Engelder a, , Lawrence M. Cathles b , L Marcellus Gas shale Osmosis-diffusion a b s t r a c t More than 2 Â 104 m3 of water containing additives is commonly injected into a typical horizontal well in gas shale to open fractures and allow gas recovery

  20. Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haugen, Sigurd Arild

    1980-01-01

    implicit model. The model is thoroughly tested for both coning and other problems, including both gas and oil. It was very stable, allowing a maximum saturation change per timestep as high as 10 per cent. The condition simulated was a well in the center... saturation chanqes are expected to be large, the porosity was set to 100 percent in the gas zone, and 1, 000, 300, and 100 percent in the cells outward from the wellbore in the water zone. This can be seen in Figure 3. These high porosi- ty values were...

  1. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  2. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  3. Isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2008-01-01

    of nonpolar solutes in water: Computer simulations using theof ionic species in liquid water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,noble gas isotope data. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2467-2483.

  4. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

  5. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergy Air-CooledEnergy Gas Water

  6. Gas-Liquid Coexistence in the Primitive Model for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Romano; P. Tartaglia; F. Sciortino

    2007-05-08

    We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda [J. Kolafa and I. Nezbeda, Mol. Phys. 61, 161 (1987)]. Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favored, as in the case of articles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. Differently from spherical potentials, we do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in an homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing.

  7. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling Results for 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site on June 20 and 21, 2012. This long-term monitoring of natural gas includes samples of produced water from gas production wells that are located near the site. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

  8. Private Water Well Testing in Areas Impacted by Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Private Water Well Testing in Areas Impacted by Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling (Updated May 10th in the absence of shale-gas drilling, well owners are strongly encouraged to evaluate their water on a regular testing in order to more specifically document potential impacts of Marcellus Shale gas development

  9. The construction and use of aquifer influence functions in determining original gas in place for water-drive gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gajdica, Ronald Joseph

    1986-01-01

    THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS IN DETERMINING ORIGINAL GAS IN PLACE FOR WATER-DRIVE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by RONALD JOSEPH GAJDICA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS IN DETERMINING ORIGINAL GAS IN PLACE FOR MATER-DRIVE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by RONALD JOSEPH...

  10. Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers by Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak Bachelor means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion State University) Abstract Liquid water management has a major impact on the performance and durability

  11. Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    LETTERS Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields Stuart M, dissolu- tion in formation water at a pH of 5­5.8 is the sole major sink for CO2. In two fields dissolved in water. Noble gas and CO2 carbon isotopes are powerful tracers of crustal fluid processes

  12. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  13. Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R bioaccumulation in localized areas of shale gas wastewater disposal. INTRODUCTION The safe disposal of large States, oil and gas wastewater is managed through recycling of the wastewater for shale gas operations

  14. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsEconomics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters inconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.

  15. New Advances in Shale Gas Reservoir Analysis Using Water Flowback Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkouh, Ahmad

    2014-04-04

    Shale gas reservoirs with multistage hydraulic fractures are commonly characterized by analyzing long-term gas production data, but water flowback data is usually not included in the analysis. However, this work shows there can be benefits...

  16. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

  17. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  18. Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry. Another option that needs to be considered for use in wet scrubbers is acidic electrolyzed water (AEW

  19. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  20. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  1. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  2. Induced Crystallization of Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complexes at the Gas-Water Interface D. Vaknin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vakni, David

    Induced Crystallization of Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complexes at the Gas-Water Interface D. The present study focuses on interfacial behavior; in particular, on the role played by the gas-water Sigma-Aldrich (2002 Sigma- Aldrich catalog numbers L-4509 and 40 901-4, respec- tively). PDAC at 2% (by

  3. Quantification and characterization of water coverage in PEMFC gas channels using simultaneous anode and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Quantification and characterization of water coverage in PEMFC gas channels using simultaneous by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) continue, Quantification and characterization of water coverage in PEMFC gas channels using simultaneous anode and cathode

  4. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  5. Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying 12, 2014 (received for review November 27, 2013) Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have and economic sustainability of shale-gas extraction. We analyzed 113 and 20 samples from drinking-water wells

  6. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to determine the most suitable type of gas for a water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection scheme, the WAG cycle time, and gas injection rate to increase oil production rate and recovery from the San Francisco field...

  7. The Role of Isotopes in Monitoring Water Quality Impacts Associated with Shale Gas Drilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    The Role of Isotopes in Monitoring Water Quality Impacts Associated with Shale Gas Drilling be the result of drilling activities, including shale gas drilling. Monitoring techniques exist for detecting discuss these techniques in more detail within the context of shale gas drilling activities in New York

  8. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O'Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  9. Noble Gas and Major Element Constraints on the Water Dynamics in an Alpine Floodplain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    Noble Gas and Major Element Constraints on the Water Dynamics in an Alpine Floodplain by Johannes di Blenio, Switzerland, was investigated using hydrochemical and 3H-3He dating methods. Water samples properties of the system to be consistently characterized. Two geochemically distinct water zones can be dis

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  11. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States Government or any agency thereof." Abstract Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas...

  12. A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

    2006-01-01

    energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters...

  13. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Dale Allard...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    put into service the Department of Veterans A airs' (VA) first operational biomass boiler plant, which saved 10 billion Btu of natural gas and more than 170,000 during the...

  14. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Dale Allard...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    put into service the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) first operational biomass boiler plant, which saved 10 billion Btu of natural gas and more than 170,000 during the...

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION COMBINED SPACE AND WATER HEATING SYSTEMS; COMBO SYSTEMS;...

  16. Low/medium Btu coal gasification assessment of central plant for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing, distributing, selling, and using fuel gas for industrial applications in Philadelphia. The primary driving force for the assessment is the fact that oil users are encountering rapidly escalating fuel costs, and are uncertain about the future availability of low sulfur fuel oil. The situation is also complicated by legislation aimed at reducing oil consumption and by difficulties in assuring a long term supply of natural gas. Early in the gasifier selection study it was decided that the level of risk associated with the gasification process sould be minimal. It was therefore determined that the process should be selected from those commercially proven. The following processes were considered: Lurgi, KT, Winkler, and Wellman-Galusha. From past experience and a knowledge of the characteristics of each gasifier, a list of advantages and disadvantages of each process was formulated. It was concluded that a medium Btu KT gas can be manufactured and distributed at a lower average price than the conservatively projected average price of No. 6 oil, provided that the plant is operated as a base load producer of gas. The methodology used is described, assumptions are detailed and recommendations are made. (LTN)

  17. Water-Gas Samples At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff &...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Water-Gas Samples At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Redirect page Jump to:...

  18. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  19. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  20. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  1. Effects of fluid properties and initial gas saturation on oil recovery by water flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Marion Denson

    1959-01-01

    EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D. ARNOLD Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1959 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D, ARNOLD Approved as to style and content by...

  2. The displacement of gas by oil in the presence of connate water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dardaganian, Stephen Garabed

    1957-01-01

    THE DISPLACEMENT OF GAS BY OII IN THE PRESENCE OF CONNATE WATER A THESIS Bqb STEPHEN & DARDAGANIAN ?I Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Aught~ i g 57 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE DISPLACEMENT QF GAS BY OII IN THE PRESENCE OF CONNATE WATER A THESIS BY STEPHEN G. DARDAGANIAN Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee Head...

  3. Simulating the Effect of Water on the Fracture System of Shale Gas Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamam, Hassan Hasan H.

    2011-10-21

    THE EFFECT OF WATER ON THE FRACTURE SYSTEM OF SHALE GAS WELLS A Thesis by HASSAN HASAN H. HAMAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SIMULATING THE EFFECT OF WATER ON THE FRACTURE SYSTEM OF SHALE GAS WELLS A Thesis by HASSAN HASAN H. HAMAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  4. June 2011 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-10-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analyses. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743. Produced water samples were not collected at locations 30-039-30161 and 30-039-21744 because of the lack of water. Samples were not collected from location 30-039-29988 because the well was shut-in.

  5. July 2010 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analysis. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. An additional water sample was collected from well 29-6 Water Hole for analysis of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743.

  6. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas for electrical shock. NOTIFY University Police. What should I do if I smell natural or propane gas? LEAVE/Repair line, 7-6333, or CALL the Campus University Police or Security at (561) 297-3500 or 911

  7. Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen cosmetic and food products (such as whipped cream) or in oil recovery processes. Depending on the a of oil droplets and gas bubbles and show that the oil can have two very different roles, either

  8. Water Transport Characteristics of Gas Diffusion Layer in a PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok S. Damle; J. Vernon Cole

    2008-11-01

    A presentation addressing the following: Water transport in PEM Fuel Cells - a DoE Project 1. Gas Diffusion Layer--Role and Characteristics 2. Capillary Pressure Determinations of GDL Media 3. Gas Permeability Measurements of GDL Media 4. Conclusions and Future Activities

  9. Water Withdrawals for Development of Marcellus Shale Gas in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    is the fracking fluid (also called drilling return wa- ter, drilling wastewater, flowback, or produced- ing (fracking), the portion of water withdrawals related to mining is likely to rise. The information

  10. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    and hot water supply boilers is ANSI Z21.10.3–1998. 67 Note the CFR references a specific year of ANSI.ANSI standards are updated every 5 years. The standard being

  11. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  12. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  13. The adsorption behavior of octafluoropropane at the water/gas interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebel, Friederike; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia Bieder, Steffen; Kiesel, Irena; Tolan, Metin

    2014-12-14

    We studied the adsorption behavior of the gas octafluoropropane at the water/gas interface as a function of different pressures. In a custom-made measurement cell, the gas pressure was varied in a range between 1 bar and close to the condensation pressure of octafluoropropane. The electron density profiles of the adsorption layers show that the layer thickness increases with pressure. The evolution of the layer electron density indicates that the bulk electron density is reached if a layer consisting of more than one monolayer of octafluoropropane is adsorbed on the water surface.

