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1

The effect of water flow rate upon the environmentally-assisted cracking response of a low-alloy steel  

SciTech Connect

Effect of water flow rate on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) response of a high-sulfur ferritic steel was studied at 243C. In contrast to earlier studies with compact-type specimens, this study employed relatively large tight semi-elliptical surface cracks tested under generally linear-elastic conditions. Flow velocities parallel to the crack as low as 1.68 {minus} 1.84 m/s were effective in mitigating EAC.

James, L.A.; Wire, G.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States). Bettis Atomic Power Lab.; Cullen, W.H. [Materials Engineering Associates, Lanham, MD (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Impacts of Volumetric Flow Rate of Water Intakes on Fish Populations and Communities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses issues related to causes and effects of fish impingement and entrainment at cooling water intake structures (CWISs). It analyzes the possible relationship between the volume of water withdrawn by a water intake and the status of fish populations and aquatic communities in the source water body.

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

3

Historical river flow rates for dose calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

Carlton, W.H.

1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow. Water Flow Calibrations 18020C. ... NIST provides calibration services for water flow meters. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

5

Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Cullen, W.H. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rate Rate Escalations to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Water Efficiency Basics Federal Requirements Best Management Practices Analysis and Evaluation Water Rate Escalations Evaluation Service Contracts Case Studies Resources

7

Shallow Water Flows in Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the shallow water equations for flows through channels with arbitrary cross section. The system forms a hyperbolic set of balance laws. Exact steady-state solutions are available and are controlled by the relation between the bottom topography ... Keywords: Balance laws, Hyperbolic conservation laws, Steady-state solutions, Upwind schemes

Gerardo Hernández-Dueñas; Smadar Karni

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A longitudinal study of vibration-based water flow sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a long-term and cross-sectional study of a vibration-based water flow rate monitoring system in practical environments and scenarios. In our earlier research, we proved that a water flow monitoring system with vibration sensors is feasible ... Keywords: Application of sensor networks, adaptive sensor calibration, nonintrusive and spatially distributed sensing, parameter estimation via numerical optimization

Younghun Kim; Heemin Park; Mani B. Srivastava

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thornton@tess-inc.com ABSTRACT In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. Bias...

10

Water Rate Escalations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rate Escalations Rate Escalations Water Rate Escalations October 8, 2013 - 9:55am Addthis Federal agencies need accurate water cost escalation rates to perform life cycle cost analyses for water efficiency projects to meet Executive Order 13514 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requirements. To estimate long-term escalation rates of potable water, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an analysis. Using the trends from this study, Federal facility managers can select escalation rates from studied cities with similar circumstances to their facility locations such as U.S. region, water source, or drought tendencies. Also they can make more informed choices on possible water escalation rates that can be used in economic analysis of water efficiency projects.

11

Introduction Application of numerical models of ground water flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Application of numerical models of ground water flow almost always involves some sort (Yeh 1986; Poeter and Hill 1997; Hill et al. 1998). Other data beside hydraulic head have been used in calibration of ground water models, including rates of ground water exchange with streams and other surface

Saiers, James

12

Flow Rate Measurement Using {sup 99m}Tc Radiotracer Method in a Pipe Installation  

SciTech Connect

Flow rate is a significant parameter for managing processes in chemical processing plants and water processing facility. Accurate measurement of the flow rate allows engineers to monitor the delivery of process material, which in turn impacts a plant's capacity to produce their products. One of the available methods for determining the flow rate of a process material is by introducing a radiotracer to the system that mimics the material's flow pattern. In this study, a low activity Technetium-99m radioisotope was injected into a water piping setup and the 2'' x 2'' NaI (Tl) detectors were calibrated to detect spectrum peaks at specific points of the pipe installation. Using pulse velocity method, water flow rate was determined to be 11.3 litres per minute. For the sampling method, at different pump capacity, the flow rate was 15.0 litres per minute.

Sipaun, S. M.; Bakar, A. Q. Abu; Othman, N.; Shaari, M. R.; Adnan, M. A. K. [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Bangi (Malaysia); Yusof, J. Mohd; Demanah, R. [Waste and Environmental Technology Divison, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Bangi (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

14

PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES A Thesis Submitted April 1995 #12;PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES by Xiangwei Zhao Abstract The steady and time-dependentbehavior of a single-row heat exchanger with water and air in the in

Sen, Mihir

15

Onset Mechanism of Strain-Rate-Induced Flow Stress Upturn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The strain-rate response of flow stress in a plastically deforming crystal is formulated through a stress-sensitive dislocation mobility model that can be evaluated by atomistic simulation. For the flow stress of a model ...

Fan, Yue

16

Flow Stability of Supercritical Water Cooled Systems  

SciTech Connect

Research activities are ongoing worldwide to develop nuclear power plants with supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) with the purpose to achieve a high thermal efficiency and to improve their economical competitiveness. However, the strong variation of the thermal-physical properties of water in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical line results in challenging tasks in thermal-hydraulic design of a SCWR. One of the challenging tasks is to understand and to predict the dynamic behavior and flow stability of supercritical water cooled systems. Although extensive thermal-hydraulic research activities have been carried out worldwide, studies on flow stability of SC water cooled systems are scarce. The present study deals with the flow behavior of SC water cooled systems. For this purpose the computer code SASC was developed, which is applied to a simplified cooling system. The effect of various parameters on the flow behavior is investigated. The first results achieved up to now reveals a complicated dynamic performance of a system cooled by supercritical water. (authors)

Cheng, X.; Kuang, B.; Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Single chamber fuel cells: Flow geometry, rate and composition considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four different single chamber fuel cell designs were compared using propane-air gas mixtures. Gas flow around the electrodes has a significant influence on the open circuit voltage and the power density of the cell. The strong influence of flow geometry is likely due to its effect on gas composition, particularly on the oxygen chemical potential at the two electrodes as a result of gas mixing. The chamber design which exposes the cathode first to the inlet gas was found to yield the best performance at lower flow rates, while the open tube design with the electrodes equally exposed to the inlet gas worked best at higher flow rates.

Stefan, Ionel C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Property:FirstWellFlowRate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:FirstWellFlowRate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellFlowRate Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of flow rate by mass. The default unit is kilogram per second (kg/s). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Kilogram per second - 1 kg/s,kilogram per second Kilogram per minute - 60 kg/min,kilogram per minute Kilogram per hour - 3600 kg/hour,kilogram per hour,kg/h Kilogram per day - 86400 kg/day,kilogram per day Liter per second - 1.0000000001 L/s,l/s,liters per second,l/sec,L/sec,liters/sec,Liters/sec Gallon per minute - 15.85032 gal/min,gallons per minute,gpm,gallons/min,Gallons/min Barrel per minute - 0.00839 bar/min,barrels per minute,barrel/min,barrels/min,Barrels/min

20

Monitoring downhole pressures and flow rates critical for underbalanced drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

True underbalanced drilling, and not just flow drilling, requires thorough engineering and monitoring of downhole pressures and flow rates to ensure the formations are drilled without formation damage. Underbalanced drilling involves intentionally manipulating the bottom hole circulating pressure so that it is less than static reservoir pressure. This underbalanced pressure condition allows reservoir fluids to enter the well bore while drilling continues, preventing fluid loss and many causes of formation damage. Applied correctly, this technology can address problems of formation damage, lost circulation, and poor penetration rates. Another important benefit of drilling underbalanced is the ability to investigate the reservoir in real time. The paper discusses the reasons for under balanced drilling, creating underbalance, well site engineering, fluids handling, rotating flow divertor injection gas, survey techniques, data acquisition, operations, maintaining under-balance, routine drilling, rate of penetration, misconceptions, and economics.

Butler, S.D.; Rashid, A.U.; Teichrob, R.R. [Flow Drilling Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Analysis of Water Rate Escalations across the United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis of Water Rate Escalations across the United States Analysis of Water Rate Escalations across the United States Elisabeth Giever Kate McMordie Stoughton Susan Loper October 2010 Executive Summary This document provides an overview of an analysis that examined changes in water rates across the country to develop a basic understanding of water rate escalations and how water rates are impacted from outside influences. The analysis investigated how water rates are influenced by the geographic region, water source, and drought tendencies. For example, one observation of the analysis found that cities located in regions of long term drought may have higher escalation rates than cities in water rich environments. Typical escalation rates were found to be between 4 and 8%. This information can be

22

Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu Available online xxxx Keywords: Informal water sector Water flows Developing countries Water market analysis to cope with popu- lation growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little

Elimelech, Menachem

23

Flow Analysis on a Limited Volume Chilled Water System  

SciTech Connect

LANL Currently has a limited volume chilled water system for use in a glove box, but the system needs to be updated. Before we start building our new system, a flow analysis is needed to ensure that there are no high flow rates, extreme pressures, or any other hazards involved in the system. In this project the piping system is extremely important to us because it directly affects the overall design of the entire system. The primary components necessary for the chilled water piping system are shown in the design. They include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fitting used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flow rate control devices (valves), and the pumps that add energy to the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. I used an 'exact' analysis and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for this project. When 'real-world' effects are important (such as viscous effects in pipe flows), it is often difficult or impossible to use only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations and dimensional analysis are needed in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level.

Zheng, Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in reservoir impoundments or parts...

25

Drag-disc turbine transducer data evaluation methods for dynamic steam-water mass flow measurements. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical design of a two-phase mass flow rate transducer for a highly corrosive, high temperature (651 K) hot water environment is presented. Performance data for transient steam-water flows are presented. Details of the applications of the device during loss-of-coolant experiments in a pressurized water reactor environment are discussed.

Winsel, C.E.; Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Effect of Watering and Non-Watering Cooling Rates on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Watering and Non-Watering Cooling Rates on the Mechanical Properties of an Aluminum Smelter's Potshell · Energy Reduction Technology for  ...

27

Method and apparatus for determining quality and mass flow rate of flowing steam  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for determining the quality and the two-phase mass flow rate of steam containing both liquid and vapor components and flowing in an orifice-containing steam line. The apparatus consists of: steam sampling means for drawing off through an orifice-containing sample conduit from the steam line a sample of the steam having substantially the same quality as the line steam, means for measuring the temperature in the sample conduit, means for measuring the static pressure in the sample conduit, means for measuring the differential pressure across the sample conduit orifice, means connected to the sample conduit for measuring the two-phase mass flow rate of the drawn off sample of steam, such that the sample steam quality may be determined by means of an equation relating the measured sample conduit temperature, static pressure, differential pressure, and two-phase mass flow rate, the determined sample steam quality being substantially the same as the desired line steam quality, means for measuring the temperature in the steam line, means for measuring the static pressure in the steam line, and means for measuring the differential pressure across the steam line orifice, such that the line steam two-phase mass flow rate may be determined by means of an equation relating the measured steam line temperature, static pressure, and differential pressure, and the line steam quality which is substantially the same as the determined sample steam quality.

Huang, W.-S.; Mims, D.S.; Allen, R.S.

1986-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis of coordinative optimization control for variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow to obtain better power savings is put forward. According to typical meteorological year data, hourly air conditioning load of whole year for every typical room has been calculated with the transmission function method. In order to guarantee each typical room, the highest cooling load rate is used as an input parameter for optimization calculation. Based on the surface cooler check model, the smallest energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization chilled water temperature and chilled water flow were carried out. The case study for a commercial building in Guangzhou showed that the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is lower by 17% only with employment of variable water flow regulation by pump frequency conversion. In the case of optimization control with coordinative control of variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow, the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is reduced by 22% in presence of remarkable power saving effects. Increasing the chilled water temperature will reduce the dehumidified capability of the air cooler, and the indoor relative humidity will increase. The simulation showed that the adjustment optimized process meets the comfort of each typical room. The lower the cooling load rate is, the more obvious the effect of power-saving is. The highest power-saving rate appears in December, which is 36.7%. Meanwhile, the least rate appears in July, which is only 14.5%.

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Exchange flow between open water and floating vegetation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study describes the exchange flow between a region with open water and a region with a partial-depth porous obstruction, which represents the thermally-driven exchange that occurs between open water and floating ...

Zhang, Xueyan

30

Mass flow rate measurements in gas-liquid flows by means of a venturi or orifice plate coupled to a void fraction sensor  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow measurements were carried out using a resistive void fraction meter coupled to a venturi or orifice plate. The measurement system used to estimate the liquid and gas mass flow rates was evaluated using an air-water experimental facility. Experiments included upward vertical and horizontal flow, annular, bubbly, churn and slug patterns, void fraction ranging from 2% to 85%, water flow rate up to 4000 kg/h, air flow rate up to 50 kg/h, and quality up to almost 10%. The fractional root mean square (RMS) deviation of the two-phase mass flow rate in upward vertical flow through a venturi plate is 6.8% using the correlation of Chisholm (D. Chisholm, Pressure gradients during the flow of incompressible two-phase mixtures through pipes, venturis and orifice plates, British Chemical Engineering 12 (9) (1967) 454-457). For the orifice plate, the RMS deviation of the vertical flow is 5.5% using the correlation of Zhang et al. (H.J. Zhang, W.T. Yue, Z.Y. Huang, Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using venturi and void fraction sensor, Journal of Zhejiang University Science 6A (6) (2005) 601-606). The results show that the flow direction has no significant influence on the meters in relation to the pressure drop in the experimental operation range. Quality and slip ratio analyses were also performed. The results show a mean slip ratio lower than 1.1, when bubbly and slug flow patterns are encountered for mean void fractions lower than 70%. (author)

Oliveira, Jorge Luiz Goes; Passos, Julio Cesar [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica-LEPTEN/Boiling-UFSC, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88.040-900 Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Verschaeren, Ruud; Geld, Cees van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, W-hoog 2.135, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Predicting enhanced mass flow rates in gas microchannels using nonkinetic models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Different nonkinetic approaches are adopted in this paper towards theoretically predicting the experimentally observed phenomenon of enhanced mass flow rates accompanying pressure-driven rarefied gas flows through ...

Dadzie, S. Kokou

32

Forced convective flow and heat transfer of upward cocurrent air-water slug flow in vertical plain and swirl tubes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study comparatively examined the two-phase flow structures, pressured drops and heat transfer performances for the cocurrent air-water slug flows in the vertical tubes with and without the spiky twisted tape insert. The two-phase flow structures in the plain and swirl tubes were imaged using the computerized high frame-rate videography with the Taylor bubble velocity measured. Superficial liquid Reynolds number (Re{sub L}) and air-to-water mass flow ratio (AW), which were respectively in the ranges of 4000-10000 and 0.003-0.02 were selected as the controlling parameters to specify the flow condition and derive the heat transfer correlations. Tube-wise averaged void fraction and Taylor bubble velocity were well correlated by the modified drift flux models for both plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition. A set of selected data obtained from the plain and swirl tubes was comparatively examined to highlight the impacts of the spiky twisted tape on the air-water interfacial structure and the pressure drop and heat transfer performances. Empirical heat transfer correlations that permitted the evaluation of individual and interdependent Re{sub L} and AW impacts on heat transfer in the developed flow regions of the plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition were derived. (author)

Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough-walled fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flow visualization experiments were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rough-walled fractures. The fracture was inclined to observe the interplay between capillary and gravity forces. Water was introduced into the fracture by a capillary siphon. Preferential flow paths were observed, where intermittent flow frequently occurred. The water infiltration experiments suggest that intermittent flow in fractures appears to be the rule rather than the exception. In order to investigate the mechanism causing intermittent flow in fractures, parallel plates with different apertures were assembled using lucite and glass. A medium-coarse-fine pore structure is believed to cause the intermittency in flow. Intermittent flow was successfully produced in the parallel plate experiments using the lucite plates. After several trials, intermittent flow was also produced in the glass plates.

Su, G.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve  

SciTech Connect

A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

35

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006 California Water Rate Survey. 2006. Black & VeatchRegional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit5 Calculated Marginal Rates for

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Determination of Supercooled Liquid Water Content by Measuring Rime Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ground-based technique is described for determining the liquid water content of supercooled clouds orfog by measuring the mass rate of rime accumulation on a small rotating wire. Development of the techniqueis described, examples of the data ...

David C. Rogers; Darrel Baumgardner; Gabor Vali

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Burch, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Accelerating Dense-Water Flow down a Slope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Where water is denser on a shallow shelf than in the adjacent deep ocean, it tends to flow down the slope from shelf to ocean. The flow can be in a steady bottom boundary layer for moderate combinations of upslope density gradient ??x? and bottom ...

John M. Huthnance

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

Liu, H.H.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

Collision Rates of Cloud Droplets in Turbulent Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations of an evolving turbulent flow field have been performed to explore how turbulence affects the motion and collisions of cloud droplets. Large numbers of droplets are tracked through the flow field and their positions, ...

Charmaine N. Franklin; Paul A. Vaillancourt; M. K. Yau; Peter Bartello

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system  

SciTech Connect

Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT.

Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Confined boiling rates of liquefied petroleum gas on water  

SciTech Connect

Results of a program to measure the rate of boiling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water surface and to develop an analytical model to describe the phenomena involved are reported. Primary emphasis was placed on liquid propane or LPG mixtures containing small quantities of ethane or butane or both. A few exploratory tests were, however, made with pure liquid ethane, ethylene, and n-butane. The investigation was conducted to provide quantitative data and analytical models to delineate the rate of vaporization, the spread rate and the degree of fractionation, should an LPG tanker suffer an accident leading to a major spill on water. For propane or LPG spills on water, immediately following the contact, violent boiling commenced. Ice quickly formed; in most cases, ice was even thrown onto the sidewalls of the vessel. In some instances sprays of water/ice and propane were ejected from the calorimeter. Within a few seconds, however, the interaction quieted and the surface was covered by a rough ice sheet. The LPG boiled on the surface of this ice, but large gas bubbles occasionally appeared under the ice shield and were trapped. The boiling rate decreased with time with a concomitant increase in the thickness of the ice shield. In the first second or two, very high boiling heat fluxes were experienced. The mass of LPG lost was approximately half that spilled originally. It is estimated that only 5 to 15% could have been ejected as liquid if the water loss is used as a reference. However, since the water surface is very agitated during this period, it is not possible to obtain reliable quantitative values of the boiling flux. Also, as noted, the mass lost in the very early time period was approximately proportional to the original mass of LPG used. It may be inferred that larger spills lead to more mixing and boiling before the ice shield prevents a direct contact between the LPG and the water.

Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Rates of Water Mass Formation in the North Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North Atlantic air-sea heat and freshwater flux data from several sources are used to estimate the conversion rate of water from one density to another throughout the range of sea surface density. This cross-isopycnal mass flux varies greatly ...

Kevin Speer; Eli Tziperman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Application Study of the Pump Water Flow Station for Building Energy Consumption Monitoring and Control Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a new building energy monitoring and pump speed control method. The pump speed is controlled to maintain the system resistance at an optimized value to approach the best pump efficiency and save pump power. The system resistance can be obtained by the pump head and the water flow rate calculated by the pump water-flow station (PWS), which was recently developed. The PWS measures the water flow rate using the pump head, pump speed, and pump performance curve. This method has been experimentally proved in real HVAC systems. A case study was demonstrated in this paper for application of this new method in a Continuous Commissioning (CC) practice. The case study shows that the PWS can control the pump speed to maintain the optimized system operating point. It can also measure the water flow rate and monitor energy consumption continuously with low installation and almost no maintenance cost. The results show that the new technology can save pump power and increase pump efficiency significantly.

Liu, G.; Liu, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

Information Center

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A study of relative permeability for steam-water flow in porous media  

SciTech Connect

We report on continuing experimental and numerical efforts to obtain steam-water relative permeability functions and to assess effect of heat transfer and phase change. To achieve these, two sets of steady-state flow experiments were conducted: one with nitrogen and water and another with steam and water. During these experiments, a mixture of nitrogen-water (or steam-water) was injected into a Berea sandstone core. At the onset of steady state conditions, three-dimensional saturation distributions were obtained by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography scanner. By identifying a length of the core over which a flat saturation profile exists and measuring the pressure gradient associated with this length, we calculated relative permeabilities for nitrogen-water flow experiments. The relative permeability relations obtained in this case were in good agreement with those reported by other investigators. Another attempt was also made to conduct a steam-water flow experiment under adiabatic conditions. This experiment was completed with partial success due to the difficulties encountered during the experiment. The results of this experiment showed that a flat saturation profile actually developed over a substantial length of the core even at a comparatively modest injection rate (6 grams per minute) with low steam quality (4% by mass). The completion of this set of experiments should yield steam-water relative permeability relations in the near future.

Ambusso, Willis; Satik, Cengiz; Horne, Roland

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

48

Microwave measurement of water content in flowing crude oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave method and a microwave device for measurement of water content in flowing crude oil are proposed. The method is based on measuring power of electromagnetic waves propagated through a transmission line and reflected from the load that is a ...

Yu. V. Makeev; A. P. Lifanov; A. S. Sovlukov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Antarctic Bottom Water Flow through the Hunter Channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rio Grande Rise acts as a natural barrier for the equatorward flow of Antarctic Bottom Water in the subtropical South Atlantic. In addition to the Vema Channel, the Hunter Channel cuts through this obstacle and offers a separate route for ...

Walter Zenk; Gerold Siedler; Bernd Lenz; Nelson G. Hogg

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

51

A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect

This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Influence of algae on photolysis rates of chemicals in water  

SciTech Connect

Sunlight-induced algal transformations of 22 nonionic organic chemicals were studied in order to provide kinetic results and equations concerning the influence of algae on the behavior of pollutants in freshwater environments. Screening studies indicated that green and blue-green algae, at concentrations of 1-10 mg of chlorophyll a/L, accelerate photoreaction of certain polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus compounds, and anilines in water. The rate of change in aniline concentration, (P), in the aniline-Chlamydomonas photoreaction can be described by the following expression: rate = A(1 + B/(P))-1. At low substrate concentrations, the reaction rate is first order with respect to both algae and substrate concentration. Methyl parathion and parathion photoreacted 390 times more rapidly when sorbed by algae than in distilled water, and aniline and m-toluidine reacted over 12000 times faster, indicating that light-induced algal transformations of certain pollutants may be significant. Other results indicated that reaction rates are unaffected by heat-killing the algae. 27 references

Zepp, R.G.; Schlotzhauer, P.F.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and ...

Camilli, Richard

54

An optical transducer measuring low gas flow rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An optical transducer was developed and tested for measuring the rate of biogas production in the range of 0 to 400 ml min/sup -1/ with an average absolute accuracy of 4.6% for 12.75 mm tube and 2.2% for the 22.2 mm diameter tube. In a comparison test of the optical transducer with a displacement gasometer, biogas measurements agreed within 2%.

Fischer, J.R.; Potter, J.H.; Iannotti, E.L.; Hulse, M.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Evaluating the Performance of a Surface Barrier on Reducing Soil-Water Flow  

SciTech Connect

One of the most common effective techniques for contaminant remediation in the vadose zone is to use a surface barrier to reduce or eliminate soil-water flow to reduce the contaminant flux to the underlying groundwater. Confirming the reduction of the soil-water flux rate is challenging because of the difficulty of determining the very low soil-water flux beneath the barrier. We propose a hydraulic-conductivity factor, fK, as a conservative indicator for quantifying the reduction of soil-water flow. The factor can be calculated using the measured soil-water content or pressure but does not require the knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity or the hydraulic gradient. The formulas were tested by comparing with changes in hydraulic conductivity, K, from a drainage experiment. The pressure-based formula was further applied to evaluate the performance of the interim surface barrier at T Tank Farm on Hanford Site. Three years after barrier emplacement, the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor between 3.8 and 13.0 at the 1-, 2- and 5-m depths. The difference between the conductivity-reduction factor and the flux-rate-reduction factor, fq, was quantified with a numerical simulation. With the calculated fK, the numerically determined fK/fq ratio, and the assumed pre-barrier soil-water flux rate of 100 mm yr-1, the estimated soil-water flux rate 3 years after barrier emplacement was no more than 8.5 mm yr-1 at or above the 5-m depth.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.; Clayton, Ray E.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Density-driven exchange flow between open water and an aquatic canopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Differences in water density can drive an exchange flow between the vegetated and open regions of surface water systems. A laboratory experiment has been conducted to investigate this exchange flow, using a random array ...

Zhang, Xueyan

57

Evolving artificial neural network and imperialist competitive algorithm for prediction oil flow rate of the reservoir  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) are utilized to provide quick and accurate well test data in numerous numbers of oil production applications like those in remote or unmanned locations topside exploitations that minimize platform space and subsea applications. ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Evolutionary algorithms, Fuzzy logic, Hybrid, Imperialist competitive optimization, Oil flow rate

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi; Mohammad Ebadi; Amin Shokrollahi; Seyed Mohammad Javad Majidi

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle-beds using perforated plates as liquid distributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle- beds using perforated plates devices and a liquid collector were used to study the influence of the gas flow rate on liquid in liquid distribution were evidenced. Indeed, the obtained results show that the influence of gas flow rate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Modeling and Test-and-Rate Methods for Innovative Thermosiphon Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in modeling and test-and-rate methods for thermosiphon solar domestic water heaters.

