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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Fossil Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuels A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi - Department of Petroleum Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals...

2

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air is heated prior to entering the diffusion tower. Further analytical analysis is required to predict the thermal and mass transport with the air heating configuration.

James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:August 2014 All Issues submit Greening up fossil fuels with...

8

Progress of fossil fuel science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. More than 45% of the world's electricity is generated from coal, and it is the major fuel for generating electricity worldwide. The known coal reserves in the world are enough for more than 215 years of consumption, while the known oil reserves are only about 39 times of the world's consumption and the known natural gas reserves are about 63 times of the world's consumption level in 1998. In recent years, there have been effective scientific investigations on Turkish fossil fuels, which are considerable focused on coal resources. Coal is a major fossil fuel source for Turkey. Turkish coal consumption has been stable over the past decade and currently accounts for about 24% of the country's total energy consumption. Lignite coal has had the biggest share in total fossil fuel production, at 43%, in Turkey. Turkish researchers may investigate ten broad pathways of coal species upgrading, such as desulfurization and oxydesulfurization, pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, liquefaction and hydroliquefaction, extraction and supercritical fluid extraction, gasification, oxidation, briquetting, flotation, and structure identification.

Demirbas, M.F.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Scherer, Norbert F.

11

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hybrid solar-fossil fuel power generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, a literature review of hybrid solar-fossil fuel power generation is first given with an emphasis on system integration and evaluation. Hybrid systems are defined as those which use solar energy and fuel ...

Sheu, Elysia J. (Elysia Ja-Zeng)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

14

Schewel and Schipper 1 FOSSIL FREIGHT: HOW MUCH FOSSIL FUEL DOES IT TAKE TO MOVE FOSSIL1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understanding of the full cost of5 fossil fuel reliance, and help create the foundation for models to analyzeSchewel and Schipper 1 FOSSIL FREIGHT: HOW MUCH FOSSIL FUEL DOES IT TAKE TO MOVE FOSSIL1 FUEL?2.schewel@berkeley.edu)13 UC Berkeley Energy and Resources Group14 310 Barrows Hall15 UC Berkeley16 Berkeley CA 9470917 Cell

Kammen, Daniel M.

15

No Fossils in This Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNationalNewport NewsWayne Hurlbert!M-22UJefferson

16

alternative fossil fuel: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 3 From fossil fuels to renewable energies...

17

Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems May 1, 2014 - 9:33am...

18

A REVIEW OF LIGHT-WATER REACTOR SAFETY STUDIES. VOLUME 3 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACTS OF FOSSIL-FUEL NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA Energy and Environment

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Opportunism and competition in the non-fossil fuel obligation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Opportunism and competition in the non-fossil fuel obligation Paolo Agnolucci July 2005 Tyndall are the responsibility of the author(s) alone and not the Tyndall Centre. #12;Summary The Non-Fossil Fuel Order (NFFO Electricity; Renewable Policy, Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; Moral Hazard; Post-contractual Opportunism #12

Watson, Andrew

20

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

Gurney, Kevin R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy, Climate Topics: GHG inventory, Background...

22

Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Wayne Surdoval, SECA Coordinator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Wayne Surdoval, SECA Coordinator June 3, 2003 SECA Fuel Processing on Fuel Reforming and Alternate Reforming Catalysts *Berry Gardner Shekhawat 1.) Identify Techniques To Hydrogen And Carbon Monoxide. · Reaction temperature ­ High fuel conversion requires higher reforming

23

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by COregional, and national fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbon

Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

E-Print Network 3.0 - assess fossil fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Geosciences 6 EARTH'S CLIMATE, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT, AND ENERGY Summary: ,PgCyr Fossil Fuel Emissions Fossil Fuel - Marland...

27

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric fossil fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 10 EARTH'S CLIMATE, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT, AND ENERGY Summary: ,PgCyr Fossil Fuel Emissions Fossil Fuel - Marland...

28

Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGEFairfield(CTIAdvanced Fossil Fuels

29

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Microsoft Word - Fossil Fuel EA Final EA  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32 Master EMAZINFO DepartmentEMRegulation;

31

fossil fuels | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flats GeothermalElectricsecretary Homeexample Home

32

US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

No Fossil Fuel - Kingston | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico: EnergyMithunCenterInformationNexxus(CTI PFAN)CorpFuel -

34

OpenEI Community - fossil fuels  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/Geothermal < Oklahomast, 2012Coastfred <divmeasures

35

Introduction Fossil fuel combustion by aviation, shipping and road  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fifth of the total global anthropogenic emissions of CO2. These emissions are growing more rapidly than to global CO emissions are estimated to be much smaller, likely due to more efficient fuel combustion. Road96 Introduction Fossil fuel combustion by aviation, shipping and road traffic contributes about one

Haak, Hein

36

Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene's 3D

37

The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sanghvi, M.K. (Amoco Corp., Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Fossil fuel combined cycle power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

40

Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fireside corrosion probes for fossil fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes have been constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in environments consisting of N2/O2/CO2/SO2 plus water vapor. Temperatures ranged from 450 to 700C. Results show that electrochemical corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel are a function of time, temperature, and gaseous environment. Correlation between the electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was poor.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Eden, D.A. (Intercorr International, Houston, TX)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, ceramic, cermet (ceramic/metal), and thin film membranes were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for H{sub 2} transport. For selected ceramic membrane compositions an optimum range for transition metal doping was identified, and it was determined that highest proton conductivity occurred for two-phase ceramic materials. Furthermore, a relationship between transition metal dopant atomic number and conductivity was observed. Ambipolar conductivities of {approx}6 x 10{sup -3} S/cm were achieved for these materials, and {approx} 1-mm thick membranes generated H{sub 2} transport rates as high as 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Cermet membranes during this quarter were found to have a maximum conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, which occurred at a metal phase contact of 36 vol.%. Homogeneous dense thin films were successfully prepared by tape casting and spin coating; however, there remains an unacceptably high difference in shrinkage rates between the film and support, which led to membrane instability. Further improvements in high pressure membrane seals also were achieved during this quarter, and a maximum pressure of 100 psig was attained. CoorsTek optimized many of the processing variables relevant to manufacturing scale production of ceramic H{sub 2} transport membranes, and SCI used their expertise to deposit a range of catalysts compositions onto ceramic membrane surfaces. Finally, MTI compiled relevant information regarding Vision 21 fossil fuel plant operation parameters, which will be used as a starting point for assessing the economics of incorporating a H{sub 2} separation unit.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global warming Researchers ScienceDaily (July 30, 2010) -- Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels analyzed the impacts of soot from fossil fuels -- diesel, coal, gasoline, jet fuel -- and from solid

47

Classification of fossil fuels according to structural-chemical characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of a set of linear equations that relate the amount of major elements n{sub E} (E = C, H, O, N, S) in the organic matter of fossil fuels to structural characteristics, such as the number of cycles R, the number of atoms n{sub E}, the number of mutual chemical bonds, the degree of unsaturation of the structure {delta}, and the extent of its reduction B, a structural-chemical classification of fossil coals that is closely related to the parameters of the industrial-genetic classification (GOST 25543-88) is proposed. Structural-chemical classification diagrams are constructed for power-generating coals of Russia; coking coals; and coals designed for nonfuel purposes including the manufacture of adsorbents, synthetic liquid fuel, ion exchangers, thermal graphite, and carbon-graphite materials.

A.M. Gyul'maliev; G.S. Golovin; S.G. Gagarin [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy of fossil-fuel energy systems. These scenarios are analysed for various environmental and health impacts from fossil fuels and other energy sources reported by IEA []. In all of these countries except Kenya

Kammen, Daniel M.

49

Assessing and ordering investments in polluting fossil-fueled and zero-carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No 49-2013 Assessing and ordering investments in polluting fossil-fueled and zero-carbon capital in polluting fossil-fueled and zero-carbon capital Abstract Climate change mitigation requires to replace Series hal-00866442,version1-30Sep2013 #12;Assessing and ordering investments in polluting fossil-fueled

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Ethical Corporation: By Invitation -Climate change: Calling the fossil fuel abolitionists EC Newsdesk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethical Corporation: By Invitation - Climate change: Calling the fossil fuel abolitionists EC Newsdesk 28 May 08 Where is the green Wilberforce? By Invitation: Climate change: Calling the fossil fuel? The answer lies in the parallels between ending our dependence on fossil- fuels and the abolition of slavery

Hoffman, Andrew J.

51

What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy. Assessing the viability of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in today's and future the world. The consequences from anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels experienced over the last few decades

Iglesia, Enrique

52

Dirty Little Secrets: Inferring Fossil-Fuel Subsidies from Patterns in Emission Intensities1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dirty Little Secrets: Inferring Fossil-Fuel Subsidies from Patterns in Emission Intensities1 database of directly measured fossil-fuel subsidies exists at the in- ternational level. I develop and to develop a database of comparable fossil-fuel subsidies for 155 countries from 1980 to 2010. Finally, I

Spino, Claude

53

Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

changes resulting from fossil-fuel CO 2 release and cosmic-for recently added fossil fuel CO 2 in the atmosphere anddioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

PCI INSTRUMENT FOR HYDROGENATION STUDIES As we are aware, earth is fast running out of fossil fuels. Additionally, use of fossil fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PCI INSTRUMENT FOR HYDROGENATION STUDIES As we are aware, earth is fast running out of fossil fuels. Additionally, use of fossil fuels contributes to pollution and global warming. Solar energy is envisaged as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional fuels. The multi-organization project "Generation, Storage

Subramaniam, Anandh

55

Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere ?14CO2: Post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO 2 Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cementof seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Tellus,contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,

Randerson, J. T; Enting, I. G; Schuur, E. A. G; Caldeira, K.; Fung, I. Y

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementannual variations in fossil fuel emissions, J. Geophys.2008 Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, it was demonstrated that increasing the transition metal loading in a model perovskite composition resulted in an increase in hydrogen flux. Improved flux corresponded to the emergence of additional phases in the ceramic membrane, and highest flux was achieved for a composite consisting of pseudo-cubic and rhombohedral perovskite phases. A 0.9-mm thick membrane of this material generated a hydrogen flux in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which was approximately 35 times greater than analogs with lower transition metal levels. The dopant level and crystal structure also correlated with membrane density and coefficient of thermal expansion, but did not appear to affect grain size or shape. Additionally, preliminary ceramic-metal (cermet) composite membranes demonstrated a 10-fold increase in flux relative to analogous membranes composed of only the ceramic component. The hydrogen flux for these cermet samples corresponded to a conductivity of {approx} 10{sup -3} S/cm, which was consistent with the predicted proton conductivity of the ceramic phase. Increasing the sweep gas flow rate in test reactors was found to significantly increase hydrogen flux, as well as apparent material conductivity for all samples tested. Adding humidity to the feed gas stream produced a small increase in hydrogen flux. However, the catalyst on ceramic membrane surfaces did not affect flux, which suggested that the process was membrane-diffusion limited. Representative samples and fabrication processes were evaluated on the basis of manufacturing practicality. it was determined that optimum membrane densification occurs over a very narrow temperature range for the subject ceramics. Additionally, calcination temperatures currently employed result in powders that are difficult mill and screen. These issues must be addressed to improve large-scale fabricability.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard A. Mackay; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Tim R. Armstrong; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and their team members are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, new cermet compositions were tested that demonstrated similar performance to previous materials. A 0.5-mm thick membrane achieved at H{sub 2} transport rate of 0.2 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C, which corresponded to an ambipolar conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Although these results were equivalent to those for other cermet compositions, this new composition might be useful if it demonstrates improved chemical or mechanical stability. Ceramic/ceramic composite membranes also were fabricated and tested; however, some reaction did occur between the proton- and electron-conducting phases, which likely compromised conductivity. This sample only achieved a H{sub 2} transport rate of {approx} 0.006 mL/min/cm{sup 2} and an ambipolar conductivity of {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} S/cm. Chemical stability tests were continued, and candidate ceramic membranes were found to react slightly with carbon monoxide under extreme testing conditions. A cermet compositions did not show any reaction with carbon monoxide, but a thick layer of carbon formed on the membrane surface. The most significant technical accomplishment this quarter was a new high-pressure seal composition. This material maintained a pressure differential across the membrane of {approx} 280 psi at 800 C, and is still in operation.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; M.K. Ferber; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize hydrogen permeation without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, a composite metal membrane based on an inexpensive hydrogen permeable metal achieved permeation rates in excess of 25 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary attempts to incorporate this metal into a cermet were successful, and a thick cermet membrane (0.83 mm) with 40 vol.% metal phase achieved a permeation rate of nearly 0.4 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Increasing the metal phase content and decreasing membrane thickness should significantly increase permeation, while maintaining the benefits derived from cermets. Two-phase ceramic/ceramic composite membranes had low hydrogen permeability, likely due to interdiffusion of constituents between the phases. However, these materials did demonstrate high resistance to corrosion, and might be good candidates for other composite membranes. Temperature-programmed reduction measurements indicated that model cermet materials absorbed 2.5 times as much hydrogen than the pure ceramic analogs. This characteristic, in addition to higher electron conductivity, likely explains the relatively high permeation for these cermets. Incorporation of catalysts with ceramics and cermets increased hydrogen uptake by 800 to more than 900%. Finally, new high-pressure seals were developed for cermet membranes that maintained a pressure differential of 250 psi. This result indicated that the approach for high-pressure seal development could be adapted for a range of compositions. Other items discussed in this report include mechanical testing, new proton conducting ceramics, supported thin films, and alkane to olefin conversion.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart R. Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH AND RELATED STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 2 OF HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Fossil-Fu.e l and Geothermal Power Plants", Lawrencefrom fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants Control offrom fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants Radionuclide

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Title: Strategic Investing for a Sustainable Future: A New Approach to the Campaign for Divestment in the Fossil Fuel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Fossil Fuel Industry Host: Charles H. Greene, Director, Ocean Resources and Ecosystems Program to encourage university divestment in the fossil fuel industry is achieving national attention. Student groups to convince the fossil fuel industry that it must play a constructive role in the transition from fossil fuels

Angenent, Lars T.