  14. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  15. Criteria for displacement by gas versus water in oil reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Larry Dean

    1981-01-01

    the problem. Croes and SchwarzIp stud1ed the eff1c1ency of water flooding and presented results show1ng effic1ency and water cut as a function of total production for a range of v1scosity rat1os between I and 500. They also used the1r results to compare... of the oil in place at various values of the displac1ng fluid-to-oil ratio (DFOR)* was used as the measure of displacement effic1ency. This procedure was used for two reasons. F1rst, economic limits may be established based on DFOR. Recovery at various...

  16. Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Production | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos/01/2012 Page 1Water PowerWater

  17. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  18. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass production between each soil were significant for Western Wheatgrass and Alfafla. The Sheridan sandy loam soil resulted in the highest production for western wheatgrass and alfalfa while the X-ranch sandy loam had the lowest production rate for both plants. Plant production levels resulting from untreated CBNG produced water were significantly higher compared to untreated conventional oil and gas produced water. However, few differences were found between water treatments. The biomass produced from the greenhouse study was analyzed for elemental composition and for forage value. Elemental composition indentified several interesting findings. Some of the biomass was characterized with seemly high boron and sodium levels. High levels of boron found in some of the biomass was unexpected and may indicate that alfalfa and western wheatgrass plants may have been impacted by either soil or irrigation water containing high boron levels. Plants irrigated with water treated using EDR technology appeared to contain higher levels of boron with increased levels of treatment. Forage evaluations were conducted using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The data collected show small differences, generally less than 10%, between produced water treatments including the no treatment and 100% treatment conditions for each plant species studied. The forage value of alfalfa and western wheatgrass did not show significant tendencies dependent on soil, the amount of produced water treatment, or treatment technology.

  19. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  20. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  1. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  2. Regional Variation in Water-Related Impacts of Shale Gas Development and Implications for Emerging International Plays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Regional Variation in Water-Related Impacts of Shale Gas Development and Implications for Emerging understanding of the unique regional issues that shale gas development poses. This manuscript highlights the variation in regional water issues associated with shale gas development in the U.S. and the approaches

  3. Questar Gas - Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary From: JuliaDepartment of Energy < Back Eligibility

  4. Albany Water Gas & Light Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendoMassachusetts:RenewableInc Jump& EnergyAlaskaGas

  5. Aalborg Universitet Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Aalborg Universitet Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil &, B. (2013). Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

  6. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  7. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.

  8. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectDataSecretary Moniz'sSeparation ProgramsFellowships |FractureWater Shale

  9. UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Coupled flow of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale (EARTH-15-CM1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Coupled flow of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale (EARTH-15-CM1) Host institution: University of Oxford Cartwright Project description: Recovery of natural gas from mudstone (shale) formations has triggered

  10. UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Environmental assessment of deep-water sponge fields in relation to oil and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Environmental assessment of deep-water sponge fields in relation to oil and gas activity: a west of Shetland case study industry and government identified sponge grounds in areas of interest to the oil and gas sector

  11. Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gakhar, Kush

    2012-02-14

    PRODUCTION FROM UNCONVENTIONAL GAS WELLS USING A NOVEL ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN POLYMER GEL SYSTEM A Thesis by KUSH GAKHAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2011 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System...

  12. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain contro- versial. We analyzed 91768 Edited by Susan E. Trumbore, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany, and approved fingerprinting | fracking | hydrology and ecology Unconventional sources of gas and oil are transforming energy

  13. Effect of connate water on miscible displacement of reservoir oil by flue gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, H. D.

    1960-01-01

    EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis By H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Au gus t, 19 60 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Approved as to style and content by: haxrman of ommitte...

  14. Interactions between liquid-water and gas-diffusion layers in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Prodip K.; Santamaria, Anthony D.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2015-06-11

    Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has been conducted to improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of fuel cell systems. However, the cost associated with the platinum (Pt) catalyst remains a barrier to their commercialization and PEFC durability standards have yet to be established. An effective path toward reducing PEFC cost is making the catalyst layers (CLs) thinner thus reducing expensive Pt content. The limit of thin CLs is high gas-transport resistance and the performance of these CLs is sensitive to the operating temperature due to their inherent lowmore »water uptake capacity, which results in higher sensitivity to liquid-water flooding and reduced durability. Therefore, reducing PEFC's cost by decreasing Pt content and improving PEFC's performance and durability by managing liquid-water are still challenging and open topics of research. An overlooked aspect nowadays of PEFC water management is the gas-diffusion layer (GDL). While it is known that GDL's properties can impact performance, typically it is not seen as a critical component. In this work, we present data showing the importance of GDLs in terms of water removal and management while also exploring the interactions between liquid-water and GDL surfaces. The critical interface of GDL and gas-flow-channel in the presence of liquid-water was examined through systematic studies of adhesion forces as a function of water-injection rate for various GDLs of varying thickness. GDL properties (breakthrough pressure and adhesion force) were measured experimentally under a host of test conditions. Specifically, the effects of GDL hydrophobic (PTFE) content, thickness, and water-injection rate were examined to identify trends that may be beneficial to the design of liquid-water management strategies and next-generation GDL materials for PEFCs.« less

  15. Tracing coalbed natural gas-coproduced water using stable isotopes of carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.; Frost, C.D. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

    2008-03-15

    Recovery of hydrocarbons commonly is associated with coproduction of water. This water may be put to beneficial use or may be reinjected into subsurface aquifers. In either case, it would be helpful to establish a fingerprint for that coproduced water so that it may be tracked following discharge on the surface or reintroduction to geologic reservoirs. This study explores the potential of using {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) - coproduced water as a fingerprint of its origin and to trace its fate once it is disposed on the surface. Our initial results for water samples coproduced with CBNG from the Powder River Basin show that this water has strongly positive {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) (12 parts per thousand to 22 parts per thousand) that is readily distinguished from the negative {delta}{sup 13}C of most surface and ground water (-8 parts per thousand to -11 parts per thousand). Furthermore, the DIC concentrations in coproduced water samples are also high (more than 100 mg C/L) compared to the 20 to 50 mg C/L in ambient surface and ground water of the region. The distinctively high {delta}{sup 13}C and DIC concentrations allow us to identify surface and ground water that have incorporated CBNG-coproduced water. Accordingly, we suggest that the {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) and DIC concentrations of water can be used for long-term monitoring of infiltration of CBNG-coproduced water into ground water and streams. Our results also show that the {delta} {sup 13}C (DIC) of CBNG-coproduced water from two different coal zones are distinct leading to the possibility of using {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) to distinguish water produced from different coal zones.

  16. Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    from of natural gas, power plants gas would be permitted toelectricity power plants in the oil- The 5980 MWe of gas-Power Plant Type Electricity Generation (1015BTU) Elcctrical Capac.ity (f\\1We) Coal Oil Conventional Cycle Combined Gas

  17. Experimentation and application of directional solvent extraction for desalination of seawater and shale gas 'frac' flowback water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinguetl, Kevin (Kevin G.)

    2011-01-01

    A recently demonstrated directional solvent technique for desalination of water has been tested for desalting seawater and shale gas 'frac' flowback water. The premise behind directional solvent extraction is that when ...

  18. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§

    2012-02-24

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ?375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?Sr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?Sr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  19. Performance of an industrial type combustor burning simulated fuels of medium BTU content 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goehring, Howard Lee

    1983-01-01

    I I ~ THEORETICAL CON SIDERAT IQN S Page v1 A. COMBUSTION CHAMBER OPERATING PRINCIPLES, . 4 B. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS C. AFFECT QF CHANGING ENGINE CONDITIONS ON COMBUSTOR PERFORMANCE D. HOW LOW BTU FUELS AFFECT COMBUSTOR PERFO RMAN C E... CHAPTER III . EXPERIMENTATION A. INTRODUCTION 15 20 28 B. CONDITIONS TO BE TESTED C. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP D. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE CHAPTER IV . SUMMARY A. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS B. RECOMMENDAT ION S RE FEREN CE S 75 TABLE OF CONTENTS...

  20. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  1. Water–gas shift on gold catalysts: catalyst systems and fundamental studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Ma, Zhen

    2013-06-18

    attention. The water–gas shift reaction (WGSR: CO + H2O = CO2 + H2) is important for removing CO and upgrading the purity of H2 for fuel cell applications, ammonia synthesis, and selective hydrogenation processes. In recent years, much attention has been...

  2. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas Physical Plant (772) 242-2246 M - F 8a - 5p (954) 762-5040 HBOI@FAU Security (772) 216-1124 Afterhours University Police. NOTIFY Building Safety personnel when possible. What should I do if I smell natural

  3. Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiller, Volker

    Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1 Volker Stiller*, H.R.L.) We investigated the role of xylem cavitation, plant hydraulic conductance, and root pressure-specific photosynthetic rate, leaf diffusive conductance, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance that were associated

  4. Investigation of trace amounts of gas on microvave water-cut measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jin

    2006-08-16

    In recent years, the upstream oil and gas industry has dealt with some of the most challenging metering applications. One of these is the measurement of water percentage at the point of allocation. It is an essential requirement when test separators...