Burch, J.; Shoukas, G.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Laboratory Measurement of Water Nucleation Using a Laminar Flow Tube Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A Laminar Flow Tube Reactor (LFTR) was used to study the nucleation of water vapor. Computational analysis was carried out to define the operating conditions of the LFTR suitable for water nucleation measurements. An interface between the LFTR and a mass spectrometer was developed to analyze the chemical content of the freshly nucleated water particles. Presence of contaminants was detected in the initial configuration of the LFTR. As a result, improvements were made to the LFTR to achieve ultra-high purity conditions in the system. The nucleation rate of water vapor as a function of supersaturation was measured over the temperature range 210-250 K. The first measurement of the nucleation rate of water at a temperature of 210 K was obtained. Reasonable agreement with the classical theory predictions is observed for temperatures in the range 230-250 K. However, below 220 K, classical theory begins to overestimate nucleation rates compared to experimental data and the disagreement grows with decreasing temperature. The experimental data obtained provide an excellent benchmark for further nucleation studies of binary, ternary and more complex systems.

Mikheev, Vladimir B. (InnovaTek, Inc); Irving, Patricia M. (InnovaTek); Laulainen, Nels S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Barlow, Stephan E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Pervukhin, Viktor V. (Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

2002-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

Prevention of Flow Restrictions in Generator Stator Water Cooling Circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generator stator water cooling systems are designed to operate with dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations of either more than 2 parts per million (ppm) or less than 50 parts per billion (ppb). Large- and small-scale experimental studies and literature surveys show that if the system operates with DO concentration in either design range, copper corrosion-product-particle release rates are low and do not lead to plugging of hollow strands or clogging of strainers. In the range between the extremes -- ...

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

63

Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

64

Atmospheric Solar Heating Rate in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmosphere is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Analysis of a flow metering device for low-quality steam-water flows. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to investigate the potential of the meter configuration consisting of a sharp-edged contraction section followed by an extended length of constant area duct and finally a diffuser section for pressure recovery. This and two other configurations were tested. These configurations and the reasons underlying their selection are described and discussed. It is concluded that Murdock's correlation for steam/water flow through orifices and sudden contraction sections at low qualities is invalid and the metering scheme based on it is inoperative. (MHR)

Crowe, C.T.

1979-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

67

MEASUREMENTS OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR STEAM-WATER FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEASUREMENTS OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR STEAM-WATER FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA A REPORT SUBMITTED experimental efforts towards obtaining relative permeability for steam-water flow in a homogeneous porous computer tomography (CT) scanner. Steam fractional flow, crucial in evaluating relative permeabilities

Stanford University

68

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Addressing the efficiency of the energy transfer to the water flow by underwater electrical wire explosion  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and hydrodynamic simulation results of submicrosecond time scale underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu and Al wire arrays are presented. A pulsed low-inductance generator having a current amplitude of up to 380 kA was used. The maximum current rise rate and maximum power achieved during wire array explosions were dI/dt<=830 A/ns and approx10 GW, respectively. Interaction of the water flow generated during wire array explosion with the target was used to estimate the efficiency of the transfer of the energy initially stored in the generator energy to the water flow. It was shown that efficiency is in the range of 18%-24%. In addition, it was revealed that electrical explosion of the Al wire array allows almost double the energy to be transferred to the water flow due to efficient combustion of the Al wires. The latter allows one to expect a significant increase in the pressure at the front of converging strong shock waves in the case of cylindrical Al wire array underwater explosion.

Efimov, S.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Bazalitski, G.; Fedotov, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

The effect of flow rate on the in-situ gelation of a chrome/redox/polyacrylamide system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental data on the gelation of a polyacrylamide/thiourea/Cr(VI) gel system in unconsolidated sandpacks at flow rates typical of those encountered beyond the immediate vicinity of a wellbore. At these low rates, in-situ gelation during flow was characterized by an abrupt increase in flow resistance that occurred over a short distance at a specific location along the sandpack. The location of this region was a function of flow rate, and its distance from the inlet increased as flow rate increased. Filtration of gel aggregates appears to be the mechanism causing this behavior.

Marty, L.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P. (University of Kansas (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Prediction of Severe Accident Counter Current Natural Circulation Flows in the Hot Leg of a Pressurized Water Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During certain phases of a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the core becomes uncovered and steam carries heat to the steam generators through natural circulation. For PWR's with U-tube steam generators and loop seals filled with water, a counter current flow pattern is established in the hot leg. This flow pattern has been experimentally observed and has been predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Predictions of severe accident behavior are routinely carried out using severe accident system analysis codes such as SCDAP/RELAP5 or MELCOR. These codes, however, were not developed for predicting the three-dimensional natural circulation flow patterns during this phase of a severe accident. CFD, along with a set of experiments at 1/7. scale, have been historically used to establish the flow rates and mixing for the system analysis tools. One important aspect of these predictions is the counter current flow rate in the nearly 30 inch diameter hot leg between the reactor vessel and steam generator. This flow rate is strongly related to the amount of energy that can be transported away from the reactor core. This energy transfer plays a significant role in the prediction of core failures as well as potential failures in other reactor coolant system piping. CFD is used to determine the counter current flow rate during a severe accident. Specific sensitivities are completed for parameters such as surge line flow rates, hydrogen content, as well as vessel and steam generator temperatures. The predictions are carried out for the reactor vessel upper plenum, hot leg, a portion of the surge line, and a steam generator blocked off at the outlet plenum. All predictions utilize the FLUENT V6 CFD code. The volumetric flow in the hot leg is assumed to be proportional to the square root of the product of normalized density difference, gravity, and hydraulic diameter to the 5. power. CFD is used to determine the proportionality constant in the range from 0.11 to 0.13 and termed a discharge coefficient. The value is relatively unchanged for typical surge line flow rates as well as the hydrogen content in the flow. Over a significant range of expected temperature differences for the steam generator and reactor vessel upper plenum, the discharge coefficient also remained consistent. The discharge coefficient is a suitable model for determining the hot leg counter current flow rates during this type of severe accident. (author)

Boyd, Christopher F. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables.

Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Marginal Cost Pricing and the New LADWP Water Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industry is its capital intensity. For the water industryis 3 to 4 times the capital intensity of the telephone andits extraordinary capital intensity, investment and pricing

Hanemann, W. Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

NONE

1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ambient aerosol sampling inlet for flow rates of 100 and 400 l/min  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New bioaerosol sampling inlets were designed and tested that have nominal exhaust flow rates of 100 L/min to 400 L/min, and which have internal fractionators and screens to scalp large, unwanted particles and debris from the transmitted size distribution. These units consist of the same aspiration section, which is a 100 L/min Bell Shaped Inlet (BSI-100), and different pre-separators. The pre-separators are called the IRI-100 (Inline Real Impactor) with an exhaust flow rate of 100 L/min, the IRI-400 (exhaust flow rate of 400 L/min), the IVI-300 (Inline Virtual Impactor for a flow rate of 300 L/min) and the IVI-400. These units were tested in a wind tunnel at speeds of 2, 8, and 24 km/hr with particle sizes between 3 and 20 ?m AD (aerodynamic diameter). The units show wind independent characteristics over the range of wind speeds tested. The aspiration section of the BSI-100 has greater than 85% penetration for particle sizes ? 10 ?m AD. The IRI-100, IRI-400, IVI-300 and IVI-400, when combined with the BSI-100 all provide cutpoints of 11 ± 0.5 ?m AD.

Baehl, Michael Matthew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Labrador Sea Water: Pathways, CFC Inventory, and Formation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1997, a unique hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC: component CFC-11) dataset was obtained in the subpolar North Atlantic. To estimate the synopticity of the 1997 data, the recent temporal evolution of the CFC and Labrador Sea Water (LSW) ...

M. Rhein; J. Fischer; W. M. Smethie; D. Smythe-Wright; R. F. Weiss; C. Mertens; D.-H. Min; U. Fleischmann; A. Putzka

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Mathematical Model for Efficient Water Flow Curic Vladimir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industry, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 39, pp. 1353- 1374, 2004 [6] Jeppson R. Analysis of flow

Krejiæ, Nata�a

78

Distributed rate allocation for inelastic flows: Optimization frameworks, optimality conditions, and optimal algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A common assumption behind the recent surge in research activities on network utility maximization is that the traffic flows are elastic, which implies that the utility functions are concave and there are no hard limits on the rate allocated to each flow. These critical assumptions lead to the tractability of the analytic models of utility maximization, but also limits the applicability of the resulting rate allocation protocols. This paper focuses on inelastic flows and removes these restrictive and often invalid assumptions. We present several optimization frameworks, optimality conditions, and optimal algorithms. First we consider nonconcave utility functions, which turn utility maximization into nonconvex, constrained optimization problems that are well-known to be extremely difficult. We first show a surprising result that under certain conditions, the standard pricing algorithm for rate allocation will still converge to the globally optimal rate allocation. When the existing distributed algorithm fails, we present a new algorithm that produces the globally optimal rate allocation, with the worst case complexity being polynomial time in the number of users but exponential time in the number of links. In the second part of the paper, we provide a general problem formulation of rate allocation among time-sensitive flows from real-time and streaming applications, as well as a decomposition into subproblems coordinated by pricing. After simplifying the subproblems by leveraging the optimization structures, we highlight the difficult issues of causality and time-scale, and propose an effective pricing-based heuristics for admission control and an optimal algorithm for a special case formulation.

Mung Chiang; Shengyu Zhang; Prashanth H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand  

SciTech Connect

We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image and quantify the effect of a heterogeneous sand grain-size distribution on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate, as well as the effect on water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand. A 28 cm long sand column was packed with several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with sands of different grain-size distributions. During the hydrate formation, water redistribution occurred. Observations of water flow through the hydrate-bearing sands showed that water was imbibed more readily into the fine sand, and that higher hydrate saturation increased water imbibition in the coarse sand due to increased capillary strength. Hydrate dissociation induced by depressurization resulted in different flow patterns with the different grain sizes and hydrate saturations, but the relationships between dissociation rates and the grain sizes could not be identified using the CT images. The formation, presence, and dissociation of hydrate in the pore space dramatically impact water saturation and flow in the system.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Elastic capsules in shear flow: Analytical solutions for constant and time-dependent shear rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics of microcapsules in linear shear flow within a reduced model with two degrees of freedom. In previous work for steady shear flow, the dynamic phases of this model, i.e. swinging, tumbling and intermittent behaviour, have been identified using numerical methods. In this paper, we integrate the equations of motion in the quasi-spherical limit analytically for time-constant and time-dependent shear flow using matched asymptotic expansions. Using this method, we find analytical expressions for the mean tumbling rate in general time-dependent shear flow. The capsule dynamics is studied in more detail when the inverse shear rate is harmonically modulated around a constant mean value for which a dynamic phase diagram is constructed. By a judicious choice of both modulation frequency and phase, tumbling motion can be induced even if the mean shear rate corresponds to the swinging regime. We derive expressions for the amplitude and width of the resonance peaks as a function of the modulation frequency.

Steffen Kessler; Reimar Finken; Udo Seifert

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low rank coal upgrading in a flow of hot water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous hydrothermal degradation and extraction at around 350{sup o}C using flowing solvent as a reaction/extraction medium were proposed for upgrading brown coal, more specifically, for converting brown coal into several fractions having different molecular weight and chemical structure under mild conditions. When an Australian brown coal, Loy Yang coal, was treated by water at 350{sup o}C under 18 MPa, the coal was separated into four fractions: gaseous product by 8% yield, water-soluble extract at room temperature (soluble) by 23% yield, extract precipitates as solid at room temperature (deposit) by 23% yield, and residual coal (upgraded coal) by 46% yield on daf basis. The separation was found to be realized by in situ extraction of low-molecular-weight substances released from coal macromolecular structure and/or those generated by hydrothermal decomposition reactions at 350{sup o}C. The solid products obtained, deposit and upgraded coal, were characterized in detail to examine the possibility of their effective utilization as solid fuel and chemical feed stock. The upgraded coal showed higher heating value and higher gasification reactivity than the parent coal, indicating that the upgraded coal can be a better solid fuel than the parent coal. The solid extract, deposit, was found to show thermoplasticity at less than 200{sup o}C, suggesting the possibility of utilizing the deposit as a raw material of high performance carbon materials. Several variables affecting the performance of the proposed method are also examined in detail in this paper. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Masato Morimoto; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Kouichi Miura [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Computation of Infrared Cooling Rates in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the behavior in the far wings of absorption lines to scale transmission along an inhomogencous path to an equivalent ...

Ming Dah Chou; Albert Arking

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Parallel computation for shallow water flow: a domain decomposition approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: additive Schwarz preconditioning, domain decomposition, finite elements, parallelization, shallow water

L. Paglieri; D. Ambrosi; L. Formaggia; A. Quarteroni; A. L. Scheinine

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Comparison of entropy production rates in two different types of self-organized flows: Benard convection and zonal flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different types of self-organizing and sustaining ordered motion in fluids or plasmas--one is a Benard convection (or streamer) and the other is a zonal flow--have been compared by introducing a thermodynamic phenomenological model and evaluating the corresponding entropy production rates (EP). These two systems have different topologies in their equivalent circuits: the Benard convection is modeled by parallel connection of linear and nonlinear conductances, while the zonal flow is modeled by series connection. The ''power supply'' that drives the systems is also a determinant of operating modes. When the energy flux is a control parameter (as in usual plasma experiments), the driver is modeled by a constant-current power supply, and when the temperature difference between two separate boundaries is controlled (as in usual computational studies), the driver is modeled by a constant-voltage power supply. The parallel (series)-connection system tends to minimize (maximize) the total EP when a constant-current power supply drives the system. This minimum/maximum relation flips when a constant-voltage power supply is connected.

Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Impact of Chemical Injections on Boiling Water Reactor Dose Rates: Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report investigates the effects of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) chemistry parameters on radiation field generation, with a focus on the higher reactor water Co-60 activity levels observed at plants using On-line NobleChem™ (OLNC) injections. Correlation and response curves were developed to relate reactor water and feedwater chemistry to dose rates, with the goal of improving reactor recirculation system (RRS) piping shutdown dose rate ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

87

Water Influx, and Its Effect on Oil Recovery: Part 1. Aquifer Flow, SUPRI TR-103  

SciTech Connect

Natural water encroachment is commonly seen in many oil and gas reservoirs. In fact, overall, there is more water than oil produced from oil reservoirs worldwide. Thus it is clear that an understanding of reservoir/aquifer interaction can be an important aspect of reservoir management to optimize recovery of hydrocarbons. Although the mathematics of these processes are difficult, they are often amenable to analytical solution and diagnosis. Thus this will be the ultimate goal of a series of reports on this subject. This first report deals only with aquifer behavior, so it does not address these important reservoir/aquifer issues. However, it is an important prelude to them, for the insight gained gives important clues on how to address reservoir/aquifer problems. In general when looking at aquifer flow, there are two convenient inner boundary conditions that can be considered; constant pressure or constant flow rate. There are three outer boundary conditions that are convenient to consider; infinite, closed and constant pressure. And there are three geometries that can be solved reasonably easily; linear, radial and spherical. Thus there are a total of eighteen different solutions that can be analyzed.

Brigham, William E.

1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

88

Combined characteristics and finite volume methods for sediment transport and bed morphology in surface water flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: We propose a new numerical method for solving the equations of coupled sediment transport and bed morphology by free-surface water flows. The mathematical formulation of these models consists of the shallow water equations for the hydraulics, ... Keywords: Bed morphology, Finite volume scheme, Method of characteristics, Sediment transport, Shallow water equations

Fayssal Benkhaldoun; Mohammed Seaïd

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Pipeline Flow Behavior of Water-In-Oil Emulsions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions consist of water droplets dispersed in continuous oil phase. They are encountered at various stages of oil production. The oil produced from… (more)

Omer, Ali

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A fracture network model for water flow and solute transport  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper summarizes code development work and sample calculations for FRACNET, a two-dimensional steady state simulator of fluid flow and solute transport in fractured porous media. The model analyzes flow and transport by generating a fracture network based on statistical characteristics of fractures obtained from well logs and other data. After a network is generated, flow and tracer transport are computed for appropriate boundary conditions and wellbore source/sink terms. In addition, for a given realization, the code can be used to indicate whether the medium can be treated as an equivalent porous medium. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Robinson, B.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of water's unsolved puzzles is the question of what determines the lowest temperature to which it can be cooled before freezing to ice. The supercooled liquid has been probed experimentally to near the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH{\\approx}232 K, yet the mechanism of ice crystallization - including the size and structure of critical nuclei - has not yet been resolved. The heat capacity and compressibility of liquid water anomalously increase upon moving into the supercooled region according to a power law that would diverge at Ts{\\approx}225 K,(1,2) so there may be a link between water's thermodynamic anomalies and the crystallization rate of ice. But probing this link is challenging because fast crystallization prevents experimental studies of the liquid below TH. And while atomistic studies have captured water crystallization(3), the computational costs involved have so far prevented an assessment of the rates and mechanism involved. Here we report coarse-grained molecular simulations with the mW water model(4) in the supercooled regime around TH, which reveal that a sharp increase in the fraction of four-coordinated molecules in supercooled liquid water explains its anomalous thermodynamics and also controls the rate and mechanism of ice formation. The simulations reveal that the crystallization rate of water reaches a maximum around 225 K, below which ice nuclei form faster than liquid water can equilibrate. This implies a lower limit of metastability of liquid water just below TH and well above its glass transition temperature Tg{\\approx}136 K. By providing a relationship between the structural transformation in liquid water, its anomalous thermodynamics and its crystallization rate, this work provides a microscopic foundation to the experimental finding that the thermodynamics of water determines the rates of homogeneous nucleation of ice.(5)

Emily B. Moore; Valeria Molinero

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

92

Deep-Water Flow over the Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic Ocean likely impacts global climate through its effect on the rate of deep-water formation and the subsequent influence on global thermohaline circulation. Here, the renewal of the deep waters in the isolated Canadian Basin is ...

M-L. Timmermans; P. Winsor; J. A. Whitehead

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Temperatures,...

94

Rain Rate and Water Content in Hurricanes Compared with Summer Rain in Miami, Florida  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid water content (g m?3), precipitation rate (mm h?1), and radar reflectivity (dBZ) are inferred from cross sections of particle images obtained by aircraft. Each dataset is presented in a probability format to display changing functional ...

Robert A. Black; John Hallett

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Entrainment Rate, Cloud Fraction, and Liquid Water Path of PBL Stratocumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large eddy simulation technique is used to search for key factors in determining the entrainment rate, cloud fraction, and liquid water path in the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL), with the goal of developing simple schemes of ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Surface Ocean Fluxes and Water-Mass Transformation Rates in the Coupled NCAR Climate System Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global distributions of the air–sea fluxes of heat and freshwater and water mass transformation rates from a control integration of the coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Climate System Model (CSM) are compared with ...

Scott C. Doney; William G. Large; Frank O. Bryan

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Role of the Seasonal Cycle in the Subduction Rates of Upper–Southern Ocean Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A kinematic approach is used to diagnose the subduction rates of upper–Southern Ocean waters across seasonally migrating density outcrops at the base of the mixed layer. From an Eulerian viewpoint, the term representing the temporal change in the ...

Eun Young Kwon; Stephanie M. Downes; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Riccardo Farneti; Curtis Deutsch

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Assessing the Numerical Accuracy of Complex Spherical Shallow-Water Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The representation of nonlinear shallow-water flows poses severe challenges for numerical modeling. The use of contour advection with contour surgery for potential vorticity (PV) within the contour-advective semi-Lagrangian (CASL) algorithm makes ...

Ali R. Mohebalhojeh; David G. Dritschel

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Shallow-Water Flow past Isolated Topography. Part I: Vorticity Production and Wake Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow of a single layer of shallow water past high three-dimensional topography is studied in a nonrotating environment and in the absence of surface friction. The dimensionless parameters for this problem are the upstream Froude number, the ...

Christoph Schär; Ronald B. Smith

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A Numerical Modeling Study of Warm Offshore Flow over Cool Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of boundary layer evolution in offshore flow of warm air over cool water are conducted and compared with aircraft observations of mean and turbulent fields made at Duck, North Carolina. Two models are used: a two-dimensional,...

Eric D. Skyllingstad; Roger M. Samelson; Larry Mahrt; Phil Barbour

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its associated coil and valve stem position. Thus, the non-intrusive virtual flow meter introduced in this paper provides a solution to one of the measurement barriers and challenges: a low cost, reliable energy metering system at the AHU level. Mathematical models were built and the preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the virtual flow meter applications. As a result, the valve flow meter can be a cost effective means for water flow measurements at the AHU and thus provides an effective index for detecting and diagnosing the AHU operation faults.

Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy can be interpreted as giving a measure of their free energy difference, i a G 150 K 1100 100 J of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K and suppose that their ratio gives a measure of their free energy

104

CLUMPED ISOTOPIC EQUILIBRIUM AND THE RATE OF ISOTOPE EXCHANGE BETWEEN CO2 AND WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CLUMPED ISOTOPIC EQUILIBRIUM AND THE RATE OF ISOTOPE EXCHANGE BETWEEN CO2 AND WATER HAGIT P. AFFEK Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Connecticut, 06511, USA the exchange of oxygen isotopes with water. The use of 18 O as an environmental indicator typically assumes

105

Design and development of a test facility to study two-phase steam/water flow in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approach taken at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to obtain relative permeability curves and their dependence on fluid and matrix properties is summarized. Thermodynamic studies are carried out to develop the equations governing two-phase steam/water flow in porous media and to analyze the relationship between mass flow rate and flowing enthalpy. These relationships will be verified against experimental results and subsequently will be used to develop a field analysis technique to obtain in-situ relative permeability parameters. Currently our effort is concentrated on thermodynamic analysis and development of an experimental facility. Some of the findings of the theoretical work are presented and also the design and development effort for the experimental facility is described.

Verma, A.K.; Pruess, K.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Relative influence of lapse rate and water vapor on the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Observational data are employed in a radiative transfer model to simulate the mean variation in normalized greenhouse effect (NGE) between January and July. This is performed at a variety of locations, and the mean local rate of change in NGE with surface temperature is determined. The result is 1.5 times larger than the variation of NGE with surface temperature obtained by spatially correlating the aggregated data. This disagreement is ascribed to systematic differences between the two approaches and is interpreted as indicating the significant role that large-scale circulations as well as surface temperatures have on determining local thermal and humidity structures. The separate effects of water vapor and lapse rate variations are estimated, by simulating the January-July changes in NGE with each process in turn held constant: beyond the tropics the lapse rate feedback is found to dominate over the water vapor feedback, particularly over land; in the inter-tropics, lapse rate variations account for about a third of the change in greenhouse trapping, contributing substantially to the `super-greenhouse effect.` Utilizing a radiative-convective model, the possible effects on climate change of both lapse rate changes and water vapor feedback are compared: a global mean model cliamte is perturbed by a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide and equilibrium surface temperatures obtained for a variety of lapse rates. If, under conditions of climate change, the global mean lapse rate varies with surface temperature in the same manner as in the present-day mean seasonal cycle (increasing the lapse rate magnitude by 6%), then the lapse rate feedback amplifies the modeled water vapor feedback by 40%; conversely, a 12% reduction in the magnitude of the lapse rate completely nullifies the water vapor feedback.

Sinha, A. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

An Axial-Flow Cyclone for Aircraft-Based Cloud Water Sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new aircraft-based cloud water collection system has been developed to provide samples of cloud water for chemical analysis. The collection system makes use of centrifugal separation in an axial-flow cyclone to remove cloud drops from the ...

Derek J. Straub; Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the supercritical water oxidation flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted to evaluate the operation of the supercritical water oxidation flow reactor, which is located in Building 906, Room 107. This assessment documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of the supercritical water oxidation reactor process.

Phillips, N.M.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

CO2 Absorption Rate and Solubility in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Rate and Solubility in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/Water Absorption Rate and Solubility in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/Water Hongyi Dang (dang@che.utexas.edu) Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 ABSTRACT The solubility and absorption rate of carbon dioxide into monoethanolamine/ piperazine/water were measured in a wetted wall column at 40-60°C. The total amine concentration was varied from 1.0 M to 5.0 M with monoethanolamine blends containing 0 to 1.2 M piperazine. CO 2 solubility and solution speciation were simulated by nine equilibrium reactions. Two of the equilibrium constants were adjusted to match literature data. The rate of absorption was

110

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Raft River area of Idaho contains a geothermal system of intermediate temperatures (approx. = 150 0C) at depths of about 1.5 km. Outside of the geothermal area, temperature measurements in three intermediate-depth drill holes (200 to 400 m) and one deep well (1500 m) indicate that the regional conductive heat flow is about 2.5 mucal/cm 2 sec or slightly higher and that temperature gradients range from 50 0 to 60

111

Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements.