65

Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to increased CO2. Accurate knowledge of the net forcing due to fossil fuel combustion is necessary both. The sulfate forcing is estimated to be offsetting 70% of the forcing by CO2 derived from fossil fuel is comparable to that by CO2 is shown to be a consequence of the steeply increasing rates of emissions over

Schwartz, Stephen E.

69

Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements J. Ray1, V: Develop a technique to estimate anthropogenic (fossil- fuel) CO2 emissions from sparse observations · Motivations: ­ An alternative to estimating ffCO2 emission using bottom-up (economic model) techniques

Ray, Jaideep

70

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Environmental Law and Fossil Fuels: Barriers to Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article is concerned with renewable energys too-slow transition and with how existing legal regimes work to preserve fossil energy dominance. It develops from two related claims: that an implicit support structure for fossil energy is written...

Outka, Uma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

73

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fuel cell water transport  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Atmospheric O2//N2 changes, 19932002: Implications for the partitioning of fossil fuel CO2 sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric O2//N2 changes, 1993­­2002: Implications for the partitioning of fossil fuel CO2. Cassar (2005), Atmospheric O2/N2 changes, 1993­2002: Implications for the partitioning of fossil fuel CO2. The O2/N2 ratio of air is falling because combustion of fossil fuel and biomass both con- sume O2

Ho, David

76

Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome, 6 au 10 juillet 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome : Italy (2009)" #12;Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome, 6 au 10 juillet 2009 2 FFiigguurree 11

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for eachindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by (

Riley, W.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

Tora, Eman

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hansen,3 T. W. Kirchstetter,1 M. Sato,3 J. E. Sinton,1 and J. A. Sathaye1 Received 26 September 2002, M. Sato, J. E. Sinton, and J. A. Sathaye, Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon

84

EMGeo: Risk Minimizing Software for Finding Offshore Fossil Fuels by Fluid Identification  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

Berkeley Lab researchers Greg Newman and Michael Commer have developed advanced software for discovering and mapping offshore fossil fuel deposits. When combined with established seismic methods, this software makes possible direct imaging of reservoir fluids....

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

Woodfuel scoping study Increasing the use of woodfuel as a substitute for fossil fuels is important  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Woodfuel scoping study Increasing the use of woodfuel as a substitute for fossil fuels is important tonnes of material a year from currently UMW in England by 2020. New government subsidies for heat

86

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This paper was prepared in response to recent requests that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide updated summary information regarding fossil fuel production on federal and...

87

Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin,...

88

Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities Biomass energy input basis in the upcoming calendar year? - Please check "yes" or "no." 12. Types of Biomass Fuel Used - Please report the quantity and supplier of the following types of biomass fuel used

90

Letter to the editor The bio-fuel debate and fossil energy use in palm oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letter to the editor The bio-fuel debate and fossil energy use in palm oil production: a critique-fuels based on palm oil to re- duce greenhouse gas emissions, due account should be taken of carbon emissions fuel use in palm oil pro- duction, making a number of assumptions that I believe to be incorrect

91

Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataCombinedDepartment2015Services »of(BENEFIT) -Archived EACFailures |Systems

92

2004 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Annual report of fuel cell projects sponsored by Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory.

NETL

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

94

Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder, CO) Jump

95

Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlansBuildings and MajorFuels

96

Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

Bohac, C.E.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Specific Considerations Fossil Fuel Coal r. a. b. Normalliquid dominated) and fossil-fuel fired (either coal, oil,Specific Cons iderations Fossil Fuel Coal Oil 1. 1. 3. L 1

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlansBuildings and Major

99

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle BatteryofDisability Services DisabilityConsumption

100

RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH AND RELATED STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 2 OF HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA Energy and Environment

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

102

Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energys Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nations energy security through more effective utilization of our countrys resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds" Give Forms (All forms are inForms

104

METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Fossil-Fuel and Geothermal Power Plants", Lawrenceof fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Choosing whatfor solid waste in geothermal power plants is the same as

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings in a Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.

106

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Topical report 1978-80  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Exxon, Mountain Fuel, Cities Service/Rockwell, Westinghouse, BGC slagging Lurgi and Peatgas processes for fossil fuel gasification were evaluated. The Lurgi and HYGAS processes had been evaluated in earlier studies. For producing SNG from coal, only the Westinghouse conceptual design appeared competitive with HYGAS on eastern coal. All coal gasification processes were competitive with or better than Lurgi on eastern coal. The Mountain Fuel process was more costly than Lurgi or HYGAS on a western coal.

Detman, R.F.

1982-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

110

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

An Evaluation of some Health Risks of the Pollution from Fossil Fuel Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Attempts for integrating the health effects of air pollution in a global evaluation of damage have been94-27 An Evaluation of some Health Risks of the Pollution from Fossil Fuel Combustion Guy Landrieu. As in the reference methodology/ we particularly consider the effects on human health of particulate matter in air

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

ith fossil-fuel combustion and land-use activities threatening to double  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that undisturbed neotropical forests remove a significant portion of human-derived CO2 emissions fromW ith fossil-fuel combustion and land- use activities threatening to double atmospheric carbon indicate that CO2 doubling enhances the production of woody tissue per unit leaf area by about 25% (ref. 5

Chambers, Jeff

114

Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential than emissions in the United States to perturb the global oxidizing power of the atmosphere. #12% of NOx concentrations in the lower and middle troposphere throughout the extratropical northern of the ocean. Sources in the United States are found to contribute about half of the fossil fuel NOx over

Jacob, Daniel J.

115

Energy Conclave 2010 The global energy concerns of depleting fossil fuels and climate change have put  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of providing clean and green energy. Energy Conclave 2010 8th - 15th The global energy concerns of depleting fossil fuels and climate done in the area of energy and to set guidelines for the future. The `Energy Conclave 2010' provided

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

116

AN EVALUATION OF THE WILDLIFE IMPACTS OF OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT RELATIVE TO FOSSIL FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EVALUATION OF THE WILDLIFE IMPACTS OF OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT RELATIVE TO FOSSIL FUEL POWER. Jarvis All Rights Reserved #12;AN EVALUATION OF THE WILDLIFE IMPACTS OF OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT in offshore wind energy. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Jeremy Firestone

Firestone, Jeremy

117

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October, 2008 Contract #05-310 "Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Continuous Emissions Monitoring CHP Combined Heat and Power CO2 Carbon Dioxide DMV Department of Motor

118

Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

McGraw, Jennifer

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

119

Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

McGraw, Jennifer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multi-state spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multi-state perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. Keywords: Fossil-fuel; Carbon dioxide emissions; Sectoral; Spatial cluster; Emissions mitigation policy

Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[Lingenfelter, 1963], re-entrainment of older stratospheric air in the troposphere [Hesshaimer and Levin, 2000Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America-scale fossil fuel plumes in surface air. We collected corn (Zea mays) across North America during the summer

Krakauer, Nir Y.

123

Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 119 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Assessment of a multi-stage underwater vehicle concept using a fossil-fuel Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Stirling Engine because of its inherent closed-cycle operation can be readily modified to work in an airless environment even if the primary source of energy is a fossil fuel. Thus, Stirling engines are well suited for use in the underwater environment and have been operated successfully in manned military submarines since the early 1980s. In recent years fossil fueled Stirling systems have been also proposed for use in small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). However, in this case the need to carry an onboard oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design difficulties. These are identified in the paper. However, if the oxidant supply to the engine is provided by the membrane extraction of dissolved oxygen from seawater and/or disposable fuel/oxidant pods are used then the UUV Stirling system becomes more attractive. If this latter concept is extended to include multi-stage vehicles then it can be shown that fossil fueled Stirlings could also be put to effective use in long range-long endurance underwater vehicular operations.

Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

Mahowald, Natalie

126

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Related Standards for Fossil-Fuel and Geo- thermal Powerposed Nuclear, Geothermal, and Fossil-Fuel Sites and Facili-NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

Bergman, H.L.

1980-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

128

A REVIEW OF LIGHT-WATER REACTOR SAFETY STUDIES. VOLUME 3 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charges Relating to Nuclear Reactor Safety," 1976, availablestudies of light-water nuclear reactor safety, emphasizingstudies of overall nuclear reactor safety have been

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

EA-1778: Proposed Rule, 10 CFR 433 and 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Rule, 10 CFR Part 433, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and 10 CFR Part 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

130

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

131

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

Krakowski, R.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin

135

Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButlerTransportation6/14/11 Page 1 of 17TurbinesTurning Water

136

Report Title: The Fossil Fuel Industry in New Mexico: A Comprehensive Impact Analysis Type of Report: Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuels 33 Summary Impacts 40 Works Cited 45 #12;3 List of Tables Table Title Page 1 Tax and Income Data0 Report Title: The Fossil Fuel Industry in New Mexico: A Comprehensive Impact Analysis Type AWARD Number: DE-NT0004397 Name and Address of Submitting Organization: Arrowhead Center New Mexico

Johnson, Eric E.

138

CONTROL OF POPULATION DENSITIES SURROUNDING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 5 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA Energy and Environment

Nero, jA.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA Energy and Environment

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A REVIEW OF AIR QUALITY MODELING TECHNIQUES. VOLUME 8 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA Energy and Environment

Rosen, L.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Wilson, Kirk A. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, has resulted in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel, combined with the expanded demand for biofuels, will result in higher food prices, since less land by using biofuels (vegetable oils). But the use of biofuels may not reduce CO2 emissions, even when

143

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled ??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. EPA), 2005.. Emission Inventory Improvement Program,National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Annex 8A.2: Reportingin the fossil CO 2 emissions inventories, and verify whether

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendalow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

152

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

153

Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles...

154

FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

Zitney, S.E.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Fossil Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlans |Updatedof Fossil Energy

156

Fossil Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlans |Updatedof Fossil

157

Summary of research on hydrogen production from fossil fuels conducted at NETL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this presentation we will summarize the work performed at NETL on the production of hydrogen via partial oxidation/dry reforming of methane and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide. We have determined that high pressure resulted in greater carbon formation on the reforming catalysts, lower methane and CO2 conversions, as well as a H2/CO ratio. The results also showed that Rh/alumina catalyst is the most resistant toward carbon deposition both at lower and at higher pressures. We studied the catalytic partial oxidation of methane over Ni-MgO solid solutions supported on metal foams and the results showed that the foam-supported catalysts reach near-equilibrium conversions of methane and H2/CO selectivities. The rates of carbon deposition differ greatly among the catalysts, varying from 0.24 mg C/g cat h for the dipped foams to 7.0 mg C/g cat h for the powder-coated foams, suggesting that the exposed Cr on all of the foam samples may interact with the Ni-MgO catalyst to kinetically limit carbon formation. Effects of sulfur poisoning on reforming catalysts were studies and pulse sulfidation of catalyst appeared to be reversible for some of the catalysts but not for all. Under pulse sulfidation conditions, the 0.5%Rh/alumina and NiMg2Ox-1100C (solid solution) catalysts were fully regenerated after reduction with hydrogen. Rh catalyst showed the best overall activity, less carbon deposition, both fresh and when it was exposed to pulses of H2S. Sulfidation under steady state conditions significantly reduced catalyst activity. Decomposition of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur was studied over several supported metal oxides and metal oxide catalysts at a temperature range of 650-850C. H2S conversions and effective activation energies were estimated using Arrhenius plots. The results of these studies will further our understanding of catalytic reactions and may help in developing better and robust catalysts for the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels

Shamsi, Abolghasem

2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Coal-water mixture fuel burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

159

Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known signal-to-noise problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

160

Estimates of health risks associated with radionuclide emissions from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Title III, Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform a study of the hazards to public resulting from pollutants emitted by electric utility system generating units. Radionuclides are among the groups of pollutants listed in the amendment. This report updates previously published data and estimates with more recently available information regarding the radionuclide contents of fossil fuels, associated emissions by steam-electric power plants, and potential health effects to exposed population groups.