  5. Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing (received for review January 13, 2011) Directional drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies are dra- turing fluids. We conclude that greater stewardship, data, and-- possibly--regulation are needed

  6. Effect of Reformate Components on PEMFC Performance Dilution and Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    Effect of Reformate Components on PEMFC Performance Dilution and Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs with Pt and Pt/Ru alloy anodes. The performance with N2 /H2 mixtures. The same deviations were observed with CO2 /H2 mixtures for a PEMFC with a Pt

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  8. DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY FLOWS TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOEAnalysis,Department of U.S.DURA URBAN HOUSEDepartment of

  9. Molecular Density Functional Theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. With this correction, molecular density functional theory gives, at a modest computational cost, quantita...

  10. Natural gas powered rotary water chiller development. Phase 1. Final report, September 1991-June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanborn, D.F.; Lakowske, R.L.; Byars, M.

    1993-06-01

    Objectives of the project were to evaluate performance and marketability of a rotary engine driven screw compressor for water chiller applications. Choice of a rotary engine was aimed at rotary compressor. Initial testing done with modified stock 13B rotary engine and experimental open compressor. Engine torque not sufficient for 70 ton compressor. Analysis concluded 50 ton best match for air cooled applications and 60 ton best for water cooled to get highest gas COP. Market analysis covered total water chiller market assuming relative costs of power would lead to gas cooling sales. Allowable cost premium for 3 yr payback determined for areas of country. Premium cost of 100 ton air cooled unit estimated and compared to market allowable premiums. Concluded product acceptance will be primarily in niche markets with high local electric power demand charges.

  11. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  12. Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    , rates, and services. Although water is a utility service, this paper will concern itself with the energy utilities, gas and electric. commonality and diversity exist in the strategies and rates of the gas and electric utilities. Both provide... services at no charge which make energy operation for their customers easier, safer and more economical. It is important to become familiar with utility strategies, rates, and services because energy knowledge helps your business operate...

  13. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

  14. Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidic, Radisav

    2015-01-24

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using abandoned mine drainage (AMD) as make- up water for the reuse of produced water for hydraulic fracturing. There is an abundance of AMD sources near permitted gas wells as documented in this study that can not only serve as makeup water and reduce the demand on high quality water resources but can also as a source of chemicals to treat produced water prior to reuse. The assessment of AMD availability for this purpose based on proximity and relevant regulations was accompanied by bench- and pilot-scale studies to determine optimal treatment to achieve desired water quality for use in hydraulic fracturing. Sulfate ions that are often present in AMD at elevated levels will react with Ba˛? and Sr˛? in produced water to form insoluble sulfate compounds. Both membrane microfiltration and gravity separation were evaluated for the removal of solids formed as a result of mixing these two impaired waters. Laboratory studies revealed that neither AMD nor barite formed in solution had significant impact on membrane filtration but that some produced waters contained submicron particles that can cause severe fouling of microfiltration membrane. Coagulation/flocculation was found to be an effective process for the removal of suspended solids and both bench- and pilot-scale studies revealed that optimal process conditions can consistently achieve the turbidity of the finished water below 5 NTU. Adjusting the blending ratio of AMD and produced water can achieve the desired effluent sulfate concentration that can be accurately predicted by chemical thermodynamics. Co-treatment of produced water and AMD will result in elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the solid waste generated in this process due to radium co-precipitation with barium sulfate. Laboratory studies revealed that the mobility of barite that may form in the subsurface due to the presence of sulfate in the fracturing fluid can be controlled by the addition of appropriate antiscalants.

  15. A Critical Review of the Risks to Water Resources from Unconventional Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    A Critical Review of the Risks to Water Resources from Unconventional Shale Gas Development: The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. The rise of shale gas development has

  16. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  17. Microbial Community Changes in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Produced Water from Shale Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J.; Hammack, Richard W.; Vidic, Radisav D.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  18. Oil production from thin oil columns subject to water and gas coning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chai, Kwok Kit

    1981-01-01

    OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO MATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KMOK KIT CHAI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO WATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KWOK KIT CHAI Approved as to style and content by airman of o t ee Member Member Head o Department May 1981 ABSTRACT Oil...

  19. Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BC Technologies

    2009-12-30

    Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL confirmed the feasibility of the process. However, researchers at BCT were unable to develop equipment suitable for continuous operation and demonstration of the process in the field was not attempted. The significant achievements of the research area: Bench-scale batch results using carbon dioxide indicate >40% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor was converted to hydrate in a single pass; The batch results also indicate >23% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor (>50% of the hydrate formed) was converted to purified water of a quality suitable for discharge; Continuous discharge and collection of hydrates was achieved at atmospheric pressure. Continuous hydrate formation and collection at atmospheric conditions was the most significant achievement and preliminary economics indicate that if the unit could be made operable, it is potentially economic. However, the inability to continuously separate the hydrate melt fraction left the concept not ready for field demonstration and the project was terminated after Phase Two research.

  20. Investigation of Fuel Quality Impact on the Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of a Turbo-Charged SI Engine Operated on Low BTU Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research results validate an engine simulation model and provide guidelines for the improved control of combustion stability of SI engines operated on low-BTU gaseous fuels.

  1. The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    .Schimpf,Christoph.Garbe,Bernd.Jähne}@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de The impact of wind, rain, and surface slicks on the transport of heat and gas at the water surfaceThe 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010 Combined Visualization of Wind Waves and Water Surface Temperature R. Rocholz1 , U. Schimpf1 , C. S. Garbe1

  2. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  3. Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng

    2014-04-11

    Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.

  4. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of unconsolidated sand packs containing oil, water, and gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, David Eugene

    1958-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF THE THERNAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND PACKS CONTAINING OIL, WATER, AND GAS A Thesis David E. Gore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College oi' Texas in Partial fulfillment... and thxee-phase fluid saturation on the thermal conductivity of sand packs. The current research was conducted using a sand and lubricating oil on which related studies had been pexfoxmed. The thermal conductivity measuxements were made undex condi...

  5. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department of Energy Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters Covered

  6. Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    ~vity planned for the mining of lignite by 1985, at which time Texas is projected to becom~ the seventh largest coal mining state. However, the deep basin lignite cannot be economically recovered by strip or shaft mining. For this lignite there is great...-770652, 1977. 11. Gregg, D. W., and T. F. Edgar, "Underground Coal Gasification," AIChE J., ~, 753 (1978) ? 12. Gregg, D. W., R. W. Hill, and D. U. Olness, "An Overview of the Soviet Effort in Underground Coal Gasification," Lawrence Livermore...

  7. Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheast RegionFuture

  8. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheast RegionFuture115,39687.1 81.2 38.08 1,031

  9. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheast RegionFuture115,39687.1NaturalFoot) Decade

  10. Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand Cubic Feet)8 Year inB89.2 88.7

  11. Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand Cubic Feet)8 Year8129 1,027

  12. Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand CubicCrude Oil + Lease Condensate37

  13. Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand CubicCrude Oil +4.0530, 2013 |54

  14. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand CubicCrude OilCoalbed

  15. Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheastThousand

  16. Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  17. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot) DecadeBarrels) + LeaseProved07,2430 20132

  18. Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot) DecadeBarrels) +Totaleialogo58 1,057 1,055

  19. Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot) DecadeBarrels)Feet) Decade

  20. Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot) DecadeBarrels)Feet)NAExpected Future8

  1. Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot)Decade Year-0 Year-1Texas Intermediate3766220044

  2. Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot)Decade Year-0Proved Reserves32 1,030 1,030 1,029

  3. Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot)Decade Year-0Proved Reserves32WellheadThousand24

  4. Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubic Foot)Decade Year-0ProvedDecadeProved

  5. Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in Arkansasthroughwww.eia.gov

  6. Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71 NA 4.11 4.16 4.6828,976 30,316

  7. New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71 NA 4.11 4.1628 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,028Cubic

  8. New Jersey Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71 NA 4.11 4.1628 1,028per Thousand43

  9. New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71 NA 4.11(Billion Cubic+ LeaseExpectedCubic

  10. New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71 NAMexico--EastProved32 1,032 1,031

  11. North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71per Thousand Cubic Feet)14 2.409

  12. North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71per ThousandFeet) Expected Future84Cubic

  13. Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71perWellhead Price65,329,5820 '

  14. Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996) in4.71perWellheadDecade419,170+

  15. Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996)Barrels) Liquids Lease3.53Thousand39

  16. Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996)Barrels)Decade

  17. Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6528 1,028 1,028

  18. South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 2014 MEMORANDUMand Mark2.30 1,030

  19. South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 2014

  20. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release

  1. Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for5 EnergyExpected Future31 1,032

  2. Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for5Year Jan FebShale ProvedCrude01

  3. Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for5Yearand Foreign1 st Coal 1 stYear

  4. Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for5YearandWellheadYear Jan Feb Mar

  5. California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYearReserves (Billion Cubic3 1,037

  6. Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet) Marketed ProductionExpected

  7. Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet)61,124 135,252 133,821Decade Year-0Cubic

  8. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet)61,124 135,252NetThousand13 July

  9. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA -Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next Release

  10. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA -Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next

  11. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNG StorageCoalbedPrices" ,"Click worksheet name

  12. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNG StorageCoalbedPrices" ,"Click worksheet

  13. Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 To Cover... To Cover To Cover

  14. Tennessee Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22PrimaryB6.3.Entity-LevelCubic

  15. Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion CubicReserves (Billion CubicExpected

  16. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Separation, Proved Reserves(Million Barrels) Reserves inBarrels, Except

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Separation, Proved Reserves(Million2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Decade Year-0 Year-1

  18. U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Separation, Proved Reserves(Million2009 2010 2011Decade6,015 6,980Consumption of Heat

  19. Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark0","AK",2010,1,5889.296,25346.726,30607,7768.547,32303.665,10842,1432.777,7587.714,510,0,0,0,15090.62,65238.105,41959 Residential+ Lease43 1,043