MJ Fayer

2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters Title Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5187E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Lutz, James D. Subsidiary Authors Energy Analysis Department Document Number LBNL-5187E Pagination 21 Date Published January Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5187E Abstract The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards Project Committee (SPC) 118.2, Method of Testing for Rating Residential Water Heaters, is seeking to improve the test procedure used for measuring the energy efficiency of residential gas and electric water heaters. ASHRAE is seeking to develop an improved test procedure in part to support the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) desire to update and amend the water heater test procedure underlying the minimum energy efficiency standards for water heaters. DOE's test procedures are often based on or reference ASHRAE standards.DOE's most recent minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for residential water heaters were promulgated in 2010.[1] The associated test procedures are stipulated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).[2] Although DOE currently is conducting a rulemaking to review and possibly amend the test procedures for residential water heaters, that rulemaking pertains to accounting for energy consumed during standby and off modes. In its notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on August 30, 2010, DOE tentatively concluded that the test procedure for water heaters already fully accounts for and incorporates the energy consumed during standby and off modes [3].

114

A Hybrid Second Order Scheme for Shallow Water Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We extend the well-balanced second order hybrid scheme developed in Donat and Martinez-Gavara (J. Sci. Comput., to appear) to the one-dimensional and two-dimensional shallow water system. We show that the scheme is exactly well-balanced for quiescent ... Keywords: C-property, Hyperbolic balance laws, Well-balanced schemes

A. Martinez-Gavara; R. Donat

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Water gate array for current flow or tidal movement pneumatic harnessing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention, which provides a system for harnessing power from current flow or tidal movement in a body of water, comprises first and second hydro-pneumatic chambers each having ingress and egress below the water surface near the river or ocean floor and water gates operative to open or seal the ports to the passage of water. In an exemplary embodiment, the gates are sychronized by shafts so that the ingress ports of each chamber are connected to the egress ports of each other chamber. Thus, one set of gates is closed, while the other is open, thereby allowing water to flow into one chamber and build air pressure therein and allowing water to flow out of the other chamber and create a partial vacuum therein. A pipe connects the chambers, and an air turbine harnesses the air movement within the pipe. When water levels are equilibrated, the open set of gates is closed by a counterweight, and the other set is allowed to open by natural force of the water differential. The water gates may be comprised of a plurality of louvers which are ganged for simultaneous opening and closing. The system is designed to operate with air turbines or other pneumatic devices. Its design minimizes construction cost and environmental impact, yet provides a clean renewable energy source.

Gorlov, Alexander M. (Brookline, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Numerical simulation of water flow around a rigid fishing net  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the simulation of the flow around and inside a rigid axisymmetric net. We describe first how experimental data have been obtained. We show in detail the modelization. The model is based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model penalized by a term based on the Brinkman law. At the out-boundary of the computational box, we have used a "ghost" boundary condition. We show that the corresponding variational problem has a solution. Then the numerical scheme is given and the paper finishes with numerical simulations compared with the experimental data.

Roger Lewandowski; Géraldine Pichot

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

117

Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

119

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

120

Design and Development of a Test Facility to Study Two-Phase Steam/Water Flow in Porous Media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concept of relative permeability is the key concept in extending Darcy's law for single phase flow through porous media to the two-phase flow regime. Relative permeability functions are needed for simulation studies of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. These are poorly known inspite of considerable theoretical and experimental investigations during the last decade. Since no conclusive results exist, many investigators use ad hoc parametrization, or adopt results obtined from flow of oil and gas (Corey, 1954). It has been shown by Reda and Eaton (1980) that this can lead to serious deficiencies. Sensitivity of the relative permeability curves for prediction of mass flow rate and flowing enthalpy into geothermal wells has been studied by many investigators (e.g. Eaton and Reda (1980), Bodvarsson et al (1980), Sun and Ershagi (1979) etc.). It can be concluded from these studies that the beehavior of a two-phase steam/water reservoir depends greatly on the relative permeability curves used. Hence, there exists a need for obtaining reliable relative permeability functions.

Verma, Ashok K.; Pruess, Karsten; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In geothermal fields, open faults and fractures often act as high permeability pathways bringing hydrothermal fluids to the surface from deep reservoirs. The Mount Princeton area, in south-central Colorado, is an area that has an active geothermal system related to faulting and is therefore a suitable natural laboratory to test geophysical methods. The Sawatch range-front normal fault bordering the half-graben of the Upper Arkansas

122

U-Sr isotopic speedometer: Fluid flow and chemical weathering rates inaquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the infiltration rate increases, the inferred dissolutioninferred infiltration rate increases in the model, the bulkthat as infiltration rates increase in the system, the pore

Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Conservative numerical simulation of multi-component transport in two-dimensional unsteady shallow water flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An explicit finite volume model to simulate two-dimensional shallow water flow with multi-component transport is presented. The governing system of coupled conservation laws demands numerical techniques to avoid unrealistic values of the transported ... Keywords: ?-? model, 35L65, 65M06, 65M12, 76M12, 76M20, Coupled system, Multi-component transport, Reactive source terms, Shallow flow, Solute constraints, Turbulence, Variable domain, Well-balanced approach

J. Murillo; P. García-Navarro; J. Burguete

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

UpStream: motivating water conservation with low-cost water flow sensing and persuasive displays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water is our most precious and most rapidly declining natural resource. We explore pervasive technology as an approach for promoting water conservation in public and private spaces. We hope to motivate immediate reduction in water use as well as higher-order ... Keywords: ambient displays, persuasive technology, sustainability

Stacey Kuznetsov; Eric Paulos

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Acceleration of the Hurricane Beta Drift by Shear Strain Rate of an Environmental Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energetics analysis is presented to reveal the mechanisms by which the environmental flows affect hurricane beta-gyre intensity and beta-drift speed. The two-dimensional environmental flow examined in this study varies in both zonal and ...

Xiaofan Li; Bin Wang

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

127

Air entrainment in transient flows in closed water pipes: a two-layer approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we first construct a model for transient free surface flows that takes into account the air entrainment by a sytem of 4 partial differential equations. We derive it by taking averaged values of gas and fluid velocities on the cross surface flow in the Euler equations (incompressible for the fluid and compressible for the gas). Then, we propose a mathematical kinetic interpretation of this system to finally construct a well-balanced kinetic scheme having the properties of conserving the still water steady state and possesing an energy. Finally, numerical tests on closed uniforms water pipes are performed and discussed.

Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stéphane

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Subcooled and saturated water flow boiling pressure drop in small diameter helical coils at low pressure  

SciTech Connect

Experimental pressure drop results on boiling water flow through three helical coils of tube inner diameter of 4.03 mm and 4.98 mm and coil diameter to tube diameter ratio of 26.1, 64.1 and 93.3 are presented. Both subcooled and saturated flow boiling are investigated, covering operating pressures from 120 to 660 kPa, mass fluxes from 290 to 690 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and heat fluxes from 50 to 440 kW m{sup -2}. Existing correlations for subcooled flow pressure drop are found not capable to fit the present subcooled database, while the measurements in saturated flow conditions are successfully reproduced by existing correlations for both straight and coiled pipe two-phase flow. The experimental database is included in tabular form. (author)

Cioncolini, Andrea; Santini, Lorenzo; Ricotti, Marco E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

8/10/12 Global Water Sustainability Flows Through Natural and Human Challenges --Environmental Protection 1/3eponline.com/articles/.../global-water-sustainability-flows-through-natural-and-human-challenges.aspx  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-water-sustainability-flows-through-natural-and-human-challenges.aspx Hot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear Energy. China's crisis is daunting, though not unique: Twothirds of China's 669 cities have water shortages

130

Retrofits for Improved Heat Rate and Availability: Circulating Water Heat Recovery Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating water heat recovery is a means of directly increasing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. If only fuel savings are considered, the economic benefit is often only marginal. However, when increased megawatt output and heat-rate improvements are included in the economic analysis, such retrofits can be attractive, with break-even fuel costs sometimes approaching $1/million Btu.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Mapping steam and water flow in petroleum reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past 5 years, we have applied high-resolution geophysical methods (crosswell seismic and electromagnetics (EM), and passive seismic) to map and characterize petroleum reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley and to monitor changes during secondary recovery operations. The two techniques provide complementary information. Seismic data reveal the reservoir structure, whereas EM measurements are more sensitive to the pore fluid distribution. Seismic surveys at the south Belridge field were used to map fracture generation and monitor formation changes due to the onset of steam flooding. Early results show possible sensitivity to changes in gas saturation caused by the steam flooding. Crosswell EM surveys were applied at a shallow pilot at Lost Hills for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. Images made from baselines data clearly show the distribution of the target oil sands; repeated surveys during the steam flood allowed us to identify the boundaries of the steam chest and to accurately predict breakthrough. Applications of the EM techniques in steel-cased wells are at an early stage, but preliminary results at Lost Hills show sensitivity to formation resistivity in a water-flood pilot. Finally, passive seismic surveys during hydrofracture operations measured events corelatable in frequency content and magnitude with the size and orientation of induced fractures.

Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Daley, T.; Peterson, J.; Majer, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Murer, A.S. [Mobil Exploration and Producing US (United States); Johnston, R.M. [SPE, CalResources LLC (United States); Klonsky, L. [Chevron USA Production Co. (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

Flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in a horizontal circular micro-channel  

SciTech Connect

Adiabatic two-phase air-water flow characteristics, including the two-phase flow pattern as well as the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop, in a circular micro-channel are experimentally studied. A fused silica channel, 320 mm long, with an inside diameter of 0.53 mm is used as the test section. The test runs are done at superficial velocity of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-16 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow pattern map is developed from the observed flow patterns i.e. slug flow, throat-annular flow, churn flow and annular-rivulet flow. The flow pattern map is compared with those of other researchers obtained from different working fluids. The present single-phase experiments also show that there are no significant differences in the data from the use of air or nitrogen gas, and water or de-ionized water. The void fraction data obtained by image analysis tends to correspond with the homogeneous flow model. The two-phase pressure drops are also used to calculate the frictional multiplier. The multiplier data show a dependence on flow pattern as well as mass flux. A new correlation of two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical application. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Cash Flow and Discount Rate news estimation: which method to choose?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

news 6.1 Generation of financial statements and expectationsNEWS Generation of financial statements and expectationsabout future cash flows Financial statements of the firm are

Khimich, Natalya V.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Exact solution describing a shallow water flow in an extending stripe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Partially invariant solution to (2+1)D shallow water equation is constructed and investigated. The solution describes an extension of a stripe, bounded by linear source and drain of fluid. Realizations of smooth flow and of hydraulic jump are possible. Particle trajectories and sonic characteristics on the obtained solution are calculated.

Sergey V. Golovin

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

136

Numerical simulation of air/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple GPUs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 Numerical simulation of air/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple Compounds A Large-scale Simulation on CFD in Construction Industry Estimation of strong ground motion and manufacturing of plumbing products such as ceramic sanitary wares. In order to re-produce the complex

137

Simulation of water flow and solute transport in free-drainage lysimeters and field soils with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of water flow and solute transport in free-drainage lysimeters and field soils with heterogeneous structures H. M. ABDOU & M. FLURY Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Center for Multiphase for studying the fate and transport of chemicals in soil. Large-scale field lysimeters are used to assess

Flury, Markus

138

Influence of Cooling Circulating Water Flow on Back Pressure Variation of Thermal Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, condenser pressure can be considered as back pressure of the steam turbine, which has great influence on the unit power. Based on the back pressure calculation model, influence on back pressure variation by adjusting circulating ... Keywords: Cold-end system, back pressure, cooling water flow, unit power

Nian Zhonghua, Liu Jizhen, Liu Guangjian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Transequatorial Flow of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Western Atlantic Ocean: Abyssal Geostrophy at the Equator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its general northward flow along the western trough of the Atlantic, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) must pass over several sills separating the various abyssal basins. At the equator, the western trough is deformed by major east-west offsets of ...

M. S. McCartney; R. A. Curry

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone in southeastern Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a regional study of thermal and non-thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone of southern Idaho and western Wyoming are presented. The study involved hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data collection and interpretation. Particular emphasis was placed on analyzing the role that thrust zones play in controlling the movement of thermal and non-thermal fluids.

Ralston, D.R.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies, of which 30 are cluster members. Nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters, having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 to 525 solar masses per year. Using the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band flux, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs. This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 to 219 solar masses per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

Amalia K. Hicks; Richard Mushotzky

2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

142

A kinetic scheme for unsteady pressurised flows in closed water pipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

he aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes. Firstly, we detail the mathematical model written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differentiel system of equations, and the we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation. Then we build the kinetic scheme ensuring an upwinding of the source term due to the topography performed in a close manner described by Perthame et al. using an energetic balance at microscopic level for the Shallow Water equations. The validation is lastly performed in the case of a water hammer in a uniform pipe: we compare the numerical results provided by an industrial code used at EDF-CIH (France), which solves the Allievi equation (the commonly used equation for pressurised flows in pipes) by the method of characteristics, with those of the kinetic scheme. It appears that they are in a very good agreement.

Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stéphane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater  

SciTech Connect

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Cross-layer rate control in wireless networks with lossy links: leaky-pipe flow, effective network utility maximization and hop-by-hop algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We take a cross-layer design approach to study rate control in multihop wireless networks. Due to the lossy nature of wireless links, the data rate of a given flow becomes smaller and smaller along its routing path. As a result, the data rate received ... Keywords: ENUM, cross-layer optimization, flow control, hop-by-hop algorithms, leaky-pipe model

Qinghai Gao; Junshan Zhang; Stephen V. Hanly

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Interpretation of Water Chemistry and Stable Isotope Data from a Karst Aquifer According to Flow Regimes Identified through Hydrograph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

82 Interpretation of Water Chemistry and Stable Isotope Data from a Karst Aquifer According to Flow.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., MS 434, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 2 Univ. of Minnesota, Dept. of Geology for the identification of four separate flow regimes of the aquifer outflow. Major ion chemistry and stable isotopic

146

Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The petroleum industry commonly uses single-layer models to characterize and forecast long-term production in tight gas reservoir systems. However, most tight gas reservoirs are layered systems where the permeability and porosity of each layer can vary significantly, often over several orders of magnitude. In addition, the drainage areas of each of the layers can be substantially different. Due to the complexity of such reservoirs, the analysis of pressure and production history using single-layer analyses techniques provide incorrect estimates of permeability, fracture conductivity, drainage area, and fracture half-length. These erroneous values of reservoir properties also provide the reservoir engineer with misleading values of forecasted gas recovery. The main objectives of this research project are: (1) to demonstrate the typical errors that can occur in reservoir properties when single-layer modeling methods are used to history match production data from typical layered tight gas reservoirs, and (2) to use the single-layer match to demonstrate the error that can occur when forecasting long-term gas production for such complex gas reservoirs. A finite-difference reservoir simulator was used to simulate gas production from various layered tight gas reservoirs. These synthetic production data were analyzed using single-layer models to determine reservoir properties. The estimated reservoir properties obtained from the history matches were then used to forecast ten years of cumulative gas production and to find the accuracy of gas reserves estimated for tight gas reservoirs when a single-layer model is used for the analysis. Based on the results obtained in this work, I conclude that the accuracy in reservoir properties and future gas flow rates in layered tight gas reservoirs when analyzed using a single-layer model is a function of the degree of variability in permeability within the layers and the availability of production data to be analyzed. In cases where there is an idea that the reservoir presents a large variability in ��k�, using a multi-layer model to analyze the production data will provide the reservoir engineer with more accurate estimates of long-term production recovery and reservoir properties.

Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An Energy Signature Scheme for Steam Trap Assessment and Flow Rate Estimation Using Pipe-Induced Acoustic Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Impact of Dynamic Ratings, Major Power Flow Upgrades, and Green Power Integration on System Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power utilities around the world are undergoing a major transformation, which is redefining the utilization of existing power equipment in the electric transmission network due to limited financial incentives and lengthy licensing process for new construction. Under these circumstances, the utilities are forced to find new ways of increasing power flow quickly through existing transmission corridors with minimal investments. Increased power flows of transmission circuits can be achieved by contr...

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

149

An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. Here, the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media is investigated by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is comprised of high performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high resolution model is used to demonstrate that non-uniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. The effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

Rafa, S. Molins; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Shen, C.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the savings realized by water conservation or efficiencythe benefits and costs of water conservation or efficiencycost savings from water conservation requires knowing the

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Colombani, Jean

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Jean Colombani

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

153

Water flow calorimetry measurements of heat loads for a volume production H/sup -/ source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of volume-production H/sup -/ sources requires the knowledge of heat loads on the source components. The arc and filament heater power input to a 20 cm diameter x 23 cm long source can be 50 kW or higher, practically all of which is absorbed in the cooling water. Water flow calorimetry measurements were made to determine the heat loads on the bucket walls, grid no. 1, and magnetic filter rods. The measurements are presented for two different filament locations, for three different values of arc power, and for three values of source gas pressure. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Purgalis, P.; Ackerman, G.; Kwan, J.; Wells, R.P.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.

Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

155

Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April 1978-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Flow-Induced vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1978 to December 1979.

Schardt, J. F.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.

Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle-beds using perforated plates as liquid distributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two wire mesh tomography devices and a liquid collector were used to study the influence of the gas flow rate on liquid distribution when fluids distribution on top of the reactor is ensured by a perforated plate. In opposition to most of the studies realized by other authors, conditions in which the gas has a negative impact in liquid distribution were evidenced. Indeed, the obtained results show that the influence of gas flow rate depends on the quality of the initial distribution, as the gas forces the liquid to "respect" the distribution imposed at the top of the reactor. Finally, a comparison between the two measuring techniques shows the limitations of the liquid collector and the improper conclusions to which its use could lead.

Llamas, Juan-David; Wild, Gabriel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Numerical simulations of turbulent flow fields caused by spraying of water on large releases of hydrogen fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of water sprays in absorbing HF releases was recently demonstrated in extended laboratory and field tests. In this paper, computer simulations are presented of the Hawk, Nevada Test Site, series of field tests. The model used, HFSPRAY, is a Eulerean/Lagrangian model which simulates the momentum, mass and energy interactions between a water spray and a turbulent plume of HF in air; the model can predict the flow velocities, temperature, water vapor, and HF concentration fields in two-dimensional large- geometries for spraying in any direction, (i.e., down-flow, inclined-down-flow, up-flow, and co-current horizontal flow). The model was validated against recent data on spraying of water on large releases of HF. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Schatz, K.W. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

WATER ICE IN HIGH MASS-LOSS RATE OH/IR STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate water-ice features in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars. We use a radiative transfer code which can consider multiple components of dust shells to make model calculations for various dust species including water ice in the OH/IR stars. We find that the model SEDs are sensitively dependent on the location of the water-ice dust shell. For two sample stars (OH 127.8+0.0 and OH 26.5+0.6), we compare the detailed model results with the infrared observational data including the spectral data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For the two sample stars, we reproduce the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 3.1 {mu}m and 11.5 {mu}m; emission at 44 and 62 {mu}m) observed by ISO using a separate component of the water-ice dust shell that condensed at about 84-87 K (r {approx} 1500-1800 AU) as well as the silicate dust shell that condensed at about 1000 K (r {approx} 19-25 AU). For a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars, we present infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and AKARI data compared with theoretical model results. We find that the theoretical models clearly show the effects of the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 11.5 {mu}m and emission at 62 {mu}m) on the 2CDs.

Suh, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Young-Joo, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Calculating Mass Flow Rates at Sub-Sonic Conditions Trhough Venturis (FT-4052-H & FT-4053-H) and an Orifice Plate (F)-2019-H)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this engineering note is to explain the method involved in calculating the mass flow rates through venturis and orifice plates at sub-sonic conditions. In particular, the mass flow rate calculations are required for two FLOW-DYNE venturi flow meters, serial no. 35821 and no. 35822, and an orifice plate flow meter, serial no. 35823. The two venturis, FT-4052-H and FT-4053-H, are located in the D-Zero VLPC valve box at the refrigerator and the orifice plate, FO-2019-H, is on the high pressure helium supply line in the assembly building.

Zaczek, Mauiusz; /Fermilab

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Impact of aspect ratio on flow boiling of water in rectangular microchannels  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we focus on the impact of varying the aspect ratio of rectangular microchannels, on the overall pressure drop involving water boiling. An integrated system comprising micro-heaters, sensors and microchannels has been realized on (110) silicon wafers, following CMOS compatible process steps. Rectangular microchannels were fabricated with varying aspect ratios (width [W] to depth [H]) but constant hydraulic diameter of 142{+-}2{mu}m and length of 20 mm. The invariant nature of the hydraulic diameter is confirmed through two independent means: physical measurements using profilometer and by measuring the pressure drop in single-phase fluid flow. The experimental results show that the pressure drop for two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels experiences minima at an aspect ratio of about 1.6. The minimum is possibly due to opposing trends of frictional and acceleration pressure drops, with respect to aspect ratio. In a certain heat flux and mass flux range, it is observed that the two-phase pressure drop is lower than the corresponding single-phase value. This is the first study to investigate the effect of aspect ratio in two-phase flow in microchannels, to the best of our knowledge. The results are in qualitative agreement with annular flow model predictions. These results improve the possibility of designing effective heat-sinks based on two-phase fluid flow in microchannels. (author)

Singh, S.G.; Kulkarni, A.; Duttagupta, S.P. [Nanoelectronics Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Puranik, B.P.; Agrawal, A. [Suman Mashruwala Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

excel/aeotab_19.xls Fisher, D.C. , and J.D. Lutz. Water andWaste Water Tariffs for New Residential Construction inNational Association of Clean Water Agencies. 2005 Financial

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The CI-FLOW Project: A System for Total Water Level Prediction from the Summit to the Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Coastal and Inland Flooding Observation and Warning (CI-FLOW) project is to prototype new hydrometeorologic techniques to address a critical NOAA service gap: routine total water level predictions for tidally influenced watersheds. ...

Suzanne Van Cooten; Kevin E. Kelleher; Kenneth Howard; Jian Zhang; Jonathan J. Gourley; John S. Kain; Kodi Nemunaitis-Monroe; Zac Flamig; Heather Moser; Ami Arthur; Carrie Langston; Randall Kolar; Yang Hong; Kendra Dresback; Evan Tromble; Humberto Vergara; Richard A Luettich Jr.; Brian Blanton; Howard Lander; Ken Galluppi; Jessica Proud Losego; Cheryl Ann Blain; Jack Thigpen; Katie Mosher; Darin Figurskey; Michael Moneypenny; Jonathan Blaes; Jeff Orrock; Rich Bandy; Carin Goodall; John G. W. Kelley; Jason Greenlaw; Micah Wengren; Dave Eslinger; Jeff Payne; Geno Olmi; John Feldt; John Schmidt; Todd Hamill; Robert Bacon; Robert Stickney; Lundie Spence

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Simulation of water flow and retention in earthen-cover materials overlying uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The water retention characteristics of a multilayer earthen cover for uranium mill tailings were simulated under arid weather conditions common to Grand Junction, Colorado. The multilayer system described in this report consists of a layer of wet clay/gravel (radon barrier), which is separated from a surface covering of fill soil by a washed rock material used as a capillary barrier. The capillary barrier is designed to prevent the upward migration of water and salt from the tailings to the soil surface and subsequent loss of water from the wet clay. The flow model, UNSATV, described in this report uses hydraulic properties of the layered materials and historical climatic data for two years (1976 and 1979) to simulate long-term hydrologic response of the multilayer system. Application of this model to simulate the processes of infiltration, evaporation and drainage is described in detail. Simulations over a trial period of one relatively wet and two dry years indicated that the clay-gravel layer remained near saturation, and hence, that the layer was an effective radon barrier. Estimates show that the clay-gravel layer would not dry out (i.e., revert to drying dominated by isothermal vapor-flow conditions) for at least 20 years, provided that the modeled dry-climate period continues.

Simmons, C.S.; Gee, G.W.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Mean reaction rate closures for nanoparticle formation in turbulent reacting flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exposed to sunlight. A few applica- tions exploit the photocatalysis. For example, anti-fogging glass, self-cleaning and anti-microbial coatings (Fujishima et al., 1999). Applications in solar water purification are being developed (Morgan, 2008; Williams... size. The milling is typically performed using either fluid-energy (Slepetys, 1970) or media mills (Niedenzu et al., 1996) and adds significant cost to the pigment. The more control that can be used to minimise agglomeration and reduce the need...

Akroyd, Jethro

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

167

Estimating the Annual Water and Energy Savings in Texas A & M University Cafeterias using Low Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving the efficiency of a Pre- Rinse Spray Valve (PRSV) is one of the most cost effective water conservation methods in the Food Services Industry. A significant contributor to this cost efficiency is the reduction in the energy costs required to provide the mandatory hot water. This research paper estimates the potential quantity and dollar value of the water and energy that can be saved annually in Texas A&M University's dining services with the installation of low flow pre-rinse spray valves. The data collection was obtained from four of Texas A&M University's Dining Services facilities. The annual savings were estimated by contrasting the water consumption of the existing T & S Brass B 0107-M PRSVs with the latest and most advanced available low flow T and S Brass B 0107-C PRSV. The annual water consumption of the existing and new PRSVs were predicted by measuring an individual average flow rate for each and observing the number of hours per day the PRSV would be used. The observed and measured values were extrapolated to amount rates to determine cost savings. The dollar value was ascertained using the utility cost data recorded over a semester by the Facilities Coordinator of the Department of Dining Services. The findings of this study show that the water savings from a single PRSV could lead to an estimated annual saving ranging between 46% and 78% of the current operation cost. The T & S Brass B 0107-C PRSV is currently priced between $52- $60 per valve resulting in a payback period ranging between 1.5-6 months per valve. If every valve on campus was replaced, the University could reap a savings in the range of $ 5,400- $22,590 over the 5 year useful life of the valve, having initially invested less than $550.