Nelson, C.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of residual fuel oil are identical in the inventory and inCARB SEDS inventory fuel use Residual fuel oil Distillatein their oil and gas extraction processes. In its inventory,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energy fromCommentsRevolving STATEMENT OF PeterSafety

163

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal Unit Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery Total fuel useduse of thermally enhanced oil recovery process (TEOR). TEOR

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources for countries heavily reliant on imported fuels4 . Why CCS is not just a synonym for `clean coal

166

1989 annual book of ASTM standards. Section 5: Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This standards volume covers test methods for rating motor, diesel, and aviation fuels. The standards include: Standard test method for knock characteristics of motor and aviation fuels by the motor method and Standard test method for knock characteristics of motor fuels by the research method.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Fossil Fuel-fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf JumpFlixMapFile Jump to:ForseoMcKinley,Worth,Foss and

168

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder,Research JumpEnergyEnergyOpenStorageSources

169

Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rate than for the recent period 1960-2000. Concerning peak fossil fuel, for the most common scenario the currently observed (1998-2013)temperature plateau will turn into a decrease. The observed trend to date for temperature is compared with that for global climate disasters: these peaked in 2005 and are notably decreasing. The temperature and disaster results taken together are consistent with either a reduced business-as-usual fossil fuel use scenario into the future, or a peak fossil fuel scenario, but not with the standard business-as-usu...

Leggett, L M W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

An advanced fuel cell simulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel cell power generation systems provide a clean alternative to the conventional fossil fuel based systems. Fuel cell systems have a high e?ciency and use easily available hydrocarbons like methane. Moreover, since the by-product is water...

Acharya, Prabha Ramchandra

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Arif, Muhammad [NIST

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prepared by Booz-Allen & Hamilton. January. California AirRail Fuel In 1991 Booz-Allen & Hamilton developed a 1987

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdf Flash2010-57.pdfDepartment of EnergyCrossword

174

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1 March

175

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1 March2

176

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1 March23

177

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1 March23

178

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1 March23

179

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1 March232

180

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.16 Table

182

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.16 Table7

183

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.16 Table78

184

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.16

185

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.160 Table

186

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year JanC.9.3. Receipts8.160 Table1

187

Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: December 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface1 E nOfficeDeptEnergy, Office of

188

Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: September 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface1 E nOfficeDeptEnergy, Office

189

March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For3 Marchof Energy, Office

190

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shownshortHouseholdsValues No.

191

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite ForPropertiestoDept of Energy,Energy,OSTI,

192

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite JC-118794ArgonneAnalysingConversionSciencesEnergy,

193

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy, science, and technology for the research community

194

EMGeo: Risk Minimizing Software for Finding Offshore Fossil Fuels by Fluid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironment > Voluntary ReportingAbout Us Doc.prepared by

195

Better batteries to break dependence on fossil fuels > EMC2 News > The  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch HighlightsToolsBESEnergy Department to Provide $75Energy

196

March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fund LasDubey selected asMarat Valiev Maratof Energy,Energy,

197

July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart ofMeasuringInformation 9Structure Using AminoOffice ofOSTI,

198

June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart ofMeasuringInformation 9Structure UsingOffice ofOSTI, US Dept

199

NREL: Technology Deployment - Fossil Fuel Dependency Falls from 100% to 56%  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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200

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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202

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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203

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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204

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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205

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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206

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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207

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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208

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing, anManagement andNuclear

209

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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210

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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211

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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212

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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213

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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214

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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215

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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216

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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217

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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218

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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219

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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220

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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222

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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223

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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224

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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225

1989 annual book of ASTM standards. Section 5: Petroleum products, lubricants and fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume of standards pertains to petroleum products and lubricants and to catalysts. The standards presented include: Standard test method for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion of petroleum fuels; Standard guide for generation and dissipation of static electricity in petroleum fuel systems; and Standard test method for solidification point of petroleum wax.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Report on fuel pool water loss tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To resolve potential concerns on the integrity of the fuel storage pool at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a highly accurate testing technique was developed to quantify water losses from the pool. The fuel pool is an unlined, single wall, reinforced concrete structure containing approximately 818,000 gallons of water. Since an initial test indicated that water losses could possibly be attributed solely to evaporation, a cover was suspended and sealed over the pool to block evaporation losses. High accuracy water level and temperature instrumentation was procured and installed. The conclusions of this report indicate that unaccounted-for water losses from the pool are insignificant and there is no detectable leakage within the range of test accuracy.

Zalenski, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., West Valley, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project ??DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases.? This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

Hai Xiao; Junhang Dong; Jerry Lin; Van Romero

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

OPTIMAL OPERATION OF AN INTEGRATED ENERGY PARK INCLUDING FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion turbine, and wind generation. Energy park com- ponents are modeled using energy and mass balances with daily electricity price variability and mean wind generation. Taken in total, this study quantifies components to maximize operating profit given fuel prices, hourly electricity price, and hourly wind

Stanford University

230

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities conducted under this contract include studies on the combustion and fireside behavior of numerous coal-water fuels (CWFs). The work has been broken down into the following areas: Task 1 -- Selection of Candidate Fuels; Task 2 -- Bench Scale Tests; Task 3 -- CWF Preparation and Supply; Task 4 -- Combustion Characterization; Task 5 -- Ash Deposition and Performance Testing; Task 6 -- Commercial Applications. This report covers Task 6, the study of commercial applications of CWFs as related to the technical and economic aspects of the conversion of existing boilers and heaters to CWF firing. This work involves the analysis of seven units of various sizes and configurations firing several selected CWFs. Three utility boilers, two industrial boilers, and two process heater designs are included. Each of the units was considered with four primary selected CWFs. A fifth fuel was considered for one of the utility units. A sixth fuel, a microfine grind CWF, was evaluated on two utility units and one industrial unit. The particular fuels were chosen with the objective of examining the effects of coal source, ash level, ash properties, and beneficiation on the CWF performance and economics of the seven units. 10 refs., 81 figs., 80 tabs.

Beal, H.R.; Gralton, G.W.; Gronauer, T.W.; Liljedahl, G.N.; Love, B.F.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Risk assessment of toxic pollutants from fossil fuel power plants: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development and application of a methodology for assessing the control costs and chronic health risks of toxic pollutant emissions from coal-fired electric power plants. The approach emphasizes surface water discharges and pollution, but incorporates emissions to air, water, soil, and groundwater and transfers of pollutants between these media. The components of the general framework include (1) pollutant emission characterization, (2) environmental transport and fate analysis, (3) population exposure calculation, and (4) quantitative health risk assessment. The report provides a basic overview of the approach, discusses each component in detail, and describes its application to an hypothetical, simplified case study. 234 refs., 32 figs., 32 tabs.

Bolten, J.G.; Morrison, P.F.; Solomon, K.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Control of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants: Research and practice of TPRI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generation of electric power in China has been dominated by coal for many years. By the end of 1990, total installed generating capacity reached 135 GW, of which fossil fuel-fired plants accounted for 74 percent. The total electricity generated reached 615 TWh, with fossil fuels accounting for 80.5 percent. About 276 million tons of raw coal are consumed in these fossil fuel-burning units per year, accounting for about 25 percent of the total output of the country. According to the government, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity of Chinese power systems should be at least 240 GW, of which fossil fuels will account for about 77 percent. The coal required for power generation will increase to about 530 million tons per year, accounting for about 38 percent of the total coal output. So, it is obvious that coal consumed in coal-fired power plants occupies a very important place in the national fuel balance. The current environmental protection standards, which are based on ground-level concentrations of pollutants, do not effectively lead to the control of pollution emission concentrations or total SO{sub 2} emissions. Due to the practical limitations of the Chinese economy, there is a limited capability to introduce advanced sulfur emission control technologies. Thus, except for the two 360 MW units imported from Japan for the Luohuang Power Plant in Shichuan province, all the other fossil fuel-fired units have not yet adopted any kind of SO{sub 2} removal measures. The Luohuang units are equipped with Mitsubishi limestone flue gas desulfurization systems. Because of the lack of effective pollution control technologies, large areas of the country have been seriously polluted by SO{sub 2}, and some of them even by acid rain.

Ming-Chuan Zhang

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to...

234

TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Final report 1978-83  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technical evaluations performed prior to 1981 were published as a separate document, Topical Reports 1978-1980, by C F Braun and Co, November 1982, Report No. GRI-80/0168. These evaluations include the Cities Service-Rockwell, Exxon Catalytic, Mountain Fuels, Slagging Lurgi, U-Gas, and Westinghouse processes for coal gasification, the Peatgas process for peat gasification, the GE Membrane process for acid gas removal, and an integrated test facility for use in the development of gasification processes. Evaluations performed in the 1981 to 1983 period are included in the present document, the Final Report. These evaluations include the Westinghouse process for coal gasification, the Engelhard, Stone and Webster and Texaco processes for gasification of coal derived liquids, the Catalysis Research Corporation (CRC) process for direct methanation of raw gas streams, and the CNG Research Company process for removal of acid gases from coal gasification process streams. Other recent investigations include the evaluation of materials of construction, fundamental design data, and heat recovery technology for coal gasification processes.

Johnson, C.D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with hydrogen economy scenario. 4. Research Approach and Results Survey of fuel cell water ASU lab fuel cell Capacity (kW) 5 ­ 150 5 ­ 250 5 50 ­ 1100 100 ­ 2000 100 ­ 250 PEM Fuel cell Oxygen (From air) Hydrogen Implications of Using water from Fuel Cells in a Hydrogen Economy · Hydrogen as an energy and water carrier

Keller, Arturo A.

238

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and water concerns associated with fossil fuel based electric power generation. The NETL Fuel Cell Program maintains a portfolio of RD&D projects that address the technical issues...

239

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

Zhicheng Wang

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Advanced ceramic cladding for water reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives (NERI) program, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed as cladding for water reactor fuel elements. The purpose is to substantially increase the passive safety of water reactors. A development effort was initiated in 1991 to fabricate CFCC-clad tubes using commercially available fibers and a sol-gel process developed by McDermott Technologies. Two small-diameter CFCC tubes were fabricated using pure alumina and alumina-zirconia fibers in an alumina matrix. Densities of {approximately}60% of theoretical were achieved. Higher densities are required to guarantee fission gas containment. This NERI work has just begun, and only preliminary results are presented herein. Should the work prove successful, further development is required to evaluate CFCC cladding and performance, including in-pile tests containing fuel and exploring a marriage of CFCC cladding materials with suitable advanced fuel and core designs. The possibility of much higher temperature core designs, possibly cooled with supercritical water, and achievement of plant efficiencies {ge}50% would be examined.

Feinroth, H.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a 100 million fuel cell award...

243

Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part I: Fuel cell design and in situ water distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

schematically in Fig. 1, a fuel cell supplies two reactant streams, consisting of a fuel (hydrogen, H2Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part I: Fuel cell design and in situ water. Trabolda, * a General Motors Fuel Cell Laboratory, 10 Carriage Street, Honeoye Falls, New York, USA b

Kandlikar, Satish

244

Dual-water mixture fuel burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

Brown, Thomas D. (Finleyville, PA); Reehl, Douglas P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Walbert, Gary F. (Library, PA)

1986-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

245

Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fuel traps: mapping stability via water association.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology required for attaining a hydrogen-based economy. Fundamental research can reveal the underlying principles controlling hydrogen uptake and release by storage materials, and also aid in characterizing and designing novel storage materials. New ideas for hydrogen storage materials come from exploiting the properties of hydrophobic hydration, which refers to water s ability to stabilize, by its mode of association, specific structures under specific conditions. Although hydrogen was always considered too small to support the formation of solid clathrate hydrate structures, exciting new experiments show that water traps hydrogen molecules at conditions of low temperatures and moderate pressures. Hydrogen release is accomplished by simple warming. While these experiments lend credibility to the idea that water could form an environmentally attractive alternative storage compound for hydrogen fuel, which would advance our nation s goals of attaining a hydrogen-based economy, much work is yet required to understand and realize the full potential of clathrate hydrates for hydrogen storage. Here we undertake theoretical studies of hydrogen in water to establish a firm foundation for predictive work on clathrate hydrate H{sub 2} storage capabilities. Using molecular simulation and statistical mechanical theories based in part on quantum mechanical descriptions of molecular interactions, we characterize the interactions between hydrogen and liquid water in terms of structural and thermodynamic properties. In the process we validate classical force field models of hydrogen in water and discover new features of hydrophobic hydration that impact problems in both energy technology and biology. Finally, we predict hydrogen occupancy in the small and large cages of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, a property unresolved by previous experimental and theoretical work.

Rempe, Susan L.; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Alam, Todd M; Leung, Kevin; Varma, Sameer; Sabo, Dubravko; Martin, Marcus Gary; Cygan, Randall Timothy

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

Chen, Kevin

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel power plants. However,power plants, which are reviewed and licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and relatively few areas of geothermal and

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Advanced fossil energy utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 2630, 2009.

Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Catherine Chan & Lauren Isbell objectives Important variables that lead to results Conclusion #12;Basic Operation of a PEM Fuel Cell fuel cell? A flow channel? The importance of water management Experimental setup and methods Project

Petta, Jason

253

Optimization of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT aimed at investigating the potential benefits of hydride fuel use in light water reactors (LWRs). This pursuit involves ...

Shuffler, Carter Alexander

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

antarctic fossil record: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

He said the fossils have been Machel, Hans 465 Dirty Little Secrets: Inferring Fossil-Fuel Subsidies from Patterns in Emission Intensities1 Chemistry Websites Summary: Dirty...

