Sample records for water flooding infill

  1. Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Andreas

    Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise Rik is related with the low shelf gradient and a strong acceleration of the East Asian sea-level rise from 34 depositional systems change into estuaries and eventually drown when sea-level rise overtakes the sediment

  2. A technical and economic comparison of waterflood infill drilling and CO2 flooding for Monahans Clearfork Unit of West Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Guoping

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF WATERFIXK)D INFILL DRILLING AND CO2 FLOODING FOR MONAHANS CLEARFORK UNIT OF WEST TEXAS A Thesis by GUOPING XUE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF WATERFLOOD INFILL DRILLING AND CO2 FLOODING FOR MONAHANS CLEARFORK UNIT OF WEST TEXAS A Thesis by GUOPING XUE...

  3. A technical and economical evaluation of infill drilling and CO?b2?s flooding in three west Texas units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMillon, Michael Dean, 1965-

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the unit. Obviously infill drilling can accelerate oil production. Actual field experience and previous analysis of reservoir characteristics 5 ~ have also indicated infill drilling results in significant incremental recoveries. The question commonly... to the east. The upper three hundred feet of the Means field is the productive interval. The main structure features two predominant domes (the North Dome and the South Dome) which are separated by a saddle. The most prolific oil production with potential...

  4. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project. Annual report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomax, J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful water flood of the Green River Formation in the Monument Butte unit was analyzed in detail in the last yearly report. It was shown that primary recovery and the water flood in the unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close its bubble point. The reservoir performance of the smaller Travis unit was also analyzed. The Monument Butte unit is currently producing at around 300 barrels per day of oil. Two of the new wells drilled in the unit had zones pressurized by the water flood. The third well produced from pressurized as well as from zones which were unaffected by the water flood. The water flood response of the Travis unit is slow possibly due to problems of reservoir continuity. Plans for water flooding the Boundary unit were drawn. Core description and Formation Micro Imaging log of well 14a-28 provided insight about the important Lower Douglas Creek sandstone. It was determined that this sandstone was extensively fractured and detailed fracture characteristics were obtained through comprehensive interpretation of the FMI log. Reservoir modeling and simulation studies of all the three units were also continued. A larger, more detailed model of the Monument Butte unit was built in order to study the performance of the new development wells being drilled. Three alternate models developed to explain the performance of the Travis flood revealed that intersecting hydraulic fractures may have also provided paths for water channeling observed in this unit. The reservoir characterization activities identified new reservoirs in the Travis unit. Reservoir simulations helped design an injection program in Travis, unit expansion plans on the west and north sides of the Monument Butte until and to evaluate the infill drilling. The reservoir simulations are being used to examine the role of the aquifer underlying the oil bearing D2 sandstone in Boundary on water flood strategies and injection patterns.

  5. Imbibition flooding with CO?-enriched water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grape, Steven George

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance for a typical Austin Chalk field. METHODOLOGY Imbibition flood testing in core samples is a "saturate and soak" process. Core samples are first dried, then saturated with water. After weighing, the sample is saturated with oil down to minimum... carbonated water. Any changes in saturation or permeability are noted. The procedure is then repeated using carbonated water. Two types of experiments were performed on core samples during this project. Field Core testing on 4" diameter cores...

  6. Imbibition flooding with CO?-enriched water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grape, Steven George

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    light weight, 25 - 35 degree API, diesel oil. Diesel oil was selected because CO, can cause asphaltene precipitation in some heavier crudes. Asphaltene precipitation would ruin the ability of the core to perform mulflple runs. The carbonated water... o e u e Q. 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 60 100 120 Effluent from Core Chamber, om3 Fig. 10. - Imbibition in Sandstone Field Core. 25 The results of the carbonated water flood show a higher initial production of oil. This may be a result of oil...

  7. Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Brian Holsclaw West- 2H2O e- e- e- e- e- H+ H+ H+ Membrane + Schematic of a PEMFC Operation #12;PFR PEM Fuel Cell Plug for membrane Two-phase flow in channels #12;CSTR PEM Fuel Cell Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) "Perfect

  8. Geographic Visualization of the 1993 Midwest Flood Water Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, W. Scott; Ridd, Merrill K.; Mizgalewicz, Pawel J.; Maidment, David R.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , flooding, and water storage. By the middle of July, large amounts of water were being stored in the southern part of the UMRB, particularly around the St. Louis area where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers meet. Water was also being stored in larger...) includes the Mississippi River basin from the river’s headwaters in Minnesota to Cairo, Illinois, and the Lower Missouri River basin below Gavins Point dam, South Dakota, to St. Louis, Missouri (Figure 1.1). Using a digital elevation model of the study...

  9. Subcooling Effects for Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullum, Wes

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A counter current annular flow experiment was performed to determine flooding conditions for varying degrees of subcooling using steam and water. The findings can be used in reactor safety codes to provide an improved model of flooding during...

  10. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    of climate warming can be very significant. Integrated water resources management is a promising wayClimate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply climate warming impacts on surface runoff, groundwater inflows and reservoir evaporation for distributed

  11. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  12. The effect of flooding velocity and degree of reservoir depletion on the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Phillips C

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I3 at 110 F 19 Observed Variation of Gas Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation . 21 5, Observed Pressure and Gas-Oil Ratio Histories As A Function of the Cumulative Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . 21 Waterflood Recovery At A Constant Pressure... ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ Waterflood Recovery As A Function of Initial Gas SB'turatlon ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ a ~ ~ ~ o o e ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 s a a a ~ 10. Residual Oil Saturation After Primary, Water. Flooding and Final Pressure Depletion. . . ~. . . . . ~ . . 30 Results of laboratory flooding...

  13. The effect on oil recovery of water flooding at pressures above and below the bubble point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, Daniel Materson

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Dykstra, H. ~ and Parsons, R. L. , "The Predict ion of Oil Recovery by Water Flooding", Secondar Recovery of Oil in the United States, API, (1950), Second Edition. (4}. Bzeston, J. N. , "A Survey of Injection of Natural Gas Before and During Water... Pictures of Equipment 4. Physical Characteristics of Fluid A Physical Characteristics of Fluid B P V behavior of Natural Gas Effect of Flooding Pressure on Oil Recovery, Fluid A Effect of Initial Gas Saturation on Residual Oil Saturation After Flood...