Rebello, Harsh Varun

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Investigations of a Winter Mountain Storm in Utah. Part I: Synoptic Analyses, Mesoscale Kinematics, and Water Release Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A winter storm passing across the north–south-orientated Tushar Mountains in southwest Utah is investigated in this multipart paper. This Part I describes the evolving synoptic pattern, mesoscale kinematics, and calculated water release rates (...

Alexis B. Long; Arlen W. Huggins; Bernard A. Campistron

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a weighted average of the utility’s rate for its first andsurvey asks about the utility’s rate structure (flat vs.0 for all 41 of the flat-rate utilities, was $0.74 per unit.

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Progress report, October 1980-December 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from October 1980 to December 1980.

Torres, M.R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exploring the Disconnect Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems M. Hoeschele and E. Weitzel Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) May 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

173

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide guidance for land and water resources management. Atmospheric pressure and water table fluctuations are two important natural processes at the upper and lower boundaries of the unsaturated zone, respectively. However, their significance has been neglected in previous studies. This dissertation systematically investigates their influence on the gas phase flow and transport of VOCs in soil and ground water remediation processes using analytically and numerically mathematical modeling. New semi-analytical and numerical solutions are developed to calculate the subsurface gas flow field and the gas phase transport of VOCs in active soil vapor extraction (SVE), barometric pumping (BP) and natural attenuation taking into account the atmospheric pressure and the water table fluctuations. The accuracy of the developed solutions are checked by comparing with published analytical solutions under extreme conditions, newly developed numerical solutions in COMSOL Multiphysics and field measured data. Results indicate that both the atmospheric pressure and the tidal-induced water table fluctuations significantly change the gas flow field in active SVE, especially when the vertical gas permeability is small (less than 0.4 Darcy). The tidal-induced downward moving water table increases the depth-averaged radius of influence (ROI) for the gas pumping well. However, this downward moving water table leads to a greater vertical pore gas velocity away from the gas pumping well, which is unfavorable for removing VOCs. The gas flow rate to/from the barometric pumping well can be accurately calculated by our newly developed solutions in both homogeneous and multi-layered unsaturated zones. Under natural unsaturated zone conditions, the time-averaged advective flux of the gas phase VOCs induced by the atmospheric pressure and water table fluctuations is one to three orders of magnitude less than the diffusive flux. The time-averaged advective flux is comparable with the diffusive flux only when the gas-filled porosity is very small (less than 0.05). The density-driven flux is negligible.

You, Kehua

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Development of Mechanistic Modeling Capabilities for Local Neutronically-Coupled Flow-Induced Instabilities in Advanced Water-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The major research objectives of this project included the formulation of flow and heat transfer modeling framework for the analysis of flow-induced instabilities in advanced light water nuclear reactors such as boiling water reactors. General multifield model of two-phase flow, including the necessary closure laws. Development of neurton kinetics models compatible with the proposed models of heated channel dynamics. Formulation and encoding of complete coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics models for the analysis of spatially-dependent local core instabilities. Computer simulations aimed at testing and validating the new models of reactor dynamics.

Michael Podowski

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

176

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newwater_heaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Dry-season soil water repellency affects Tahoe Basin infiltration rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All of our untreated- water plots produced runoff. At theall untreated-water plots produced runoff, which occurred onrun- off was produced by all 12 untreated- water plots, but

Rice, Erin C; Grismer, Mark E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The effects of channel diameter on flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in circular micro-channels  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase air-water flow characteristics are experimentally investigated in horizontal circular micro-channels. Test sections are made of fused silica. The experiments are conducted based on three different inner diameters of 0.53, 0.22 and 0.15 mm with the corresponding lengths of 320, 120 and 104 mm, respectively. The test runs are done at superficial velocities of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-42.36 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow visualisation is facilitated by systems mainly including stereozoom microscope and high-speed camera. The flow regime maps developed from the observed flow patterns are presented. The void fractions are determined based on image analysis. New correlation for two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical applications. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Temperature and Supersaturation Dependent Nucleation Rates of Water by Molecular Cluster Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The homogeneous nucleation process for water has been the subject of great interest, despite the fact that water droplet formation in the atmosphere occurs by heterogeneous nucleation. This is because the homogeneous nucleation process is the ...

Sung-Ho Suck Salk; C. K. Lutrus; D. E. Hagen

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Well-balanced bicharacteristic-based scheme for multilayer shallow water flows including wet/dry fronts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to present a new well-balanced finite volume scheme for two-dimensional multilayer shallow water flows including wet/dry fronts. The ideas, presented here for the two-layer model, can be generalized to a multilayer case in a ... Keywords: Bicharacteristics, Evolution galerkin, Finite volume method, Two-layer shallow water, Well-balance, Wet/dry front

M. Dudzinski; M. Luká?Ová-Medvid'Ová

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Influence of Different Inflow Water Rate and Temperature on Heat Exchange Performance of Underground Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

in the paper, the influence of different inflow water rate and temperature on heat exchange performance of underground heat pump were discussed by experiment, two vital parameters was defined to measure the properties of ground heat exchanger: Energy ... Keywords: heat pump, underground tube, influential factors, parameters

Zheng Min; Li Bai-yi

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Transmutation rates in the annulus gas of pressure tube water reactors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor utilizes Pressure Tube (PT) fuel channel design and heavy water as a coolant. Fuel channel annulus gas acts as an… (more)

Ahmad, Mohammad Mateen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Parameter Sweep Experiments on Spontaneous Gravity Wave Radiation from Unsteady Rotational Flow in an f-Plane Shallow Water System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inertial gravity wave radiation from an unsteady rotational flow (spontaneous radiation) is investigated numerically in an f-plane shallow water system for a wide range of Rossby numbers, 1 ? Ro ? 1000, and Froude numbers, 0.1 ? Fr ? 0.8. A ...

Norihiko Sugimoto; Keiichi Ishioka; Katsuya Ishii

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Influence of the ITCZ on the Flow of Thermocline Water from the Subtropical to the Equatorial Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow of thermocline water from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean is investigated using a 2½-layer numerical model. In this system, the lower of the two active layers represents the thermocline region of the ocean, and the upper ...

Peng Lu; Julian P. McCreary Jr.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O) William R. Gormana)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy in bulk water, producing a major impact on energy conservation.6 Heavy water was added to light, if it is produced, will be observed only as the water cools through 4°C. Fig. 2S. Here we show a graph (a) of the temperature gradient produced in the center of the bottle when it is filled with regular water with no added D

Suzuki, Masatsugu

188

Analyses and applications of pressure, flow rate, and temperature measurements during a perforating run. [Measurement while perforating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perforating technology has undergone significant advances during the last decade. Tubing-conveyed perforating, underbalanced perforating, high-shot-density guns, better shaped charges, and improved gun systems have contributed to safer operations and improved productivity of the perforated completions. A recent development described in this paper is a perforating tool that makes real-time downhole measurements (including pressure, flow rate, temperature, gamma ray, casing-collar locator (CCL), and cable tension) during a perforating run and can selectively fire a number of guns at different depths or times. In addition to providing better control of the perforating process, the simultaneous downhole measurements can provide in a single trip a production log, conventional well tests before and after perforating, and a fill-up or slug test soon after perforating for underbalanced conditions. Thus, the completion can be evaluated in real time and any needed remedial reperforating can be performed while the gun is still in the hole. Other applications include limited-entry perforating, monitoring of bottomhole pressure (BHP) during minifracture jobs, better depth control with a gamma ray detector, fluid-level monitoring, and underbalance control. The applications of these measurements, with field data obtained with the Measurement While Perforating (MWP{sup SM}) tool, are the subject of this paper. Examples show the capabilities and the versatility of the MWP tool.

Tariq, S.M. (Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (US)); Ayestaran, L.C. (Schlumberger Well Services (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is ?open. ? An open air intake water heater is assigned theof air intake, physical size and load profile of the waterwater heater does not consume a fossil fuel, the air-intake

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

192

Materials Reliability Program: Determination of Crack Growth Rates for Alloy 82 at Low K Values Under Pressurized Water Reactor Prim ary Water Environment (MRP-270)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack propagation experiments, which were performed in the past on nickel-based materials under PWR primary water environment, have left some open questions that need to be answered. In particular, no crack growth rate (CGR) data for control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) nozzle materials are available at low stress intensity (K) values (K < 15 MPam). This interim report summarizes the work done during 2009 on a cooperative project to generate crack growth data under low K values for alloy 82 weld metal.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

193

Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). [Contaminant transport computer codes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG&G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Homogeneous Condensation—Freezing Nucleation Rate Measurements for Small Water Droplets in an Expansion Cloud Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental data on ice nucleation, presented in an earlier paper, are analyzed to yield information about the homogeneous nucleation rate of ice from supercooled liquid and the heights of energy barriers to that nucleation. The experiment ...

Donald E. Hagen; Rodney J. Anderson; James L. Kassner Jr.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Convergence of a Finite Volume Scheme for Gas Water Flow in a Multi-Dimensional Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A classical model for water-gas flows in porous media is considered. The degenerate coupled system of equations obtained by mass conservation is usually approximated by finite volume schemes in the oil reservoir simulations. The convergence properties of these schemes are only known for incompressible fluids. This chapter deals with construction and convergence analysis of a finite volume scheme for compressible and immiscible flow in porous media. In comparison with incompressible fluid, compressible fluids requires more powerful techniques. We present a new result of convergence in a two or three dimensional porous medium and under the only modification that the density of gas depends on global pressure.

Bendahmane, Mostafa; Saad, Mazen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Changes in the CFC Inventories and Formation Rates of Upper Labrador Sea Water, 1997–2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbon (component CFC-11) and hydrographic data from 1997, 1999, and 2001 are presented to track the large-scale spreading of the Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) in the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. ULSW is CFC rich and ...

Dagmar Kieke; Monika Rhein; Lothar Stramma; William M. Smethie; Deborah A. LeBel; Walter Zenk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Preliminary Report from the WHOI Flow Rate Measurement Group Prepared by Team Leader Richard Camilli, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimate. The flow may contain gases, fluids, and solids including but not limited to natural gas site to obtain composite horizontal cross sectional areas. 3. The flow velocity and area estimates were; this represents the higher bound estimate. 3. A comprehensive understanding of the source composition (e

Whitcomb, Louis L.

199

THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Engine Cooling Systems,'' Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics 1997, June 1997, ``A Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow,'' Ind. Eng. Chem the engines in automotive applications. Heat is transferred essentially under subcooled flow boiling

Qu, Weilin

200

Large-Scale Flow Patterns and Their Influence on the Intensification Rates of Western North Pacific Tropical Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data are used to identify large-scale environmental flow patterns around western North Pacific tropical storms with the goal of finding a signal for those most favorable for rapid intensification, based on the hypothesis that ...

Justin D. Ventham; Bin Wang

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399) downstream to the upper end of Lower Granite Reservoir near rkm 240. We randomly selected 14 fall Chinook salmon spawning locations as study sites, which represents 25% of the most used spawning areas throughout the HCR. Interactions between river water and pore water within the riverbed (i.e., hyporheic zone) at each site were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. Surrounding the piezometer cluster at each site were 3 artificial egg pockets. In mid-November 2002, early-eyed stage fall Chinook salmon eggs were placed inside of perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes, along with a temperature data logger, and buried within the egg pockets. Fall Chinook salmon eggs were also incubated in the laboratory for the purpose of developing growth curves that could be used as indicators of emergence timing. The effects of discharge on vertical hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed were inferred from measured temperature gradients between the river and riverbed, and the application of a numerical model. The hydrologic regime during the 2002-2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only 2 of 14 sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude

Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Energy and Water Cycles in a High-Latitude, North-Flowing River System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MacKenzie Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Study, Phase 1, seeks to improve understanding of energy and water cycling in the Mackenzie River basin (MRB) and to initiate and test atmospheric, hydrologic, and coupled models that ...

W. R. Rouse; E. M. Blyth; R. W. Crawford; J. R. Gyakum; J. R. Janowicz; B. Kochtubajda; H. G. Leighton; P. Marsh; L. Martz; A. Pietroniro; H. Ritchie; W. M. Schertzer; E. D. Soulis; R. E. Stewart; G. S. Strong; M. K. Woo

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Decision support tool seeks to aid stream-flow recovery and enhance water security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Water Rights. Sacramento, CA. www. waterrights.ca.gov/of Water Rights. Sacramento, CA. www.waterrights.ca.gov/Control Board. Sacramento, CA. www.waterrights.ca.gov/

Merenlender, Adina; Deitch, Matthew J; Feirer, Shane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The importance of climatological variability and the rate at which waste is added to modeling water budget of landfills  

SciTech Connect

A transient one-dimensional wetting front model was developed to predict water budgets for landfills. The model simulates the moisture profile by a series of blocks, each of which has a uniform soil moisture content. The model can simulate the continual stacking of waste by adding blocks, which represent new waste layers. The model can be programmed to build up a landfill at a given rate and to cap the landfill with a liner once a specific height has been reached. The wetting front model has been compared with models that solve the Richards Equation directly. In past studies the results between the two types of models compared well,but the wetting front model solved problems with a fraction of the computer time. Because of its efficient algorithms, the wetting front model is well suited for Monte Carlo simulation of different meteorological conditions in order to produce probability density functions for runoff, evapotranspiration, and leachate generation. In order to simulate different meteorological conditions, the TVA developed RGEN, which generates hourly rainfall, and EGEN which generates daily potential evaporation rates. The results of the numerous runs with the wetting front model were used to determine the potential importance of climatological variability and the effects of the rate at which new waste is added on the water budget of dry-stack fly ash landfills. 13 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Young, S.C.; Clapp, R.B.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when pyroclastic flows enter the ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when June 2007; accepted 26 July 2007; published 16 November 2007. [1] Steam explosions, or littoral blasts, phenomena. The development of steam explosions rather than passive steam production is related to the rate

Manga, Michael

207

Encounters of H and D atoms with O{sub 2} in water: Relative diffusion and reaction rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diffusive encounters of H and D atoms with O{sub 2} in water are investigated with the time-domain EPR free induction decay attenuation technique. Given the paramagnetic triplet ground state of the O{sub 2} molecule, it is expected that all H-O{sub 2} encounters will contribute to spin dephasing, regardless of whether reaction to form HO{sub 2} occurs. In H{sub 2}O the second-order spin-spin dephasing rate of H in the presence of O{sub 2} is 1.94 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} sec{sup {minus}1} at 25{degrees}C, with an activation energy of 11.22 {+-} 0.33 kJ/mole between 8 and 60{degrees}C. In a mixture of 90% D{sub 2}O and 10% H{sub 2}O, H atom dephasing is marginally slower in the same temperature range. Dephasing of D atoms in 90% D{sub 2}O is ca. 5--10% slower than H, indicating that diffusion of D is slower than H. The results are analyzed in terms of other available data concerning H and O{sub 2} diffusion and the reaction rate in water. It seems clear that neither the Stokes Einstein hydrodynamic theory nor classical activated rate theory applies to the diffusion of light hydrophobic gases in water. The authors tentatively conclude that H-O{sub 2} spin exchange is slightly less efficient than can be predicted in the theoretical diffusion limit.

Han, P.; Bartels, D.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ground-water monitoring near the Raft River site was initiated in 1974 by the IDWR. This effort consisted of semiannual chemical sampling of 22 irrigation wells near the Raft River geothermal development area. This program yielded useful baseline chemical data; however, several problems were inherent. For example, access to water pumped from the wells is limited to the irrigation season (April through September). All the wells are not continuously pumped; thus, some wells that are sampled one season cannot be sampled the next. In addition, information on well construction, completion, and production is often unreliable or not available. These data are to be supplemented by establishing a series of monitor wells in the proposed geothermal withdrawal and injection area. These wells were to be located and designed to provide data necessary for evaluating and predicting the impact of geothermal development on the Shallow Aquifer system.

Allman, D.W.; Tullis, J.A.; Dolenc, M.R.; Thurow, T.L.; Skiba, P.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Measurement of the Rates of Production and Dissipation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in an Energetic Tidal Flow: Red Wharf Bay Revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of the rates of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation (?) and production (P) have been made over a period of 24 h at a tidally energetic site in the northern Irish Sea in water of 25-m depth. Some ? profiles from 5 ...

Tom P. Rippeth; John H. Simpson; Eirwen Williams; Mark E. Inall

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Power plant degradation : a modular secondary plant and integral flow accelerated corrosion model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is the most prevalent material degradation mechanism for low carbon steel in steam-water flow systems. The band of uncertainty in predictions of wear rate due to FAC spans one to two orders ...

Van der Helm, Mark Johan, 1972-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Crude Oil Chemistry Effects on Corrosion Inhibition and Phase Wetting in Oil-Water Flow.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The presence of water, even in small amounts, is often the cause of internal corrosion problems in crude oil transportation. Understanding the factors influencing steel… (more)

Ayello, Francois

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tong, Long S. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

flow_measurements_cryogenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A dynamic weighing system is used to measure ... using liquid nitrogen at flow rates of 1 ... For volumetric flow rate measurement, the uncertainty in fluid ...

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effects of Protective Plates and Stoplogs on Water Flow Through the Gleed Fish Screen Facility, April 2007 - September 2007.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was asked by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to provide additional velocity measurements at Gleed fish screens site to support decisions on mitigating extreme flow fluctuations near the screens. The site consistently has had extreme water velocities in places and a strong back eddy at the downstream end in spring and summer. With the help of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife staff, we measured the effects of different stoplog configurations behind the screens in May and July 2007. Protective metal plates in front of the trash racks were confirmed to be the cause of uneven and extreme water flow past the vertical traveling screens. Stoplogs were not sufficient to significantly reduce the effect of those metal plates on water velocities past and through the site. We provide a few suggestions including making it easier to raise and lower the metal plates and then adjusting them more often, constructing a new trash rack across the diversion entrance, and raising the control gate at the end of the site as long as possible in spring and during flood events.

Chamness, Mickie (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy consumption represents a major concern, considering the limited resources and latest targets for lower emissions of carbon dioxide. Therefore design of electric heating elements for household and industry are more and more subject to optimization, ... Keywords: electric heating, finite elements, fluid flow, heat transfer

Mircea Nicoar?; Aurel R?du??; Lauren?iu Roland Cucuruz; Cosmin Locovei

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Seasonal Flow Reversals of Intermediate Waters in the Canary Current System East of the Canary Islands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two 9-yr current-meter and salinity records, together with climatological data, reveal marked seasonal variability of the intermediate flow at a key location in the Canary Basin. The region is characterized by a summer (July–September) and early ...

Francisco Machín; Josep L. Pelegrí; E. Fraile-Nuez; P. Vélez-Belchí; F. López-Laatzen; A. Hernández-Guerra

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Intrusion Depth of Density Currents Flowing into Stratified Water Bodies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theory and laboratory experiments are presented describing the depth at which a density current intrudes into a linearly stratified water column, as a function of the entrainment ratio E, the buoyancy flux in the dense current B, and the ...

Mathew Wells; Parthiban Nadarajah

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Wave- and Wind-Driven Flow in Water of Finite Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors first derive both Coriolis-induced and viscosity-induced stresses for arbitrary water depth and arbitrary wave direction. Opportunity is taken here to succinctly and rigorously derive the Longuet-Higgins virtual tangential stress due ...

Zhigang Xu; A. J. Bowen

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Chilled Water and Hot Water Building Differential Pressure Setpoint Calculation - Chilled Water and Hot Water Pump Speed Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

More and more variable frequency devices (VFD) are being installed on the chilled water and hot water pumps on the TAMU campus. Those pump speeds are varied to maintain chilled water or hot water building deferential pressure (DP) or return temperature or flow rate at their setpoints. The chilled water and hot water DP setpoint or return temperature setpoint or flow rate setpoint was a constant value or reset based on outside air temperature. In some buildings, the chilled water and hot water DP setpoints were reset based on flow rate, but in many instances those setpoint schedules were either too low to maintain enough building DP requirement or too high and consumed excess energy. The building DP reset schedule based on flow rate is studied and compared with the other pump speed control methods. Because the building DP setpoint based on flow rate method is achieved by tracking the load change, it saves energy than the other methods. In this paper its calculation procedure is generated and the example of the building DP calculation is given.

Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.; Claridge, D.; Liu, C.; Deng, S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

BWRVIP-186: BWR Vessel and Internals Project, Effect of Water Chemistry and Temperature Transients on the IGSCC Growth Rates in BWR Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidizing nature of the boiling water reactor (BWR) environment, coupled with high tensile residual stresses, have led to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) events. This report summarizes the available information on the effect of water chemistry transients on crack growth rates of Type 304 stainless steel and nickel-base weld metal Alloy 182. The report also provides crack growth rate equations and tables for evaluating the amount of crack extension that may have occurred during a trans...

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

1 Flow in Porous Media Oil companies often pump water into the cavities of the earth where the oil is situated to drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Flow in Porous Media Oil companies often pump water into the cavities of the earth where the oil is situated to drive out the oil. In a simplified situation, as given in figure 1 we have a rectangular block of porous material filled with oil. Water is pumped in from the left, creating a presure difference between

Gander, Martin J.

223

Shallow water flow is a serious drilling hazard encoun-tered across several areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

question: "How does fresh- water come to be near the seafloor in deepwater areas of the Gulf of Mexico extending from onshore to offshore. This option is not generally accepted by experienced Gulf of MexicoShallow water flow is a serious drilling hazard encoun- tered across several areas of the Gulf

Texas at Austin, University of

224

An Experimental Test of a Theoretical Model to Determine the Rate at which Freely Falling Water Drops Scavenge SO2 in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental method involving the UCLA Rain Shaft is described. This method allows determining the rate at which SO2 is scavenged from air by freely falling water drops. In the present experiment water drops of radii near 300 ?m were allowed ...

C. Walcek; P. K. Wang; J. H. Topalian; S. K. Mitra; H. R. Pruppacher

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Sampling Rate and Ozone Interference for Passive Deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure Samplers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Investigation of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Sampling Rate and Ozone Interference for Passive Deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure Samplers Nasim A. Mullen, Marion L. Russell, Melissa M. Lunden, Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California, USA August 2013 Funding was provided by the California Energy Commission through Contract 500-09-042, by the U.S. Dept. of Energy Building America Program under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231; by the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control through Agreement I-PHI-01070; and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Indoor Environments Division through

226

Installation of River and Drain Instrumentation Stations to Monitor Flow and Water Quality and Internet Data Sharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last five years, the Paso del Norte Watershed Council’s Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project (Project) was developed to provide improved access to regional water resources data for regional water stakeholders to make timely decisions in water operations and flood control. This report presents major components of the Project developed from August of 2005 through July of 2007 through funding provided by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) through the Water 2025 Challenge Grant Program to the El Paso Water Utilities, Texas A&M University, and New Mexico State University. Additional documentation of related Project activities is provided through final project reports being submitted by the City of Las Cruces (CLC) and Elephant Butte Irrigation District (EBID) for the work conducted through linked USBR-funded Projects. Tasks accomplished in the phase of work funded by the USBR include the following specific outcomes, which are detailed in later sections of the report: * Continued compilation and inclusion of new data sources identified as relevant by Project partners and users; * Installation and calibration of additional new monitoring stations and equipment and inclusion of these monitoring sites in web-based GIS map products to fill data gaps and provide additional real-time data; * Linking to additional monitoring sites being implemented by EBID through their Project work and inclusion of these sites and data in web-based GIS map products; * Development and implementation of a user needs survey focusing on new data sets of interest, enhanced access mechanisms, and other suggestions to improve the Project website; * Development and deployment of an online, downloadable Microsoft Access database of Project water resource data to provide search and query functions; * Development and deployment of an online help facility to make the site easier for users to navigate and use; * Exploration of new tools to enhance online data sharing and access; and * Implementation of suggestions compiled in the User Needs Assessment, including resolution of problems related to accessing the Project website using Firefox and Mozilla web browsers. Keywords: Paso del Norte watershed, water resources database, GIS map, ArcIMS, data sharing and transfer, user needs assessment, Rio Grande, Rio Grande Project, gage station, surface water flow, groundwater, downloadable Microsoft Access database.

Sheng, Z.; Brown, C.; Creel, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Michelsen, A.; Fahy, M. P.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of air-water two-phase flow in micro-channels  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer, pressure drop, and void fraction were simultaneously measured for upward heated air-water non-boiling two-phase flow in 0.51 mm ID tube to investigate thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow in micro-channels. At low liquid superficial velocity j{sub l} frictional pressure drop agreed with Mishima-Hibiki's correlation, whereas agreed with Chisholm-Laird's correlation at relatively high j{sub l}. Void fraction was lower than the homogeneous model and conventional empirical correlations. To interpret the decrease of void fraction with decrease of tube diameter, a relation among the void fraction, pressure gradient and tube diameter was derived. Heat transfer coefficient fairly agreed with the data for 1.03 and 2.01 mm ID tubes when j{sub l} was relatively high. But it became lower than that for larger diameter tubes when j{sub l} was low. Analogy between heat transfer and frictional pressure drop was proved to hold roughly for the two-phase flow in micro-channel. But satisfactory relation was not obtained under the condition of low liquid superficial velocity. (author)

Kaji, Masuo; Sawai, Toru; Kagi, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, 930 Nishi-mitani, Kinokawa, Wakayama 649-6493 (Japan); Ueda, Tadanobu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratory, Incorporated, 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

1240 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 Distributed Rate Allocation for Inelastic Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1240 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 Distributed Rate Allocation modeled as smooth, Manuscript received November 30, 2005; revised September 17, 2006; approved by IEEE/ACM (NSF) Grants CCF-0440443, CNS-0417607, and CNS-0427677, in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific

Chiang, Mung

229

Observations of the Flow of Abyssal Water through the Samoa Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the fall of 1994 a conductivity–temperature–depth/hydrographic survey was carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment one-time survey, Line P15N. The survey included standard water properties required by WOCE. Line P15N ...