255

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Testing, and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization This presentation, which focuses on...

256

Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Studies Fundamental Issues in Subzero PEMFC Startup and Operation Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization...

257

Surface Wettability Impact on Water Management in PEM Fuel Cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Excessive water formation inside the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells structures leads to the flooding of the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) and cathode (more)

Al Shakhshir, Saher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Fuel reforming for fuel cell application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fossil fuels, such as natural gas, petroleum, and coal are currently the primary source of energy that drives the world economy. However, fossil fuel is (more)

Hung, Tak Cheong

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Sandia National Laboratories: Water, Energy, and Natural Resource...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

through the consistent and sustainable delivery of resources, including fresh water, sustainable energy (fossil fuel, solar, geothermal, wind) and food; just a few of the...

263

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Brian Holsclaw West- 2H2O e- e- e- e- e- H+ H+ H+ Membrane + Schematic of a PEMFC Operation #12;PFR PEM Fuel Cell Plug for membrane Two-phase flow in channels #12;CSTR PEM Fuel Cell Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) "Perfect

Petta, Jason

265

Study of Fuel Cell Water Transport With Neutron Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detector system, constructing computer controlled fuel cell handling mechanism and optimizing dataStudy of Fuel Cell Water Transport With Neutron Imaging David Jacobson (NIST) Paul Huffman (NIST in fully assembled operating fuel cells. Develop a nuclear reactor based state of the art neutron imaging

266

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Candidate Fuels for Vehicle Fuel Cell Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Petroleum, HEV Gasoline, Petroleum, ICEV Energy, MJ/mi Vehicle: Petroleum Vehicle: Other Fossil Fuel Vehicle: Non Fossil Fuel Fuel Chain: Petroleum Fuel Chain: Other Fossil Fuel Fuel Chain: Non Fossil Fuel price premium · Subsidies/taxes · Supply chain (natural gas, materials) · Fuel economy · FCV and fueling

268

Influence of fossil energy applications on environmental pollution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to investigate influence of fossil energy applications on the environmental pollution. Turkey's high rate of economic growth experienced during much of the 1990s, besides resulting in booming industrial production, also led to higher levels of energy consumption, imports, air and water pollution, and greater risks to the country's environment. Air pollution is a major problem in Turkey, with key pollutants including sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. In Turkey, carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels totaled about 50.07 million tons in 2001. However, fuel share of carbon emissions in 2001 was oil 44.2%, coal 38.8%, and natural gas 16.9%. Total carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are expected to be 104 million tons in 2025.

Balat, M.; Ayar, G.; Oguzhan, C.; Uluduz, H.; Faiz, U. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Fossil Energy Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds" Give Forms (All forms Fossil Energy

270

Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuelmaking them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once theyre pumped out of the tank.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

Waller, Laura

273

Safety of light water reactor fuel with silicon carbide cladding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural aspects of the performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod with triplex silicon carbide (SiC) cladding - an emerging option to replace the zirconium alloy cladding - are assessed. Its behavior under accident ...

Lee, Youho

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

PetrusTakaki, N. [Dept. of Applied Science, Tokai Univ., Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Synthetic Fuel  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

277

Fuels generated from renewable energy: a possible solution for large scale energy storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CSP)Concentrating solar power (CSP) Light electricity Photovoltaic conversion (PV) #12;4/22/2012 4 Energy System Gas (or fossil) Plant Sun or Wind Energy Plant Sun Fossil Wind Water Liquid fuels or raw #12;4/22/2012 9 Electricity grid Indirect Towards the Renewable Energy System Gas (or fossil) Plant

Franssen, Michael

278

A Future for Fossil Fuel By JOHN DEUTCH and ERNEST MONIZ March 15, 2007; Page A17  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Where it is plentiful therefore -- as in the United States and China -- coal is the economic fuel much "cleaner" generation of electricity from coal since the Clean Air Act of 1970. Global warming of heat energy from coal is $1-$2 per million BTUs, compared to $6-$8 for natural gas and $8-$12 for oil

Deutch, John

279

Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 WaterFebruary 18, 2014 B

280

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 2 report (New Task Series), The Base Case. Report 473-117-08/01  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a base case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed by The Futures Group to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the Department of Energy. It builds upon the data base compiled in the default case previously submitted but uses a different set of energy technology assumptions. Objectives of the strategic backdrop analysis project are: (1) to delineate alternative socioeconomic futures or target worlds for the United States and to derive, for each world, the amount of energy needed to sustain its level of economic activity and lifestyle, assuming no technological changes; (2) to construct an analytical framework that accounts for the flow of energy from the disaggregated end-use target demand sectors back through the distribution and conversion processes to primary resource requirements; (3) to use this framework 1) to analyze how alternative government policies and associated new technologies can change the primary resource needs and fuel mix while still providing the same level of end-use energy service for the target world, and 2) to highlight resource constraints, program inconsistencies, and economic, environmental, and social implications; (4) to transfer to DOE personnel the methodology for generating energy targets and accounting for important characteristics of alternative energy policies and technologies.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Monitor Blue Skies A future for fossil fuels http://www.epolitix.com/EN/Publications/Blue+Skies+Monitor/132... 1 of 2 30/10/05 11:40 pm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CCS) hovers around two percent of the adult population. Yet many key players in the fossil fuel energy. What if there was a third way forward? A way which could help the transition to a new energy, low 700 million tons of carbon dioxide. A group led by BP and Scottish and Southern Energy has plans

Haszeldine, Stuart

282

Peak Oil Netherlands Foundation (PONL) was founded in May 2005 by a group of citizens who are concerned about the effects of a premature peak in oil and other fossil fuels production. The main aims of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Peak Oil Netherlands Foundation (PONL) was founded in May 2005 by a group of citizens who are concerned about the effects of a premature peak in oil and other fossil fuels production. The main aims of this report, the other people in the Peak Oil Netherlands Foundation for their work, peakoil.com & the oildrum

Keeling, Stephen L.

283

Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics] [Campbell Applied Physics

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG intensity among fossil fuels. We ?nd that the relativeunder a RFS while world fossil fuel price is the same orwith the more-polluting fossil fuels being consumed abroad

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Prospects for and problems of using light-water supercritical-pressure coolant in nuclear reactors in order to increase the efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trends in the development of the power sector of the Russian and world power industries both at present time and in the near future are analyzed. Trends in the rise of prices for reserves of fossil and nuclear fuels used for electricity production are compared. An analysis of the competitiveness of electricity production at nuclear power plants as compared to the competitiveness of electricity produced at coal-fired and natural-gas-fired thermal power plants is performed. The efficiency of the open nuclear fuel cycle and various versions of the closed nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. The requirements on light-water reactors under the scenario of dynamic development of the nuclear power industry in Russia are determined. Results of analyzing the efficiency of fuel utilization for various versions of vessel-type light-water reactors with supercritical coolant are given. Advantages and problems of reactors with supercritical-pressure water are listed.

Alekseev, P. N.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Sedov, A. A., E-mail: sedov@dhtp.kial.ru; Subbotin, S. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

287

Assessment of innovative fuel designs for high performance light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To increase the power density and maximum allowable fuel burnup in light water reactors, new fuel rod designs are investigated. Such fuel is desirable for improving the economic performance light water reactors loaded with ...

Carpenter, David Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling water content effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water content and transport is the key factor in the one-dimensional, steady-state model of a complete polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) described here. Water diffusion coefficients, electroosmotic drag coefficients, water sorption isotherms, and membrane conductivities, all measured in our laboratory as functions of membrane water content, were used in the model. The model predicts a net-water-per-proton flux ratio of 0.2 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} under typical operating conditions, which is much less than the measured electroosmotic drag coefficient for a fully hydrated membrane. It also predicts an increase in membrane resistance with increased current density and demonstrates the great advantage of thinner membranes in alleviating this resistance problem. Both of these predictions were verified experimentally under certain conditions. We also describe the sensitivity of the water concentration profile and associated observables to variations in the values of some of the transport parameters in anticipation of applying the model to fuel cells employing other membranes. 16 refs., 9 figs.

Springer, T.E.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. Specific conclusions are as follows: (1) To implement CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration on a national scale will decrease power plant net efficiencies and significantly increase the cost of electricity. To make responsible societal decisions, accurate and consistent economic and environmental analysis of all alternatives for atmospheric CO{sub 2} mitigation are required. (2) Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive and energy intensive, exists today. (3) The most promising approach to more economical CO{sub 2} capture is to develop power plant systems that facilitate efficient CO{sub 2} capture. (4) While CO{sub 2} disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is feasible today, the ability to dispose of large quantities Of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain because of both technical and institutional issues. Disposal into the deep ocean or confined aquifers offers the potential for large quantity disposal, but there are technical, safety, liability, and environmental issues to resolve. Therefore, the highest priority research should focus on establishing the feasibility of large scale disposal options.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this evaluation has confirmed that breeding condition and negative coefficient can be obtained simultaneously for water-cooled thorium reactor obtains based on the whole core fuel arrangement.

Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Ismail, [BAPETEN (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Multi-cycle boiling water reactor fuel cycle optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work a new computer code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor Optimization), is presented. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the out-of-core optimization problem coupled with an in-core optimization that determines the optimum fuel loading pattern. However it uses a Haling power profile for the depletion instead of optimizing the operating strategy. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant sampling probabilities for the solution perturbation types throughout the optimization as is usually done in PSA optimizations the sampling probabilities are varied to get a better solution and/or decrease runtime. The new fuel types available for use can be sorted into an array based on any number of parameters so that each parameter can be incremented or decremented, which allows for more precise fuel type selection compared to random sampling. Also, the results are sorted by the new fuel inventory of the first cycle for ease of comparing alternative solutions. (authors)

Ottinger, K.; Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee, 311 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

INVESTIGATION OF DEEP-WATER CIRCULATION MODES IN THE EARLY CENOZOIC USING NEODYMIUM ISOTOPES FROM FOSSIL FISH DEBRIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oceans deep-water circulation plays a large role in heat transport across the globe. Circulation in the modern begins where cold, dense surface waters of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans sink to form Atlantic Bottom water. However...

Jones, Landon 1989-

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

Pressurized water reactor fuel assembly subchannel void fraction measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The void fraction measurement experiment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies has been conducted since 1987 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry as a Japanese national project. Two types of test sections are used in this experiment. One is a 5 x 5 array rod bundle geometry, and the other is a single-channel geometry simulating one of the subchannels in the rod bundle. Wide gamma-ray beam scanners and narrow gamma-ray beam computed tomography scanners are used to measure the subchannel void fractions under various steady-state and transient conditions. The experimental data are expected to be used to develop a void fraction prediction model relevant to PWR fuel assemblies and also to verify or improve the subchannel analysis method. The first series of experiments was conducted in 1992, and a preliminary evaluation of the data has been performed. The preliminary results of these experiments are described.

Akiyama, Yoshiei [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Fuel and Core Engineering Dept.; Hori, Keiichi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Miyazaki, Keiji [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mishima, Kaichiro [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Sugiyama, Shigekazu [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Fuel Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fossil Energy | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf Flash2006-14.pdfattachment.pdf6.pdf5.pdfFluorescentDepartment09 Budget3 Fossil1

298

Sandia National Laboratories: Fossil Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive SolarEducation Programs:CRFProvideAidsCanal, Yakima, WashingtonFossil

299

Fossil Energy | Clean Energy | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor's note: SincePlant Name: News 2008Fossil Energy SHARE

300

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components Prodip K. DasWater management in PEM fuel cells is critical for optimumof droplet dynamics in PEM fuel-cell gas flow channels has

Das, Prodip K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Feasibility of breeding in hard spectrum boiling water reactors with oxide and nitride fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study assesses the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and fuel performance aspects of using nitride fuel in place of oxides in Pu-based high conversion light water reactor designs. Using the higher density nitride fuel ...

Feng, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

www.biosciencemag.org November 2006 / Vol. 56 No. 11 BioScience 875 Green Plants, Fossil Fuels, and Now Biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

use, the largest per capita consumption of any country. Between 1850 and 2000, 90 percent of the US, and coal. As the human population increases, so too does the consumption of soil and fossil energy hundred years. By 1850, when wood accounted for 91 percent of US energy consumption and the US population

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

303

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

305

Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles D channels of Nafion fuel cell membranes at various hydration levels are compared to water in a series by its use as a proton conducting membrane in fuel cells. Nafion membranes in fuel cells allow protons

Fayer, Michael D.

306

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nations nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industrys success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, metrics describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly insertion into a commercial reactor within the desired timeframe (by 2022).

Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. Metrics describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

Shannon Bragg-Sitton

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydride fueled BWRs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:Fueled PWR Cores. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:1489Hydride Fueled LWRs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:

Terrani, Kurt Amir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-to-water heat pump Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuels 20 piwf AFR ( )piwttp AkR Summary: for simulating refrigeration and air conditioning equipment of all types: air-to-air, air-to-water, water... flow is...