  20. Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark0","AK",2010,1,5889.296,25346.726,30607,7768.547,32303.665,10842,1432.777,7587.714,510,0,0,0,15090.62,65238.105,419595.69 3.99 4.34(Million21 1,021

  1. Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark0","AK",2010,1,5889.296,25346.726,30607,7768.547,32303.665,10842,1432.777,7587.714,510,0,0,0,15090.62,65238.105,419595.69 3.99per ThousandCoalbed55

  2. Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark0","AK",2010,1,5889.296,25346.726,30607,7768.547,32303.665,10842,1432.777,7587.714,510,0,0,0,15090.62,65238.105,419595.69Reserves3,357.965 1,069

  3. West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google5.10 5.24 5.29 5.84 5.08 4.25 1989-2015 Residential Price 11.35 12.13 12.37 12.57 11.71 11.24 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries includedFeet)

  4. Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google5.10 5.24 5.29 5.84 5.08 4.25 1989-2015 Residential Price 11.35 12.13 12.37 12.57 11.71 11.24 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential DeliveriesDecadeWellheadperState

  5. South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. Temperature and energySolvingOxides

  6. South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. Temperature andResidential Consumption(Million

  7. Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codesReversingprovedReynolds-AveragedCubic

  8. Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeer Review Policies Basic Energy Sciences ManualCubic

  9. Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConference Tight09/2011aPhysics

  10. Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light| Department 2 BasicsFoot)

  11. Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A County road

  12. Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A County

  13. Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *415,RatesWalter

  14. West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN AProjectAdministrationWest KentuckyCubic

  15. Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubictheThe U.S. Department ofWinners0, X. Tang 1

  16. Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single gold crystal World'sFoot) Heat

  17. Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218in aradsafe/files link toFoot) Heat

  18. Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudget andthe

  19. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducingJobs2015Administration| NationalFoot) Heat

  20. Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) SoldDepartment ofKen T. VenutoFoot) Heat

  1. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LET IonizingGeorge B. Zimmerman,

  2. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowď‚—34OctoberKHarvesting SunlightTakenHavrilla

  3. Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch88 Sign InFoot) Heat Content of

  4. Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch88 SignPriceresponseIdeumIf

  5. Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final ReporttheHouseNewFlipping PhotoelectronFoot)

  6. Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo

  7. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) |AdministrationStanfordLabMailCharles

  8. Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergyAprilMartin D. Kamen,MaryMaryFoot)

  9. Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By Sarah Schlieder * July 9, 2015 TweetCubic Foot)

  10. Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergyPublicatons Contact UsMichelle Liberton

  11. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  12. Evaluation of fission gas release in high-burnup light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light water reactor (LWR) UO[sub 2] fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). The HBEP was a 12-yr program that ultimately acquired, characterized, irradiated, and examined after irradiation 82 LWR fuel rods ranging in rod-average fuel burnup from 22 to 69 MWd/kgM with a peak pellet burnup of 83 MWd/kg M. A principal emphasis of the HBEP was to evaluate the effect of high burnup on fission gas release. It was confirmed that fission gas release remained as dependent on design and irradiation history parameters at high burnup levels as at low to moderate burnup levels. One observed high-burnup effect was the development of a burnup-dependent microstructure at the fuel pellet surface when pellet-edge burnup exceeded 65 MWd/kgM. This low-temperature rim region' was characterized by a loss of optically definable grain structure, a high volume of porosity, and diffusion of fission gas from the UO[sub 2] matrix to the porosity. Although the rim region has the potential for enhanced fission gas release, it is concluded that no significant enhancement of rod-average fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined fuel rods.

  13. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu) Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water...

  14. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of water management options for unconventional natural gas developments in the Marcellus Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karapataki, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale hydrocarbon production from shale reservoirs has revolutionized the oil and gas sector, and hydraulic fracturing has been the key enabler of this advancement. As a result, the need for water ...

  16. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  17. The effects of production rates and some reservoir parameters on recovery in a strong water drive gas reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soemarso, Christophorus

    1978-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATES AND SOME RESERVOIR PARAMETERS ON RECOVERY IN A STRONG WATER DRIVE GAS RESERVOIR A Thesis by CHRISTOPHORUS SOEMARSO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATES AND SOME RESERVOIR PARAMETERS ON RECOVERY IN A STRONG WATER DRIVE GAS RESERVOIR A Thesis by CHRISTOPHORUS SOEMARSO...

  18. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  19. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

    2008-03-31

    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

  20. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu

    2009-06-30

    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a component of conventional high temperature water gas shift iron oxide based catalysts. The catalysts contained Fe-Al-Cr-Cu-O and were synthesized by co-precipitation. A series of catalysts were prepared with 5 to 50 wt% Al2O3, with 8 wt% Cr2O3, 4 wt% CuO, and the balance Fe2O3. All of the catalysts were compared to a reference WGS catalyst (88 wt% FeOx, 8 wt% Cr2O3, and 4 wt% CuO) with no alumina. Alumina addition to conventional high temperature water gas shift catalysts at concentrations of approximately 15 wt% increased CO conversion rates and increase thermal stability. A series of high temperature water gas shift catalysts containing iron, chromia, and copper oxides were prepared with small amounts of added ceria in the system Fe-Cr-Cu-Ce-O. The catalysts were also tested kinetically under WGS conditions. 2-4 wt% ceria addition (at the expense of the iron oxide content) resulted in increased reaction rates (from 22-32% higher) compared to the reference catalyst. The project goal of a 10,000 liter per day WGS-membrane reactor was achieved by a device operating on coal derived syngas containing significant amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. The membrane flux was equivalent to 52 scfh/ft2 based on a 600 psi syngas inlet pressure and corresponded to membranes costing $191 per square foot. Over 40 hours of iv exposure time to syngas has been achieved for a double membrane reactor. Two modules of the Chart reactor were tested under coal syngas for over 75 hours with a single module tested for 50 hours. The permeance values for the Chart membranes were similar to the REB reactor though total flux was reduced due to significantly thicker membranes. Overall testing of membrane reactors on coal derived syngas was over 115 hours for all reactors tested. Testing of the REB double membrane device exceeded 40 hours. Performance of the double membrane reactor has been similar to the results for the single reactor with good maintenance of flux even after these long exposures to hydrogen sulfide. Of special interest is that the flux is highest at the start of each e

  1. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment ofCommercialEnergyDepartment ofHeating and Water

  2. Water Absorption from Gas Very Near the Massive Protostar AFGL 2136 IRS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indriolo, Nick; Seifahrt, A; Richter, M J

    2013-01-01

    We present ground-based observations of the nu_1 and nu_3 fundamental bands of H2O toward the massive protostar AFGL 2136 IRS 1, identifying absorption features due to 47 different ro-vibrational transitions between 2.468 micron and 2.561 micron. Analysis of these features indicates the absorption arises in warm (T=506+-25 K), very dense (n(H2)>5*10^9 cm^-3) gas, suggesting an origin close to the central protostar. The total column density of warm water is estimated to be N(H2O)=(1.02+-0.02)*10^19 cm^-2, giving a relative abundance of N(H2O)/N(H2)~10^-4. Our study represents the first extensive use of water vapor absorption lines in the near infrared, and demonstrates the utility of such observations in deriving physical parameters.

  3. The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010 A new approach for 3C3D measurements of aqueous boundary layer ows relative to the wind-wave undulated thermographic images of the air-water interface show coherent pat- terns, probably generated by Langmuir

  4. The Functional Potential of Microbial Communities in Hydraulic Fracturing Source Water and Produced Water from Natural Gas Extraction Characterized by Metagenomic Sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Bibby, Kyle J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical School, PA (United States). Dept. of Computational and Systems Biology; Lipus, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  5. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Forster, Robert J.

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. Thus, the metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsiblemore »for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.« less

  6. TRANSITION STATE FOR THE GAS-PHASE REACTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S; James Becnel, J

    2008-03-18

    Density Functional Theory and small-core, relativistic pseudopotentials were used to look for symmetric and asymmetric transitions states of the gas-phase hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride, UF{sub 6}, with water. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)/SDD level, an asymmetric transition state leading to the formation of a uranium hydroxyl fluoride, U(OH)F{sub 5}, and hydrogen fluoride was found with an energy barrier of +77.3 kJ/mol and an enthalpy of reaction of +63.0 kJ/mol (both including zero-point energy corrections). Addition of diffuse functions to all atoms except uranium led to only minor changes in the structure and relative energies of the reacting complex and transition state. However, a significant change in the product complex structure was found, significantly reducing the enthalpy of reaction to +31.9 kJ/mol. Similar structures and values were found for PBE0 and MP2 calculations with this larger basis set, supporting the B3LYP results. No symmetric transition state leading to the direct formation of uranium oxide tetrafluoride, UOF{sub 4}, was found, indicating that the reaction under ambient conditions likely includes several more steps than the mechanisms commonly mentioned. The transition state presented here appears to be the first published transition state for the important gas-phase reaction of UF{sub 6} with water.

  7. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1988-01-01

    A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst (CO/MgO/silica) was reduced and slurried in combination with reduced Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst. Combined catalyst system was run at fixed process conditions for more than 400 hours. The system showed stable selectivity. The Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst remained reasonably active in the presence of the cobalt catalyst. Hydrocarbon selectivity of the cobalt and Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] catalyst system compared favorably to selectivity of iron-based catalysts. Methane selectivity was slightly higher for the cobalt-based system, but C[sub 5][sup +] selectivity was essentially the same. The hydrocarbon product distribution appeared to exhibit a double-a behavior. a[sub 1] was near 0.80 which is higher than that of iron catalysts, while a[sub 2] was calculated to be 0.86 which is somewhat lower than would be typical for an iron-based catalyst.