  14. Missoula flood dynamics and magnitudes inferred from sedimentology of slack-water deposits on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.A. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sedimentological study of late Wisconsin, Missoula-flood slack-water sediments deposited along the Columbia and Tucannon Rivers in southern Washington reveals important aspects of flood dynamics. Most flood facies were deposited by energetic flood surges (velocities>6 m/sec) entering protected areas along the flood tract, or flowing up and then directly out of tributary valleys. True still-water facies are less voluminous and restricted to elevations below 230 m. High flood stages attended the initial arrival of the flood wave and were not associated with subsequent hydraulic ponding upslope from channel constrictions. Among 186 flood beds studied in 12 sections, 57% have bioturbated tops, and about half of these bioturbated beds are separated from overlying flood beds by nonflood sediments. A single graded flood bed was deposited at most sites during most floods. Sequences in which 2-9 graded beds were deposited during a single flood are restricted to low elevations. These sequences imply complex, multi-peaked hydrographs in which the first flood surge was generally the largest, and subsequent surges were attenuated by water already present in slack-water areas. Slack-water - sediment stratigraphy suggests a wide range of flood discharges and volumes. Of >40 documented late Wisconsin floods that inundated the Pasco Basin, only about 20 crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. Floods younger than the set-S tephras from Mount St.Helens were generally smaller than earlier floods of late Wisconsin age, although most still crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. These late floods primarily traversed the Cheney-Palouse scabland because stratigraphy of slack-water sediment along the Columbia River implies that the largest flood volumes did not enter the Pasco Basin by way of the Columbia River. 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The effect of cross flow in a stratified reservoir during a water flood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommers, Gordon Edmund

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the displacement of oil by water in a porous medium. In most conventional engineer- ing methods used to predict the reservoir performance of a water- flood, crossflow between beds of different permeability is neglected, This study was concerned... in a water flood. Conventional engineering methods assuming no crossflow and the numerical model solution were in agreement when the effects of vertical communication were neglected. However, when vertical communication was considered, model...

  16. Links Between Flood Frequency and Annual Water Balance Behaviors: A Basis for Similarity and Regionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiali; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a data based comparative study of several hundred catchments across continental United States belonging to the MOPEX dataset, which systematically explored the connection between the flood frequency curve and measures of mean annual water balance. Two different measures of mean annual water balance are used: (i) a climatic aridity index, AI, which is a measure of the competition between water and energy availability at the annual scale; and, (ii) baseflow index, BFI, the ratio of slow runoff to total runoff also at the annual time scale, reflecting the role of geology, soils, topography and vegetation. The data analyses showed that the aridity index, AI, has a first order control on both the mean and Cv of annual maximum floods. While mean annual flood decreases with increasing aridity, Cv increases with increasing aridity. BFI appeared to be a second order control on the magnitude and shape of the flood frequency curve. Higher BFI, meaning more subsurface flow and less surface flow leads to a decrease of mean annual flood whereas lower BFI leads to accumulation of soil moisture and increased flood magnitudes that arise from many events acting together. The results presented in this paper provide innovative means to delineate homogeneous regions within which the flood frequency curves can be assumed to be functionally similar. At another level, understanding the connection between annual water balance and flood frequency will be another building block towards developing comprehensive understanding of catchment runoff behavior in a holistic way.

  17. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States); [Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  18. What You Should Do If Your Water Well Has Been Flooded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for at least 1 hour before the disinfection process. Household plumbing, including the water heater, alsoWhat You Should Do If Your Water Well Has Been Flooded Mark L. McFarland, Associate Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist Diane E. Boellstorff, Program Specialist Water Quality Tony L. Provin

  19. Effects of fluid properties and initial gas saturation on oil recovery by water flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Marion Denson

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D. ARNOLD Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1959 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D, ARNOLD Approved as to style and content by...

  20. Effects of fluid properties and initial gas saturation on oil recovery by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Marion Denson

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D. ARNOLD Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1959 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D, ARNOLD Approved as to style and content by...

  1. Investigation of the scaling factor LVuw in the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McWilliams, Morris Hampton

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rnediuxn and. the Buid system, but also by the length of the flooded system and the x'ate of irjection. They further cor eluded that for floods performed in identical porous media and with the same oil-water viscosity ratio, the total length... water) as a scaling w coefficient. In other words, all floods conducted in a given porous rnediuxn, with a given oil-watex viscosity ratio and haVing the same value of this scalixxg coefficient must behave similarly and yield equal recoveries fax...

  2. FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT variability/change; risk assessment; flood management; water resources flexibility.) DiFrancesco, Kara N of Assessment Measures for Flood Management Systems. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA

  3. Numerical analysis of masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames subjected to seismic loads and experimental evaluation of retrofit techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutromanos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    infill Load ratio age at testing Concrete frame Infill paneltesting of masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame,” ASCE

  4. The effect of surface and interfacial tensions upon the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Erasmo Trevino

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL TENSIONS UPON THE RECOVERY OF OIL BY WATER FLOODING A Dissertation By ERASMO T . GUERRERO Approved as to style and content by: J t Q J w & U 7 T Chsfirman of Cfommittee f Head of Department TABLE....................................................................................................... .......... 25 Surface and Interfacial Tensions..........................................................26 Adsorption............................... .................. . ........................................ .......... 31 Flow Tests...

  5. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas for electrical shock. NOTIFY University Police. What should I do if I smell natural or propane gas? LEAVE/Repair line, 7-6333, or CALL the Campus University Police or Security at (561) 297-3500 or 911

  6. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES ELECTRICAL OR PLUMBING FAILURE/FLOODING/WATER LEAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES ELECTRICAL OR PLUMBING FAILURE/FLOODING/WATER LEAK NATURAL GAS - F 8a - 5p HBOI@FAU Security (772) 216-1124 Afterhours, Weekends or Holidays What should I do Police 911. · NOTIFY Building Safety personnel when possible. What should I do if I smell natural

  7. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas Physical Plant (772) 242-2246 M - F 8a - 5p (954) 762-5040 HBOI@FAU Security (772) 216-1124 Afterhours University Police. NOTIFY Building Safety personnel when possible. What should I do if I smell natural

  8. The investigation of the effects of wettability on residual oil after water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burja, Edward Oscar

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding, " Producers Monthly, (1951), 15-16, 15. 6. Schilthuis, Ralph J. : "Connate Water in Oil and Gas Sands, " Trans. AIME. , (1938), 127, 199-214. 7. Bartell, F. E. : "Function of Water in the Production of Oil from Reservoirs?" Report, API...: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 1953 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. Summary . 2. Introduction 3. Review of Literature . 4. Description of Materials 16 Cores 16 Oil, Gas and Brine 18 Surface Active Chemicals 19 Crystals 22 5. Description of Procedure...

  9. Evaluation of a statistical infill candidate selection technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, Linhua

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    sets, then compared the moving-window infill-well predictions to those from reservoir simulation. Results indicate that moving-window infill predictions for individual wells can be off by more than 50%; however, the technique accurately predicts...