311

Investments in fossil energy technology: How the government's fossil energy R&D program has made a difference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

None

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

american fossil mammals: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

time, in particular during Plotnick, Roy E. 424 Dirty Little Secrets: Inferring Fossil-Fuel Subsidies from Patterns in Emission Intensities1 Chemistry Websites Summary: Dirty...

313

agglomeration fossil energy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

time, in particular during Plotnick, Roy E. 309 Dirty Little Secrets: Inferring Fossil-Fuel Subsidies from Patterns in Emission Intensities1 Chemistry Websites Summary: Dirty...

314

Reconstruction of Early Paleogene North Pacific Deep-Water Circulation using the Neodymium Isotopic Composition of Fossil Fish Debris  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the timing of the cessation of major, deep convection in the North Pacific occurred much earlier, ~52 Ma than the timing obtained from shallower Shatsky Rise sites, ~45 Ma. Convection in the North Pacific likely produced a dense water mass that influenced...

Hague, Ashley Melissa

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

315

Draft Advanced Fossil Solicitation | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office of Audit ServicesMirant Potomac River Compliance PlanMEMORANDUMDraft Advanced Fossil

316

Corrosion optimized Zircaloy for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A corrosion optimized Zircaloy has to be based primarily on in-boiling water reactor (in-BWR) results. Therefore, the material parameters affecting corrosion were deduced from results of experimental fuel rod irradiation with systematic variations and from a large variety of material coupons exposed in water rods up to four cycles. The major material effects is the size and distribution of precipitates. For optimizing both early and late corrosion, the size has to stay in a small range. In the case of material quenched in the final stage, the quenching rate appears to be an important parameter. As far as materials chemistry is concerned, the in-BWR results indicate that corrosion in BWRs is influenced by the alloying elements tin, chromium, and the impurity silicon. In addition to corrosion optimization, hydriding is also considered. A large variation from lot to lot under identically coolant condition has been found. The available data indicate that the chromium content is the most important material parameter for hydrogen pickup.

Garzarolli, F.; Schumann, R.; Steinberg, E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Power Generation Group

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

318

Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Eric A. Zielke February 15, 2006 #12;Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria to generate electricity from organic

319

Dosimetry Modeling for Predicting Radiolytic Production at the Spent Fuel - Water Interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling of the alpha, beta, and gamma dose from spent fuel as a function of particle size and fuel to water ratio was examined. These doses will be combined with modeling of G values and interactions to determine the concentration of various species formed at the fuel water interface and their affect on dissolution rates.

Miller, William H.; Kline, Amanda J.; Hanson, Brady D.

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff MeetingWater Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design fuel cell design and operation; Demonstrate improvements in water management resulting in improved

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system for a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with quartz...

Payne, Stephen Ellis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements.Unlike permanent nuclear reactor core components, nuclearof the first nuclear reactors, commercial nuclear fuel still

Terrani, Kurt Amir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Light-water-reactor safety fuel systems research programs. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1984. [Fuel and cladding problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report summarizes work performed by the Materials Science and Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory during January, February, and March 1984 on water reactor safety problems related to fuel and cladding. The research and development areas covered are Transient Fuel Response and Fission Product Release and Clad Properties for Code Verification.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

464 Fossil humans and 1014% H with 25% S and the remainder oc-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the fossil fuels is the heating value of the fuel, which is mea- sured as the amount of heat energy produced (eds.), Fossil Fuels Utilization: En- vironmental Concerns, 1986; R. A. Meyers (ed.), Coal Handbook464 Fossil humans and 10­14% H with 2­5% S and the remainder oc- curring as N (

Delson, Eric

325

Water Research 39 (2005) 942952 Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 39 (2005) 942952 Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell Abstract In a microbial fuel cell (MFC), power can be generated from the oxidation of organic matter. Keywords: Bacteria; Biofuel cell; Microbial fuel cell; Electricity; Power output; Shewanella; Fuel cell 1

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Pressurized water reactor in-core nuclear fuel management by tabu search  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of the arrangement of fuel assemblies and burnable poisons when reloading pressurized water reactors has, in the past, been performed with many di erent algorithms in an attempt to make reactors more economic and fuel effi cient...

Hill, Natasha J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

327

Conceptual design of an annular-fueled superheat boiling water reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conceptual design of an annular-fueled superheat boiling water reactor (ASBWR) is outlined. The proposed design, ASBWR, combines the boiler and superheater regions into one fuel assembly. This ensures good neutron ...

Ko, Yu-Chih, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department of Energy Ventilation SystemNovemberAction Plan

329

Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department of Energy Ventilation SystemNovemberAction Planunder

330

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department ofDepartment of Energy Watch it

331

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c : U.S.Welcome to the1,033 15

332

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photovoltaic Produced Water Renewable Fuels Association ReliabilityFirst Corporation Reverse Osmosis Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Soybean Meal Synthetic Crude Oil SERC Reliability

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department ofDepartment of Energy Watch it LiveOctoberDepartment

335

Water transport in fuel cell membranes measured by laser interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) The coefficients of electro-osmotic drag were found to increase with the increasing water content, which indicates that the Grotthuss mechanism of proton transfer is not active in the membranes with low water ...

Kim, Jungik, 1973-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy While dryWashington'sResultsEnergyEfficiencyThe

337

Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity and operating efficiency of nuclear plants [31,operating efficiency of nuclear plants in the past decades.cost of the fuel Nuclear Plant Capacity Factor Nuclear

Terrani, Kurt Amir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Water Pool Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience ProgramBackground8.0.1Vulture SpatialBECOMEBehaviorBehavior of

339

InVited Feature Article Water Dynamics and Proton Transfer in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InVited Feature Article Water Dynamics and Proton Transfer in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes David E is the most widely used polyelectrolyte membrane in fuel cells. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O but has since become the most commonly used membrane separator in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

Fayer, Michael D.

340

A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

Mnster, Westflische Wilhelms-Universitt

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

* Corresponding author -kfingerman@berkeley.edu 1 Integrating Water Sustainability into the Low Carbon Fuel Standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it to Average Fuel Carbon Intensity (AFCI) (c) Charge a tax on water use for biofuel production (d) Establish Carbon Fuel Standard Kevin Fingerman1* , Daniel Kammen1,2 , and Michael O'Hare2 1 Energy & Resources (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2004). As the State of California implements the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS

Kammen, Daniel M.

342

Active Water Management for PEM Fuel Cells Shawn Litster, Cullen R. Buie, Tibor Fabian,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active Water Management for PEM Fuel Cells Shawn Litster, Cullen R. Buie, Tibor Fabian, John K, California 94305, USA Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells require humidified gases to maintain proper challenge for polymer electro- lyte membrane PEM fuel cells with perfluorosulfonic acid PFSA type membranes

Santiago, Juan G.

343

Proceedings: Sixth International Conference on Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purity of boiler water, feedwater, and steam is central to ensuring component availability and reliability in fossil-fired plants. These conference proceedings address the state of the art in fossil plant and combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) cycle chemistry as well as international practices for control of corrosion and water preparation and purification.

None

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Test plan for reactions between spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating the long-term performance of a high-level nuclear waste form, spent fuel from commercial reactors. Permanent disposal of the spent fuel is possible in a potential repository to be located in the volcanic tuff beds near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the post-containment period the spent fuel could be exposed to water condensation since of the cladding is assumed to fail during this time. Spent fuel leach (SFL) tests are designed to simulate and monitor the release of radionuclides from the spent fuel under this condition. This Test Plan addresses the anticipated conditions whereby spent fuel is contacted by small amounts of water that trickle through the spent fuel container. Two complentary test plans are presented, one to examine the reaction of spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions and the second to examine the reaction of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions. The former test plan examines the importance of the water content, the oxygen content as affected by radiolysis, the fuel burnup, fuel surface area, and temperature. The latter test plant examines the effect of the non-presence of Teflon in the test vessel.

Finn, P.A.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Hafenrichter, L.D.; Bates, J.K.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

346

Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the Building TechnologiesS1!4TCombustionOptimizing enzymeAdvanced 63

347

Corrosion of Zirconium-based Fuel Cladding Alloys in Supercritical Water. Y.H. Jeong1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion of Zirconium-based Fuel Cladding Alloys in Supercritical Water. Y.H. Jeong1 , J.Y. Park1, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Keywords: Zirconium alloys, corrosion, supercritical water Abstract Corrosion to evaluate the potential use of Zr alloy cladding in the supercritical water reactor (SCWR). Corrosion tests

Motta, Arthur T.

348

Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Transient analysis of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis contributes to the hydride nuclear fuel project led by U. C. Berkeley for which MIT is to perform the thermal hydraulic and economic analyses. A parametric study has been performed to determine the optimum ...

Trant, Jarrod Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

An inverted hydride-fueled pressurized water reactor concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous studies conducted at MIT showed that power performance of typical pin geometry PWRs are limited by three main constraints: core pressure drop, critical heat flux (CHF) and fretting phenomena of the fuel rods against ...

Ferroni, Paolo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5).

Hanson, B.D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rod design and performance characteristics (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel rods were designed to provide a reliable fuel system utilizing thorium/uranium-233 mixed-oxide fuel while simultaneously minimizing structural material to enhance fuel breeding. The fuel system was designed to be capable of operating successfully under both load follow and base load conditions. The breeding objective required thin-walled, low hafnium content Zircaloy cladding, tightly spaced fuel rods with a minimum number of support grid levels, and movable fuel rod bundles to supplant control rods. Specific fuel rod design considerations and their effects on performance capability are described. Successful completion of power operations to over 160 percent of design lifetime including over 200 daily load follow cycles has proven the performance capability of the fuel system. 68 refs., 19 figs., 44 tabs.

Campbell, W.R.; Giovengo, J.F.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Strain Development Every year, we consume about 27 billion barrels of fossil oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

billion barrels of fossil oil. This enormous amount of oil is used for fueling our cars and airplanes

355

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 13, PAGES 2637-2640, JULY 1, 2001 Ocean release of fossil fuel CO2: A case study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a 220 MW gas power plant, it is found that the volume of the near-source water with a pH-reduction 0 are 200, 400 and 800 Gg-CO2, corresponding to CO2 emissions from conventional 55-220 MW gas power plants], a local 3-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) code (

Drange, Helge

356

Light water reactor mixed-oxide fuel irradiation experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is sponsoring and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading an irradiation experiment to test mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium. In this multiyear program, sealed capsules containing MOX fuel pellets fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The planned experiments will investigate the utilization of dry-processed plutonium, the effects of WG plutonium isotopics on MOX performance, and any material interactions of gallium with Zircaloy cladding.

Hodge, S.A.; Cowell, B.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

MODELING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR A FOSSIL HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR A FOSSIL HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM WITH CO2 SEQUESTRATION Joan M. Ogden Production of hydrogen (H2) from fossil fuels with capture and sequestration of CO2 offers a route toward would require building two new pipeline infrastructures: one for distributing H2 to end-users and one

359

Light water reactor fuel response during RIA experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presented are a discussion of fuel rod thermal response during the RIA, a brief overview of previous test results, a discussion of the results of the PBF tests performed to date, conclusions that can be drawn from these results, and a description of the four tests remaining in the RIA testing program.

McCardell, R.K.; MacDonald, P.E.; Martinson, Z.R.; Fukuda, S.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Core design study of a supercritical light water reactor with double row fuel rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An equilibrium core for supercritical light water reactor has been designed. A novel type of fuel assembly with dual rows of fuel rods between water rods is chosen and optimized to get more uniform assembly power distributions. Stainless steel is used for fuel rod cladding and structural material. Honeycomb structure filled with thermal isolation is introduced to reduce the usage of stainless steel and to keep moderator temperature below the pseudo critical temperature. Water flow scheme with ascending coolant flow in inner regions is carried out to achieve high outlet temperature. In order to enhance coolant outlet temperature, the radial power distributions needs to be as flat as possible through operation cycle. Fuel loading pattern and control rod pattern are optimized to flatten power distribution at inner regions. Axial fuel enrichment is divided into three parts to control axial power peak, which affects maximum cladding surface temperature. (authors)

Zhao, C.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, ShannXi, 710049 (China); Yang, J.; Zhang, Y. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Yitian Road, ShenZhen, GuangDong, 518026 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Improving the technology of creating water-coal fuel from lignites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the preparation of coal-water fuel slurries from lignite. The heat of combustion as related to the preparation of the lignite was investigated. The hydrobarothermal processing of suspensions of lignites was studied in autoclaves.

Gorlov, E.G.; Golovin, G.S.; Zotova, O.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Silicon carbide performance as cladding for advanced uranium and thorium fuels for light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been an ongoing interest in replacing the fuel cladding zirconium-based alloys by other materials to reduce if not eliminate the autocatalytic and exothermic chemical reaction with water and steam at above 1,200 ...

Sukjai, Yanin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

364

Design strategies for optimizing high burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work is focused on the strategy for utilizing high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR) with special emphasis on the full array of neutronic considerations. The historical increase in batch-averaged discharge ...