  8. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solar watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ableheaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric water

  9. A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs and water scarcity within the supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    Updated state-level greenhouse gas emission coefficients forDA. A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs andpaper A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs and

  10. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  12. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, Thomas; Wright, Ian G

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  13. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well waste waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadlec, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    1995-08-01

    Constructed wetlands are small on-site systems that possess three of the most desirable components of an industrial waste water treatment scheme: low cost, low maintenance and upset resistance. The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge base of wetland treatment systems to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well wastewaters. A list of the most relevant and comprehensive publications on the design of wetlands for water quality improvement was compiled and critically reviewed. Based on our literature search and conversations with researchers in the private sector, toxic organics such as Phenolics and b-naphthoic acid, (NA), and metals such as CU(II) and CR(VI) were selected as target adsorbates. A total of 90 lysimeters equivalent to a laboratory-scale wetland were designed and built to monitor the uptake and transformation of toxic organics and the immobilization of metal ions. Studies on the uptake of toxic organics such as phenol and b-naphthoic acid (NA) and heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI), the latter two singly or as non-stoichiometric mixtures by laboratory-type wetlands (LWs) were conducted. These LWs were designed and built during the first year of this study. A road map and guidelines for a field-scale implementation of a wetland system for the treatment of oil and gas wastewaters have been suggested. Two types of wetlands, surface flow (SF) and sub surface flow (SSF), have been considered, and the relative merits of each configuration have been reviewed.

  14. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    condensing tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solarmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablewater heaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  16. Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W.; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa [gamma]-proteobacteria, [alpha]-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the [alpha]-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments.

  17. The influence of free gas saturation on water flood performance - variations caused by changes in flooding rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandona, Anil Kumar

    1971-01-01

    , 1971) Anil Kumar Dandona, B. S. , Indian School of Mines Directed by: Dr. R. A. Morse It has been recognised that the presence of a free gas satura- tion prior to water flooding can have an important influence on oil recovery. The published results... studies such as the disappearance of part or all of the free gas by solution in the oil bank. Also, it has been realised that gravity forces make it impossible to initiate and maintain a uniforxn gas saturation fram top to bottom of the production...

  18. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richness in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.

  19. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; et al

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richnessmore »in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.« less

  20. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    11 shows the monthly natural gas price forecast for 2010 forthe winter when the natural gas prices are lower compared toSep Oct Nov Dec Fig 11 Natural gas price forecast for 2010

  1. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  2. THE EFFECT OF WATER-GAS TAR ON OYSTERS By Philip H. Mitchell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this series. A siphon delivered sea water from an aquarium to a point about 2 inches from the bottom of the jar, while another siphon at the same time drew off water from the middle of the jar. Water of the water, none, or very little of it, was removed while the water flowed through the siphons. The water

  3. Determination of parts-per-billion concentrations of dioxane in water and soil by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or charcoal tube enrichment gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, P.S.; Mauer, T.; Wagner, M.; Chase, S.; Giles, B.

    1987-08-01

    Two methods for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in water have been studied. The first method is a heated purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system following salting out with sodium sulfate. The second method is an adsorption on coconut-shell charcoal and solvent desorption with carbon disulfide/methanol followed by analysis of the desorbate by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first method is also successful for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in solids and sediments. The second method is shown to be successful for 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, and butoxyethanol in water. The two methods are compared by analyzing 15 samples by both methods and achieving similar results.

  4. Liquid water quantification in the cathode side gas channels of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell through two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    t s Liquid water in the cathode side channels of PEM fuel cell is quantified. Algorithm developed in MATLABŇ electrolyte membrane fuel cell Two-phase flow visualization Gas channels Area coverage ratio Water quantification a b s t r a c t Water management is crucial to the performance of PEM fuel cells. Water

  5. Water in Low-Mass Star-Forming Regions with Herschel: The Link Between Water Gas and Ice in Protostellar Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalzl, M; Walsh, C; Albertsson, T; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Mottram, J C

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to determine the critical parameters in water chemistry and the contribution of water to the oxygen budget by observing and modelling water gas and ice for a sample of eleven low-mass protostars, for which both forms of water have been observed. Methods: A simplified chemistry network, which is benchmarked against more sophisticated chemical networks, is developed that includes the necessary ingredients to determine the water vapour and ice abundance profiles in the cold, outer envelope in which the temperature increases towards the protostar. Comparing the results from this chemical network to observations of water emission lines and previously published water ice column densities, allows us to probe the influence of various agents (e.g., FUV field, initial abundances, timescales, and kinematics). Results: The observed water ice abundances with respect to hydrogen nuclei in our sample are 30-80ppm, and therefore contain only 10-30% of the volatile oxygen budget of 320ppm. The keys to reprodu...

  6. Geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin for the applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process for simultaneous gas recovery and water disposal in production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maryn, S.

    1994-03-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted a geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin to evaluate the applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for gas recovery and water disposal in production wells. A review of available publications was conducted to identify, (1) natural gas reservoirs which generate large quantities of gas and water, and (2) underground injection zones for produced water. Research efforts were focused on unconventional natural gas formations. The Antrim Shale is a Devonian gas shale which produces gas and large quantities of water. Total 1992 production from 2,626 wells was 74,209,916 Mcf of gas and 25,795,334 bbl of water. The Middle Devonian Dundee Limestone is a major injection zone for produced water. ``Waterless completion`` wells have been completed in the Antrim Shale for gas recovery and in the Dundee Limestone for water disposal. Jack McIntyre`s patented process has potential application for the recovery of gas from the Antrim Shale and simultaneous injection of produced water into the Dundee Limestone.

  7. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu) Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  8. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  9. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  10. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Forster, Robert J.

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. Thus, the metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  11. Sustainable development through beneficial use of produced water for the oil and gas industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Mustafa Ashique

    2002-01-01

    using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. Finally an economic analysis, including capital and operational...

  12. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  13. Plasmon-enhanced reverse water gas shift reaction over oxide supported Au catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhye, AA; Ro, I; Zeng, X; Kim, HJ; Tejedor, I; Anderson, MA; Dumesic, JA; Huber, GW

    2015-01-01

    We show that localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the catalytic activities of different oxide-supported Au catalysts for the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Oxide-supported Au catalysts showed 30 to 1300% higher activity for RWGS under visible light compared to dark conditions. Au/TiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-precipitation (DP) method with 3.5 nm average Au particle size showed the highest activity for the RWGS reaction. Visible light is converted into chemical energy for this reaction with up to a 5% overall efficiency. A shift in the apparent activation energy (from 47 kJ mol(-1) in dark to 35 kJ mol(-1) in light) and apparent reaction order with respect to CO2 (from 0.5 in dark to 1.0 in light) occurs due to the LSPR. Our kinetic results indicate that the LSPR increases the rate of either the hydroxyl hydrogenation or carboxyl decomposition more than any other steps in the reaction network.

  14. One-Dimensional Ceria as Catalyst for the Low-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.; Wen, W; Hanson, J; Teng, X; Marinkovic, N; Rodriguez, J

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study pure ceria and Pd-loaded ceria nanotubes and nanorods (1D-ceria) as catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. While bulk ceria is very poor as WGS catalysts, pure 1D-ceria displayed catalytic activity at a temperature as low as 300 C. The reduction of the pure 1D-ceria in pure hydrogen started at 150 C, which is a much lower temperature than those previously reported for the reduction of 3D ceria nanoparticles. This low reduction temperature reflects the novel morphology of the oxide systems and may be responsible for the low-temperature WGS catalytic activity seen for the 1D-ceria. Pd-loaded 1D ceria displayed significant WGS activity starting at 200 C. During pretreatment in H{sub 2}, the ceria lattice parameter increased significantly around 60 C, which indicates that Pd-oxygen interactions may facilitate the reduction of Pd-loaded 1D-ceria. Pd and ceria both participate in the formation of the active sites for the catalytic reactions. The low-temperature hydrogen pretreatment results in higher WGS activity for Pd-loaded 1D-ceria.

  15. Water-Steel Canister Interaction and H2 Gas Pressure Buildup in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu; Senger, Rainer; Finstele, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    rates vary with time, depending on factors such as waterchemistry, water availability,and water contact area. To account for these factors and

  16. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.fuel consumption. The gas furnace fuel consumption (FuelUse)

  17. Experimental and simulation studies of water-alternating-enriched gas injection for San Francisco Field, Colombia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto Tavera, Claudia Patricia

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents a complete investigation involving experimental and compositional reservoir simulation studies into enriched gas injection as a method to enhance oil recovery from the San Francisco field in Colombia. In enriched gas floods...