  10. Theoretical study of water blocking in miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, T. (BEB Erdgas and Erdol GmbH (DE)); Lake, L.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miscible displacement processes can leave a substantial amount of residual oil behind the displacement front. This phenomenon has two general causes: instabilities caused by local heterogeneities or viscous fingering and water blocking. This paper describes a study of the latter. Numerous laboratory experiments have shown that significant blocking of oil from the solvent by mobile water can occur in water-wet media and at large water saturations. Despite this, water-blocking studies have been limited to either simple correction functions in numerical simulations or microscopic models. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no explicit theoretical model considers the macroscopic bypassing and subsequent interaction of the solvent stream with a trapped hydrocarbon phase. In this study, CO{sub 2} is the miscible solvent. A numerical model calculates the mass flux between flowing and stagnant regions separated by a water film. The model considers solvent diffusion and diffusional extraction of oil accompanied by swelling or shrinking of the stagnant hydrocarbon phase.

  11. A correlation between wettability and the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert Thomas

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in color and dispersible in hard watez. Petronate L (32) is a low molecular weight& highly refined petroleum sulfonate It is insoluble in waterz highly soluble in kerosene& and is a very viscous~ dark brown liquid. Ethofat 2/+2/60 (33) i. s a tall oil... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE ~ust 1~6 Major Subject Petroleum ineerin A COHRELAT ION BETWEEN WETTABILlTY AND THE RECOVERY CF OIL BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis ROBERT T KLLIK Approved as to style and content by...

  12. Seismic Retrofitting of RC Frames with RC Infilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic Retrofitting of RC Frames with RC Infilling SERIES Workshop: "Role of research infrastructures in seismic rehabilitation" 8 - 9 February 2012, Istanbul, Turkey C. Z. Chrysostomou, N. Kyriakides, P. Kotronis, P. Roussis, M. Poljansek, F. Taucer RC Infilling of Existing RC Structures for Seismic

  13. Infill location determination and assessment of corresponding uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senel, Ozgur

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    tried to solve this problem with statistical approaches. In this study, a reservoir simulation based approach was used to select infill well locations. I used multiple reservoir realizations to take different possible outcomes into consideration...

  14. AMIGA, Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etchegoyen, A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is planned to be upgraded so that the energy spectrum of cosmic rays can be studied down to 0.1 EeV and the muon component of showers can be determined. The former will lead to a spectrum measured by one technique from 0.1 EeV to beyond 100 EeV while the latter will aid identification of the primary particles. These enhancements consist of three high elevation telescopes (HEAT) and an infilled area having both surface detectors and underground muon counters (AMIGA). The surface array of the Auger Observatory will be enhanced over a 23.5 km2 area by 85 detector pairs laid out as a graded array of water-Cherenkov detectors and 30 m2 buried muon scintillator counters. The spacings in the array will be 433 and 750 m. The muon detectors will comprise highly segmented scintillators with optical fibres ending on multi-anode phototubes. The AMIGA complex will be centred 6.0 km away from the fluorescence detector installation at Coihueco and will be overlooked by the HEAT telescopes. We de...

  15. The influence of free gas saturation on water flood performance - variations caused by changes in flooding rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandona, Anil Kumar

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through 19. These 4. 0 FIGURE I ATER -OIL CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVE W CA 0 I IJJ IK Pn 2. 0 CA UJ lL CL K o IO 0 . 20 . 40 . 60 . 80 I. O WATER SATURATION - FRACTION OF PORE VOLUME IO 0 . 20 . 40 . 60 . 80 I. O GAS SATURATION - FRACTION... injection of 0. 25 pore volumes of water. Except for the very low rates, all gas present in the system is trapped. At high water 0 u H 0 0 0 4J g 0 I-I I-1 M 0 z 0 0 Ql QJ 0 3 0 4J cd Q 'O QJ Q Ql 4J cd Q cc V Id 0 0 4J 0 cd O ca Ql...

  16. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

  17. Rapid assessment of infill drilling potential using a simulation-based inversion approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hui

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of many of these fields, it is often prohibitively expensive to conduct conventional reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill potential. There is a need for rapid, cost-efficient technology to evaluate infill potential in gas...

  18. Evaluation of a statistical infill candidate selection technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, Linhua

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . The cases evaluated in this study included real-world well spacing and production rates and a significant amount of depletion at the infill locations. Because of its speed, accuracy and reliance upon readily available data, the moving window technique can...

  19. Numerical methods for analysis of clay tile infills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bennett, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent Department of Energy requirements have led to a comprehensive evaluation of the industrial facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The structures consist of simply connected steel frames infilled with structural clay tile walls. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the stability of the unreinforced infills, and whether they provide the lateral capacity necessary to resist the moderate seismic hazard at the site. Due to lack of information on the behavior of structural clay tile infills, various large-scale tests were performed to investigate the in-plane, out-of-plane and combined in-plane and out-of-plane behavior. The results of these tests are briefly summarized, and the development of analytical guidelines based on these tests is given. Little interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane loads was observed, both in terms of stiffness and strength. Out-of-plane stability can be examined panel by panel based on arching action. Inter-story drift does not appear to present a stability problem for the type of infill construction investigated. In-plane behavior may be adequately modeled with a nonlinear compression strut. A typical building is chosen for an illustrative application. The methodology and results of the seismic analysis are presented for this structure.

  20. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Marshall, A.C. [International Nuclear Safety, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B. [Reactor Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  1. 118 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / MAY/JUNE 2000 LINEAR PROGRAMMING FOR FLOOD CONTROL IN THE IOWA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    obtained by operating the three reservoirs independently for 8 of the 10 largest flood events on record for optimizing the operation of existing systems rather than proposing/designing new flood- control projects flood-control operations for the Iowa/Des Moines River Reservoir System and to pro- vide insight

  2. A statistical and economic analysis of incremental waterflood infill drilling recoveries in West Texas carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    French, Robert Lane

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimates of recoveries. Accurate infill recovery forecast models may assist operators in determining if well spacings are small enough to economically recover the maximum amount of oil possible. In addition, these models can help the operator evaluate... to determine their effect, if any, on primary, waterflood, and infill recoveries. These parameters were evaluated for their overall correlation to infill recoveries and interaction with other important parameters. Four recovery indicators were used to model...

  3. Flood Plain and Floodway Management Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state regulates flood-prone lands and waters to prevent and alleviate flooding threats to life and health and reduce private and public economic losses. The purpose of 76-5 MCA, parts 1-4 is to...