Xu, Zhiwen, 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for Commercial Light Water and Advanced Reactor Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Meeting Summary Advanced Light Water Reactor Fuels Industry Meeting Washington DC October 27 - 28, 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group first met in November of 2010 with the objective of looking 20 years ahead to the role that advanced fuels could play in improving light water reactor technology, such as waste reduction and economics. When the group met again in March 2011, the Fukushima incident was still unfolding. After the March meeting, the focus of the program changed to determining what we could do in the near term to improve fuel accident tolerance. Any discussion of fuels with enhanced accident tolerance will likely need to consider an advanced light water reactor with enhanced accident tolerance, along with the fuel. The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group met in Washington D.C. on October 72-18, 2011 to continue discussions on this important topic.

Not Listed

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

8/10/12 Bureaucracy fuels China's safe water problems | Eco-Business.com 1/2www.eco-business.com/news/bureaucracy-fuels-chinas-safe-water-problems/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

300 million rural residents lack access to safe drinking water, the researchers reported. The authors8/10/12 Bureaucracy fuels China's safe water problems | Eco-Business.com 1/2www.eco-business.com/news/bureaucracy-fuels-chinas-safe-water-problems/ Policy & Finance Energy Green Buildings Transport Manufacturing Waste Eco-Cities Food & Agriculture Water

368

Fuels from Water, CO2, and Solar Energy Prof. Aldo Steinfeld  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuels from Water, CO2, and Solar Energy Prof. Aldo Steinfeld Department of Mechanical and Process fuels make use of concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland

Ponce, V. Miguel

369

Biological Water Gas Shift DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, and Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yields Energy in Darkness · CO supports both cell growth and ATP synthesis, in darkness · ATP can be used to regenerate more water-gas shift catalysts in darkness · Dark bioreactor simplifies reactor design, operation's comments that shift reaction can support cell growth yielding energy in darkness leading to sustained H2

370

Fuel assembly for the production of tritium in light water reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear fuel assembly is described for producing tritium in a light water moderated reactor. The assembly consists of two intermeshing arrays of subassemblies. The first subassemblies comprise concentric annular elements of an outer containment tube, an annular target element, an annular fuel element, and an inner neutron spectrums shifting rod. The second subassemblies comprise an outer containment tube and an inner rod of either fuel, target, or neutron spectrum shifting neutral.

Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA); Trapp, Turner J. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Fuel assembly for the production of tritium in light water reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear fuel assembly is described for producing tritium in a light water moderated reactor. The assembly consists of two intermeshing arrays of subassemblies. The first subassemblies comprise concentric annular elements of an outer containment tube, an annular target element, an annular fuel element, and an inner neutron spectrums shifting rod. The second subassemblies comprise an outer containment tube and an inner rod of either fuel, target, or neutron spectrum shifting neutral.

Cawley, W.E.; Trapp, T.J.

1983-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

372

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today (more)

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fossil Energy RSS Feeds | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecember U.S.Financialof Energy Forrestal GarageFossil

374

Office of Fossil Energy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation InExplosion Monitoring: InnovationISC HomeAboutSearch formFossil Energy

375

Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Loan Guarantee Solicitation  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South ValleyASGovLtr.pdfAboutSheet, April 20142-021Fossil Energy Projects Loan

376

Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing boiling water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing boiling water, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden Keywords: Thorium BWR Neutronics a b s t r a c t With the aim of investigating the technical feasibility of fuelling a conventional BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) with thorium

Demazière, Christophe

377

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

380

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.

Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Gellene, G.I. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

End-of-life destructive examination of light water breeder reactor fuel rods (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Destructive examination of 12 representative Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods was performed following successful operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station for 29,047 effective full power hours, about five years. Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods were unique in that the thorium oxide and uranium-233 oxide fuel was contained within Zircaloy-4 cladding. Destructive examinations included analysis of released fission gas; chemical analysis of the fuel to determine depletion, iodine, and cesium levels; chemical analysis of the cladding to determine hydrogen, iodine, and cesium levels; metallographic examination of the cladding, fuel, and other rod components to determine microstructural features and cladding corrosion features; and tensile testing of the irradiated cladding to determine mechanical strength. The examinations confirmed that Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rod performance was excellent. No evidence of fuel rod failure was observed, and the fuel operating temperature was low (below 2580/sup 0/F at which an increased percentage of fission gas is released). 21 refs., 80 figs., 20 tabs.

Richardson, K.D.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

385

Subtask 2: Water oxidation complex | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout »Lab (Newport NewsStyleProduction 2: Water

386

Preparation and gasification of a Thailand coal-water fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density, determined at 500 cP, indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700 C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals and will produce high levels of hydrogen and be fairly reactive.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.; Dewall, R.A.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Nakanart, A. [Ministry of Industry, Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

In-Situ Safeguards Verification of Low Burn-up Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel in-situ gross defect verification method for light water reactor spent fuel assemblies was developed and investigated by a Monte Carlo study. This particular method is particularly effective for old pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies that have natural uranium in their upper fuel zones. Currently there is no method or instrument that does verification of this type of spent fuel assemblies without moving the spent fuel assemblies from their storage positions. The proposed method uses a tiny neutron detector and a detector guiding system to collect neutron signals inside PWR spent fuel assemblies through guide tubes present in PWR assemblies. The data obtained in such a manner are used for gross defect verification of spent fuel assemblies. The method uses 'calibration curves' which show the expected neutron counts inside one of the guide tubes of spent fuel assemblies as a function of fuel burn-up. By examining the measured data in the 'calibration curves', the consistency of the operator's declaration is verified.

Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S; Park, I; Kim, J; Ahn, G

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

Water Chemistry Control System for Recovery of Damaged and Degraded Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the government of Serbia have led the project cosponsored by the U.S, Russia, European Commission, and others to repackage and repatriate approximately 8000 spent fuel elements from the RA reactor fuel storage basins at the VIN?A Institute of Nuclear Sciences to Russia for reprocessing. The repackaging and transportation activities were implemented by a Russian consortium which includes the Sosny Company, Tekhsnabeksport (TENEX) and Mayak Production Association. High activity of the water of the fuel storage basin posed serious risk and challenges to the fuel removal from storage containers and repackaging for transportation. The risk centered on personnel exposure, even above the basin water, due to the high water activity levels caused by Cs-137 leached from fuel elements with failed cladding. A team of engineers from the U.S. DOE-NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Vinca Institute, and the IAEA performed the design, development, and deployment of a compact underwater water chemistry control system (WCCS) to remove the Cs-137 from the basin water and enable personnel safety above the basin water for repackaging operations. Key elements of the WCCS system included filters, multiple columns containing an inorganic sorbent, submersible pumps and flow meters. All system components were designed to be remotely serviceable and replaceable. The system was assembled and successfully deployed at the Vinca basin to support the fuel removal and repackaging activities. Following the successful operations, the Cs-137 is now safely contained and consolidated on the zeolite sorbent used in the columns of the WCCS, and the fuel has been removed from the basins. This paper reviews the functional requirements, design, and deployment of the WCCS.

Sindelar, R.; Fisher, D.; Thomas, J.

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

389

Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

Zia Mirza, Program Manager

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

390

Non-Proliferative, Thorium-Based, Core and Fuel Cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two of the major barriers to the expansion of worldwide adoption of nuclear power are related to proliferation potential of the nuclear fuel cycle and issues associated with the final disposal of spent fuel. The Radkowsky Thorium Fuel (RTF) concept proposed by Professor A. Radkowsky offers a partial solution to these problems. The main idea of the concept is the utilization of the seed-blanket unit (SBU) fuel assembly geometry which is a direct replacement for a 'conventional' assembly in either a Russian pressurized water reactor (VVER-1000) or a Western pressurized water reactor (PWR). The seed-blanket fuel assembly consists of a fissile (U) zone, known as seed, and a fertile (Th) zone known as blanket. The separation of fissile and fertile allows separate fuel management schemes for the thorium part of the fuel (a subcritical 'blanket') and the 'driving' part of the core (a supercritical 'seed'). The design objective for the blanket is an efficient generation and in-situ fissioning of the U233 isotope, while the design objective for the seed is to supply neutrons to the blanket in a most economic way, i.e. with minimal investment of natural uranium. The introduction of thorium as a fertile component in the nuclear fuel cycle significantly reduces the quantity of plutonium production and modifies its isotopic composition, reducing the overall proliferation potential of the fuel cycle. Thorium based spent fuel also contains fewer higher actinides, hence reducing the long-term radioactivity of the spent fuel. The analyses show that the RTF core can satisfy the requirements of fuel cycle length, and the safety margins of conventional pressurized water reactors. The coefficients of reactivity are comparable to currently operating VVER's/PWR's. The major feature of the RTF cycle is related to the total amount of spent fuel discharged for each cycle from the reactor core. The fuel management scheme adopted for RTF core designs allows a significant decrease in the amount of discharged spent fuel, for a given energy production, compared with standard VVER/PWR. The total Pu production rate of RTF cycles is only 30 % of standard reactor. In addition, the isotopic compositions of the RTF's and standard reactor grade Pu are markedly different due to the very high burnup accumulated by the RTF spent fuel.

Todosow M.; Todosow M.; Raitses, G. (BNL) Galperin, A. (Ben Gurion University)

2009-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fossil-Based Hydrogen Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Fossil-Based Hydrogen Production Praxair Praxair SNL TIAX · Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for H2

392

Radioactive Fission Product Release from Defective Light Water Reactor Fuel Elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are provided of the experimental investigation of radioactive fission product (RFP) release, i.e., krypton, xenon, and iodine radionuclides from fuel elements with initial defects during long-term (3 to 5 yr) irradiation under low linear power (5 to 12 kW/m) and during special experiments in the VK-50 vessel-type boiling water reactor.The calculation model for the RFP release from the fuel-to-cladding gap of the defective fuel element into coolant was developed. It takes into account the convective transport in the fuel-to-cladding gap and RFP sorption on the internal cladding surface and is in good agreement with the available experimental data. An approximate analytical solution of the transport equation is given. The calculation dependencies of the RFP release coefficients on the main parameters such as defect size, fuel-to-cladding gap, temperature of the internal cladding surface, and radioactive decay constant were analyzed.It is shown that the change of the RFP release from the fuel elements with the initial defects during long-term irradiation is, mainly, caused by fuel swelling followed by reduction of the fuel-to-cladding gap and the fuel temperature. The calculation model for the RFP release from defective fuel elements applicable to light water reactors (LWRs) was developed. It takes into account the change of the defective fuel element parameters during long-term irradiation. The calculation error according to the program does not exceed 30% over all the linear power change range of the LWR fuel elements (from 5 to 26 kW/m)

Konyashov, Vadim V.; Krasnov, Alexander M. [State Scientific Centre of Russian Federation-Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

8/10/12 Bureaucracy fuels China's safe water problems | Eco-Business.com 1/2www.eco-business.com/news/bureaucracy-fuels-chinas-safe-water-problems/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2012 - SHANGHAI Australian PV Solar Energy Conference & Exh8/10/12 Bureaucracy fuels China's safe water problems | Eco-Business.com 1/2www.eco-business.com/news/bureaucracy-fuels-chinas-safe-water-problems/ Policy & Finance Energy Green Buildings Transport Manufacturing Waste Eco-Cities Food & Agriculture Water

394

Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X-ray Microtomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X understanding of the two-phase flow and flooding occurrence in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. We have as ice formation during cold start of PEM fuel cells. The water present in these porous layers

395

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

entry are u Table 4-6 GAS TURBINE FOR 1965-1974 (OUTAGES)AVERAGE utage Cause Code GAS TURBINE GENERATOR FORCED OUTAGEof fossil units, and for gas turbine units, the basic data

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Sandia National Laboratories: Fossil Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at Explora MuseumFloating Oscillating WaterFortune

397

Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...

Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

398

Statistical analysis of correlated fossil fuel securities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecasting the future prices or returns of a security is extraordinarily difficult if not impossible. However, statistical analysis of a basket of highly correlated securities offering a cross-sectional representation of ...

Li, Derek Z

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE 433 ex parte memo.pdf More Documents & Publications Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Regional Standards Enforcement Framework Document -- Docket No....

400

BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This infographic was created by students from North Caddo Magnet High School in Vivian, LA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

PHASING OUUT FOSSIL-FUEL SUBSIDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construed as interpreting or modifying any legal obligations under the WTO Agreements, treaty, law or other texts, or as expressing any legal opinions or havinng probative legal value in any proceedings. Table of Contents Page | 2 Executive Summary............................................................................................................ 3

In; A Roadmap; Fo Or; Prepared For The

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. The fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) abbreviations and definitions, glossary; (B) 4.5 MWe utility demonstrator power plant study information; (C) rejected heat utilization; (D) availability; (E) conceptual design specifications; (F) details of the economic analysis; (G) detailed description of the selected configuration; and (H) fuel cell power plant penetration analysis. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nuclide Composition Benchmark Data Set for Verifying Burnup Codes on Spent Light Water Reactor Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To establish a nuclide composition benchmark data set for the verification of burnup codes, destructive analyses of light water reactor spent-fuel samples, which were cut out from several heights of spent-fuel rods, were carried out at the analytical laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The 16 samples from three kinds of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods and the 18 samples from two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods were examined. Their initial {sup 235}U enrichments and burnups were from 2.6 to 4.1% and from 4 to 50 GWd/t, respectively. One PWR fuel rod and one BWR fuel rod contained gadolinia as a burnable poison. The measurements for more than 40 nuclides of uranium, transuranium, and fission product elements were performed by destructive analysis using mass spectrometry, and alpha-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. Burnup for each sample was determined by the {sup 148}Nd method. The analytical methods and the results as well as the related irradiation condition data are compiled as a complete benchmark data set.

Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Inagawa, Jun; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Kohno, Nobuaki; Onuki, Mamoru; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2002-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fossil Energy Today - Third Quarter, 2011 | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf Flash2006-14.pdfattachment.pdf6.pdf5.pdfFluorescentDepartment09 Budget3 Fossil1 Fossil

405

Fossil Energy Today - Third Quarter, 2012 | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf Flash2006-14.pdfattachment.pdf6.pdf5.pdfFluorescentDepartment09 Budget3 Fossil1 Fossil2

406

Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen production by electrochemical water electrolysis has received great attention as an alternative technology for energy conversion and storage. The oxygen electrode has a substantial effect on the performance and durability in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells because of its intrinsically slow kinetics for oxygen evolution/reduction and poor durability under harsh operating environments. To improve oxygen kinetics and durability of the electrode, extensive studies for highly active and stable oxygen electrocatalyst have been performed. However, due to the thermodynamic instability of transition metals in acidic media, noble metal compounds have been primarily utilized as electrocatalysts in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells. For water electrolyzer applications, single noble metal oxides such as ruthenium oxide and iridium oxide have been studied, and binary or ternary metal oxides have been developed to take synergestic effects of each component. On the other hand, a variety of bifunctional electrocatalysts with a combination of monofunctional electrocatalysts such as platinum for oxygen reduction and iridium oxide for oxygen evolution for reversible fuel cell applications have been mainly proposed. Practically, supported iridium oxide-on-platinum, its reverse type, and non-precious metal-supported platinum and iridium bifunctional electrocatalysts have been developed. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental studies in terms of water electrolysis and fuel cell technology suggest effective ways to cope with current major challenges of cost and durability of oxygen electrocatalysts for technical applications.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Modeling and Diagnostics of Fuel Cell Porous Media for Improving Water Transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a fuel cell is operating at high current density, water accumulation is a significant cause of performance and component degradation. Investigating the water transport inside the fuel cell is a challenging task due to opacity of the components, the randomness of the porous materials, and the difficulty in gain access to the interior for measurement due to the small dimensions of components. Numerical simulation can provide a good insight of the evolution of the water transport under different working condition. However, the validation of those simulations is remains an issue due the same experimental obstacles associated with in-situ measurements. The discussion herein will focus on pore-network modeling of the water transport on the PTL and the insights gained from simulations as well as in the validation technique. The implications of a recently published criterion to characterize PTL, based on percolation theory, and validate numerical simulation are discussed.

Allen, Jeff; M'edici, Ezequiel

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Technical accomplishments are listed below: Demonstrated that shutdown air purge is controlled predominantly by the water carrying capacity of the purge stream and the most practical means of reducing the purge time and energy is to reduce the volume of liquid water present in the fuel cell at shutdown. The GDL thermal conductivity has been identified as an important parameter to dictate water accumulation within a GDL. Found that under the normal shutdown conditions most of the GDL-level water accumulation occurs on the anode side and that the mass transport resistance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) thus plays a critically important role in understanding and optimizing purge. Identified two-phase flow patterns (slug, film and mist flow) in flow field channel, established the features of each pattern, and created a flow pattern map to characterize the two-phase flow in GDL/channel combination. Implemented changes to the baseline channel surface energy and GDL materials and evaluated their performance with the ex situ multi-channel experiments. It was found that the hydrophilic channel (contact angle ? ? 10?) facilitates the removal of liquid water by capillary effects and by reducing water accumulation at the channel exit. It was also found that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. Identified a new mechanism of water transport through GDLs based on Haines jump mechanism. The breakdown and redevelopment of the water paths in GDLs lead to an intermittent water drainage behavior, which is characterized by dynamic capillary pressure and changing of breakthrough location. MPL was found to not only limit the number of water entry locations into the GDL (thus drastically reducing water saturation), but also stabilizes the water paths (or morphology). Simultaneously visualized the water transport on cathode and anode channels of an operating fuel cell. It was found that under relatively dry hydrogen/air conditions at lower temperatures, the cathode channels display a similar flow pattern map to the ex-situ experiments under similar conditions. Liquid water on the anode side is more likely formed via condensation of water vapor which is transported through the anode GDL. Investigated the water percolation through the GDL with pseudo-Hele-Shaw experiments and simulated the capillary-driven two-phase flow inside gas diffusion media, with the pore size distributions being modeled by using Weibull distribution functions. The effect of the inclusion of the microporous layer in the fuel cell assembly was explored numerically. Developed and validated a simple, reliable computational tool for predicting liquid water transport in GDLs. Developed a new method of determining the pore size distribution in GDL using scanning electron microscope (SEM) image processing, which allows for separate characterization of GDL wetting properties and pore size distribution. Determined the effect of surface wettability and channel cross section and bend dihedral on liquid holdup in fuel cell flow channels. A major thrust of this research program has been the development of an optimal combination of materials, design features and cell operating conditions that achieve a water management strategy which facilitates fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Based on our various findings, we have made the final recommendation relative to GDL materials, bipolar design and surface properties, and the combination of materials, design featur

Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

409

Control of Fuel Cell Breathing: Initial Results on the Oxygen Starvation Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operate at low temperatures (50-100 degree Support is provided by the National Science Foundation under and distribution. In the long term, a hydrogen generation and distribution infrastructure based on renewable energy from wind, water, and sun, or reformed hydrocarbon fuel will help reduce our dependency on fossil fuels

Stefanopoulou, Anna

410

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nations CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

411

Water Transport Characteristics of Gas Diffusion Layer in a PEM Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A presentation addressing the following: Water transport in PEM Fuel Cells - a DoE Project 1. Gas Diffusion Layer--Role and Characteristics 2. Capillary Pressure Determinations of GDL Media 3. Gas Permeability Measurements of GDL Media 4. Conclusions and Future Activities

Ashok S. Damle; J. Vernon Cole

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Assessment of the use of extended burnup fuel in light water power reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the environmental and economic impacts associated with the use of extended burnup nuclear fuel in light water power reactors. It has been proposed that current batch average burnup levels of 33 GWd/t uranium be increased to above 50 GWd/t. The environmental effects of extending fuel burnup during normal operations and during accident events and the economic effects of cost changes on the fuel cycle are discussed in this report. The physical effects of extended burnup on the fuel and the fuel assembly are also presented as a basis for the environmental and economic assessments. Environmentally, this burnup increase would have no significant impact over that of normal burnup. Economically, the increased burnup would have favorable effects, consisting primarily of a reduction: (1) total fuel requirements; (2) reactor downtime for fuel replacement; (3) the number of fuel shipments to and from reactor sites; and (4) repository storage requirements. 61 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

Baker, D.A.; Bailey, W.J.; Beyer, C.E.; Bold, F.C.; Tawil, J.J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

Judkins, R.R.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Programs understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear powers cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

D. E. Shropshire

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

Collins, Emory D.; Delcul, Guillermo D.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Johnson, Jared A.; Spencer, Barry B.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFRs transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFRs fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Proceedings of the Eight Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective of the meeting was to conduct R and D on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into ceramics, new alloys, corrosion, and technology assessment/transfer. The 39 papers are arranged under the session headings: ceramics, ceramics and new alloys, and intermetallics and advanced austenitics; a workshop on new materials development and applications is summarized briefly. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Criticality experiments with low enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO/sub 2/ rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % /sup 235/U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ rods containing 4.31 wt % /sup 235/U and 2 wt % PuO/sub 2/ in natural UO/sub 2/ respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in /sup 235/U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel.

Bierman, S.R.; Murphy, E.S.; Clayton, E.D.; Keay, R.T.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO{sub 2} assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the {sup 239}Pu and {ge}90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

Chodak, P. III

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

427

Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A Qualitative Assessment of Thorium-Based Fuels in Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements for the next generation of reactors include better economics and safety, waste minimization (particularly of the long-lived isotopes), and better proliferation resistance (both intrinsic and extrinsic). A supercritical pressure water cooled reactor has been chosen as one of the lead contenders as a Generation IV reactor due to the high thermal efficiency and compact/simplified plant design. In addition, interest in the use of thorium-based fuels for Generation IV reactors has increased based on the abundance of thorium, and the minimization of transuranics in a neutron flux; as plutonium (and thus the minor actinides) is not a by-product in the thorium chain. In order to better understand the possibility of the combination of these concepts to meet the Generation IV goals, the qualitative burnup potential and discharge isotopics of thorium and uranium fuel were studied using pin cell analyses in a supercritical pressure water cooled reactor environment. Each of these fertile materials were used in both nitride and metallic form, with light water reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides added. While the uranium-based fuels achieved burnups that were 1.3 to 2.7 times greater than their thorium-based counterparts, the thorium-based fuels destroyed 2 to 7 times more of the plutonium and minor actinides. The fission-to-capture ratio is much higher in this reactor as compared to PWRs and BWRs due to the harder neutron spectrum, thus allowing more efficient destruction of the transuranic elements. However, while the uranium-based fuels do achieve a net depletion of plutonium and minor actinides, the breeding of these isotopes limits this depletion; especially as compared to the thorium-based fuels.

Weaver, Kevan Dean; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Office of Fossil Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F SSales LLC OrderEfficiencyOceanOctober FieldEnergy Office4 Jan

431

Office of Fossil Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F SSales LLC OrderEfficiencyOceanOctober FieldEnergy Office4

432

Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

433

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, part IV: Effects of channel surface wettability, geometry and orientation on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, part IV: Effects of channel surface wettability in the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) due to its association with the performance, cost-phase flow in parallel gas channels of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are investigated. Ex situ

Kandlikar, Satish

435

Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part II: Ex situ investigation of flow maldistribution, pressure drop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by externally humidified air and hydrogen gas streams, must be present within the fuel cell to maintain 4 5 6 #12;a fuel cell blocks gas transport pathways in the catalyst layers, gas diffusion layersWater management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part II: Ex situ investigation of flow maldistribution

Kandlikar, Satish

436

Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes on the Hydrogen Bond Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions energy source is hydrogen. Hydrogen powered vehicles using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and hydrophilic aggregates.1-4 Hydrogen fuel cells operate through the oxidation of hydrogen gas at the anodeWater Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes

Fayer, Michael D.

437

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION AND CONSTRAINTS ON WATER UPTAKE OF FUEL-CELL MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Briian; Weber, Adam

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

438

Proceedings: 7th International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purity of boiler water, feedwater, and steam is central to ensuring component availability and reliability in fossil-fired plants. These proceedings of EPRI's Seventh International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil Plants address the state of the art in fossil plant and combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) cycle chemistry as well as international practices for corrosion control and water preparation and purification.

None

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Fossil | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOfCoal_Budget_Fact_Sheet.pdf More DocumentsAtA revolutionary newFor

440

Chemical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction in light water reactor fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to the extensive literature on the mechanical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) in light water reactor fuel elements, the chemical features of this phenomenon are so poorly understood that there is still disagreement concerning the chemical agent responsible. Since the earliest work by Rosenbaum, Davies and Pon, laboratory and in-reactor experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of PCI fuel rod failures have concentrated almost exclusively on iodine. The assumption that this is the reponsible chemical agent is contained in models of PCI which have been constructed for incorporation into fuel performance codes. The evidence implicating iodine is circumstantial, being based primarily upon the volatility and significant fission yield of this element and on the microstructural similarity of the failed Zircaloy specimens exposed to iodine in laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests to cladding failures by PCI.

Olander, D.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water fossil fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ?50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (?58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N. (comps.)

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase-Change-Induced Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase cell membranes, a net flux of water was found to flow from the hot to the cold side of the full, 2008. Published January 8, 2009. Proper water management is critical to achieve high performance

Mench, Matthew M.