  18. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

  19. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  20. Effect of Water on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Gas-Phase SO2 in a PEM Electrolyzer for H2 Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Effect of Water on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Gas-Phase SO2 in a PEM Electrolyzer for H2 of SO2 in a proton exchange membrane PEM electrolyzer. Not only is water needed to keep the membrane from water is very energy intensive. For ex- ample, electrolyzers can achieve electrical efficiencies

  1. Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Production from Syngas: A Novel Process Combining CO Methanation, Water-Gas Shift, and CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Liyu; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from syngas is under investigation again due to the desire for less dependency from imports and the opportunity for increasing coal utilization and reducing green house gas emission. CO methanation is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated which can lead to process thermal imbalance and deactivation of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is limited and substantial syngas recycle is employed in conventional processes. Furthermore, the conversion of syngas to SNG is typically performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325°C) to ensure high CH4 yields since this reaction is thermodynamically limited. In this study, the effectiveness of a novel integrated process for the SNG production from syngas at high temperature (i.e. 600?C) was investigated. This integrated process consists of combining a CO methanation nickel-based catalyst with a high temperature CO2 capture sorbent in a single reactor. Integration with CO2 separation eliminates the reverse-water-gas shift and the requirement for a separate water-gas shift (WGS) unit. Easing of thermodynamic constraint offers the opportunity of enhancing yield to CH4 at higher operating temperature (500-700şC) which also favors methanation kinetics and improves the overall process efficiency due to exploitation of reaction heat at higher temperatures. Furthermore, simultaneous CO2 capture eliminates green house gas emission. In this work, sorption-enhanced CO methanation was demonstrated using a mixture of a 68% CaO/32% MgAl2O4 sorbent and a CO methanation catalyst (Ni/Al2O3, Ni/MgAl2O4, or Ni/SiC) utilizing a syngas ratio (H2/CO) of 1, gas-hour-space velocity (GHSV) of 22 000 hr-1, pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 600oC. These conditions resulted in ~90% yield to methane, which was maintained until the sorbent became saturated with CO2. By contrast, without the use of sorbent, equilibrium yield to methane is only 22%. Cyclic stability of the methanation catalyst and durability of the sorbent were also studied in the multiple carbonation-decarbonation cycle studies proving the potential of this integrated process in a practical application.

  2. Hydordesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using hydrogen generated in situ by the water-gas shift reaction in a trickle bed reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Bruce David

    1984-01-01

    in situ by the Water ? Gas Shift Reaction in a Trickle Bed Reactor (December 1984) Bruce David Hook, B. S. , Texas AgtM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Aydin Akgerman Global depletion of sweet crude oil has required greater use of high.... Hook et al. (1984) have presented a technique for extracting intrinsic kinetics from trickle bed reactors operating at high temperatures and pressures. The Hook et al. technique uses the Soave-Redlich- Kwong equation of state to predict...

  3. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash...

  4. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  5. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.consumer products: Residential furnaces and boilers. Energy

  6. Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    feet (~26.2'x26.2'x26.2') 5 CO2 Content by Fuel Type (lbs of CO2 per Million Btu of Fuel) Coal Type (lbs of CO2 per Megawatt-hour of Power) Coal-fired generation Coal-fired generation Existing PNW Sectors, by Fuel Type Annual 2012Annual 2012 Millions of Metric Tons Fuel Type Coal 1,657 Natural Gas 1

  7. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide meta- bolic and exchange systems. carbon dioxide | oxygen | respiration | temperature | scaling All for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model

  8. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaehn, John; Peterson, Eric; Orme, Christopher; Bhandari, Dhaval; Miller, Scott; Ku, Anthony; Polishchuk, Kimberly; Narang, Kristi; Singh, Surinder; Wei, Wei; Shisler, Roger; Wickersham, Paul; McEvoy, Kevin; Alberts, William; Howson, Paul; Barton, Thomas; Sethi, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (? = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (? = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  9. European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery --Freiberg, Germany, 3 -6 September 2002 We consider a model for immiscible three-phase (e.g., water, oil, and gas) flow in a porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    2002 Abstract We consider a model for immiscible three-phase (e.g., water, oil, and gas) flow of three-phase (water-oil-gas) flow in a core sample of porous rock, taking into account hysteresis effects the effects of hysteresis on the Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) oil-recovery process. In outline, the remainder

  10. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    8 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water HeaterAssess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heater Marketassess California’s small gas storage water heater market.

  11. A NOVEL CONCEPT FOR REDUCING WATER USAGE AND INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiao-Hung Chiang; Guy Weismantel

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the project is to apply a unique ice thermal storage (ITS) technology to cooling the intake air to gas turbines used for power generation. In Phase I, the work includes theoretical analysis, computer simulation, engineering design and cost evaluation of this novel ITS technology. The study includes two typical gas turbines (an industrial and an aeroderivative type gas turbine) operated at two different geographic locations: Phoenix, AZ and Houston, TX. Simulation runs are performed to generate data for both power output (KW) and heat rate (Btu/KWh) as well as water recovery (acre ft/yr) in terms of intake air temperature and humidity based on weather data and turbine performance curves. Preliminary engineering design of a typical equipment arrangement for turbine inlet air-cooling operation using the ITS system is presented. A cost analysis has been performed to demonstrate the market viability of the ITS technology. When the ITS technology is applied to gas turbines, a net power gain up to 40% and a heat rate reduction as much as 7% can be achieved. In addition, a significant amount of water can be recovered (up to 200 acre-ft of water per year for a 50 MW turbine). The total cost saving is estimated to be $500,000/yr for a 50 MW gas turbine generator. These results have clearly demonstrated that the use of ITS technology to cool the intake-air to gas turbines is an efficient and cost effective means to improve the overall performance of its power generation capacity with an important added benefit of water recovery in power plant operation. Thus, further development of ITS technology for commercial applications in power generation, particularly in coal-based IGCC power plants is warranted.

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    water heaters in US new construction market Alex B. Lekov &single-family home construction rep- resents a significantequipment. In the new construction market, the choice of

  13. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14

    This work is aimed at developing a systematic approach for designing treatment systems for wastewater streams resulting from upstream production and downstream processing of oil and gas systems. The approach will provide an optimum and integrated...

  14. Fission gas release from UO{sub 2+x} in defective light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skim, Y. S.

    1999-11-12

    A simplified semi-empirical model predicting fission gas release form UO{sub 2+x} fuel to the fuel rod plenum as a function of stoichiometry excess (x) is developed to apply to the fuel of a defective LWR fuel rod in operation. The effect of fuel oxidation in enhancing gas diffusion is included as a parabolic dependence of the stoichiometry excess. The increase of fission gas release in a defective BWR fuel rod is at the most 3 times higher than in an intact fuel rod because of small extent of UO{sub 2} oxidation. The major enhancement contributor in fission gas release of UO{sub 2+x} fuel is the increased diffusivity due to stoichiometry excess rather than the higher temperature caused by degraded fuel thermal conductivity.

  15. VOLUME 85, NUMBER 9 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 28 AUGUST 2000 Turbulence and Wave Breaking Effects on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    -made systems. For instance, in waste water treatment where bioremediation is used in large man-made water Breaking Effects on Air-Water Gas Exchange Evelyn J. Boettcher,1 Jay Fineberg,1,2 and Daniel P. Lathrop1 1 gravity waves on air-water gas exchange in standing waves. We identify two regimes that govern aeration

  16. Quantifying the `reverse water gas shift' reaction inside a PEM fuel cell Tao Gu, W.-K. Lee, J.W. Van Zee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    22 January 2005 Abstract Reformed gas containing CO2, N2, and H2 may be used in proton exchange the determination of an activation energy. The data are shown to be consistent with a kinetic catalytic model (PEMFC); Reformate; Reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction; CO stripping; Pressure and temperature

  17. B.Jhne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water GasTransfer, 1995 by AEON Verlag I Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    of the Influence of Marine Biota on the Carbon Dioxide Ocean- Atmosphere Exchange in High Latitudes P. Prinos M Mixing in the Upper Ocean and Air-Sea Gas Transfer đ #12;B.Jähne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water Gas. Hwang Spatial Measurements of Small-Scale Ocean Waves J. Klinke B. Jähne Measurements of Short Ocean

  18. Iron-ceria Aerogels Doped with Palladium as Water-gas Shift Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Huffman, G; Eyring, E

    2010-01-01

    Mixed 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels doped with 1% and 2% palladium (Pd) by weight have been synthesized, and their activities for the catalysis of water-gas shift (WGS) reaction have been determined. The aerogels were synthesized using propylene oxide as the proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation of a homogeneous alcoholic solution of cerium(III) chloride heptahydrate and iron(III) chloride hexahydrate precursor. Palladium was doped onto some of these materials by gas-phase incorporation (GPI) using ({eta}{sup 3}-allyl)({eta}{sup 5}-cyclopentadienyl)palladium as the volatile Pd precursor. Water-gas shift catalytic activities were evaluated in a six-channel fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and reaction temperatures ranging from 150 to 350 C. Both 1% and 2% Pd-doped 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels showed WGS activities that increased significantly from 150 to 350 C. The activities of 1% Pd-doped 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels were also compared with that of the 1% Pd-doped ceria aerogel without iron. The WGS activity of 1% Pd on 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels is substantially higher (5 times) than the activity of 1% Pd-doped ceria aerogel without iron. The gas-phase incorporation results in a better Pd dispersion. Ceria aerogel provides a nonrigid structure wherein iron is not significantly incorporated inside the matrix, thereby resulting in better contact between the Fe and Pd and thus enhancing the WGS activity. Further, neither Fe nor Pd is reduced during the ceria-aerogel-catalyzed WGS reaction. This behavior contrasts with that noted for other Fe-based WGS catalysts, in which the original ferric oxide is typically reduced to a nonstoichiometric magnetite form.

  19. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.

    2008-12-01

    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  20. The effect on recovery of the injection of alternating slugs of gas and water at pressures above the bubble point 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, James Wilson

    1961-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS, 24 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 7. APPE NDIX. 8. REFERENCES. 25 32 337530 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES 1. Core Saturating and Flooding Apparatus Page 2. Physical Characteristics of Refined Oil and East Texas Crude Oil at 77'F. 3. Refined... Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Gas Slug. 13 4, Refined Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Water Slug. 14 5. The Effect of Slug Length on Recovery of Refined Oil. 15 6. Recovery of East...

  1. Performance of Gas-fired Water Heaters in a 10-home Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  2. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Water in Flue Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mera, Hilda 1989-

    2012-04-12

    coefficients of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water in MOFs. The metal-organic frameworks studied are copper trimesate (Cu-BTC), zinc terephthalate (IRMOF1), and MIL-47, which belongs to the Materials of the Institute Lavoisier series. Diffusion coefficients...