  4. ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Canyon-infilling and gas hydrate occurrences in the frontal fold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Canyon-infilling and gas hydrate occurrences in the frontal fold to infer the canyon-infilling, fold uplift, and gas hydrate occurrences beneath the frontal fold at the toe simu- lating reflector (BSR) on seismic sections indicates the base of gas hydrate stability zone

  5. Operation of water supply reservoirs for flood mitigation : hydrologic and institutional considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craney, Patrick Wayne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional demands are being placed upon reservoirs to meet a variety of diverse needs. These demands require efficient management of the limited storage through reservoir operations. This efficiency is most critical with water supply reservoirs...

  6. A water quality characterization of a tidally influenced flood control canal of Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polasek, Jeffrey Steven

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H), specific conductance, sulfide, total organic carbon (TOC), and turbidity samples were collected at seven stations in HBDC and from the effluent of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) discharging into HBDC in order to detect significant... to MWTP outfall. Specific conductance patterns mirrored salinity trends. TOC levels showed a steady bayward decrease. Turbidity levels were consistently highest in bottom waters. No trends were apparent for COD, pH, and sulfide. HBDC water quality...

  7. Flooding and Fire Ants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, Paul

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    of debris or in homes and other build- ings until they build new mounds in the soil. During flooding Avoid contact with floating mats of fire ants. If you are in a row boat, do not touch the ants with the oars. If you must work in flood water, try... within the first 15 to 20 minutes. Some people report that the irrita- tion of a fire ant sting can be relieved by applying a 50:50 solution of bleach and water. Other home remedies include ammonia, meat tenderizer, tea tree oil and camphor...

  8. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    on the section of pipe connected to the pressurizer. Descriptions of the di user at the bottom of the pres- surizer tank, which determines the water ow con guration into the surge line, are di cult to obtain. As predicted by the SCDAP/RELAP5 code for a typical 4... impact on plant behavior. In a countercurrent, two-phase ow system, ooding is commonly de ned as the This thesis follows the style of International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2 onset of ow reversal which results in cocurrent ow [3]. In general...

  9. An investigation of the effects of wettability on oil recovery after water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boykin, Robert Stith

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    may be held in the reservoir by capi13sry foroes. Their results fram an investigation cf the adhesion of crude oil to the sand surface showed that some crudes exhibited & mnoh greatA!x' affinity fer silica than others~ This they attribute... was kept at, 500 psi. and at 100 degrees F. by a thermostated water bath. mercury pump was connected to a small oil reservo1r and was used to measure the volume of the droplets formed, The steel tip vas carefully machined to a uniform diameter...

  10. Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 28 Story by Kathy Wythe | pg. 28 A flood warning system resulting from a Texas AgriLife Research water quality monitoring project at Fort Hood is potentially saving lives and property. The Flood Alert System via Telemetry... said they also hope to use real-time stream level and weather data to develop a flood prediction model to forecast the likelihood of flooding across Fort Hood. Blackland?s f lood warning system protects soldiers ...

  11. Rapid assessment of infill drilling potential using a simulation-based inversion approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hui

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    cases, with comparable analysis times and costs. In a bind validation study of a field case with 40 years of production history, the method was able to accurately predict performance for a group of 19 infill wells....

  12. An integrated approach to characterize reservoir connectivity to improve waterflood infill drilling recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Zaheer Ahmad

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infill drilling can significantly improve reservoir interwell connectivity in heterogeneous reservoirs, thereby enhances the waterflood recovery. This study defines and investigates the Hydraulic Interwell Connectivity (HIC) concept to characterize...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  14. TYPES OF FLOODING IN AUSTRALIA Floods are part of the natural water cycle or a "Hydrologic Cycle". In this natural cycle, the energy of the sun causes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    to carry the water that has entered the river network, and the banks overflow. The area that gets inundated an emergency kit containing: o a first aid kit o a torch and portable radio with spare batteries o candles records, including wills, birth/marriage certificates, banking, financial records, etc · keep a list

  15. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  16. Economic analysis of waterflood infill drilling in West Texas carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Bruce Allan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unit 15 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE West Seminole Field/San Andres Unit 16 CHAPTER IV. PROJECTION OF OIL PRODUCTION CHAPTER V. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 17 30 CASE I - Economic Analysis of the Infill Drilling Projects 30 CASE II - Economic.../SAN ANDRES UNIT HYPERBOLIC DECLINE 20 Qo VS Np 7 WASSON FIELD/DENVER UNIT HYPERBOLIC DECLINE 21 Qo VS TIME 22 S WASSON FIELD/DENVER UNIT OIL-CUT DECLINE OIL-CUT VS Np 23 9 ULTIMATE INFILL DRILLING RECOVERY FROM THE REGRESSION ANALYSIS VS ACTUAL...

  17. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal drilling, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  18. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal continuity, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  19. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, June 13--September 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 500 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,800 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 17,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on core analysis, gas-oil/oil-gas permeability tests, water-oil/oil-water permeability tests, water-gas permeability tests, electrical resistivity measurements, capillary pressure tests, reservoir surveillance, and paleontologic analysis.

  20. The role of woodland in flood control: a landscape perspective T.R. Nisbet1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as part of a whole-catchment approach to sustainable flood management. Keywords: Woodland; water use; soil-125. IALE(UK), Oxford.] Abstract Sustainable flood management is increasingly looking to the role infiltration; hydraulic roughness; sustainable flood management Introduction A series of major floods across

  1. A reservoir engineering and economic evaluation of waterflood infill drilling in the Johnson J.L. "AB" unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadavalli, Sameer Kumar

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A RESERVOIR ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF WATERFLOOD INFILL DRILLING IN THE JOHNSON J. L. "AB" UNIT A Thesis by SAMEER KUMAR YADA VALLI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A RESERVOIR ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF WATERFLOOD INFILL DRILLING IN THE JOHNSON J. L. "AB" UNIT A Thesis by SAMEER KUMAR YADAVALLI Approved...

  2. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  3. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 18 wells, 14 producers and 4 injection wells, were drilled and completed during the Field Demonstration portion of the project. These 18 wells are all currently in service, with the producing wells going on-line between May and September 1996, and the injection wells going into service between August and December 1996. Current Unit production is approximately 3,100 BOPD, of which approximately 800 BOPD is being contributed from the 14 Project 10-acre producing wells (Figure 1). A revision in the Statement of Work was approved to allow for the drilling of additional 10-acre infill wells or injection well conversions as budget constraints allow.