447

Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

Judkins, R.R.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Inhalation radiotoxicity of irradiated thorium as a heavy water reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The online refueling capability of Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), and their good neutron economy, allows a relatively high amount of neutron absorption in breeding materials to occur during normal fuel irradiation. This characteristic makes HWRs uniquely suited to the extraction of energy from thorium. In Canada, the toxicity and radiological protection methods dealing with personnel exposure to natural uranium (NU) spent fuel (SF) are well-established, but the corresponding methods for irradiated thorium fuel are not well known. This study uses software to compare the activity and toxicity of irradiated thorium fuel ('thorium SF') against those of NU. Thorium elements, contained in the inner eight elements of a heterogeneous high-burnup bundle having LEU (Low-enriched uranium) in the outer 35 elements, achieve a similar burnup to NU SF during its residence in a reactor, and the radiotoxicity due to fission products was found to be similar. However, due to the creation of such inhalation hazards as U-232 and Th-228, the radiotoxicity of thorium SF was almost double that of NU SF after sufficient time has passed for the decay of shorter-lived fission products. Current radio-protection methods for NU SF exposure are likely inadequate to estimate the internal dose to personnel to thorium SF, and an analysis of thorium in fecal samples is recommended to assess the internal dose from exposure to this fuel. (authors)

Edwards, G.W.R.; Priest, N.D.; Richardson, R.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991. Fossil Energy Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. [comps.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Prediction of heat transfer for a supercritical water test with a four pin fuel bundle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a next step to validate prediction methods for core design of a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor, a small, electrically heated fuel bundle with 4 pins is planned to be tested. This paper summarizes first heat transfer predictions for such a test, which were performed based on supercritical and subcritical sub-channel analyses. For heat transfer under supercritical pressure conditions, the sub-channel code STAFAS has been applied, which had been tested successfully already for a supercritical water reactor design. Design studies with different assembly box sizes at a given pin diameter and pitch have been performed to optimize the coolant temperature distribution. With a fuel pin outer diameter of 10 mm and a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.15, an optimum inner width of the assembly box was determined to be 24 mm. Coolant and cladding surface temperatures to be expected at subcritical pressure conditions have been predicted with the sub-channel code MATRA. As, different from typical PWR or BWR conditions, a dryout has been foreseen for the tests, this code had to be extended to include suitable dryout criteria as well as post dryout heat transfer correlations at higher enthalpies and pressures. Different from PWR or BWR design, the cladding surface temperature of fuel pins in supercritical water reactors can vary significantly around the circumference of each pin, causing bending towards its hotter side which, in turn, can cause additional sub-channel heat-up and thus additional thermal bending of the pin. To avoid a thermal instability by this effect, a sensitivity study with respect to thermal bending of fuel pins has been performed, which determines the minimum number of grid spacers needed for this test. (authors)

Behnke, L. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Himmel, S.; Waata, C.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laurien, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

None

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hydrogen: Fueling the Future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen storage will be highlighted in this seminar.

Leisch, Jennifer

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Secondary atomization of coal-water fuels for gas turbine applications: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the CWF treatments on atomization quality when applied to an ultrafine coal-water fuel (solids loading reduced to 50%) and to gas turbine operating conditions (atomization at elevated pressures). Three fuel treatment techniques were studied: (1) heating of CWF under pressure to produce steam as the pressure drops during passage of the CWF through the atomizer nozzle, (2) absorption of CO/sub 2/ gas in the CWF to produce a similar effect, and (3) a combination of the two treatments above. These techniques were expected to produce secondary atomization, that is, disruptive shattering of CWF droplets subsequent to their leaving the atomizing nozzle, and to lead to better burnout and finer fly ash size distribution. A parallel objective was to present quantitative information on the spray characteristics (mean droplet size, radial distribution of droplet size, and spray shape) of CWF with and without fuel treatment, applicable to the design of CWF-burning gas turbine combustors. The experiments included laser diffraction droplet size measurements and high-speed photographic studies in the MIT Spray Test Facility to determine mean droplet size (mass median diameter), droplet size distribution, and spray shape and angle. Three systems of atomized sprays were studied: (1) water sprays heated to a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure; (2) CWF sprays heated at atmospheric pressure to different temperatures; and (3) sprays at elevated pressure. 31 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

Yu, T.U.; Kang, S.W.; Beer, J.M.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Fundamental aspects of coal-water fuel droplet combustion and secondary atomization of coal-water mixtures. Volume I, final report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This Final Report is issued in two volumes, covering research into the combustion of coal-water fuels (CWF). Two separate but related tasks are discussed; the present report, Volume I, contains results obtained under Task ...

Sarofim, Adel F.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Fundamental aspects of coal-water fuel droplet combustion and secondary atomization of coal-water mixtures. Volume II, final report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This Final Report is issued in two volumes, covering research into the combustion of Coal Water Fuels (CWF). Two separate but related tasks are discussed; Volume I contains results obtained under Task 1 - Fundamental aspects ...

Ber?, J. M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Biodegradation of jet fuel in vented columns of water-unsaturated sandy soil. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of soil water content on the rate of jet fuel (JP-4) biodegradation in air-vented, water-unsaturated columns of sandy soil was investigated. The contaminated soil was obtained from a spill site located on Tyndall AFB, Fla. The initial soil loading was 4590 mg of JP-4/kg of dry soil. Three laboratory columns were packed with the contaminated soil, saturated and drained for periods of 81-89 days. Two columns were continuously vented with air, and the third, intended to provide an anaerobic control, was vented with nitrogen. The venting gas flows were maintained between 1 and 2.5 soil pore volume changeouts per day. The total JP-4 removal in the air-vented columns averaged 44% of the mass originally present. Biodegradation and volatilization accounted for 93% and 7% of the total removal, respectively. A maximum biodegradation rate of 14.3 mg of JP-4/kg of moist soil per day was observed at a soil water content of approximately 72% saturation. Soil drainage characteristics indicated that this water content may have corresponded to 100% of the in situ field capacity water content. Theses.

Coho, J.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Examination of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For [approximately equal to]15 yr Dominion Generation's Surry Nuclear Station 15 x 15 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert-atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory at peak cladding temperatures that decreased from {approx}350 to 150 deg. C. Before storage, the loaded cask was subjected to thermal-benchmark tests, during which time the peak temperatures were greater than 400 deg. C. The cask was opened to examine the fuel rods for degradation and to determine if they were suitable for extended storage. No fuel rod breaches and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation from the fuel rod surface were observed. The results from profilometry, gas release measurements, metallographic examinations, microhardness determination, and cladding hydrogen behavior are reported in this paper.It appears that little or no fission gas was released from the fuel pellets during either the thermal-benchmark tests or the long-term storage. In the central region of the fuel column, where the axial temperature gradient in storage is small, the measured hydrogen content in the cladding is consistent with the thickness of the oxide layer. At {approx}1 m above the fuel midplane, where a steep temperature gradient existed in the cask, less hydrogen is present than would be expected from the oxide thickness that developed in-reactor. Migration of hydrogen during dry storage probably occurred and may signal a higher-than-expected concentration at the cooler ends of the rod. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, and at some elevations, the hydrides appear to have segregated somewhat to the inner and outer cladding surfaces. It is, however, impossible to determine if this segregation occurred in-reactor or during transportation, thermal-benchmark tests, or the dry storage period. The hydrides retained the circumferential orientation typical of prestorage PWR fuel rods. Little or no cladding creep occurred during thermal-benchmark testing and dry storage. It is anticipated that the creep would not increase significantly during additional storage because of the lower temperature after 15 yr, continual decrease in temperature from the reduction in decay heat, and concurrent reductions in internal rod pressure and stress. This paper describes the results of the characterization of the fuel and intact cladding, as well as the implications of these results for long-term (i.e., beyond 20 yr) dry-cask storage.

Einziger, Robert E. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Tsai Hanchung [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Billone, Michael C. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Hilton, Bruce A. [Argonne National Laboratory-West (United States)

2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Core loading pattern optimization of thorium fueled heavy water breeder reactor using genetic algorithm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work genetic algorithm was proposed to solve fuel loading pattern optimization problem in thorium fueled heavy water reactor. The objective function of optimization was to maximize the conversion ratio and minimize power peaking factor. Those objectives were simultaneously optimized using non-dominated Pareto-based population ranking optimal method. Members of non-dominated population were assigned selection probabilities based on their rankings in a manner similar to Baker's single criterion ranking selection procedure. A selected non-dominated member was bred through simple mutation or one-point crossover process to produce a new member. The genetic algorithm program was developed in FORTRAN 90 while neutronic calculation and analysis was done by COREBN code, a module of core burn-up calculation for SRAC. (authors)

Soewono, C. N.; Takaki, N. [Dept. of Applied Science Engineering, Faculty Tokai Univ., Kanagawa-ken, Hiratsuka-shi Kitakaname 4-1-1 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Fossil energy materials needs assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of needs for materials of construction for fossil energy systems was prepared by ORNL staff members who conducted a literature search and interviewed various individuals and organizations that are active in the area of fossil energy technology. Critical materials problems associated with fossil energy systems are identified. Background information relative to the various technologies is given and materials research needed to enhance the viability and improve the economics of fossil energy processes is discussed. The assessment is presented on the basis of materials-related disciplines that impact fossil energy material development. These disciplines include the design-materials interface, materials fabrication technology, corrosion and materials compatibility, wear phenomena, ceramic materials, and nondestructive testing. The needs of these various disciplines are correlated with the emerging fossil energy technologies that require materials consideration. Greater emphasis is given to coal technology - particularly liquefaction, gasification, and fluidized bed combustion - than to oil and gas technologies because of the perceived inevitability of US dependence on coal conversion and utilization systems as a major part of our total energy production.

King, R.T.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding material both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 m. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to provide hermetic seal. The replacement of a zirconium alloy using a ferritic material containing chromium and aluminum appears to be the most near term implementation for accident tolerant nuclear fuels.

Rebak, Raul B. [General Electric] (ORCID:0000000280704475)

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Fossil Energy Technical Assistance Topic Areas | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlans |UpdatedofCrossword2ofFossil

462

Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation FAQ | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste andAccess to OUO Access to OUO DOE MMeeting10-006 AdvanceAdvancedFossil

463

Controlling Accumulation of Fermentation Inhibitors in Biorefinery Recycle Water Using Microbial Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4- hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700mW/m2 (356W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by -Proteobacteria (50%), along with -Proteobacteria (28%), -Proteobacteria (14%), -Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusions Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Leak, David [Imperial College, London; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Andras, Calin [Imperial College, London

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Light-water-reactor safety fuel systems research programs. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1985. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report summarizes work performed by the Materials Science and Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory during January, February, and March 1985 on water reactor safety problems related to fuel and cladding. The research and development areas covered are Transient Fuel Response and Fission Product Release and Clad Properties for Code Verification. 15 refs.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Light-water-reactor safety fuel systems research programs. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1984. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report summarizes work performed by the Materials Science and Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory during July, August, and September 1984 on water reactor safety problems related to fuel and cladding. The research and development areas covered are Transient Fuel Response and Fission Product Release and Clad Properties for Code Verification. 17 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Light-water-reactor safety fuel systems research programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1984. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report report summarizes work performed by the Materials Science and Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory during April, May, and June 1984 on water reactor safety problems related to fuel and cladding. The research and development areas covered are Transient Fuel Response and Fission Product Release and Clad Properties for Code Verification.

Not Available

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Light-water-reactor safety fuel systems research programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1984. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report summarizes work performed by the Materials Science and Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory during October, November, and December 1984 on water reactor safety problems related to fuel and cladding. The research and development areas covered are Transient Fuel Response and Fission Product Release and Clad Properties for Code Verification. 30 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature

Berning, Torsten

469

ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

470

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Removal Equipment (nuclear plant) Turbine Building ClosedCooling Water System (nuclear plant) SteamReheater (nuclear plant) Inspection Water Induction

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

472

The Challenge Human activities, such as the burning of fossil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil is a multinational independent exploration and production company with interests in the North Sea oil, gas fields or saline aquifers. Emissions from fossil fuel power stations could then be reduced, is the process of the capture and long-term storage of atmospheric CO2 and will play a vital role in future

Crowther, Paul

473

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results for Miscanthus-to-Ethanol fuel production pathway.results for Miscanthus-to-Ethanol fuel production pathway.withdrawals in cellulosic ethanol fuel production pathways,

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane processes such as microfil- tration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis con. Such a water movement does not require external energy input like that in reverse osmosis; thus, FO is a low Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic microbial fuel cell Wastewater treatment Water flux Draw solution a b

476

Enhancement of water retention in the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to achieve the neat-methanol operation is to passively transport the water produced at the cathode throughEnhancement of water retention in the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu, T.S. Zhao*, R. Chen, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering

Zhao, Tianshou

477

Adaptation of gas tagging for failed fuel identification in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses experience with noble gas tagging and its adaptation to commercial reactors. It reviews the recent incidence of fuel failures in light water reactors, and methods used to identify failures, and concludes that the on-line technique of gas tagging could significantly augment present flux tilting, sipping and ultrasonic testing of assemblies. The paper describes calculations on tag gas stability in-reactor, and tag injection tests that were carried out collaboratively with Commonwealth Edison Company in the Byron-2 pressurized water reactor (P%a) and with Duke Power Company and Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Company in the Oconee-2 PWM. The tests gave information on: (a) noble gas concentration dynamics as the tag gases were dissolved in and eventually removed from subsystems of the RCS; and (b) the suitability of candidate Ar, Ne, Kr and Xe isotopes for tagging PWR fuel. It was found that the activity of Xe{sup 125} (the activation product of the tag isotope Xe{sup 124}) acted as a ``tag of a tag`` and tracked gas through the reactor; measured activities are being used to model gas movement in the RCS. Several interference molecules (trace contaminants normally present at sub-ppM concentrations in RCS samples) and entrained air in the RCS were found to affect mass spectrometer sensitivity for tag isotopes. In all instances the contaminants could be differentiated from the tag isotopes by operating the mass spectrometer at high resolution (2500). Similarly, it was possible to distinguish all the candidate tag gases against a high background of air. The test results suggested, however, that for routine analysis a high resolution static mass spectrometer will be preferable to the dynamic instrument used for the present analyses.

Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Depiante, E.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Callis, E.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Egebrecht, P.M. [Commonwealth Edison Company, Downers Grove, IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z