  3. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  4. Simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas on water. Final report, December 12, 1978-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.R.; Reid, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the boiling and spreading of liquid nitrogen, liquid methane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water in a one-dimensional configuration. Primary emphasis was placed on the LPG studies. Experimental work involved the design and construction of a spill/spread/boil apparatus which permitted the measurement of spreading and local boil-off rates. With the equations of continuity and momentum transfer, a mathematical model was developed to describe the boiling-spreading phenomena of cryogens spilled on water. The model accounted for a decrease in the density of the cryogenic liquid due to bubble formation. The boiling and spreading rates of LPG were found to be the same as those of pure propane. An LPG spill was characterized by the very rapid and violent boiling initially and highly irregular ice formation on the water surface. The measured local boil-off rates of LPG agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions from a moving boundary heat transfer model. The spreading velocity of an LPG spill was found to be constant and determined by the size of the distributor opening. The maximum spreading distance was found to be unaffected by the spilling rate. These observations can be explained by assuming that the ice formation on the water surface controls the spreading of LPG spills. While the mathematical model did not predict the spreading front adequately, it predicted the maximum spreading distance reasonably well.

  5. Sorption of colloids, organics, and metals onto gas-water interfaces: Transport mechanisms and potential remediation technology. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    1998-06-01

    'Although contaminant sorption at mineral surfaces has received much recognition as a major mechanism controlling contaminant behavior in subsurface environments, virtually no attention has been given to the possibility of contaminant sorption at gas-water interfaces. Moreover, no effort has yet been advanced to optimize such interactions for the purpose of facilitating in-situ remediation. Gas-water interfaces, unlike water-solid interfaces, are mobile. Therefore, associations of contaminants with gas-water interfaces can be very important not only in subsurface contaminant distributions, but also in contaminant transport, and potentially in remediation. The first objective of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of interactions between contaminants and gas-water interfaces. The anticipated results will provide insights into the poorly understood phenomenon of contaminant interactions with the gas-water interface, and improve the current conceptual models of contaminant behavior in subsurface environments. The second purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of using surfactant stabilized microbubbles for in-situ remediation. Both pump-and-treat, and air sparging remediation methods are ineffective at displacing contaminants in zones which are advectively inaccessible. Stable microbubbles can migrate beyond preferential flow pathways and enter lower permeability zones by buoyant rise. The microbubbles can deliver oxygen and nutrients for promoting aerobic degradation of organic contaminants, and also deliver surfactants for emulsifying NAPLs.'

  6. Transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs useful as water gas shift catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Patt, Jeremy; Moon, Dong Ju; Phillips, Cory

    2003-09-23

    Mono- and bimetallic transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs (e.g. oxycarbides) for use as water gas shift catalysts are described. In a preferred embodiment, the catalysts have the general formula of M1.sub.A M2.sub.B Z.sub.C O.sub.D, wherein M1 is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and combinations thereof; M2 is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, and combinations thereof; Z is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and combinations thereof; A is an integer; B is 0 or an integer greater than 0; C is an integer; O is oxygen; and D is 0 or an integer greater than 0. The catalysts exhibit good reactivity, stability, and sulfur tolerance, as compared to conventional water shift gas catalysts. These catalysts hold promise for use in conjunction with proton exchange membrane fuel cell powered systems.

  7. MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegional energy challengesLower oil

  8. In Situ Time-Resolved Characterization of Ni-MoO2 Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen,W.; Calderon, J.; Brito, J.; Marinkovic, N.; Hanson, J.; Rodriquez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Active catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS, CO + H2O ? H2 + CO2) reaction were synthesized from nickel molybdates ({beta}-NiMoO4 and nH2O{center_dot}NiMoO4) as precursors, and their structural transformations were monitored using in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. In general, the nickel molybdates were not stable and underwent partial reduction in the presence of CO or CO/H2O mixtures at high temperatures. The interaction of {beta}-NiMoO4 with the WGS reactants at 500 C led to the formation of a mixture of Ni (24 nm particle size) and MoO2 (10 nm particle size). These Ni-MoO2 systems displayed good catalytic activity at 350, 400, and 500 C. At 350 and 400 C, catalytic tests revealed that the Ni-MoO2 system was much more active than isolated Ni (some activity) or isolated MoO2 (negligible activity). Thus, cooperative interactions between the admetal and oxide support were probably responsible for the high WGS activity of Ni-MoO2. In a second synthetic approach, the NiMoO4 hydrate was reduced to a mixture of metallic Ni, NiO, and amorphous molybdenum oxide by direct reaction with H2 gas at 350 C. In the first pass of the water-gas shift reaction, MoO2 appeared gradually at 500 C with a concurrent increase of the catalytic activity. For these catalysts, the particle size of Ni (4 nm) was much smaller than that of the MoO2 (13 nm). These systems were found to be much more active WGS catalysts than Cu-MoO2, which in turn is superior to commercial low-temperature Cu-ZnO catalysts.

  9. Gas Well Drilling and Water Resources Regulated by the Pennsylvania Oil and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    used in drilling and fracking · Recent increase in permit fee to fund new DEP enforcement · Permit fluids ­ return fluids from fracking ­ mixture of water, sand and chemicals Production fluids ­ fluids, manganese, barium, arsenic, etc.) Surfactants/detergents Total suspended solids Oil/Grease Fracking

  10. Effect of GOR, Temperature, and Initial Water Saturation on Solution-Gas Drive in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    of the stock-tank oil from Hamaca field (in Venezuela) used in our tests are 560,000 cp (at 24°C) and 8 on the effect of initial water saturation, solution GOR, and temperature. We used Hamaca stock-tank crude (from of the paper, we will discuss the results, followed by a number of conclusions. Experimental Live Oil. Stock

  11. Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,LocalEfficiency |< Back Eligibility<tool

  12. CenterPoint Energy (Gas) - Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulk to a windowDepartment ofDepartment

  13. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  14. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonfor DirectSciTech Connect Wall-touchingPotentialWater-saving

  15. Feasibility and Treatment of Oil and Gas Produced Water as a Medium for Nannochloropsis Salina cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J.; Dean, Cynthia A.; Yoshida, Thomas M.; Steichen, Seth A.; Laur, Paul A.; Visolay, Alfonz

    2012-06-06

    Some conclusions of this paper are: (1) How much PW is available - (a) Lots, but probably not enough to support the largest estimates of algae production needed, (b) Diluent water is likely needed to support cultivation in some cases, (c) An assessment of how much PW is really available for use is needed; (2) Where is it available - (a) In many places near other resources (land, CO{sub 2}, sunlight, nutrients) and infrastructure (pipelines, refineries, disposal operations/wells); (3) Is the water chemistry acceptable for use - (a) Yes, in many cases with minimal treatment, (b) Additional constituents of value exist in PW for media; (4) Does it need treatment prior to use - (a) Yes, it may often need treatment for organics, some metals, and biological contaminants, (b) Source control and monitoring can reduce need for treatment; (5) How much does it cost to treat it - (a) If desalination is not needed, from <$0.01-$0.60 per m3 is a starting estimate; and (6) Can you grow algae in it - (a) Yes, but we need more experimentation to optimize field conditions, media mixing, and algae types.

  16. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  17. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2012-03-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (â??target areaâ?ť), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a project or an area as one entity to optimize water use and minimize costs subject to regulatory and other constraints. It will facilitate analysis of options and tradeoffs, and will also simplify permitting and reporting to regulatory agencies. The system will help regulators study cumulative impacts of development, conserve water resources, and manage disposal options across a region. It will also allow them to track permits and monitor compliance. The public will benefit from water conservation, improved environmental performance as better system wide decisions are made, and greater supply of natural gas, with attendant lower prices, as costs are reduced and development is assisted through better planning and scheduling. Altogether, better economics and fewer barriers will facilitate recovery of the more than 300 trillion cubic feet of estimated recoverable natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale in a manner that protects the environment.

  19. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  1. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  2. Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6 Weekly 4-Week

  3. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace; Craig Morgan; Stephanie Carney

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  4. Water Deuteration and Ortho-to-Para Nuclear Spin Ratio of H2 in Molecular Clouds Formed via Accumulation of HI Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furuya, K; Hincelin, U; Hassel, G E; Bergin, E A; Vasyunin, A I; Herbst, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the water deuteration ratio and ortho-to-para nuclear spin ratio of H2 (OPR(H2)) during the formation and early evolution of a molecular cloud, following the scenario that accretion flows sweep and accumulate HI gas to form molecular clouds. We follow the physical evolution of post-shock materials using a one-dimensional shock model, with post-processing gas-ice chemistry simulations. This approach allows us to study the evolution of the OPR(H2) and water deuteration ratio without an arbitrary assumption concerning the initial molecular abundances, including the initial OPR(H2). When the conversion of hydrogen into H2 is almost complete, the OPR(H2) is already much smaller than the statistical value of three due to the spin conversion in the gas phase. As the gas accumulates, the OPR(H2) decreases in a non-equilibrium manner. We find that water ice can be deuterium-poor at the end of its main formation stage in the cloud, compared to water vapor observed in the vicinity of low-mass protostars w...