  4. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river rises in the catchment and enables moreFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system Flooding Flood Forecasting Local Information Haughton ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    Warning Centre in Brisbane. The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river risesFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins Flood

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    ALERT System The Nerang River ALERT flood warning system was completed in the early 1990's as a coFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated Nerang ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  8. 814 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2011 Deriving Water Fraction and Flood Maps From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    -Spectral Scanner (MSS), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR-flood studies may be classified into two types: 1) passive, in which the sensor receives energy naturally illumination and records the amount of incident energy returned from the imaged Manuscript received June 14

  9. Flooding of Industrial Facilities -Vulnerability Reduction in Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    any improvement. As human activities historically developed in river areas and floodplains, industrial-use planning in flood-prone areas and vulnerability reduction in flood-prone facilities. This paper focuses of hazardous material, soil or water pollutions by hazardous substances for the environment, fires, explosions

  10. A Mechanistic Model for Flooding in Vertical Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Kevin J.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In a counter-current two-phase flow system, flooding can be defined as the onset of flow reversal of the liquid component which results in an upward co-current flow. Flooding in the surge line of pressurized water reactors poses a significant...

  11. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  12. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river rises in the catchment below the DamFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system Local Information Burdekin ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings

  13. Determining Hydrological Controls on Flood Frequency | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Federal Emergency Management AgencyAndrea Booher Aerial view of homes inundated with water following a 2011 flood in Minot, N.D. Researchers have compared data from hundreds of...

  14. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. N. Pace; R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); J. J. Rosentreter (ISU)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.

  15. Disinfecting Water after a Disaster 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Schoessow, Courtney

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how to disinfect water after a flood, as well as where to find water in an emergency when supplies are limited....

  16. Disinfecting Water after a Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Schoessow, Courtney

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how to disinfect water after a flood, as well as where to find water in an emergency when supplies are limited....

  17. Adapting California's water management to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    and ecosystems, to reducing flood risks, to generating hydropower. Although state and federal agencies have roles, with important implications for water demand, water quality management, and flood risk. Over 150 hydropower

  18. The Sierra Nevada-San Joaquin Hydrologic Observatory (SNSJHO): a WATERS network test bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Jason; Meng, Xiande; Rice, Robert; Butler, Chris; Harmon, T C; Bales, Roger

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provide flood control, hydropower, seasonal water deliveryirrigation demand and hydropower operations have a very

  19. Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

  20. Perspectives on Dam Removal: York Creek Dam and the Water Framework Directive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Justin E; Pollak, Josh D; Richmond, Sarah F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supply, flood control, hydropower, and recreation. However,as changes induced by hydropower, flood control, or waterFERC requires private hydropower dams to provide “equal

  1. COLLINS, KELLY ALYSSA. A Field Evaluation of Four Types of Permeable Pavement with Respect to Water Quality Improvement and Flood Control. (Under the direction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    ABSTRACT COLLINS, KELLY ALYSSA. A Field Evaluation of Four Types of Permeable Pavement with Respect Carolina and several other U.S. states, all permeable pavements are currently considered to have similar the hydrologic and water quality responses of various permeable pavement designs, a 20-stall parking lot

  2. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual report, June 13, 1994--June 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pande, P.K.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period have consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities are being identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program will be implemented using the results of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  3. WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

  4. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  5. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfalls and river rises throughout the catchment and enables. Flood ALERT System The initial Ipswich Creeks ALERT flood warning system was completed in the earlyFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    's Flood Warning Centre in Brisbane. The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river risesFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated Local Information Don ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings and River

  8. Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

    TR- 275 2004 Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States Allen W. Sturdivant Ronald D. Lacewell Ari M. Michelsen M. Edward Rister Naomi Assadian Marian Eriksson Roger Freeman Jennifer H... Flood-Control Projects in the United States Prepared for: INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES SECTION EL PASO, TEXAS SEPTEMBER 2004 Prepared by: Texas Agriculture Experiment Station, and Texas Water Resources Institute of the Texas...

  9. Decontaminating Flooded Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Diana; Dozier, Monty; Provin, Tony; Dictson, Nikkoal; McFarland, Mark L.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ER-011 6-06 Mark L. McFarland, Associate Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist; Diane E. Boellstorff, Program Specialist Water Quality; Tony L. Provin, Associate Professor and Extension Soil Chemist; Monty C. Dozier, Assistant... and local hospitals may also test water samples for bacteria. The cost of the test ranges from $8 to $30, depending on the lab. Well disinfection does not eliminate hydrocarbons (fuels, oils), pesticides, heavy metals or other types of nonbiological...

  10. Flood Inundation Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Wendy

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    . Validate these with historic data. “Water Predictions for Life Decisions” Page 11 2. Analyses • GIS Work – Inundation Library Creation – Use FEMA approved techniques to transform the hydraulic model water surface profiles into shapefiles representing... inundation area and rasters representing depth of flow. – Edit to remove unconnected polygons (ponds). – Shapefiles need attributes for water surface elevations. – Levees and bridges represented to NWS standards – Collect metatdata records for all GIS files...

  11. A mathematical and experimental study of caustic flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Tsu-Cheng

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Dr. Ching Buang Wu A simple non-equilibrium chemical displacement model for continuous, linear, caustic flooding of crude oil is presented. The laboratory experiments were conducted to support the numerical simulation and to verify the results...-water fractional flow curves depending on its local concentration and water saturation. The numerical study was supported by caustic displacement testing of Sacroc crude oil. Quantitative agreements were found between the results from mathematical and experimen...

  12. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

  13. Oilfield flooding polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Fred D. (Socorro, NM); Hatch, Melvin J. (Socorro, NM); Shepitka, Joel S. (Socorro, NM); Donaruma, Lorraine G. (Syosset, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

  14. Defining Good Infill A Convening Report on SB 226 and the California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    with the facilitation of the discussion and presented their draft regulations for feedback. This report provides a brief) and SB 375 (Steinberg), state planning priorities, water conservation and energy efficiency standards, the performance standards include requirements that residential and commercial projects meet or exceed specified

  15. Using Polymer to Maximize CO2 Flooding Performance in Light Oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weirong

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    -permeability zones and natural fractures, the condition is even worse. Two methods related to polymers are studied to improve CO2 flooding performance. One is adding polymers to water to increase water viscosity during the water-alternating-gas (WAG) process, named...

  16. Optimum Reservoir Operation for Flood Control and Conservation Purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Cabezas, L. Morris; Tibbets, Michael N.

    . With stringent flood plain management, susceptibility to flooding could actually decrease over time as existing activities choose to leave the flood plain and regulation prevents other activities from moving into the flood plain. Reservoir sedimentation reduces...

  17. Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov Laboratory for Education delivery channels with speculatively pre- computed authorizations and actively recycling them on a just Security Keywords authorization recycling, authorization flooding, access con- trol, authorization, publish

  18. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfalls and river rises throughout the catchment and enablesFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system of Meteorology operates a flood warning system for the Logan and Albert River catchments based on a rainfall

  19. Water+works : a new ecological infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedstrom, Lisa Kristin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the global water crisis as catalyst, Water+Works acts as a model for a localized water initiative that will mitigate flooding and provide a freshwater resource in times of crisis, while enriching urban ecosystems and ...