Howard Freeland

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Number of Required Observations in Data Assimilation for a Shallow-Water Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors consider statistical ensemble data assimilation for a one-layer shallow-water equation in a twin experiment: data are generated by an N × N enstrophy-conserving grid integration scheme along with an Ekman vertical velocity at the ...

William G. Whartenby; John C. Quinn; Henry D. I. Abarbanel

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Resources, and the United States Environmental Protection AgencyDesigning Rate Structures that Support Your Objectives: Guidelines for NC Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose for these rate setting guidelines is to provide water and wastewater utility managers and technical assistance providers with a framework in setting water and wastewater rates and rate structures that would meet the state’s and the utility’s policies and objectives. These guidelines provide step by step instructions and necessary information to allow the utility manager to make an informed policy-driven choice on the rate structure design. These guidelines do not provide instruction on how to project revenues and costs and how to calculate rates (dollar amounts) to balance a budget, but references other documents that provide such guidelines. These rate setting guidelines were developed by the Environmental Finance Center at the

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

233

Instantaneous gas water heater  

SciTech Connect

Hot water supply temperature is set by a temperature setting device in response to an instantaneous flow rate signal from a water flow rate sensor arranged in a water supply pipe and a feeding water temperature signal from a feeding water temperature sensor which are compared with a predetermined hot water supply temperature and calculated in a control unit. A proportional valve and other devices in a gas supply pipe are controlled in response to the result of the comparison and calculation to define a required volume of gas for ignition and heating. At the same time, a fan damper is controlled by a damper control device so as to adjust the volume of combustion air. A signal representing discharging hot water temperature from a discharging hot water temperature sensor arranged in a hot water feeding pipe is fed back to the control unit and calculated therein, and a valve in the hot water supply pipe is adjusted in response to the result of calculation to attain the desired hot water supply temperature. In order to prevent freezing in the system in winter season, a signal from a thermostat in the water feeding pipe is transmitted to a heater arranged in an air supply chamber so as to heat a heat exchanger pipe and, at the same time, heaters arranged in the water feeding pipe and the hot water supply pipe are also controlled to prevent freezing.

Tsutsui, O.; Kuwahara, H.; Murakami, Sh.; Yasunaga, Sh.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Effect of Flow Rate of Compressed Hot Water on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from Corn Stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

77843-3122, USA f Universidad de los Andes Chemical Engineering Department Grupo de Conversion de various pretreatment methods, the profiles of sugars and intermediates were determined for differently prom- ising long-term feedstock for production of bioethanol. The recalci- trance of the feedstock

California at Riverside, University of

235

A Transient Numerical Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94  

SciTech Connect

Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, numerical modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient numerical simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).

B. R. Orr (USGS)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Design and installation of continuous flow and water quality monitoring stations to improve water quality forecasting in the lower San Joaquin River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improve water quality forecasting in the lower San Joaquinimprove water quality forecasting in the lower San Joaquinan important real-time forecasting station for water quality

Quinn, Nigel W.T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Materials Reliability Program: Determination of Crack Growth Rates for Alloy 82 at Low K Values Under PWR Primary Water Environment: 2011 Interim Report (MRP-337)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack propagation experiments, which were performed in the past on nickel-based materials under pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environments, have left some open questions that need to be answered. In particular, no crack growth rate (CGR) data for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzle materials are available at low stress intensity (K) values (K 15 MPam). This interim report summarizes the work done during 2011 on a cooperative project to generate CGR data at low K values for alloy 82 ...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

238

Improved Fluid Flow Measurements: Feedwater Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the combined results of a utility survey and site visits concerning feedwater flow measurement in fossil-fueled power plants. In addition, a summary is provided of the technologies available to measure the volumetric feedwater flow rate in plants. This volumetric flow rate can be converted to a mass flow rate by knowing the pressure and temperature of the flow media. Velocity meters, differential pressure meters, and other closed-conduit flowmeters are discussed along with ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

NAWMS: nonintrusive autonomous water monitoring system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water is nature's most precious resource and growing demand is pushing fresh water supplies to the brink of non-renewability. New technological and social initiatives that enhance conservation and reduce waste are needed. Providing consumers with fine-grained ... Keywords: adaptive sensor calibration, machine learning, nonintrusive and spatially distributed sensing, parameter estimation via optimization, tiered information architecture, water flow rate estimation

Younghun Kim; Thomas Schmid; Zainul M. Charbiwala; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous andmultiphase heat and mass flow in unsaturated fractured porous

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

1975-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

242

A Dynamic hp-Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Shallow-Water Flows on the Sphere with Application to a Global Tsunami Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discontinuous Galerkin model solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere is presented. It captures the dynamically varying key aspects of the flows by having the advantageous ability to locally modify the mesh as well as the order of ...

Sébastien Blaise; Amik St-Cyr

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Ocean’s Memory of the Atmosphere: Residence-Time and Ventilation-Rate Distributions of Water Masses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptually new approach to diagnosing tracer-independent ventilation rates is developed. Tracer Green functions are exploited to partition ventilation rates according to the ventilated fluid’s residence time in the ocean interior and ...

François W. Primeau; Mark Holzer

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Simulations of the Neutral-beam-induced Rotation, Radial Electric Field, and Flow Shearing Rate in Next-step Burning Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Toroidal rotation of plasmas in present tokamaks is beneficial for increasing the stability to wall-induced MHD and appears to reduce the anomalous transport associated with micro-turbulence. This paper calculates the toroidal rotation expected from neutral-beam injection in the proposed FIRE and ITER-FEAT tokamak reactors. Self-consistent burning plasmas for these tokamaks have been constructed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Neutral-beam injection has been proposed for FIRE and ITER-FEAT. The neutral-beam-induced torques are computed, and assumptions for the anomalous transport of toroidal angular momentum are used to calculate the toroidal rotation profiles. The central Mach numbers are about 3-8%. The ratio of the rotation speed to the Alfvin speed is less than 1%. Assuming neoclassical poloidal rotation and force balance, the radial electric field and flow shearing rate are calculated. Peak shearing rates near the outboard edge are in the 10-100 krad/s range.

R.V. Budny

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

245

Detector of the flowing of a fluid in a pipe and energy saving device for a hot water system using this detector  

SciTech Connect

A fluid flow sensor, comprising a tubular element having a greater diameter than and vertically mounted on a pipe for serially interconnecting two portions of this pipe. One portion is connected to the upper end of the tubular element while the other portion is connected to its lower end. A magnetic piston is slidably mounted within the tubular element and is therefore free to move along it. A by-pass conduit interconnects the lower portion of the pipe with the upper portion of the pipe. The piston moves upwardly in the tubular element when the fluid flows. Fluid flows from the portion of the pipe connected at the lower end of the tubular element to the one connected at its upper end through the by-pass. The piston moves downwardly by gravity to the lower end of the tubular element when the fluid stops flowing. A coil wound around a portion of the tubular element produces in electrical signal when the piston moves in the tubular element. The piston has a frustroconical element on each end to absorb shocks which result when the piston seats in each position. This detecting device can be mounted on a hot water supply pipe and used in combination with an electronic circuit for saving energy in operating a hot water system. The electronic circuit allows or prevents the thermostat to control the water heating apparatus.

Lawless, J.

1985-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

Multiparameter Radar Observations of Time Evolution of Convective Storms: Evaluation of Water Budgets and Latent Heating Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One advantage of dual-polarization radars is the ability to differentiate between water and ice phases in storms. The application of difference reflectivity (ZDP) in the analysis of mixed-phase precipitation is presented. Here, ZDP analysis is ...

Hui Tong; V. Chandrasekar; K. R. Knupp; James Stalker

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interactions. Progress report, October 1990--September 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions is being designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing butterfly valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of all measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up.

Biney, P.O.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions is being designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing butterfly valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of all measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up.

Biney, P.O.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow and Inclined Wellbore Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the utmost importance in maximizing the reservoir energy in naturally flowing and artificial lift wells as the number of variables increases. Many parameters could be involved in these types of problems, such as gas information such as oil, gas and water flow rates, temperature, oil and gas gravity, pipe length, surface

Mohaghegh, Shahab

252

Effects of adsorbed water vapor on the Wheeler kinetic rate constant and kinetic adsorption capacity for activated carbon adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

Activated carbon plays a key role reducing organic vapor emissions to the environment from synthetic chemical manufacturing, pesticide manufacturing, in odor control, for removal of contaminant vapors during remediation of hazardous waste sites, and as an adsorption matrix for collection of organic vapors from ambient air in occupational and environmental settings to assess exposure. The Wheeler dynamic adsorption model has been evaluated under laboratory conditions and has shown potential for predicting activated carbon bed penetration. Water vapor is a normal constituent of ambient air that is present at concentrations 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations of potentially toxic air contaminants. Many investigations have shown that adsorbed water vapor can reduce the breakthrough-time of activated charcoal beds. The effect of adsorbed water vapor on the predictive power of the Wheeler model has not been evaluated. The research evaluated the effect of water vapor adsorbed on activated charcoal on the subsequent adsorption of four air contaminants, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene, and 1-propanol. The adsorbent used in this research had a large surface area, 1200 m[sup 2]/g and that 95% of the surface area was associated with micropores (pores with diameters less than 2 micrometers). Kinetic adsorption capacities for all four adsorbates were not affected by the presence of water vapor except for some observed enhancement. The kinetic trial data suggest that the primary effect of adsorbed water vapor was to reduce the effective pore radius of the smaller mesopores thus restricting pore diffusion. This results in an increase in the critical bed capacity with shorter breakthrough times for adsorbent beds.

Hall, T.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

CFD Predictions of Severe Accident Steam Generator Flows in a 1/7. Scale Pressurized Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is applied to steam generator inlet plenum mixing as part of a larger plan covering steam generator tube integrity. The technique is verified by comparing predicted results with severe accident natural circulation data from a 1/7. scale Westinghouse facility. This exercise demonstrates that the technique can predict the natural circulation and mixing phenomena relevant to steam generator tube integrity issues. The model includes primary side flow paths for a single hot leg and steam generator. Qualitatively, the experimentally observed flow phenomena are predicted. The paths of the natural circulation flows and the relative flow proportions are correctly predicted. Quantitatively, comparisons are made with temperatures, mass flows, and other parameters. All predictions are generally within 10% of the experimental values. Overall, there is a high degree of confidence in the CFD technique for prediction of the relevant flow phenomena associated with this type of severe accident sequence. (authors)

Boyd, Christopher; Hardesty, Kelly [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Preferential flow paths and heat pipes: Results from laboratory experiments on heat-driven flow in natural and artificial rock fractures  

SciTech Connect

Water flow in fractures under the conditions of partial saturation and thermal drive may lead to fast flow along preferential localized pathways and heat pipe conditions. Water flowing in fast pathways may ultimately contact waste packages at Yucca Mountain and transport radionuclides to the accessible environment. Sixteen experiments were conducted to visualize liquid flow in glass fracture models, a transparent epoxy fracture replica, and a rock/replica fracture assembly. Spatially resolved thermal monitoring was performed in seven of these experiments to evaluate heat-pipe formation. Depending on the fracture apertures and flow conditions, various flow regimes were observed including continuous rivulet flow for high flow rates, intermittent rivulet flow and drop flow for intermediate flow rates, and film flow for low flow rates and wide apertures. These flow regimes were present in both fracture models and in the replica of a natural fracture. Heat-pipe conditions indicated by low thermal gradients were observed in five experiments. Conditions conducive to heat-pipe formation include an evaporation zone, condensation zone, adequate space for vapor and liquid to travel, and appropriate fluid driving forces. In one of the two experiments where heat pipe conditions were not observed, adequate space for liquid-vapor counterflow was not provided. Heat pipe conditions were not established in the other, because liquid flow was inadequate to compensate for imbibition and the quantity of heat contained within the rock.

Kneafsey, T.J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travelunsaturated model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Journal ofinto drifts at Yucca Mountain, Journal of Contaminant

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Internal sources of heat are due to convection from flow of the heat transfer fluid through the pipes. Heat (material, diameter, spacing, and burial depth), (4) system flow rates, (5) heat transfer fluid properties · heat transfer fluid = 42% propylene glycol @ a flow rate of 350 gpm · heat pump model = Water Furnace

257

A TOUGH2 equation-of-state module for the simulation of two-phase flow of air, water, and a miscible gelling liquid  

SciTech Connect

The injection of grout into the subsurface can be used to encapsulate contaminated regions of an aquifer, or to form underground barriers for the isolation of contaminant sources and to prevent the spreading of existing plumes. This requires identifying grouts, or barrier fluids, which when injected into the subsurface exhibit a large increase in viscosity and eventually solidify, sealing the permeable zones in the aquifer. Simulation and modeling analysis are indispensable tools for designing the injection and predicting the performance of the barrier. In order to model flow and transport in such systems, the thermophysical properties of the fluid mixtures have to be provided, and the governing mass- and energy-balance equations for multiphase flow in porous media have to be solved numerically. The equation-of-state module EOS11 described herein is an extension of the EOS7 module of the TOUGH2 code for flow of saline water and air. In the modeling approach, the chemical grout is treated as a miscible fluid the viscosity of which is a function of time and concentration of the gelling agent in the pore water. If a certain high viscosity is reached and the movement of the grout plume ceases, the gel is assumed to solidify, leading to a new porous medium with changed soil characteristics, i.e. reduced porosity and permeability, increased capillary strength for a given water content, and changed initial saturation distribution.

Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.09.007 Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature. 1

Jean Colombani

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Gas Absorption into a Moving Spheroidal Water Drop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to describe the absorption of sulfur dioxide by moving spheroidal water drops under transient flow conditions. These investigations allow the determination of the rate at which SO2 is ...

H. Amokrane; B. Caussade

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Identification of Boiling Two-phase Flow Patterns in Water Wall Tube Based on BP Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the boiling phenomena of steam boiler under atmospheric pressure are simulated by using the UDF program of CFD software. Characteristics including pressure, temperature and vapor fraction respectively for bubble, slug and annular flow ... Keywords: Boiling heat transfer, BP neural network, flow pattern, coefficient of heat transfer

Lei Guo; Shusheng Zhang; Yaqun Chen; Lin Cheng

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

CHIMNEY FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A boiling-water reactor is described which has vertical fuel-containing channels for forming steam from water. Risers above the channels increase the head of water radially outward, whereby water is moved upward through the channels with greater force. The risers are concentric and the radial width of the space between them is somewhat small. There is a relatively low rate of flow of water up through the radially outer fuel-containing channels, with which the space between the risers is in communication. (AE C)

Petrick, M.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

Gardner, Alan T.

263

Multiphase flow calculation software  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

CFD Analyses for Water-Air Flow With the Euler-Euler Two-Phase Model in the Fluent4 CFD Code  

SciTech Connect

Framatome ANP develops a new boiling water reactor called SWR 1000. For the case of a hypothetical core melt accident it is designed in such a way that the core melt is retained in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) at low pressure owing to cooling of the RPV exterior and high reliable depressurization devices. Framatome ANP performs - in co-operation with VTT - tests to quantify the safety margins of the exterior cooling concept for the SWR 1000, for determining the limits to avoid the critical heat fluxes (CHFs). The three step procedure has been set up to investigate the phenomenon: 1. Water-air study for a 1:10 scaled global model, with the aim to investigate the global flow conditions 2. Water-air study for a 1:10 scaled, 10 % sector model, with the aim to find a flow sector with almost similar flow conditions as in the global model. 3. Final CHF experiments for a 1:1-scaled, 10 % sector., the boarders of this model have been selected based on the first two steps. The instrumentation for the water/air experiments included velocity profiles, the vertically averaged average void fraction and void fraction profiles in selected positions. The experimental results from the air-water experiments have been analyzed at VTT using the Fluent-4.5.2 code with its Eulerian multiphase flow modeling capability. The aim of the calculations was to learn how to model complex two-phase flow conditions. The structural mesh required by Fluent-4 is a strong limitation in the complex geometry, but modeling of the 1/4 sector from the facility was possible, when the GAMBIT pre-processor was used for the mesh generation. The experiments were analyzed with the 150 x 150 x 18 grid for the geometry. In the analysis the fluid viscosity was the main dials for adjusting the vertical liquid velocity profiles and the bubble diameter for adjusting the phase separation. The viscosity ranged between 1 to 10000 times the molecular viscosity, and bubble diameter between 3 to 100 mm, when the calculation results were adjusted for a good agreement with the experimental data. The analysis results were very valuable for designing the final water/steam facility for final CHF tests. The validation against data from the air-water experiments proved that the present CFD codes approach to the state where they can be used for simulating such two-phase experiments, where the fraction of both phases is essential and the flow is strongly affected by the density differences. It is still too early to predict, if the CFD calculation of the 1:1 scale critical heat flux experiments is successful, could the result be used for formulating a new type of a critical heat flux correlation, where the effects of CRD's on the flow patterns and gap dimensions are model parameters. (authors)

Miettinen, Jaakko [VTT Process, P.O. Box 1000 Tietatie 3 Espoo FIN-02044 (Finland); Schmidt, Holger [Framatome ANP GmbH, Department FANP NT31, Freyeslebenstrasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study on flooding with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube was conducted. This research has been performed to provide a better prediction of flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressurizer surge line to be used in reactor safety codes. Experiments were conducted using a 3-inch (76.2 mm) diameter tube 72 inches (1.83 m) long with subcooled water and super-heated steam at atmospheric pressure as the working fluids. Water flows down the inside walls of the tube as an annulus while the steam flows upward in the middle. The water flow rates ranged from 3.5 to 12 gallons per minute (GPM) (0.00022 to 0.00076 m^3/s) and the water inlet temperature was approximately 70 degrees C. The steam inlet temperature was approximately 110 degrees C. The size of the test section as well as the flow ranges of the working fluids was determined based on a scaling analysis of a PWR pressurizer surge line. Two distinct trends were observed in the data. It was found that for water flow rates below 6 GPM (0.00038 m3/s) the amount of steam required for flooding to occur decreases with an increasing water flow rate. For water flow rates above 6 GPM the amount of steam required for flooding to occur increases with an increasing water flow rate. In addition, axial water temperature data was collected. Axial water temperatures have not been recorded in previous flooding experiments with steam and water. A new correlation for predicting flooding with steam and water was proposed. This correlation was an improvement from previous correlations because it included the amount of steam condensation. Incorporation of steam-water mass exchange promotes a better prediction of behavior in reactor systems. This data for flooding with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube can lead to a mechanistic model for flooding.

Williams, Susan Nicole

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary flow and pressure testing of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock (HDR) reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, as part of the preparations for the initial 90-day segment of the Long-Term Flow Test, has revealed several significant features concerning the hydraulic behavior of this reservoir as a function of injection and production pressure levels. Of most significance to the future operation of HDR power plants is the influence of elevated production backpressure on the effective reservoir flow impedance (i.e., the difference between injection and production pressures, divided by the production flow rate). It has been found that the effective flow impedance at high backpressure is significantly lower than the corresponding impedance at low backpressure. At an injection pressure of 3700 psi and a back-pressure of 2210 psi, the effective flow impedance for the present reservoir is 20 psi/gpm--less than 40% of the effective flow impedance for similar injection conditions, but at low backpressure (about 170 psi). Recently, a 10-day reservoir flow test was conducted at a somewhat lower backpressure of 1500 psi, and at a slightly higher injection pressure of 3750 psi. At these new conditions, there was an increase in the effective reservoir flow impedance to 23.6 psi/gpm, but also a significant increase in the production flow rate and temperature--from 74 gpm to 95 gpm, and from 154 C to 180 C. The net reservoir water loss rate averaged over the last 5 days of this latest flow test was 7.3 gpm, which corresponds to a net recovery of 93% of the injected water--a very significant result that has been obtained from our preliminary reservoir flow testing. Under both of these high backpressure flow conditions, the reservoir was not extending, as evidenced by a very low rate of water loss and the absence of microseismic activity.

Brown, Donald W.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

267

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for both liquid and heat transfer processes. In order to beprocesses in hot fractured rock with ( 1) flow channeling in fractures, (2) interface reduction in F-M heat transfer,

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

ii Produced Water Pretreatment for Water Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal drilling and slickwater hydrofracturing have enabled shale gas to become a significant contributor to the United States ’ energy supply. Hydrofracturing typically requires 2MM – 6.5MM gallons of water per shale gas well. About 15-25 % of this water returns to the surface as “flowback ” within 30 days after hydrofracturing. “Produced water ” continues to flow at a much reduced rate, e.g. 2-10 bbl/day, for the life of the well. In addition to high salinity and hardness levels (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), much Marcellus produced water also contains significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), particularly radium. The near absence of disposal wells in Pennsylvania initially forced much of the produced water to be trucked into Ohio for disposal by deep-well injection (UIC). Currently up to 95 % of the

Principal Investigator; James M. Silva; James M. Silva; Hope Matis; William L. Kostedt Iv; Vicki Watkins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the downtown area of Austin, it is planned to build a new naturally stratified chilled water storage tank and share it among four separated chilled water plants. An underground piping system is to be established to connect these four plants together. This paper presents the method of determining the optimal tank size as well as corresponding optimal operating strategies for this project. Based on the analysis of the historical log data, utility rate structures, and equipment information, the baseline profiles of electricity fed to buildings, plant cooling load, and utility billing cost for each plant are generated. A simplified TES plus four plants model is built based on some assumptions. The results show that a 3.5 million gallon tank has the shortest payback time and the projected total capital cost is within the budget. The annual billing cost savings are $907,231 and the simple payback time is 12.5 years.

Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Materials Reliability Program: Determination of Crack Growth Rates for Alloy 82 at Low K Values Under PWR Primary Water Environment (MRP-256)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack propagation experiments, which were performed in the past on nickel-based materials in a PWR primary water environment, have left some open questions that need to be answered. In particular, no crack growth rate (CRD) data for control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) nozzle materials are available at low stress intensity (K) values (K 15 MPam). This interim report describes the planning and first stages of a cooperative project to generate crack growth data under low K values for alloy 82 weld metal.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

271

Application of direct-fitting, mass-integral, and multi-rate methods to analysis of flowing fluid electric conductivity logs from Horonobe, Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

traces of drilling mud) and formation fluid flowing into theof drilling mud in the wellbore may impact fluid logging twodrilling mud itself is presumably significantly denser than formation fluid,

Doughty, C.; Tsang, C.-F.; Hatanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, S.; Kurikami, H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Ice shelf-ocean interactions in a general circulation model : melt-rate modulation due to mean flow and tidal currents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interactions between the ocean circulation in sub-ice shelf cavities and the overlying ice shelf have received considerable attention in the context of observed changes in flow speeds of marine ice sheets around Antarctica. ...

Dansereau, Véronique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaluation of a slotted orifice plate flow meter using horizontal two phase flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past several years, the slotted orifice plate has been evaluated for its performance as a single phase flow meter using air and as a two-phase flow meter using water and air. These previous studies have both shown superior performance to that of the standard orifice plate flow meter. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the slotted orifice plate two-phase flow meter with water and steam as the working fluids and compare this data with previous data taken from other test facilities to further develop the calibration of this new two-phase flow meter. Tests for repeatability will be shown for beta ratios of 0.430, 0.467, and 0.500. Reproducibility will also be evaluated between a water and steam facility and three water and air facilities. This includes comparing data obtained using a set of brass slotted orifice plates and a set of stainless steel slotted orifice plates. The brass plates were tested in one water and air facility in a previous study and the stainless steel plates were tested using two phase data from air and water and also from steam and water. Differential pressure effects using water and steam as a mixture will be considered since there is a change in fluid quality as the fluid drops in pressure across an orifice plate. Reproducibility from six different data sets found using different facilities, different slotted orifice plates, and different working fluids were shown to converge to the same relationship. This relationship contained non-dimensional variables which included the calibration coefficient (KY= flow coefficient (K) multiplied by the expansion factor (Y)), the Euler number, and the beta ratio. These results were analyzed to develop a calibration for the slotted orifice plate two-phase flow meter which can ultimately be used to determine the flow rate of a two-phase mixture.