  5. A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant- and water-injected hydraulic fractures induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker

  6. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  7. Diagnosis of "fizz-gas" and gas reservoirs in deep-water environment De-hua Han, X RPL, Houston Unversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .78) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 20 40 60 80 10 Brine Volume (%) Modulas(Mpa 0 6.9Mpa, 20C 34.5Mpa, 40C 69Mpa, 70C 103.5Mpa, 90C Oil Mixture of brine (50000ppm) & gas (0.78) 0 500 1000 1500 2000Mixture of brine (50000ppm) & gas (0.78) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 20 40 60 80 10 Brine Volume

  8. MOF stability and gas adsorption as a function of exposure to water, humid air, SO2, and NO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    the burning of oil, coal, and natural gas [1]. Cur- rent technologies for capturing CO2 from these sources

  9. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  10. Major Fuels","Site Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C1. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel, 1999" ,"All Buildings",,"Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Primary Electricity (trillion Btu)" ,"Number of Buildings...

  11. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport: Simulation of Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing on Groundwater

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore »general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  12. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore »general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  13. Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2012-09-30

    Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, HCN, AsH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}OH, KNO{sub 3}, HBr, HF, and HNO{sub 3}) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts; ferrochrome-based high-temperature WGS catalyst (HT-WGS, Shiftmax 120�, Süd-Chemie), low-temperature Cu/ZnO-based WGS catalyst (LT-WGS, Shiftmax 230�, Süd-Chemie), and iron- and cobalt-based Fischer-Trospch synthesis catalysts (Fe-FT & Co-FT, UK-CAER). In this project, TDA Research, Inc. collaborated with a team at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) led by Dr. Burt Davis. We first conducted a detailed thermodynamic analysis. The three primary mechanisms whereby the contaminants may deactivate the catalyst are condensation, deposition, and reaction. AsH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HCl, NH{sub 3} and HCN were found to have a major impact on the Fe-FT catalyst by producing reaction products, while NaCl, KCl and PH{sub 3} produce trace amounts of deposition products. The impact of the contaminants on the activity, selectivity, and deactivation rates (lifetime) of the catalysts was determined in bench-scale tests. Most of the contaminants appeared to adsorb onto (or react with) the HT- and LT-WGS catalysts were they were co-fed with the syngas: � 4.5 ppmv AsH{sub 3} or 1 ppmv PH{sub 3} in the syngas impacted the selectivity and CO conversion of both catalysts; � H{sub 2}S slowly degraded both WGS catalysts; - A binary mixture of H{sub 2}S (60 ppmv) and NH{sub 3} (38 ppmv) impacted the activity of the LT-WGS catalyst, but not the HT-WGS catalyst � Moderate levels of NH{sub 3} (100 ppmv) or HCN (10 ppmv) had no impact � NaCl or KCl had essentially no effect on the HT-WGS catalyst, but the activity of the LT-WGS catalyst decreased very slowly Long-term experiments on the Co-FT catalyst at 260 and 270 °C showed that all of the contaminants impacted it to some extent with the exception of NaCl and HF. Irrespective of its source (e.g., NH{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, or HNO{sub 3}), ammonia suppressed the activity of the Co-FT catalyst to a moderate degree. There was essentially no impact the Fe-FT catalyst when up to 100 ppmw halide compounds (NaCl and KCl), or up to 40 ppmw alkali bicarbonates (NaHCO{sub 3} and KHCO{sub 3}). After testing, BET analysis showed that the surface areas, and pore volumes and diameters of both WGS catalysts decreased during both single and binary H2S and NH3 tests, which was attributed to sintering and pore filling by the impurities. The HT-WGS catalyst was evaluated with XRD after testing in syngas that contained 1 ppmv PH{sub 3}, or 2 ppmv H{sub 2}S, or both H{sub 2}S (60 ppmv) and NH{sub 3} (38 ppmv). The peaks became sharper during testing, which was indicative of crystal growth and sintering, but no new phases were detected. After LT-WGS tests (3-33 ppmv NH{sub 3} and/or 0-88 ppmv H{sub 2}S) there were a few new phases that appeared, including sulfides. The fresh Fe-FT catalyst was nanocrystalline and amorphous. ICP-AA spectroscopy and other methods (e.g., chromatography) were used to analyze for

  14. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  15. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  16. In Situ Time-Resolved Characterization of Novel Cu-MoO2 Catalysts During the Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen ,W.; Liu, J.; White, M.; Marinkovic, N.; Hanson, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel and active Cu-MoO{sub 2} catalyst was synthesized by partial reduction of a precursor CuMoO{sub 4} mixed-metal oxide with CO or H{sub 2} at 200-250 C. The phase transformations of Cu-MoO{sub 2} during H{sub 2} reduction and the water-gas shift reaction could be followed by In situ time resolved XRD techniques. During the reduction process the diffraction pattern of the CuMoO{sub 4} collapsed and the copper metal lines were observed on an amorphous material background that was assigned to molybdenum oxides. During the first pass of water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, diffraction lines for Cu{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 18} and MoO{sub 2} appeared around 350 C and Cu{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 18} was further transformed to Cu/MoO{sub 2} at higher temperature. During subsequent passes, significant WGS catalytic activity was observed with relatively stable plateaus in product formation around 350, 400 and 500 C. The interfacial interactions between Cu clusters and MoO{sub 2} increased the water-gas shift catalytic activities at 350 and 400 C.

  17. Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry - article no. W06424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P. [US Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

    2008-06-15

    Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 10{sup 6} kg of chloride and 52 x 10{sup 6} kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

  18. Research into the Characterization of Brackish Water and Disposal of Desalination Reject Water in Saline Aquifers and Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Brackish groundwater is a valuable “drought-proof” resource that is plentiful in much of Texas. If treated by available desalination technologies, brackish groundwater resources could help many regions of Texas cope with pressing water shortages...

  19. BTU Accounting for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redd, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Today, as never before, American industry needs to identify and control their most critical resources. One of these is energy. In 1973 and again in 1976, the American public and business was confronted with critical energy supply problems. As a...

  20. Uncertainty quantification of volumetric and material balance analysis of gas reservoirs with water influx using a Bayesian framework 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aprilia, Asti Wulandari

    2007-04-25

    Accurately estimating hydrocarbon reserves is important, because it affects every phase of the oil and gas business. Unfortunately, reserves estimation is always uncertain, since perfect information is seldom available ...

  1. Description of the Science Plan for the April 1995 CoOP Experiment, `Gas Transfer in Coastal Waters',

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    of air-sea gas-transfer rates are essential for understand- ing the global cycles of carbon dioxide that intended to measure both atmospheric and ocean-mixed layer properties. 1 Introduction Accurate estimates

  2. Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide- Polyethylenimine- Dextran Sulfate Polymer Gel System as a Water Shut-Off Agent in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayakumar, Swathika 1986-

    2012-07-09

    Technologies such as horizontal wells and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have made ultra-low permeability shale and tight gas reservoirs productive but the industry is still on the learning curve when it comes to addressing ...

  3. 1992 CBECS C & E

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Natural Gas by End Use, 1989 Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu) Space Water a Total Heating Heating Cooking Other RSE Building Row Characteristics Factor 1.0 NF...

  4. Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre

    2009-09-16

    Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

  5. District of Columbia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242 246,243(BTU per

  6. District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242 246,243(BTU perAccount

  7. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  8. Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heater, Tankless Electric - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters (Storage...

  9. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  10. Earthquake prediction: Gas emission and ground-water changes. (lLtest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forecasting and prediction of earthquakes by observation and measurement of changes in groundwater and gaseous emissions prior to the seismic event. The citations discuss detection and measurement of changes in radon and other gas emissions from fault lines, groundwater, and well holes in earthquake-prone areas. Groundwater chemistry level changes of subsurface waters, and changes in conductive properties of groundwater are presented. Studies on other precursors to large seismic events are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 94 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Effect of Channel Materials on the Behavior of Water Droplet Emerging From GDL into PEMFC Gas Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    (stainless steel, copper, graphite composite, polycarbonate) that are commercially used in PEMFC to evaluate the liquid water removal by conducting both experimental studies (in situ and ex situ) as well

  12. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) fluids, and limited waterEngelder, “Natural gas: Should fracking stop? ” Nature 477 (

  13. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO? nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Si, Rui; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Martinez-Arias, Arturo; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-23

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H?O ? CO?) was studied over CuO/CeO? catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO? (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO? (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO? (ns), suchmore »as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ceł? in CeO? (ns).« less

  14. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO? nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [South-Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Si, Rui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnston-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Martinez-Arias, Arturo [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Hanson, Jonathan C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H?O ? CO?) was studied over CuO/CeO? catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO? (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO? (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO? (ns), such as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ceł? in CeO? (ns).

  15. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  16. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  17. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  18. Individual project/degree project Proposed title: Greenhouse gas emission at different water potentials from soils with the same texture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    potentials from soils with the same texture but contrasting organic matter content Credits: 30 credits Level: Advanced, MSc Subject: Soil Science/Environmental Science Start: Not before October 2013 Background Soil structure is known to play a vital role in greenhouse gas emissions from soil

  19. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  20. Water absorption in Galactic translucent clouds: conditions and history of the gas derived from Herschel/HIFI PRISMAS observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flagey, N; Lis, D C; Gerin, M; Neufeld, D; Sonnentrucker, P; De Luca, M; Godard, B; Goicoechea, J R; Monje, R; Phillips, T G

    2012-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of nine transitions of \\hho and \\hheo towards six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS Key Program. Water vapor in translucent clouds is detected in absorption along every sightline. We derive the column density of \\hho or \\hheo for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total water column density is about a few $10^{13} \\rm{cm^{-2}}$. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is $1\\times10^{-8}$ in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry with high cosmic ray ionization rates. Relative to \\hh, the abundance of water is remarkably constant at $5\\times10^{-8}$. The abundance of water in excited levels is at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature $T_{ex}$ in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. The column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that $T_{ex}\\simeq5$ K and that the density $n($\\hh$)$ in the clouds is $\\le10^4 \\rm{cm^{-3}}$. For most clouds we...