  20. CO/sub 2/ foam flooding performance vs. rock wettability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lescure, B.M.; Claridge, E.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO/sub 2/ flooding projects have shown large potential for oil recovery, but in many cases the volumetric sweep efficiency is greatly limited by gravity tonguing and/or viscous fingering. To reduce these effects foam could be used as an alternative to WAG CO/sub 2/ injection. Experiments on the CO/sub 2/ foam process were conducted in a 1/4 5-spot reservoir model in order to investigate the effect of rock wetting state and total CO/sub 2/ slug size on secondary and tertiary extra-oil recovery. Laboratory model results show that the process is more successful in an oil-wet medium than in a water-wet medium due to larger surfactant adsorption in the water-wet medium. Also, requirements for optimal CO/sub 2/ slug size are smaller than in the WAG process, with larger extra oil recovery for both secondary and tertiary floods.

  1. A first large-scale flood inundation forecasting model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, Guy J-P; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Voisin, Nathalie; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Phanthuwongpakdee, Kay; Hall, Amanda C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    At present continental to global scale flood forecasting focusses on predicting at a point discharge, with little attention to the detail and accuracy of local scale inundation predictions. Yet, inundation is actually the variable of interest and all flood impacts are inherently local in nature. This paper proposes a first large scale flood inundation ensemble forecasting model that uses best available data and modeling approaches in data scarce areas and at continental scales. The model was built for the Lower Zambezi River in southeast Africa to demonstrate current flood inundation forecasting capabilities in large data-scarce regions. The inundation model domain has a surface area of approximately 170k km2. ECMWF meteorological data were used to force the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) macro-scale hydrological model which simulated and routed daily flows to the input boundary locations of the 2-D hydrodynamic model. Efficient hydrodynamic modeling over large areas still requires model grid resolutions that are typically larger than the width of many river channels that play a key a role in flood wave propagation. We therefore employed a novel sub-grid channel scheme to describe the river network in detail whilst at the same time representing the floodplain at an appropriate and efficient scale. The modeling system was first calibrated using water levels on the main channel from the ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter and then applied to predict the February 2007 Mozambique floods. Model evaluation showed that simulated flood edge cells were within a distance of about 1 km (one model resolution) compared to an observed flood edge of the event. Our study highlights that physically plausible parameter values and satisfactory performance can be achieved at spatial scales ranging from tens to several hundreds of thousands of km2 and at model grid resolutions up to several km2. However, initial model test runs in forecast mode revealed that it is crucial to account for basin-wide hydrological response time when assessing lead time performances notwithstanding structural limitations in the hydrological model and possibly large inaccuracies in precipitation data.

  2. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

  3. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require softening to dissolve alkali. Produced water total dissolved solids were 2,835 mg/L and less than 20 mg/L hardness as the sum of divalent cations. Produced water requires softening to dissolve chemicals. Softened produced water was used to dissolve chemicals in these evaluations. Crude oil API gravity varies across the field from 19.7 to 22.2 degrees with a dead oil viscosity of 95 to 280 cp at 75 F. Interfacial tension reductions of up to 21,025 fold (0.001 dyne/cm) were developed with fifteen alkaline-surfactant combinations at some alkali concentration. An additional three alkaline-surfactant combinations reduced the interfacial tension greater than 5,000 fold. NaOH generally produced the lowest interfacial tension values. Interfacial tension values of less than 0.021 dyne/cm were maintained when the solutions were diluted with produced water to about 60%. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} when mixed with surfactants did not reduce interfacial tension values to levels at which incremental oil can be expected. NaOH without surfactant interfacial tension reduction is at a level where some additional oil might be recovered. Most of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions producing ultra low interfacial tension gave type II- phase behavior. Only two solutions produced type III phase behavior. Produced water dilution resulted in maintenance of phase type for a number of solutions at produced water dilutions exceeding 80% dilution. The average loss of phase type occurred at 80% dilution. Linear corefloods were performed to determine relative permeability end points, chemical-rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

  4. Laboratory studies of imbibition flooding using carbonated brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharif, Qamar Javaid

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressures was a major part of the phase II studies. A high pressure core holder was developed and set inside a temperature regulated in-house constructed oven for this purpose. The core face flushing method was developed for conducting imbibition... and the field for improving oil recovery. The most common techniques used to increase oil recovery include water injection, steam injection, in-situ combustion, carbon dioxide (CO&) injection, chemical flooding and caustic injection. Currently, however, due...

  5. A flow resistance model for assessing the impact of vegetation on flood routing mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    control in urban storm water runoff [Kirby et al., 2005], and linking tidal hydrodynamic forcing to flow and field studies. The proposed model asymptotically recovers the flow resistance formulation when the waterA flow resistance model for assessing the impact of vegetation on flood routing mechanics Gabriel G

  6. Asphalt deposition in miscible floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Petroleum Engineering ASPHALT DEPOSITION IN MISCIBLE FLOODS A Thesis By SYED MIR AHMED HASAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ommittee Member) Committee Member) Head of Department), (Co 'ttee Member) January, f964... Subject: Petroleum Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS ABS TRAC T. Page 2. INTRODUCTION. 3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS. . . . . , . 6 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 5. INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. . . . . . 13 6. CONCLUSIONS. 7...

  7. Irrigation, Navigation Flood Control and Recreation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigation,-Navigation-Flood-Control-and-Recreation- Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...

  8. FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Instructions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate and Instructions...

  9. Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants willows Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery The Laboratory's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) planted nearly 10,000 willows to help preserve the Pueblo Canyon...

  10. Flood Risk Management Every year floods sweep through communities across the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management #12;Every year floods sweep through communities across the United States risk management activities of communities in both urban and rural areas throughout the United States management activities. At the direction of Congress, the Corps studies and implements flood risk management

  11. FLOOD WARNING This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Commonwealth Bureau of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    or stock to higher ground, or implement other temporary flood loss reduction measures. Warnings in the flood-threatened area believe the warning and take appropriate action in advance of being flooded. Roles below the floor level as well as bicycle and pedestrian paths. In rural areas removal of stock

  12. Flood protection in the swamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reesby, Raymond George

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRA R Y A S N COLLEGE OF TEXAS FLOOD PROTECTION IN THE SWAMPS A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical School of Texas In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Professi. onal Degree of Civil... Joining points b, o, o , e tl ~Ke is a vertical cut-off wall extending downward from the bottom of the heel at its r1verside end. It has the dual function of reducing the uplift and xeinforcing the structure against sliding, and is defined by lines...