Flores, Anita Elena

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

275

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.7 Water Use Standards  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Water Use Standards Water Use Standards March 2012 7.7.1 Water Use Standards for Faucets, Showerheads, and Prerinse Spray Valves (1) Faucet Type (2) Maximum Flow Rate Kitchen Faucets (3) 2.2 gpm Lavatory Replacement Aerators 2.2 gpm Kitchen Faucets 2.2 gpm Kitchen Replacement Aerators 2.2 gpm Metering Faucets (4) 0.25 gal/cycle Showerheads (5) 2.5 gpm Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves (6) 1.6 gpm Note(s): Source(s): 1) Effective for products manufactured on or after January 1, 1994. 2) When measured at a flowing water pressure of 60 psi (414 kilopascals). 3) For sprayheads with independently-controlled orifices and manual controls, the maximum flow rate of each manual on/off orifice shall not exceed the maximum flow rate for a lavatory faucet. For those with collectively controlled orifices and manual controls, the

277

Droplet Laden Flow Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Flow Past a Heated Cylinder, Atomization and Sprays, 2006, 16(6 ... Numerical Modeling and Experimental Measurements of Water Spray Impact and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Wind-Driven Shelf and Slope Water Flow in Terms of a Local and a Remote Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clarke and Van Gorder suggest that many coastally trapped wave modes are needed to describe the wind-driven shelf and slope water alongshore velocity field. Calculations with an harmonic wind forcing confirm this and show that, for example, the ...

Manuel Lopez; Allan J. Clarke

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water-based nanofluids at low pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In this ...

Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Layered Precipitable Water from the Infrared VAS Sounder during a Return-Flow Event over the Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal changes in the vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor are investigated during a period following the intrusion of cold continental air over the Gulf of Mexico, during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) in ...

Robert M. Rabin; Lynn A. McMurdie; Christopher M. Hayden; Gary S. Wade

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An SF6 Tracer Study of the Flow Dynamics in the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel: Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by determining the net velocity, the dispersion coefficient, and gas exchange rates from changes in tracer is the dispersion coefficient, and l is the first order loss rate for processes such as gas exchange. In order to all loses such as advection, dispersion, and gas exchange (Fig. 9). This translated into a PRT of 7

Ho, David

282

GSFLOW--Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

management of wastewater treatment plant effluent using percolation ponds, injection wells, or controlled capacity of percolation ponds (infiltration rate/day x area x days/month) and of injection wells (gpm are explained next. Details of the DAU assignments are provided in the file "Daulist.xls" (Software and Data

283

Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing Green'' Building in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Impact of finite-rate kinetics on carbon conversion in a single-stage entrained flow gasifier with coal-CO2 slurry feed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with coal-CO2 slurry feed Cristina Botero , Randall P. Field, Howard J. Herzog, Ahmed F. Ghoniem Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 Abstract Coal-CO2 slurry feed has been suggested as an attractive alternative to coal-water slurry feed for single

286

Flow instabilities in the core and the coolant circuit of advances low-boiling light water reacto: classification of causes and development of simulator for the future analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coolant flow instability, apparent in the coolant mass flow fluctuations in the separate parallel heating channels and also in a closed loop of the primary circuit under some operating conditions, is observed in the core fuel assemblies of light water reactors. In some ways this phenomenon is identical with the fluctuations in the once-through steam generators pipes, and changes of the coolant mass flows and length of flow patterns are initiating this phenomenon. The parameters at the core output and the secondary circuit parameters have influence on each other. These parameter changes have significant influences on the operating processes, operating and control algorithms, operating and control system design, and reliability of the operating power plant's machines and equipment. Changes of heating surface temperatures, displacement borders of the flow patterns, and critical heat flux entail changes of the coolant flow parameters, finally causing changes of the initial primary system parameters due to closed loop system feedback. In turn, these cause over-circuit instability in the reactor. Core power generation changes are carried out by means of influencing the nuclear fission process through changing the multiplication factor. Additionally, these local side-to-side power irregularities in sub-zones may appear due to the influence of various hydrodynamic instabilities. The local side-to-side power in these sub-zones may differ significantly from each other. The aforesaid arguments are correct for the both light water reactor types. But, as is shown by our investigations and operational practice of low-boiling reactors, behavior of the core-circuit hydrodynamic system is significantly different from its behavior in the boiling or pressurized reactors with pumping circulation. The coolant flow regimes in typical reactors are defined through pump operating regimes and are not adjustable inside a certain power range. The objective of this thesis is to understand more precisely the influence and the nature of these phenomena. After analyzing the problem from different points of view and showing the necessity of its comprehensive understanding, we present recommendations for engineering solutions and plans for further investigations. We will try to determine limits of their reliable practical application with modern low-to-medium power reactor design and investigate this dynamic system behavior. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration not separate phenomena, but their complex influence on the whole primary system (i.e. a kind of macro-system is examined without being separated into its individual elements). But, the analysis of every phenomenon is fulfilled separately and a process of formation of a block-scheme, consisting of several sub-systems, is given in this thesis. The final block-scheme is presented as a simulator model, taking into consideration design components chosen for the analysis of system dynamics as the first step of model development.

Rezvyi, Aleksey

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect on water and gas usage from cross-flow betweencontrols have on water and gas usage over a large number ofsystems, and their water and gas usage. Hourly schedules for

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Simulation of energy use in residential water heating systems Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................................. 15 3.1 WHAM]. ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Table 2: Values of operating condition variables used in WHAM.................................. 16 Simulation Tool Instantaneous volume flow rate of delivered hot water to the ith plumbing fixture, m3 /s WHAM

Victoria, University of

289

Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Assessment of water resources for nuclear energy centers  

SciTech Connect

Maps of the conterminous United States showing the rivers with sufficient flow to be of interest as potential sites for nuclear energy centers are presented. These maps show the rivers with (1) mean annual flows greater than 3000 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, 12,000 to 24,000, and greater than 24,000 cfs; (2) monthly, 20-year low flows greater than 1500 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 1500 to 3000, 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, and greater than 12,000 cfs; and (3) annual, 20-year low flows greater than 1500 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 1500 to 3000, 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, and greater than 12,000 cfs. Criteria relating river flow rates required for various size generating stations both for sites located on reservoirs and for sites without local storage of cooling water are discussed. These criteria are used in conjunction with plant water consumption rates (based on both instantaneous peak and annual average usage rates) to estimate the installed generating capacity that may be located at one site or within a river basin. Projections of future power capacity requirements, future demand for water (both withdrawals and consumption), and regions of expected water shortages are also presented. Regional maps of water availability, based on annual, 20-year low flows, are also shown. The feasibility of locating large energy centers in these regions is discussed.

Samuels, G.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Probability distributions of hydraulic conductivity for the hydrogeologic units of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of geologic information such as lithology and rock properties is important to constrain conceptual and numerical hydrogeologic models. This geologic information is difficult to apply explicitly to numerical modeling and analyses because it tends to be qualitative rather than quantitative. This study uses a compilation of hydraulic-conductivity measurements to derive estimates of the probability distributions for several hydrogeologic units within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, a geologically and hydrologicaly complex region underlain by basin-fill sediments, volcanic, intrusive, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Probability distributions of hydraulic conductivity for general rock types have been studied previously; however, this study provides more detailed definition of hydrogeologic units based on lithostratigraphy, lithology, alteration, and fracturing and compares the probability distributions to the aquifer test data. Results suggest that these probability distributions can be used for studies involving, for example, numerical flow modeling, recharge, evapotranspiration, and rainfall runoff. These probability distributions can be used for such studies involving the hydrogeologic units in the region, as well as for similar rock types elsewhere. Within the study area, fracturing appears to have the greatest influence on the hydraulic conductivity of carbonate bedrock hydrogeologic units. Similar to earlier studies, we find that alteration and welding in the Tertiary volcanic rocks greatly influence conductivity. As alteration increases, hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease. Increasing degrees of welding appears to increase hydraulic conductivity because welding increases the brittleness of the volcanic rocks, thus increasing the amount of fracturing.

Belcher, W.R.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Elliott, P.E.

2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

292

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Definition: Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

power, such as transformers, or transport it from one location to another, such as transmission lines, the power rating almost always refers to the maximum power flow...

294

Metal Interactions at the Biochar-Water Interface: Energetics and Structure-Sorption Relationships Elucidated by Flow Adsorption Microcalorimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interest in biochars and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals have increased in recent years. However, a systematic understanding of the mechanisms involved in biochar-metal interactions and conditions under which a given mechanism is predominant is still needed. We used flow adsorption micro-calorimetry to study structure-sorption relationships between twelve plant-derived biochars and two metals of different ionization potential (Ip). Biochar structure influenced the amount of K+ (Ip = 419 kJ mol-1) or Cd(II) (Ip = 868 kJ mol-17 ) sorption but had no effect on the mechanism of sorption. Irrespective of the biochar, K+ sorption was exothermic, surface-controlled and occurred via an ion-exchange mechanism on negatively- charged sites with molar heats of adsorption (_Hads) of -4 kJ mol-1 on wood versus -8 kJ mol-1 on grass biochars. In contrast, Cd(II) sorption was endothermic and favored surface complexation on uncharged biochar surfaces with _Hads of around +17 kJ mol-1. Cadmium sorption transitioned from surface- to diffusion-controlled on biochars formed at ? 350 oC and _Hads for Cd(II) sorption was the same on grass and wood biochars. We concluded that, in general, metals with lower Ip favor electrostatic interactions with biochars, while metals of higher Ip favor more covalent-like interactions.

Harvey, Omar R.; Herbert, Bruce; Rhue, Roy D.; Kuo, Li-Jung

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The temperature differential of chilled water is an important factor used for evaluating the performance of a chilled water system. A low delta-T may increase the pumping energy consumption and increase the chiller energy consumption. The system studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low cooling loads, it may lead to the laminar flow of the chilled water in the cooling coils. The main objective of this thesis is to explain the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils under low cooling loads. The water side and air side heat transfer coefficients at different water and air flow rates are calculated. The coefficients are used to analyze the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils at conditions ranging from very low loads to design conditions. The effectiveness-number of transfer units (NTU) method is utilized to analyze the cooling coil performance under different flow conditions, which also helps to obtain the cooling coil chilled water temperature differential under full load and partial load conditions. When the water flow rate drops to 1ft/s, laminar flow occurs; this further decreases the heat transfer rate on the water side. However, the cooling coil effectiveness increases with the drop of water flow rate, which compensates for the influence of the heat transfer performance under laminar flow conditions. Consequently, the delta-T in the cooling coil decreases in the transitional flow regime but increases in the laminar flow regime. Results of this thesis show that the laminar flow for the chilled water at low flow rate is not the main cause of the low delta-T syndrome in the chilled water system. Possible causes for the piping strategy of the low delta-T syndrome existing in the chilled water system under low flow conditions are studied in this thesis: (1) use of two way control valves; and (2) improper tertiary pump piping strategy.

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Elbow mass flow meter  

SciTech Connect

Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin  

SciTech Connect

This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

Quinn, N.W.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Solids mass flow determination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Forecasting model.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents The Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Water Forecasting model. The model has been constructed using Powersim Studio (PS), a software package designed to investigate complex systems where flows and accumulations are central to the system. Here PS has been used as a platform for modeling various aspects of Nambe Pueblo's current and future water use. The model contains three major components, the Water Forecast Component, Irrigation Scheduling Component, and the Reservoir Model Component. In each of the components, the user can change variables to investigate the impacts of water management scenarios on future water use. The Water Forecast Component includes forecasting for industrial, commercial, and livestock use. Domestic demand is also forecasted based on user specified current population, population growth rates, and per capita water consumption. Irrigation efficiencies are quantified in the Irrigated Agriculture component using critical information concerning diversion rates, acreages, ditch dimensions and seepage rates. Results from this section are used in the Water Demand Forecast, Irrigation Scheduling, and the Reservoir Model components. The Reservoir Component contains two sections, (1) Storage and Inflow Accumulations by Categories and (2) Release, Diversion and Shortages. Results from both sections are derived from the calibrated Nambe Reservoir model where historic, pre-dam or above dam USGS stream flow data is fed into the model and releases are calculated.

Brainard, James Robert

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A Global Approach to Assess the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Stream Water Temperatures and Related In-Stream First-Order Decay Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stream water temperature is an important factor used in water quality modeling. To estimate monthly stream temperature on a global scale, a simple nonlinear regression model was developed. It was applied to stream temperatures recorded over a 36-...

Manuel Punzet; Frank Voß; Anja Voß; Ellen Kynast; Ilona Bärlund

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

4. Trends in Natural Gas Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 39 Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates 4. Trends in Natural Gas Transportation Rates

302

Tankless Demand Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as needed and without the use of a storage tank. They...

303

Experiment DTA report for semiscale transparent vessel countercurrent flow tests  

SciTech Connect

Steady state air-water tests were performed as part of the Semiscale Blowdown and Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) Project to investigate downcomer countercurrent flow and downcomer bypass flow phenomena. These tests were performed in a plexiglass representation of the Semiscale pressure vessel which allowed changes to be madein the geometry of the upper annulus and downcomer for the purpose of investigating the sensitivity of downcomer and bypass flow to changes in system geometry. Tests were also performed to investigate the effects of two-phase inlet flows and different initial system pressures on countercurrent and bypass flow. Results for each test are presented in the form of computer printout of the measurements and of a summary of the pertinent calculated flow rates, pressures, and dimensionless volumetric fluxes. Descriptions of the test facility, instrumentation, operating procedures, and test conditions are also presented. An error analysis is presented for selected volumetric flux calculations. 10 references. (auth)

Hanson, D.J.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This strategy guideline provides step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads. These procedures, developed both for individual water heater applications (both single and multi-family) and multifamily central systems, provide users with projections on operating cost savings over a 10-year time horizon for retrofit applications and on a cash flow basis for new construction.

Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluid flow and heat transfer processes during productionis a slow process, so that rates of heat transfer to theprocesses induced by water injection into depleted or depleting vapor zones are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid flow and heat transfer,

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fluid flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend III three phase flow  

SciTech Connect

Three phase water/oil/air flow was studied around a vertical upward to horizontal 90 elbow bend of R/d = 0.654. The results were more complex than corresponding two phase data. The pressure drop recorded for the two tangent legs sometimes showed significant variations to the straight pipe data. In most cases this variation was caused by differences in the flow regimes between the two systems. The elbow bend tended to constrict the flow presented by the vertical inlet tangent leg while sometimes acting as a wave and droplet generator for the horizontal outlet tangent leg. It could be argued that the inclusion of the elbow bend altered the flow regime map transitional boundaries but it also is possible that insufficient settling length was provided in the apparatus design. The elbow bend pressure drop was best presented as l{sub e}/d the equivalent length to diameter ratio using the actual total pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent leg. Generally l{sub e}/d values rose with gas rate, but exhibited an increasingly complex relation with f{sub o} the oil to liquid volumetric ratio as liquid rate was increased. A significant maximum in l{sub e}/d was in evidence around the inversion from water dominated to oil dominated flows. Several models are presented to predict the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.; Crawford, N.M. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

Subcooling Effects for Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A counter current annular flow experiment was performed to determine flooding conditions for varying degrees of subcooling using steam and water. The findings can be used in reactor safety codes to provide an improved model of flooding during accident analysis. The test section is a stainless steel tube which is approximately a 5/16 scale version of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) surge line. The water flows in an annular film down the inside of the tube and steam flows upward through the annulus. Flooding is the point at which the water film reverses direction and begins to travel upward. Flooding tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure for water flow rates between 3.5 gallons per minute (GPM) and 11 GPM and water inlet temperatures between 35 degrees C and 97 degrees C. The data obtained at high water subcooling indicate a significant departure from accepted flooding correlations developed for air-water systems which is expected because vapor condensation alters the steam inlet flow rate needed to induce flooding. The data more closely follow air-water data at low subcooling. Such data has not been seen in the literature for steam-water flooding experiments in a large diameter vertical tube and will serve as an important benchmark.

Cullum, Wes

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

311

Control of emulsion drop production in flow focusing microfluidics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generating droplets using flow-focusing microfluidics in multiphase flows has reached its limit that it cannot generate submicrometer droplets in size. Flow focusing geometry together with an electric field has been used to make smaller droplets in microchannels. The droplet size was controllable by the flow rate ratio as well as the electric field. The droplets size decreased as the voltage increased. A Taylor cone was formed to generate very fine droplets which were less than 1m? in diameter. The tip made smaller droplets due to the tangential force by the electric field. A small inner flow rate and high electric field were required to form a stable Taylor cone in a DC electric field. The droplet size, however, was not stable at a small water flow rate because the flow rate was not as accuate as required. When I used a modified syringe pump with more accurate flow rate control, I was able to obtain a stable set of data. A small change in droplet size occurred at low voltage. The drop size changed dramatically, when the voltage was high enough. I also observed how an AC electric field affects the droplet size. The droplet size was not solely determined by the voltage. This is because of the imbalance of the supplied flow rate and the emitted flow rate. I also found that the droplet size is related to the tip position of the dispersed phase. The droplet size decreased as the tip stretched more. Typically, the microfluidic device generated monodispese droplets in narrow size distribution. It also generated a bigger droplet followed by a smaller one consecutively at low flow rate ratio of inner and outer fluid flow ()265.0/09.0??oiQQ. To understand this instability of drop formation, a numerical calculation was conducted. The simulation results showed inside of the tip still pointed downstream after it generated a big droplet. Then, the tip generated another smaller droplet while the tip was stretched. Finally, the tip moved back and began a new cycle.

Kim, Haejune

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Elbow mass flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

313

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

314

Flow Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow Test Flow Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Flow Test Details Activities (38) Areas (33) Regions (1) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Flow tests provide information on permeability, recharge rates, reservoir pressures, fluid chemistry, and scaling. Thermal: Flow tests can measure temperature variations with time to estimate characteristics about the heat source. Dictionary.png Flow Test: Flow tests are typically conducted shortly after a well has been drilled to test its productivity. The well is opened and fluids are released, the

315

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Insertion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Insertion Rates. TECH HEADLINES. Research Explores a New Layer in Additive Manufacturin... Grand Opening Slated for Electron Microscopy Facility.

317

PERFORMANCE OF LIQUI-CEL EXTRA-FLOW MEMBRANE CONTRACTOR IN A PURE WATER AND IN A 0.2% SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION (SNO-STR-2001-11).  

SciTech Connect

After completion of SNO's first phase measurement of the neutrino charge current, two tons of salt were added into the SNO heavy water to increase the sensitivity of the neutral current measurement (Phase II). Liqui-Cel Extra-Flow Membrane Contactors (simply called Liqui-Cel) are used in the SNO heavy-water circulating system to remove the dissolved gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, radon, and water vapor from the liquid water. One possible scenario with phase II operation is that the salt may leak through the Liqui-Cel Membrane and come in contact with the vacuum pumps and other metal components of the Heavy-Water Vapor Recovery System. In this scenario, corrosion will damage these components, especially the vacuum pump (Pfeiffer UniDry Pump with cast iron interior), and increase the operational difficulties. A series of tests for the behavior of the Liqui-Cel System in pure water and in salt systems was conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in order to measure the transfer of (a) water vapor and (b) salt, if there is any, through the membrane. Initially a 10-inch by 28-inch Liqui-Cel unit, identical to those used in the SNO heavy-water circulating system, was obtained from SNO site. However, extensive analysis showed that the membrane in this unit was defective: a replacement membrane would cost several thousand dollars. Instead, a smaller, 2.5-inch x 8-inch Liqui-Cel, obtained from Dr. Richard Helmers of the University of British Columbia, was used in this experiment. A comparison of the present experiment with the SNO heavy-water system is done with theoretical calculations. The results are discussed in the following sections.

YEH,M.; BOGER,J.; HAHN,R.L.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

318

Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus. [PWR; BWR; LMFBR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF.

Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water  

SciTech Connect

At its most basic level, the injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites involves a system comprising the wellbore and the target reservoir. The wellbore is the only conduit available to emplace CO{sub 2} into reservoirs for long-term storage. At the same time, wellbores in general have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. We have developed a coupled wellbore and reservoir model for simulating the dynamics of CO{sub 2} injection and leakage through wellbores. The model describes the following processes: (1) upward or downward wellbore flow of CO{sub 2} and variable salinity water with transition from supercritical to gaseous CO{sub 2} including Joule-Thomson cooling, (2) exsolution of CO{sub 2} from the aqueous phase as pressure drops, and (3) cross flow into or interaction with layers of surrounding rock (reservoirs). We use the Drift-Flux Model and related conservation equations for describing transient two-phase non-isothermal wellbore flow of CO{sub 2}-water mixtures under different flow regimes and interacting with surrounding rock. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission to the surrounding rock handled either semi-analytically or numerically. The momentum balance equation for the flow in the wellbore is solved numerically with a semi-explicit scheme. This manual provides instructions for compilation and use of the new model, and presents some example problems to demonstrate its use.

Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

320

Water Flux in a Cashew Orchard during a Wet-to-Dry Transition Period: Analysis of Sap Flow and Eddy Correlation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information regarding biosphere–atmosphere interactions is important in the study of a hydrological cycle. To this purpose, xylem sap flow (SF) using the Granier system and evapotranspiration (ET) using the eddy correlation method were measured ...

P. G. Oguntunde; N. C. van de Giesen; P. L. G. Vlek; H. Eggers

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

322

Treating water-reactive wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Treating water-reactive wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

325

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operators, especially those managing production from deepwater reservoirs, are striving to produce hydrocarbons at higher and higher rates without exposing the wells to completion failure risk. To avoid screen failures, recent studies have favored gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does not stop formation fines migration, and, over time, fines accumulation in the GP will lead to increasing completion skin. Although, and not always, the skin can be removed by acidizing, it is not practical to perform repeated acid treatments on deepwater wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful HPF is not a trivial exercise, and frequently, there is a steep learning curve for such a practice. This work explains the importance to HPF completions of the well trajectory through the interval to be hydraulically fractured, for production, not execution, reasons. A new model quantifies the effect of the well inclination on the connectivity between the fracture and the well via perforations. Guidelines based on the maximum target production rate, including forecasts of multiphase flow, are provided to size the HPF completion to avoid common completion failures that may result from high fluid rate and/or fines movement. Skin model will be developed for both vertical and deviated wells. Once the HPF is properly designed and executed, the operators should end up with a long term low skin good completion quality well. The well will be safely produced at the maximum flow rates, with no need for well surveillance and monitoring.

Tosic, Slavko

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Two-phase flow studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two-phase flow program is directed at understanding the hydrodynamics of two-phase flows. The two-phase flow regime is characterized by a series of flow patterns that are designated as bubble, slug, churn, and annular flow. Churn flow has received very little scientific attention. This lack of attention cannot be justified because calculations predict that the churn flow pattern will exist over a substantial portion of the two-phase flow zone in producing geothermal wells. The University of Houston is experimentally investigating the dynamics of churn flow and is measuring the holdup over the full range of flow space for which churn flow exists. These experiments are being conducted in an air/water vertical two-phase flow loop. Brown University has constructed and is operating a unique two-phase flow research facility specifically designed to address flow problems of relevance to the geothermal industry. An important feature of the facility is that it is dedicated to two-phase flow of a single substance (including evaporation and condensation) as opposed to the case of a two-component two-phase flow. This facility can be operated with horizontal or vertical test sections of constant diameter or with step changes in diameter to simulate a geothermal well profile.

Hanold, R.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Low-Drift Flow Sensor with Zero-Offset Thermopile-Based Power Feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermal flow sensor has been realised consisting of freely-suspended silicon-rich silicon-nitride microchannels with an integrated Al/poly-Si++ thermopile in combination with up- and downstream Al heater resistors. The inherently zero offset of the thermopile is exploited in a feedback loop controlling the dissipated power in the heater resistors, eliminating inevitable influences of resistance drift and mismatch of the thin-film metal resistors. The control system cancels the flow-induced temperature difference across the thermopile by controlling a power difference between both heater resistors, thereby giving a measure for the flow rate. The flow sensor was characterised for power difference versus water flow rates up to 1.5 ul/min, being in good agreement with a thermal model of the sensor, and the correct low-drift operation of the temperature-balancing control system has been verified.

Dijkstra, M; De Boer, Meint; Berenschot, J W; Wiegerink, Remco; Elwenspoek, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Single- and Two-Phase Diversion Cross-Flows Between Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle Subchannels - Data on Flow Resistance and Interfacial Friction Coefficients for the Cross-Flow  

SciTech Connect

Single- and two-phase diversion cross-flows arising from the pressure difference between tight lattice subchannels are our concern in this study. In order to obtain a correlation of the diversion cross-flow, we conducted adiabatic experiments using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying the triangle tight lattice rod bundle for air-water flows at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In the experiments, data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, the ratio of flow rate in one subchannel to the whole channel, the void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows in two-phase flow case. These data were analyzed by use of a lateral momentum equation based on a two-fluid model to determine both the cross-flow resistance coefficient between liquid phase and channel wall and the gas-liquid interfacial friction coefficient. The resulting coefficients have been correlated in a way similar to that developed for square lattice subchannel case by Kano et al. (2002); the cross-flow resistance coefficient data can be well correlated with a ratio of the lateral velocity due to the cross-flow to the axial one irrespective of single- and two-phase flows; the interfacial friction coefficient data were well correlated with a Reynolds number, which is based on the relative velocity between gas and liquid cross-flows as the characteristic velocity. (authors)

Tatsuya Higuchi; Akimaro Kawahara; Michio Sadatomi; Hiroyuki Kudo [Kumamoto University, 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Collisions of particles advected in random flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider collisions of particles advected in a fluid. As already pointed out by Smoluchowski [Z. f. physik. Chemie XCII, 129-168, (1917)], macroscopic motion of the fluid can significantly enhance the frequency of collisions between the suspended particles. This effect was invoked by Saffman and Turner [J. Fluid Mech. 1, 16-30, (1956)] to estimate collision rates of small water droplets in turbulent rain clouds, the macroscopic motion being caused by turbulence. Here we show that the Saffman-Turner theory is unsatisfactory because it describes an initial transient only. The reason for this failure is that the local flow in the vicinity of a particle is treated as if it were a steady hyperbolic flow, whereas in reality it must fluctuate. We derive exact expressions for the steady-state collision rate for particles suspended in rapidly fluctuating random flows and compute how this steady state is approached. For incompressible flows, the Saffman-Turner expression is an upper bound.