  13. Federal Flood Risk Management Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT OF DAVIDThe data dashboardA A 1ChipSteven Bass,Flood

  14. Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

  15. Green Infrastructure and Flood Resiliency-Land Use Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure and Flood Resiliency-Land Use Management as an Adaptation Strategy in the Built Environment Green Infrastructure and Flood Resiliency-Land Use Management as an...

  16. New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard February 5, 2015 - 10:55am Addthis...

  17. Kiran Maharjan Climate change and floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    management processes by providing many kinds of information. The level of vulnerability of people towardsKiran Maharjan Climate change and floods Climate change and floods Vulnerability analysis of people, in the livelihoods of people. Hence, climate change is making everyone vulnerable to its impacts. Most of the people

  18. Soil and Water Conservation (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Soil and water conservation districts (SWCDs) were established in the 1930s to develop comprehensive programs and plans to conserve soil resources, control and prevent soil erosion, prevent floods...

  19. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  20. Surface Water Development in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Government. Flood-control storage capacities at 26 major Texas reservoirs amounted to 17.4 million acre-feet in 1976. There is evi- dence of a changing national policy to keep economic development out of the flood plains. It appears that management... Water Development ................................. 30 Appendix Tables .......................................... 32 ......... Appendix A: Major Conservation Storage Reservoirs 40 endix B: Water Development Board Policy ............... 41 eferences...

  1. Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

    2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

  2. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, March 13--June 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 650 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 3,000 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress in core analysis, reservoir surveillance, well stimulation, validation of reservoir characterization (includes thin section analyses, depositional environments, and paleontologic analysis), material balance decline curve analysis, and validation of reservoir simulation (includes geostatistical and deterministic).

  3. Improvement of CO sub 2 flood performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, D.F.; Heller, J.P.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a six-year research project devoted to the study of processes of oil displacement using dense carbon dioxide. The topics studied have included phase behavior and physical properties of mixtures of crude oil with CO{sub 2}, the phenomena involved in the displacement of oil through reservoir rock under oilfield conditions, the influence of stabilized lamella or CO{sub 2}-foam on this displacement and the development of computer programs to simulate the displacement. In addition, the occurrence of nonuniformities in the displacement pattern has also been considered. The effect on displacement of permeability heterogeneities in the reservoir have been studied geostatistically and by direct numerical modelling. Displacement nonuniformities that are induced by viscosity and density differences between displaced and displacing fluids have also been considered, and efforts are described for the development of two different types of additive for purposes of mobility control of CO{sub 2} floods. One of these is the so-called CO{sub 2}-foam, formed by simultaneous flow through the formation of dense CO{sub 2} with a water solution of a special surfactant. The second type under development in the project is known as direct thickener, and consists of a polymer that is soluble in dense CO{sub 2} and able to viscosify it. Significant progress is reported on all of the topics mentioned above. 174 refs., 186 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. Erosion potential from Missoula floods in the Pasco Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, R.G.; Hanson, J.P.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Localities within the Pasco Basin preserve evidence of Missoula floods. Deposits are 46% sand-sized, 36% gravel-sized, and 18% finer than sand-sized. Mean thickness is 39 meters. High water marks at Wallula Gap require a discharge of approximately 12.5 Mcms. At Sentinel Gap, the slope-area method shows that the high water marks require a discharge of 34.6 Mcms. Since this discharge greatly exceeds any estimated for Missoula floods, there must have been backwater ponding from Wallula Gap. Projecting the slope of the water surface at the upper end of Wallula Gap to the downstream cross section at Gable Mountain leads to a discharge of 9.5 Mcms at Sentinel Gap. The HEC-6 steady state code and four sediment transport equations were applied. Assuming sand-sized particles, DuBoys function estimated 4 to 9 meters of scour. Yang's equation estimated 3 to 4 meters of scour. These are a minimum. A hydrograph synthesized for the boundaries of the Pasco Basin shows the maxima of the flood would occur after 90 h at Sentinel Gap, and at 114 h at Wallula Gap. The 200 areas will remain inundated for four days and six hours. With a quasi-dynamic sediment transport computation, HEC-6 scour estimates range from 0.61 meters to 0.915 meters. This is a minimum amount and erosion is highly variable suggesting reworking of sediment. The Meyer-Peter Meuller equations show less than 1 meter of net scour in the 200 areas. More extensive erosion was achieved during particular time steps of this analysis suggesting that sediment re-working would occur.

  5. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  6. Problems with flooding in the Ronneburg mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckart, M. [Wismut GmbH, Gera (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important uranium deposits of Wismut, the biggest uranium producer of the eastern world, was the Ronneburg mining area, located 10 km east of Gera in the central part of Germany. 110,000 t of uranium were produced in this ore field from 1950 to 1989. Mining in the Ronneburg ore field requires a knowledge of the hydrodynamic relationships during and after ground water recharge and preplanning of the flooding sequence in the mine. The technology necessary for recharge of the ground water layer and the open pit were established by flow models. Calculations were made of the transport of radioisotopes in the ground water. Preliminary results of these calculations are reported in this paper.

  7. Impact of relief accuracy on flood simulations and road network vulnerability analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    network by forcing users to take detours. In a risk preventive viewpoint, the network administrator has 1 Impact of relief accuracy on flood simulations and road network vulnerability analysis Jean in the water level and its consequences on the road network vulnerability. The first part focuses

  8. Developing a GIS tool to assess potential damage of future floods J. Eleutrio1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    analysis, vulnerability assessment, natural hazard, decision support tool. 1 Introduction Flood risk brings and A. Rozan1 1 UMR Cemagref/ENGEES GESTE, Territorial Management of Water and Environment, France 2 UTR Urban Hydraulics - UMR CNRS/UdS/ ENGEES Mechanical Institute of Fluids and Solids, France Abstract

  9. Nutrient dynamics in marsh sediments contaminated by an oil spill following a flood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Benjamin Cord

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research involves a study of the natural recovery of a brackish marsh impacted by an oil spill and fire in which the area was naturally enhanced with elevated nutrient levels. Flood waters during October, 1994, ruptured a group of pipelines...