K. Gustavsson; B. Mehlig; M. Wilkinson

2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

330

8/9/12 Global water sustainability flows through natural and human challenges 1/2www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809141621.htm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Authorized service center. www.ipepumps.com Water Quality Instruments -- Crude oil, Optical DO, pH, cond that is essential for us to see the whole picture." Liu, who holds the Rachel Carson Chair in Sustainability Us! EasyWater.com/NoSaltConditioner CR Series Vertical Pumps -- Large stock of pumps and parts

331

Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The protection of aircraft against shoulder fired heat seeking missiles is of growing concern in the aviation community. This thesis presents a simple method for shielding the infrared signature of a jet engine from heat seeking missiles. The research efforts investigated two approaches to shield the thermal signature of the Noel Penny Type 401 turbojet at the Texas A&M University Propulsion Lab Test Cell. First, liquid nitrogen was injected through a manifold at a flow rate equivalent to the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a small temperature reduction in the exhaust but no infrared shielding. Second, water was injected at a flow rate of 13% of the flow of exhaust gases, producing a greater temperature reduction and some shielding. Water was then injected through a manifold at a ?ow rate of 118% of the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a substantial reduction in temperature and complete shielding of the infrared signature. Additionally, numerical simulations were performed using FLUENT to support these experiments. Results are presented in the form of thermocouple data and thermal images from the experiments, and in the form of temperature contours and streamtraces from the simulations.

Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

333

Fluid-Structure Interaction for Coolant Flow in Research-type Nuclear Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is scheduled to undergo a conversion of the fuel used and this proposed change requires an extensive analysis of the flow through the reactor core. The core consists of 540 very thin and long fuel plates through which the coolant (water) flows at a very high rate. Therefore, the design and the flow conditions make the plates prone to dynamic and static deflections, which may result in flow blockage and structural failure which in turn may cause core damage. To investigate the coolant flow between fuel plates and associated structural deflections, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) module in COMSOL will be used. Flow induced flutter and static deflections will be examined. To verify the FSI module, a test case of a cylinder in crossflow, with vortex induced vibrations was performed and validated.

Curtis, Franklin G [ORNL; Ekici, Kivanc [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

Amos, C N; Schrock, V E

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Three dimensional flow processor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The 3D-flow processor is a general purpose programmable data stream pipelined device that allows fast data movement in six directions for digital signal processing applications such as identifying objects in a matrix in a programmable form. The 3D-flow processor can be used in one dimensional, two dimensional, and three dimensional topologies capable of sustaining an input data rate of up to 100 million data (or frames) per second in a parallel processing system.

Crosetto, D.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) Part III GIS Coverage for the Valle de Juárez Irrigation District 009 (ID-009) (Distrito de Riego 009) Chihuahua, México  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report fulfills the deliverables required by the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES/03-PL- 02: Modification No. 3) on behalf of the Paso del Norte Watershed Council. Tasks accomplished in this phase include (a) assessment of data availability for expansion of the URGWOM model, identification of data gaps, generation of data needed from historic data using empirical methods, compilation and verification of the water quality data for reaches between the Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico and Fort Quitman, Texas; (b) development of the RiverWare physical model for the Rio Grande flow for the selected reaches between Elephant Butte Reservoir and El Paso, beginning with a conceptual model for interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Rincon and Mesilla valleys, and within the limits of available data; and (c) implementation of data transfer interface between the coordinated database and hydrologic models. This Project was conducted by researchers at Texas A&M University (TAMU) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) under the direction of Zhuping Sheng of TAMU and J. Phillip King of New Mexico State University. It was developed to enhance the coordinated database, which was originally developed by the Paso del Norte Watershed Council with support of El Paso Water Utilities to fulfill needs for better management of regional water resources and to expand the Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model (URGWOM) to cover the river reaches between Elephant Butte Dam, New Mexico and Fort Quitman, Texas. In Phases I and II of this Project (TAES/03-PL-02), hydrological data needed for flow model development were compiled and data gaps were identified and a conceptual model developed. The objectives of this phase were to develop a physical model of the Rio Grande flow between Elephant Butte Dam and American Dam by using data collected in the first development phase of the PdNWC/Corps Coordinated Water Resources Database and to enhance the data portal capabilities of the PdNWC Coordinated Database Project. This report is Part III of a three part completion report for Phase III and provides information on water sources, uses, and GIS of the canals and ditches of the Valle de Juárez Irrigation District 009 (ID 009) in the Juárez Lower Valley, Chihuahua, México. The author explains that the water needs of this region have changed in recent years from being primarily for agricultural purposes to domestic and industrial uses currently. Also, the United States wanted to assess and identify new data sources on a GIS format for the Mexican side. Therefore, this project produced several maps with the location of channels and ditches along the Valle de Juárez Irrigation District. This information also will support water planning of the Valle de Juárez Irrigation District 009. The maps were produced from existing digital data regarding water resources and by adding thematic layers such as soil salinity and soil texture from analog maps. ASTER satellite imagery and official panchromatic aerial photography were used to produce the maps.

Granados, Alfredo; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Sheng, Zhuping; King, J. Phillip; Creel, Bobby; Brown, Christopher; Michelsen, Ari

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tariff Rates FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2011 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2010 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

339

Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, or Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, Natural Gas, or Liquid Hydrocarbon Flows Special Tests. Fluid Metrology ...

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Water supply analysis for restoring the Colorado River Delta, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Pay for Additional Transboundary Water Flows from the US.2001). "Improving California Water Management: Optimizingloss functions to value urban water scarcity in California."

Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay R.; Howitt, Richard E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

The Streaming Potential Generated by Flow of Wet Steam in Capillary Tubes  

SciTech Connect

For a constant pressure differential, the flow of wet steam generated electric potentials which increased with time and did not reach equilibrium values. These potentials were found to increase to values greater than 100 volts. The reason for this kind of potential build-up behavior was the presence of tiny flowing water slugs which were interspersed with electrically nonconductive steam vapor slugs. The measured electric potential for wet steam increased with pressure differential, but the relationship was not linear. The increase in potential with pressure drop was attributed both to an increase in fluid flow rate and changes in the wet steam quality.

Marsden, S.S. Jr.; Tyran, Craig K.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

Design and Fabrication of a Vertical Pump Multiphase Flow Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new centrifugal pump has been devised to handle two-phase flow. However, it requires full scale testing to allow further development. Testing is required to verify performance and to gain information needed to apply this design in the field. Further, testing will allow mathematical models to be validated which will allow increased understanding of the pump's behavior. To perform this testing, a new facility was designed and constructed. This facility consists of a closed flow loop. The pump is supplied by separate air and water inlet flows that mix just before entering the pump. These flows can be controlled to give a desired gas volume fraction and overall flow rate. The pump outlet flows into a tank which separates the fluids allowing them to re-circulate. Operating inlet pressures of up to three hundred PSIG will be used with a flow rate of twelve hundred gallons per minute. A two-hundred fifty horsepower electric motor is used to power the pump. The loop is equipped with instrumentation to measure temperature, pressure, flow rate, pump speed, pump shaft horsepower, shaft torque, and shaft axial load. The pump itself has a clear inlet section and a clear section allowing visualization of the second stage volute interior as well as numerous pressure taps along the second stage volute. This instrumentation is sufficient to completely characterize the pump. Design and construction details are provided as well as a history of the initial operating experiences and data collected. A discussion of lessons learned is given in the conclusions. Future projects intended to use this facility are also given. Finally, detailed design drawings are supplied as well as operating instructions and checklists.

Kirkland, Klayton 1965-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Longitudinal dispersion in vegetated flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vegetation is ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries and wetlands, strongly influencing both water conveyance and mass transport. The plant canopy affects both mean and turbulent flow structure, and thus both advection and ...

Murphy, Enda

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Resource Management Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New York) Resource Management Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State New York Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations provide procedures to propose a reclassification of State waters for permitting purposes. Requests must address the factual basis for reclassification, including the size, depth, surface area covered, volume, direction and rate of flow, stream gradient and temperature of the water; character of the district bordering said waters and its suitability for

346

Physical aging and relaxation of residual stresses in a colloidal glass following flow cessation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilute Laponite suspensions in water at low salt concentration form repulsive colloidal glasses which display physical aging. This phenomenon is still not completely understood and in particular, little is known about the connection between the flow history, as a determinant of the initial state of the system, and the subsequent aging dynamics. Using a stress controlled rheometer, we perform stress jump experiments to observe the elastic component of the flow stress that remains on cessation of flow or flow quenching. We investigate the connection between the dynamics of these residual stresses and the rate of physical aging upon quenching from different points on the steady state flow curve. Quenching from high rates produces a fluid state, G">G', with small, fast relaxing residual stresses and rapid, sigmoidal aging of the complex modulus. Conversely, quenching from lower shear rates produces increasingly jammed states featuring slowly relaxing stresses and a slow increase of the complex modulus with system age. Flow cessation from a fixed shear rate with varying quench durations shows that slower quenches produce smaller residual stresses at short times which relax at long times by smaller extents, by comparison with faster quenches. These smaller stresses are correlated with a higher modulus but slower physical aging of the system. The characteristic time for the residual stress relaxation scales inversely with the quench rate. This implies a frustrated approach to any ideal stress-free state that succinctly reflects the frustrated nature of these glassy systems.

Ajay Singh Negi; Chinedum O. Osuji

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Quasi-Three-Dimensional Variably Saturated Groundwater Flow Model for Climate Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a quasi-three-dimensional, variably saturated groundwater flow model was developed by approximately dividing the three-dimensional soil water and groundwater flow into an unsaturated vertical soil water flow and a horizontal ...

Zhenghui Xie; Zhenhua Di; Zhendong Luo; Qian Ma

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

On Deep-Water Renewals in Indian Arm, British Columbia: Sensitivity to the Production of Turbulent Kinetic Energy Caused by Horizontal Variations in the Flow Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional (i.e., laterally averaged) numerical model of the circulation in Burrard Inlet and Indian Arm near British Columbia, Canada, is used to examine the sensitivity of deep-water renewal events in Indian Arm to the turbulent mixing ...

Michael W. Stacey; S. Pond

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

WATER DIVERSION MODEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distribution of seepage in the proposed repository will be highly variable due in part to variations in the spatial distribution of percolations. The performance of the drip shield and the backfill system may divert the water flux around the waste packages to the invert. Diversion will occur along the drift surface, within the backfill, at the drip shield, and at the Waste Package (WP) surface, even after the drip shield and WP have been breached by corrosion. The purpose and objective of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) are to develop a conceptual model and constitutive properties for bounding the volume and rate of seepage water that flows around the drip shield (CRWMS M&O 1999c). This analysis model is to be compatible with the selected repository conceptual design (Wilkins and Heath, 1999) and will be used to evaluate the performance of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), and to provide input to the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Model. This model supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) postclosure performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (SR). This document characterizes the hydrological constitutive properties of the backfill and invert materials (Section 6.2) and a third material that represents a mixture of the two. These include the Overton Sand which is selected as a backfill (Section 5.2), crushed tuff which is selected as the invert (Section 5.1), and a combined material (Sections 5.9 and 5.10) which has retention and hydraulic conductivity properties intermediate to the selected materials for the backfill and the invert. The properties include the grain size distribution, the dry bulk density and porosity, the moisture retention, the intrinsic permeability, the relative permeability, and the material thermal properties. The van Genuchten relationships with curve fit parameters are used to define the basic retention relationship of moisture potential to volumetric moisture content, and the basic relationship of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity to volumetric moisture content. The van Genuchten curve fit parameters were determined from a least squares fit to the measured Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) data for Overton Sand backfill and the crushed tuff invert. These constitutive properties are direct inputs to the Non-isothermal Unsaturated saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) codes and characterize the constitutive properties for these materials within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Models are currently being developed for pitting and general corrosion of the drip shield. This AMR develops flow analysis methods (Section 6.2.4) to bound the diversion performance of the drip shield at different stages of degradation by corrosion. Further, this report also develops flow analysis methods for the conceptual model under the assumption of negligible corrosion of the drip shield (Section 5.12) as indicated by design studies (TBV-3808). The conceptual model can be used to bound the diversion performance of the drip shield. In addition, this report provides a simple bounding calculation for assessing flow through apertures within the drip shield (Section 5.4 to 5.8). The bounding calculation uses several assumptions (Sections 5.4 to 5.8). The flow relationship presented in Section 6.2.5 can be used in conjunction with a NUFT analysis of moisture potential around the DS to bound the flow through the drip shield. As an alternative to performing NUFT calculations to assess the partitioning of flow, an analysis approach based upon a closed-form analytical solution at isothermal temperature is developed in Section 6.3.

J.B. Case

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

Austin, TexasPARAMETRIC STUDY OF COMPONENT SELECTION AND OPERATION ON GENERIC DRAIN-BACK SOLAR WATER HEATER CERTIFICATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Early experimental results of a research program to investigate the practicality of replacing the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation four day rating procedure with a more cost effective rating method for generic solar domestic hot water systems are reported. The generic systems experimental procedure and facility are described. Results from four experiments give an initial indication that the recirculation flow rate has little effect on system rating. Further experiments are required to assess the feasibility of replacing the current rating method with a simulated rating. 1.

W. T. Carlson; J. H. Davidson; W. S. Duff; D. M. Leone

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded and the solids tend to precipitate from the cooling water. The precipitated scale adheres to heat transfer surfaces and reduces heat transfer efficiency. In order to achieve zero discharge of water, it is paramount that the potential for scale formation and deposition be minimized. This can be accomplished through physical separation of scale-forming ions and particulate matter. Two widely used mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion.

Boffardi, B. P.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Flow cytometry apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

Pinkel, D.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

Flow cytometry apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

naturally flows into Lake Michigan; all surface and ground-reversed, away from Lake Michigan, making the river thewater (extracted from Lake Michigan) per day. This water

Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2009 Rates and Rate Schedule 2008 Rates and...

357

Self-regulating flow control device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

Humphreys, Duane A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchanger flow distribution models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Allied Chemical Corporation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing liquid-fluidized-bed shell-and-tube heat exchangers for geothermal applications. Sand fluidized by geothermal water on the shell side prevents scaling and increases heat transfer coefficients over conventional heat exchangers. Tests were conducted on two instrumented fluidized-bed heat exchanger models, constructed primarily of plexiglass, which differ in tube bundle orientation. One contains a horizontal bundle and the other a vertical tube bundle. Plexiglass construction allowed visual observation of flow patterns. The vertical model proved to have more uniform flow distribution and higher heat transfer coefficients than the horizontal model. The horizontal heat exchanger experienced piling on top of the tubes and areas of poor fluidization existed in the bed. Geometric considerations show that a horizontal design is more conducive to large flow rates than a vertical design. New design concepts for both vertical and horizontal assemblies and recommendations for further developmental work are presented.

Cole, L.T.; Allen, C.A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Portable deaerator for deionized water systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flowing water deaerator systems were designed and built for the TEMPO microwave pulser. The TEMPO program major goals were to build three one-megavolt, rep-rate pulsers capable of providing high power pulsed microwaves for various susceptibility and biological experiments. The TEMPO machine is a transformer driven water dielectric transmission line pulser. The water in the transmission line is required to have high purity and be bubble-free. The purity of the water is maintained by a filtered deionizing system that was supplied by a local vendor. The deaerating system was unique because it was required to be portable and self-contained. The design was based on a very large existing system (RADLAC II) which was not portable. The present system was scaled down to the approximate size of 2 ft x 4 ft x 7 ft high and mounted on a caster-supported frame for portability. Its small size and closed-loop operation allowed it to fit into a transportable subsystem container which housed the water processing and air supply systems. The following report discusses the design, installation, and operation of this flowing water deaerator.

Lancaster, K.T.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Name: Shakti Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Summer 2010 Question: What is the best way to find a cat's heart rate using a stethoscope? Because I have tried to hear their heart beat but their purring is all I can hear. If I shouldn't use a stethoscope, then what should I use? Replies: Hi Shakti! If you want to use a stethoscope, the trick is to get your cat to stop purring. Two good ways that I have found to help stop the purring 1. Cover their nose (generally cats don't like this and will stop purring) or 2. Put on the tap to drip or lightly stream water (also, they generally don't like this and will stop purring). Alternatively, you can get their heart rate from feeling their pulse. A good place to try to feel a pulse is right where the leg attaches to the abdomen - in an area called the inguinal region. Now granted there are some heart conditions that will cause an animals pulse and their heart rates don't match up, and it's hard to feel if you have a fat cat, but it's a good place to try if you are really trying to get a heart rate in a healthy kitty!

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Investigations On Flow And Flow-Induced Vibration Of Candu Fuel Bundles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Excitations induced by three-dimensional unsteady flows of ordinary water coolant through a string of CANDU fuel bundles in a fuel channel are investigated in this… (more)

Bhattacharya, Alokendu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Optimal Growth Rates in the Quasigeostrophic Initial Value Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large class of wave structures in quasigeostrophic flow have instantaneous growth rates significantly larger than normal-mode growth rates. Since energy and potential enstrophy growth rates can be defined as functions of the perturbation ...

Enda O'Brien

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Title Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde...

367

A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters were installed. however a gas flow meters is hardly installed for individual heater. in this study, a simple method to estimate gas consumption of such appliances form temperature of exhaust gas and electric current was presented. experiments of japanese major hot water gas heaters were conducted change under conditions of various water flow rate at constant output temperature. the empirical equations, which related gas consumption to exhaust gas temperature and operative current, were obtained for each type of water heaters, each manufacturer and overall heaters. verification of the method was conducted at a commercial building. some thresholds to decide status of operation, such as anti-freeze operation, were set, and sufficient accuracy of around 10 % error was achieved.

Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Amphiphilic mediated sample preparation for micro-flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flow cytometer includes a flow cell for detecting the sample, an oil phase in the flow cell, a water phase in the flow cell, an oil-water interface between the oil phase and the water phase, a detector for detecting the sample at the oil-water interface, and a hydrophobic unit operatively connected to the sample. The hydrophobic unit is attached to the sample. The sample and the hydrophobic unit are placed in an oil and water combination. The sample is detected at the interface between the oil phase and the water phase.

Clague, David S. (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Irvine, CA)

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

369

Amphiphilic mediated sample preparation for micro-flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flow cytometer includes a flow cell for detecting the sample, an oil phase in the flow cell, a water phase in the flow cell, an oil-water interface between the oil phase and the water phase, a detector for detecting the sample at the oil-water interface, and a hydrophobic unit operatively connected to the sample. The hydrophobic unit is attached to the sample. The sample and the hydrophobic unit are placed in an oil and water combination. The sample is detected at the interface between the oil phase and the water phase.

Clague, David S. (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Irvine, CA)

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

370

Two-phase flow characteristics in multiple orifice valves  

SciTech Connect

This work presents an experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow through multiple orifice valve (MOV), including frictional pressure drop and void fraction. Experiments were carried out using an MOV with three different sets of discs with throat thickness-diameter ratios (s/d) of 1.41, 1.66 and 2.21. Tests were run with air and water flow rates ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 m{sup 3}/h, respectively. The two-phase flow patterns established for the experiment were bubbly and slug. Two-phase frictional multipliers, frictional pressure drop and void fraction were analyzed. The determined two-phase multipliers were compared against existing correlations for gas-liquid flows. None of the correlations tested proved capable of predicting the experimental results. The large discrepancy between predicted and measured values points at the role played by valve throat geometry and thickness-diameter ratio in the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow through MOVs. A modification to the constants in the two-phase multiplier equation used for pipe flow fitted the experimental data. A comparison between computed frictional pressure drop, calculated with the modified two-phase multiplier equation and measured pressure drop yielded better agreement, with less than 20% error. (author)

Alimonti, Claudio [Sapienza University of Rome, Department ICMA, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma (Italy); Falcone, Gioia; Bello, Oladele [The Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3116 TAMU, Richardson Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Simulation of groundwater flow at the LBNL site using TOUGH2  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1980s, groundwater contamination was detected at the site of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). A detailed investigation was conducted to locate the source and the extent of the contamination. Interim corrective measures were initiated where appropriate and required, typically directed towards removing the source of contamination, excavating contaminated soil, and limiting further spreading of contaminants. As the first step for predicting the fate of remaining contaminants, a three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was developed for the complex hydrogeological situation. This flow model captured strong variations in thickness, slope, and hydrogeological properties of geologic units, representative of a mountainous groundwater system with accentuated morphology. The flow model accounts for strong seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater table. Other significant factors are local recharge from leaking underground storm drains and significant water re charge from steep hills located upstream. The strong heterogeneous rock properties were calibrated using the inverse simulator ITOUGH2. For validation purposes, the model was calibrated for a time period from 1994 to 1996, and then applied to a period from 1996 to 1998. Comparison of simulated and measured water levels demonstrated that the model accurately represents the complex flow situation, including the significant seasonal fluctuations in water table and flow rate. Paths of particles originating from contaminant plumes in the simulated transient flow fields were obtained to represent advective transport.

Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Javandel, Iraj; Jordan, Preston D.

2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

372

Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which possessed an active area of 25, 50, and 100 cm2 with the Nafion® 117 and 115 membranes. Higher flow rates of inlet gases increase the performance of a fuel cell by increasing the removal of the water vapor, and decrease the mass transportation loss at high current density. Higher flow rates, however, result in low fuel utilization. An important factor, therefore, is to find the appropriate stoichiometric flow coefficient and starting point of stoichiometric flow rate in terms of fuel cell efficiency. Higher air supply leads to have better performance at the constant stoichiometric ratio at the anode, but not much increase after the stoichiometric ratio of 5. The effects of the environmental conditions and the channel depth for an airbreathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell were investigated experimentally. Triple serpentine designs for the flow fields with two different flow depths was used. The shallow flow field deign improves dramatically the performance of the air-breathing fuel cell at low relative humidity, and slightly at high relative humidity. For proton exchange membrane fuel cells, proper water management is important to obtain maximum performance. Water management includes the humidity levels of the inlet gases as well as the understanding of the water process within the fuel cell. Two important processes associated with this understanding are (1) electro-osmotic drag of water molecules, and (2) back diffusion of the water molecules. There must be a neutral water balance over time to avoid the flooding, or drying the membranes. For these reasons, therefore, an investigation of the role of water transport in a PEM fuel cell is of particular importance. In this study, through a water balance experiment, the electro-osmotic drag coefficient was quantified and studied. For the cases where the anode was fully hydrated and the cathode suffered from the drying, when the current density was increased, the electro- osmotic drag coefficient decreased.

Park, Yong Hun

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

EPRI Coal-Flow Loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is targeted at plant personnel responsible for coal-flow measurement and mill balancing that are using or are considering the use of online, in situ measurement technologies. Optimum combustion in a boiler requires careful control of coal and air flow to individual burners. Measuring in near real-time the mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed pulverized coal in burner feed pipes is a critical element of such control. This report summarizes the findings for two online coal-flow instruments ...

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Loveland Area Project Firm Power Rates Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates 2012 Rate Adjustment-Transmission and Ancillary Services 2010 Rate Adjustment-Firm Power 2009...

375

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission...

376

#tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Costs Water Heating Costs #tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs February 20, 2013 - 5:09pm Addthis Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs #tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs Every month we ask the larger energy community to share their energy-saving tips, and we feature some of our favorite tips in a Storify. For this month's #tipsEnergy, we wanted to know how you save energy and money on water heating. Storified by Energy Department · Wed, Feb 20 2013 14:12:00 Hot water is essential to most of our lives: We use it to shower, run the dishwasher and wash clothes. Quite frequently, we use more hot water than we think -- the average rate hot water flows out of the kitchen faucet is 2 gallons per minute, and an eight-minute shower

377

Two-phase flow behavior inside a header connected to multiple parallel channels  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this work is to examine the flow distribution of two-phase mixture to parallel channels and to investigate the flow behavior at header-channel junctions simulating the corresponding parts of compact heat exchangers. The cross-section of the header and the channels were fixed to 14 mm x 14 mm and 12 mm x 1.6 mm, respectively. The mass flux and the mass quality ranges were 70-165 kg/m{sup 2} s and 0.3-0.7, respectively. Air and water were used as the test fluids. The flow distribution at the fore part of the header (region A) is affected only by the upstream flow configuration and the rate of liquid flow separation decreased a flowing downwards. On the other hand, in the rear part, the downstream effect predominates over the upstream effect due to strong flow recirculation near the end plate. In this part, the liquid separation increased (region B) and then decreased (region C) as the mixture proceeds downwards. The validity of the existing models for branching flows at parallel T-junction was tested, and turned out to be appropriate for region A. However, the models were not applicable to the rear part due to a strong flow recirculation. Moreover, the effect of the membranes in channels was investigated, but that was minor. (author)

Lee, Jun Kyoung [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

379

Non-Darcy flow analysis through tight sand formations  

SciTech Connect

An experimental setup was designed and constructed to measure the flow parameters through tight sand porous media. The two kinds of coreholders being used are Hassler-type and one in which the core sample is encapsulated in layers of epoxy resin and metal alloy. A gas flow measuring system was also developed for accurately measuring very low gas flow rates. Using Darcy's Law as a tool for analysis of the experimental data, we obtained that the gas permeability of the SFE No. 3 (Staged Field Experiment No. 3) core samples is a linear function of reciprocal mean pressure, and decreases with overburden pressure. The water permeability is also decreased with overburden pressure and is about 6 times smaller than gas permeability for the samples that we have tested. No significant hysteresis effect was obtained for dry gas permeability after several two phase flow runs. We successfully tested our encapsulated coreholder and measured gas flow rate through a tight sand core sample at different pressure drops. The results showed that the experimental runs using Hassler-type coreholder at overburden pressures higher than 2000 psig will probably give us the reliable experimental data. The experimental data obtained from the two different types of tight sandstones were analyzed using the Non-Darcy flow equation. The results showed the importance and reliability of the Non-Darcy formulation for describing the flow behavior under different overburden and system pressures. Non-Darcy's velocity for both gas and liquid phase were incorporated into an existing FORTRAN code for simulation of the tight gas reservoirs. The modified program was tested to compare the initial production data of SFE No. 2 well. Our simulation showed in the case of local turbulence and non-uniformities in the tight sand formation, the value of [beta] increases and Non-Darcy effect becomes important.

Wang, Ching-Huei.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field - Energy Innovation Portal  

Building Energy Efficiency ... Solar Thermal; ... and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat ...

382

Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

UZ Flow Models and Submodels  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

Y. Wu

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nutrients are available. Blowdown - the water discharged from a boiler or cooling tower to dispose and explains the procedures the owner/operator intends to take to perform assessment monitoring. Attenuation procedures. Equipotential Line - a line in a two-dimensional ground-water flow field such that the total

Soerens, Thomas

385

Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Rates & Repayment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

389

PACKAGE (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics and Generator Efficiency): a computer program for the calculation of partial chemical equilibrium/partial chemical rate controlled composition of multiphased mixtures under one dimensional steady flow  

SciTech Connect

The NASA CEC Code was the starting point for PACKAGE, whose function is to evaluate the composition of a multiphase combustion product mixture under the following chemical conditions: (1) total equilibrium with pure condensed species; (2) total equilibrium with ideal liquid solution; (3) partial equilibrium/partial finite rate chemistry; and (4) fully finite rate chemistry. The last three conditions were developed to treat the evolution of complex mixtures such as coal combustion products. The thermodynamic variable pairs considered are either pressure (P) and enthalpy, P and entropy, at P and temperature. Minimization of Gibbs free energy is used. This report gives detailed discussions of formulation and input/output information used in the code. Sample problems are given. The code development, description, and current programming constraints are discussed. (DLC)

Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.H.; Haimes, R.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. A laboratory flow apparatus was built to obtain data on water-air imbibition and oil-water drainage have also been analyzed. In the case of water-air imbibition, the thin fracture system showed a more with a 1mm spacer between the blocks, and a two- block system with no spacer. The blocks were sealed

391

Formation flow channel blocking  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for selectively blocking high permeability flow channels in an underground hydrocarbon material bearing formation having flow channels of high permeability and having flow channels of lesser permeability. The method includes the following steps: introducing a blocking material fluid comprising a blocking material in a carrier into the flow channels through an injection well in communication with the formation; introducing a buffer fluid into the formation through the injection well for the buffer fluid to displace the blocking material fluid away from the injection well; allowing the blocking material to settle in the channels to resist displacement by fluid flowing through the channels; introducing a quantity of an activating fluid into the channels through the injection well at a sufficient rate for the activating fluid to displace the buffer fluid and finger into the high permeability channels to reach the blocking material in the high permeability channels without reaching the blocking material in the low permeability channels, the activating fluid being adapted to activate the blocking material which it reaches to cause blocking of the high permeability channels.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

FLOW GATING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>This invention is a fast gating system for eiectronic flipflop circuits. Diodes connect the output of one circuit to the input of another, and the voltage supply for the receiving flip-flop has two alternate levels. When the supply is at its upper level, no current can flow through the diodes, but when the supply is at its lower level, current can flow to set the receiving flip- flop to the same state as that of the circuit to which it is connected. (AEC)

Poppelbaum, W.J.

1962-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

395

Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

397

Near Term Application of Supercritical Water Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pressurized water reactor with a supercritical water primary loop is analyzed (PWR-SC) within this paper. It will be shown that the PWR-SC offers considerable advantages in the fields of safety, economy and efficiency compared with a conventional PWR design. A cycle analysis shows that the net plant efficiency increases by 2% compared to currently operated or built systems. In addition, the mass flow rate of the primary side is strongly decreased, which enables a reduction of the primary pump power by a factor of 4. In the secondary loop, the mass flow rate can be decreased by about 15%, which allows down-scaling of all secondary side components such as turbines, condensers and feed-water preheat systems as a consequence of the high core exit temperature. A coupled core analysis and a hot channel factor analysis are performed to demonstrate the promising safety features of the PWR-SC and to show the technical feasibility of such a system. (authors)

Vogt, Bastian [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Lautenschlagerstr. 20 70173 Stuttgart (Germany); Starflinger, Joerg; Schulenberg, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions  

SciTech Connect

In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Technical accomplishments are listed below: • Demonstrated that shutdown air purge is controlled predominantly by the water carrying capacity of the purge stream and the most practical means of reducing the purge time and energy is to reduce the volume of liquid water present in the fuel cell at shutdown. The GDL thermal conductivity has been identified as an important parameter to dictate water accumulation within a GDL. • Found that under the normal shutdown conditions most of the GDL-level water accumulation occurs on the anode side and that the mass transport resistance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) thus plays a critically important role in understanding and optimizing purge. • Identified two-phase flow patterns (slug, film and mist flow) in flow field channel, established the features of each pattern, and created a flow pattern map to characterize the two-phase flow in GDL/channel combination. • Implemented changes to the baseline channel surface energy and GDL materials and evaluated their performance with the ex situ multi-channel experiments. It was found that the hydrophilic channel (contact angle ? ? 10?) facilitates the removal of liquid water by capillary effects and by reducing water accumulation at the channel exit. It was also found that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. • Identified a new mechanism of water transport through GDLs based on Haines jump mechanism. The breakdown and redevelopment of the water paths in GDLs lead to an intermittent water drainage behavior, which is characterized by dynamic capillary pressure and changing of breakthrough location. MPL was found to not only limit the number of water entry locations into the GDL (thus drastically reducing water saturation), but also stabilizes the water paths (or morphology). • Simultaneously visualized the water transport on cathode and anode channels of an operating fuel cell. It was found that under relatively dry hydrogen/air conditions at lower temperatures, the cathode channels display a similar flow pattern map to the ex-situ experiments under similar conditions. Liquid water on the anode side is more likely formed via condensation of water vapor which is transported through the anode GDL. • Investigated the water percolation through the GDL with pseudo-Hele-Shaw experiments and simulated the capillary-driven two-phase flow inside gas diffusion media, with the pore size distributions being modeled by using Weibull distribution functions. The effect of the inclusion of the microporous layer in the fuel cell assembly was explored numerically. • Developed and validated a simple, reliable computational tool for predicting liquid water transport in GDLs. • Developed a new method of determining the pore size distribution in GDL using scanning electron microscope (SEM) image processing, which allows for separate characterization of GDL wetting properties and pore size distribution. • Determined the effect of surface wettability and channel cross section and bend dihedral on liquid holdup in fuel cell flow channels. A major thrust of this research program has been the development of an optimal combination of materials, design features and cell operating conditions that achieve a water management strategy which facilitates fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Based on our various findings, we have made the final recommendation relative to GDL materials, bipolar design and surface properties, and the combination of materials, design featur

Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

399

Flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

Van den Engh, G.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water flow rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Experimental studies of adiabatic flow boiling in fractal-like branching microchannels  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of adiabatic boiling of water flowing through a fractal-like branching microchannel network are presented and compared to numerical model simulations. The goal is to assess the ability of current pressure loss models applied to a bifurcating flow geometry. The fractal-like branching channel network is based on channel length and width ratios between adjacent branching levels of 2{sup -1/2}. There are four branching sections for a total flow length of 18 mm, a channel height of 150 {mu}m and a terminal channel width of 100 {mu}m. The channels were Deep Reactive Ion Etched (DRIE) into a silicon disk. A Pyrex disk was anodically bonded to the silicon to form the channel top to allow visualization of the flow within the channels. The flow rates ranged from 100 to 225 g/min and the inlet subcooling levels varied from 0.5 to 6 C. Pressure drop along the flow network and time averaged void fraction in each branching level were measured for each of the test conditions. The measured pressure drop ranged from 20 to 90 kPa, and the measured void fraction ranged from 0.3 to 0.9. The measured pressure drop results agree well with separated flow model predictions accounting for the varying flow geometry. The measured void fraction results followed the same trends as the model; however, the scatter in the experimental results is rather large. (author)

Daniels, Brian J.; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V. [Mechanical Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Developing the Resource Potential of a Shallow Water Table  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

apply compara­ Also, soil water intake rates tend deliveryabove the water table at which plant intake and upward

Grimes, D. W; Henderson, D. W

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Water-Steel Canister Interaction and H2 Gas Pressure Buildup in aNuclear Waste Repository  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrosion of steel canisters, stored in a repository forspent fuel and high-level waste, leads to hydrogen gas generation in thebackfilled emplacement tunnels, which may significantly affect long-termrepository safety. Previous modeling studies used a constant H2generation rate. However, iron corrosion and H2 generation rates varywith time, depending on factors such as water chemistry, wateravailability, and water contact area. To account for these factors andfeedback mechanisms, we developed a chemistry model related to ironcorrosion, coupled with two-phase (liquid and gas) flow phenomena thatare driven by gas pressure buildup and water consumption. Resultsindicate that if H2 generation rates are dynamically calculated based ona chemistry model, the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup are muchsmaller compared to a simulation in which the coupling between flow andreactive transport mechansism is neglected.

Xu, Tianfu; Senger, Rainer; Finstele, Stefan

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

404

Physical Modeling of Flow Field inside Urban Street Canyons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow characteristics inside urban street canyons were studied in a laboratory water channel. The approaching flow direction was horizontal and perpendicular to the street axis. The street width was adjusted to form street canyons of aspect ...

Xian-Xiang Li; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; K. M. Lam

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Engineered and Natural Marine Seep, Bubble-Driven Buoyancy Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bubble-plume upwelling flows were studied in the marine environment through dye releases into engineered plumes and a natural hydrocarbon seep plume. For engineered plumes, these experiments measured the water column–averaged upwelling flow Vup(z...

Ira Leifer; Henrik Jeuthe; Svein Helge Gjøsund; Vegar Johansen

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

Essebaggers, Jan (39 Honeyman Dr., Succasunna, NJ 07876)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

flow_loop.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FLOW ASSURANCE TEST LOOP FLOW ASSURANCE TEST LOOP Objective O ver a decade ago, RMOTC began cooperatively building a full-scale facility to test new fl ow assurance technology, mainly in the areas of hydrates and paraffi ns. Today, RMOTC's test facility consists of fi ve individual loop sections, including chilling and heated pipe-in-pipe water sections, bare lines, and a mixing section. The facility was designed to represent typical deepwater production systems in order to simulate full-scale tests and apply the results to fl ow assurance fi eld applications and technology. The current facility design consists of a 6" x 3,600 maximum allowable operating pressure test pipeline in fi ve separate loops. The test loops begin and ter- minate at a central location just north

408

Quantitative Analysis of Flow Processes in a Sand Using Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pore-scale multiphase flow experiments were developed to nondestructively visualize water flow in a sample of porous material using X-ray microtomography. The samples were exposed to similar boundary conditions as in a previous investigation, which examined the effect of initial flow rate on observed dynamic effects in the measured capillary pressure-saturation curves; a significantly higher residual saturation and higher capillary pressures were found when the sample was drained fast using a high air-phase pressure. Prior work applying the X-ray microtomography technique to pore-scale multiphase flow problems has been of a mostly qualitative nature and no experiments have been presented in the existing literature where a truly quantitative approach to investigating the multiphase flow process has been taken, including a thorough image-processing scheme. The tomographic images presented here show, both by qualitative comparison and quantitative analysis in the form of a nearest neighbor analysis, that the dynamic effects seen in previous experiments are likely due to the fast and preferential drainage of large pores in the sample. Once a continuous drained path has been established through the sample, further drainage of the remaining pores, which have been disconnected from the main flowing water continuum, is prevented.

Wildenschild, D.; Hopmans, J.W.; Rivers, M.L.; Kent, A.J.R. (OSU); (UCD); (UC)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

409

Flow meters tested on dairy lagoon water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for suspended particles. quire 110-volt power. However, theyof electromag- both also have 12-volt battery-powered neticmagmeter con- models, and a 12-volt tube magmeter is sists

Schwankl, Larry; Eagle, Alison; Frate, Carol; Nydam, Ben

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Specification of Surface Roughness for Hydraulic Flow Test Plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was performed to determine the surface roughness of the corrosion layer on aluminum clad booster fuel plates for the proposed Gas Test Loop (GTL) system to be incorporated into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. A layer of boehmite (a crystalline, non-porous gamma-alumina hydrate) is typically pre-formed on the surface of the fuel cladding prior to exposure to reactor operation to prevent the uncontrolled buildup of corrosion product on the surface. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the boehmite layer was analyzed using optical profilometry to determine the mean surface roughness, a parameter that can have significant impact on the coolant flow past the fuel plates. This information was used to specify the surface finish of mockup fuel plates for a hydraulic flow test model. The purpose of the flow test is to obtain loss coefficients describing the resistance of the coolant flow paths, which are necessary for accurate thermal hydraulic analyses of the water-cooled booster fuel assembly. It is recommended that the surface roughness of the boehmite layer on the fuel cladding be replicated for the flow test. While it is very important to know the order of magnitude of the surface roughness, this value does not need to be matched exactly. Maintaining a reasonable dimensional tolerance for the surface finish on each side of the 12 mockup fuel plates would ensure relative uniformity in the flow among the four coolant channels. Results obtained from thermal hydraulic analyses indicate that ±15% deviation from a surface finish (i.e., Ra) of 0.53 ìm would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature.

Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wellbore flow model for carbon dioxide and brine, EnergyReservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Water. LBNL-4291E. [14]non-isothermal flow of carbon dioxide in wellbores. In: SPE

Pan, L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Chemistry Effects on Flow-Accelerated Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes an investigation into the accuracy of the hydrazine and oxygen factors used for predicting flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) using the CHECWORKS Steam/Feedwater Application (SFA).

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

Very Slow Strain Rate Stress-Strain Behavior and Resisting Stress ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

rectly obtained from measurements of yield stress and flow stress made in constant strain rate tests at creep strain rates and temperatures. In this paper, constant.

414

Influence of Feeding Flow and Shrinkage Pipe Formation on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Influence of Feeding Flow and Shrinkage Pipe Formation on ... CFD–Based Modelling on Interfacial Heat Transfer for Water Quenching.

415

Effect of Thermal Buoyancy Force on the Flow, Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For conventional isothermal water modeling, the RTD parameters obtained are much different as compared with the non-isothermal ones. For the flow control ...

416

Physics of two-phase flow: choked flow  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is shown that the basic equations governing the flow of a two-phase fluid, i.e., liquid and vapor, are natural extensions of those equations that describe single-phase flow. The exact form of the equations depends on the particular assumptions used to characterize the two-phase flow, i.e., the equations depend on the model chosen. In general the mathematical model is selected so as to retain as much of the physics of the phenomena as possible while at the same time permitting solutions to be obtained without undue complexity. The following quantities were computed for saturated water substance over the temperature range 100 to 250/sup 0/C and for saturated Refrigerant -114 over the range -20 to +70/sup 0/C: choking velocity, critical or choking flow density, and saturation properties. Tables of the results are given along with graphs of selected functions.

Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.; Delor, M.; Dickinson, D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

Liu, H. H.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Carbon flow and ecosystem dynamics in the Mississippi River plume described by inverse analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planktonic ecosystem dynamics in the buoyant Mississippi River plume were investigated using inverse analysis, a technique that incorporates data describing ecosystem processes and calculates rates of unknown trophic flows and sedimentation in the plume ecosystem. The waters receiving the Mississippi River were divided into four subregions connected by water flow to discretize the gradient of ecosystem properties as river water mixed with ocean water. Each subregion was represented by eight interconnected compartments that were linked to adjacent subregions by advective carbon flow. Models were produced for 4 seasons. Solutions for three seasons (spring, summer, and fall) showed a small region of net autotrophy associated with mid-salinity waters (15-29 psu), surrounded by a larger region of net heterotrophic waters where production did not meet respiratory carbon demand. In addition to moving more than 20% of total plume primary productivity out of the study region, westward water flow moved excess organic carbon from autotrophic regions to heterotrophic regions. In contrast, the winter result indicated a plume that was net-heterotrophic in all 4 subregions with high aerobic bacterial respiration and relatively low primary production that did not meet respiratory demand. Inputs of riverine DOC and carbon from resuspended sediments were required to make up the deficit. Sedimentation of organic carbon was linked to primary production in the mid-salinity regions of the plume, with strongest sedimentation from the productive mid-salinity regions during most of the year. Sedimentation was enhanced beneath less productive, higher salinity areas, due to inputs of organic carbon advected from mid-salinity regions. During winter organic carbon sedimentation was calculated to be zero. The models indicated that a dynamic relationship between primary production and sedimentation exists and provide a good starting point for future development of models which directly address the relationships between nutrient inputs, primary production, sedimentation, and hypoxia in the economically and environmental important regions of the Louisiana Shelf.

Breed, Greg Allen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Flow and diffusion distributed structures with noise at the inlet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow and diffusion distributed structures (FDS) are stationary spatially periodic patterns that can be observed in reaction-diffusion-advection systems. These structures arise when the flow rate exceeds a certain bifurcation point provided that concentrations ... Keywords: 47.54.-r, 82.40.Ck, Flow and diffusion distributed structures, Flow distributed oscillations, Noise, Pattern formation, Reaction-diffusion-advection system

Pavel V. Kuptsov; Razvan A. Satnoianu

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL's public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, G.

2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers  

SciTech Connect

Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Liquid CO2 Displacement of Water in a Dual-Permeability Pore Network Micromodel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale displacements, liquid CO2 (LCO2) - water displacement was evaluated in a pore network micromodel with two distinct permeability zones. Due to the low viscosity ratio (logM = -1.1), unstable displacement occurred at all injection rates over two orders of magnitude. LCO2 displaced water only in the high permeability zone at low injection rates with the mechanism shifting from capillary fingering to viscous fingering with increasing flow rate. At high injection rates, LCO2 displaced water in the low permeability zone with capillary fingering as the dominant mechanism. LCO2 saturation (SLCO2) as a function of injection rate was quantified using fluorescent microscopy. In all experiments, more than 50% of LCO2 resided in the active flowpaths, and this fraction increased as displacement transitioned from capillary to viscous fingering. A continuum-scale two-phase flow model with independently determined fluid and hydraulic parameters was used to predict SLCO2 in the dual-permeability field. Agreement with the micromodel experiments was obtained for low injection rates. However, the numerical model does not account for the unstable viscous fingering processes observed experimentally at higher rates and hence overestimated SLCO2.

Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Warner, Marvin G.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

Non-equilibrium effects and multiphase flow in porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We encounter flow in porous media, knowingly or otherwise, on a daily basis; percolation of precipitation into top soil, ground-water supplies obtained from aquifers (ground-water… (more)

Aryana, Saman Afqahi.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A Political Ecology of the Citarum River Basin: Exploring "Integrated Water Resources Management" in West Java, Indonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultimately produced higher water prices because rates wereon Environment and Water ( which produced Dublin Principles

Cavelle, Jenna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Performance Evaluation of Hot Water Efficiency Plumbing System Using Thermal Valve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Korea two popular water distribution systems—the branch type and the separate type systems—have serious drawbacks. The branch type suffers from temperature instability while the separate type suffers from excessive piping. Neither of them re-circulates water. The system proposed in this paper utilizes a water-conserving piping system with a thermostat valve. This paper compares the proposed system with that of the separate type. Our findings show that the proposed system wastes less water. After re-circulating for 78-87 seconds, water is available at set point temperature (40°C). Also, when multiple water taps are in use, the average temperature deviation is less than 0.6°C. Moreover, the proposed system has 50% less flow rate than the separate type system.

Cha, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Seo, H. Y.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Increased Water Use Efficeincy Through Trickle Irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gap between supply and demand of water for agricultural and municipal uses is rapidly closing at a time when world food requirements are increasing at an alarming rate. To meet the demand for agricultural products, new lands must be brought into production or higher yields must be realized from existing lands. In either case, more efficient use of water is prerequisite. Trickle irrigation is an approach to obtain increased water use efficiencies (ratio of weight of grain harvested to weight of total crop water use) and therefore a way to increase food production with our limited water resources. The ultimate goal of this investigation was the development of required crop inputs for selected crops to optimize the design of trickle irrigation systems and obtain an optimum water balance for living plants. Specific objectives were as follows: 1. To quantitatively determine optimum irrigation timing and necessary water application amounts for selected crops when using trickle irrigation; and 2. To develop a general method for the hydraulic design of trickle irrigation systems using inputs from the first objective for optimizing the system. To achieve these objectives, experiments were conducted in field lysimeters and in a well-instrumented field plot installation for evaluating the crop inputs. Complete control of the soil water balance can be achieved by the use of these facilities. By knowing the required crop inputs and utilizing known principles of fluid mechanics proper design procedures were developed to provide optimum design for trickle irrigation systems. To achieve the first objective, three research experiments were conducted at the research lysimeters of the Department of Agricultural Engineering at Texas A&M University for which grain sorghum was selected as the experimental crop. The first two experiments were designed to study the response of grain sorghum to trickle and subsurface irrigation. A comparison of water use efficiencies under well-watered conditions using both intensified and conventional water application methods and the evaluation of water use efficiencies with trickle irrigation applications designed to limit the availability of water were the specific objectives. The results indicated higher water use efficiencies and better crop response when the trickle method of application was used. Also, the results showed that higher water use efficiencies can be obtained by applying sparing amounts. An additional investigation carried out under a different research project of the Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI Project No. A024TEX) was designed to develop a computer model to simulate grain sorghum yield and water use under high frequency irrigation. The simulation methods used in this study can be used to simulate a complete irrigation experiment greatly reducing research costs and allowing the determination of water requirements for many crops under many different soil and climatic conditions. The objective of the third research experiment conducted in 1974 was to determine if different irrigation frequencies would influence the growth and water use efficiency of grain sorghum when irrigated at optimum levels. Results indicated that frequency of application had no significant effect on the water use efficiency of grain sorghum for irrigation intervals up to 7 days. To attain the second goal of this investigation two trickle irrigation lateral design methods were developed. With the first method the pressure loss and emitter flow ratio for trickle irrigation laterals can be determined. The design method is based upon known principles of fluid mechanics. A computer program was written to determine the lateral pressure loss and emitter flow ratio at a given design length as function of pipe size, tree spacing, number of emitters per tree, emitter spacing, downstream lateral pressure and lateral slope. For a given set of design inputs, the program can be used to determine if the given pipe size will be adequate to li

Hiler, E. A.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

433

Can Anthropogenic Aerosols Decrease the Snowfall Rate?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations by Borys, Lowenthal, Cohn, and Brown in midlatitude orographic clouds show that for a given supercooled liquid water content, both the riming and the snowfall rates are smaller if the supercooled cloud has more cloud droplets as, for ...

U. Lohmann

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Investigation of flow modifying tools for the continuous unloading of wet-gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid loading in low production gas wells is a common problem faced in many producing regions around the world. Once gas rates fall below the minimum lift velocity, it is essential that some action be taken to maintain continuous operation of the well. Commonly applied solutions include: 1) reduction in wellhead pressure (compression); 2) reduction of tubing diameter (velocity strings); and 3) installation of artificial lift (plunger lift or sucker rod pumping). This thesis examines the use of a patented vortex flow modifier to lift liquids from low rate (stripper) gas wells. Vortex Flow LLC has developed a flow modifying tool using the patented EcoVeyor technology developed by EcoTech. This technology has been used successfully for almost a decade to transport solids in the coal and potash industries and is now being adapted to the oil and gas industries. Recent field tests in horizontal production pipelines have shown the ability to alter basic flow characteristics, significantly decreasing backpressure on wells and increasing production. This thesis evaluate