  10. A Probabilistic Model of Flooding Loads on Transverse Watertight Bulkheads in the Event of Hull Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    -board explosions, weapons effects, and ex- treme wave environments. Although the structural loading or reliability WTB loads. Poisson arrival is assumed for damage events, and the maximum life-time load effect (Chan et al 2002), the effect of water in a flooded compartment on motions (Yildiz 1983, Chan et al 2002

  11. Flood Management This impromptu activity was contrived by playing with a storm drain that entered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    waterways. Concept: Students practice with hydrology and flood control terms as well as measuring drainage sloped downward to other water sources, we decided that this might be a good as guess as any for practice that "real" people do on a regular basis in which the students will complete the task in 1-2 hours (except

  12. Changes in Crested Wheatgrass Root Exudation Caused by Flood, Drought, and Nutrient Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doucette, William J.

    rather than stimulation of exudate production per gram of plant. Plant water status can alter exudation carbon (TOC) and organic acid content to compare treatment effects. Plants in the low K1 treatment exuded cumulative TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 71% (p 5 0.05). The flooded treatment increased TOC exuded per

  13. Ecosystem effects of environmental flows: modelling and experimental floods in a dryland river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    physical system using: (1) a reservoir operations model to simulate reservoir releases and reservoir water experimental floods on the differential mortality of native and exotic riparian trees, on beaver dam integrity of model applications and experimental flow releases are contributing to adaptive flow management

  14. COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CSMRI) SITE FLOOD PLAIN AREA CLEANUP FACT SHEET & PROJECT SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In 1992 a water main break at the Site flooded a tailings pond that overflowed into Clear Creek. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency excavated and stockpiled soil from the tailings pond and surrounding area at the west end of the former tailings pond area previously cleaned up by EPA was found to contain

  15. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    There is strong evidence that the lower atmosphere has been warming at an unprecedented rate during the last 50 years, and it is expected to further increase at least for the next 100 years. Warmer air mass implies a higher capacity to hold water vapor and an increased likelihood of an acceleration of the global water cycle. This acceleration is not validated and considerable new research has gone into understanding aspects of the water cycle (e.g. Miller et al. 2003). Several significant findings on the hydrologic response to climate change can be reported. It is well understood that the observed and expected warming is related to sea level rise. In a recent seminar at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, James Hansen (Director of the Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration) stressed that a 1.25 Wm{sup -2} increase in radiative forcing will lead to an increase in the near surface air temperature by 1 C. This small increase in temperature from 2000 levels is enough to cause very significant impacts to coasts. Maury Roos (Chief Hydrologist, California Department of Water Resources) has shown that a 0.3 m rise in sea level shifts the San Francisco Bay 100-year storm surge flood event to a 10-year event. Related coastal protection costs for California based on sea level rise are shown. In addition to rising sea level, snowmelt-related streamflow represents a particular problem in California. Model studies have indicated that there will be approximately a 50% decrease in snow pack by 2100. This potential deficit must be fully recognized and plans need to be put in place well in advance. In addition, the warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor and result in more intense warm winter-time precipitation events that result in flooding. During anticipated high flow, reservoirs need to release water to maintain their structural integrity. California is at risk of water shortages, floods, and related ecosystem stresses. More research needs to be done to further improve our ability to forecast weather events at longer time scales. Seasonal predictions have been statistical and only recently have studies begun to use ensemble simulations and historical observations to constrain such predictions. Understanding the mechanisms of large-scale atmospheric dynamics and its local impacts remain topics of intensive research. The ability to predict extreme events and provide policy makers with this information, along with climate change and hydrologic response information, will help to guide planning to form a more resilient infrastructure in the future.

  16. Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okeke, Tobenna

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery of hydrocarbons and premature well or field abandonment. Water production can be more problematic during waterflooding in a highly heterogeneous reservoir with vertical communication between layers leading to unevenness in the flood front, cross...

  17. East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit CO2 flood ten year performance review: Evolution of a reservoir management strategy and results of WAG optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpole, K.J.; Hallenbeck, L.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) recently completed ten years of successful CO{sub 2} miscible WAG injection. This paper briefly reviews the original CO{sub 2} project design and field performance over the past ten years, and discusses the evolution of a CO{sub 2} reservoir management strategy from the original, fixed 2:1 WAG design to the current flexible, performance-driven WAG strategy. Variations in the magnitude and character of CO{sub 2} flood response across the Unit due to variability in local reservoir geology presented numerous reservoir management challenges. Problems were encountered in areas such as injection conformance, pattern balancing and sweep efficiency; managing large swings in gas production rates, and changes in injection gas composition and MMP due to construction of an NGL recovery facility. These challenges required a re-evaluation of our understanding of the reservoir and prompted a review of the original project design and operating philosophy by an interdisciplinary study team. Significant elements of this effort included surveillance and data collection on selected infill wells, extensive reservoir characterization work, and use of operations-oriented simulation modeling. This work resulted in the evolution of a more flexible reservoir management strategy for EVGSAU utilizing selective, geologically-targeted infill drilling, well conversions, pattern realignment, and a performance-driven WAG management strategy. Operating changes implemented over the past two years have produced significant improvements in profitability and performance in terms of both increased oil production and reduced gas handling problems and expenses.

  18. Flood Zone Building Permits (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building permits are required for new construction and development in the Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA). All development projects in SFHA must comply with Title 12 DCMR and Title 20 DCMR...

  19. Impact of Aluminum on Anticipated Corrosion in a Flooded SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion reactions in a flooded MCO are examined to determine the impact of aluminum corrosion products (from aluminum basket grids and spacers) on bound water estimates and subsequent fuel/environment reactions during storage. The mass and impact of corrosion products were determined to be insignificant, validating the choice of aluminum as an MCO component and confirming expectations that no changes to the Technical Databook or particulate mass or water content are necessary.

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  1. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ) Grand Island, Chadron, Oconto, Valentine. NIOBRARA, NEBRASKA--nOVING The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is moving the small tovm of Niobrara, i4ebraska. The town is in danger of flooding by Gavins Point Dam in irrigation water on agriculture throughout Colorado River~s 1,400 mile long system was announced by Secretary

  2. Ground water of Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the geology, hydrology, and possible rise of the water tables at Yucca Mountain. The possibilities of rainfall and earthquakes causing flooding is discussed.

  3. Disinfecting Water Wells by Shock Chlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If your well has been flooded, it must be shock chlorinated before it can be used as a source of drinking water. This publication explains how to disinfect a well using either dry chlorine or liquid household bleach....

  4. Consequences of Flooding on Spectral Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Rudolf; Normann Mertig; Steffen Löck; Arnd Bäcker

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spectral statistics in systems with a mixed phase space, in which regions of regular and chaotic motion coexist. Increasing their density of states, we observe a transition of the level-spacing distribution P(s) from Berry-Robnik to Wigner statistics, although the underlying classical phase-space structure and the effective Planck constant remain unchanged. This transition is induced by flooding, i.e., the disappearance of regular states due to increasing regular-to-chaotic couplings. We account for this effect by a flooding-improved Berry-Robnik distribution, in which an effectively reduced size of the regular island enters. To additionally describe power-law level repulsion at small spacings, we extend this prediction by explicitly considering the tunneling couplings between regular and chaotic states. This results in a flooding- and tunneling-improved Berry-Robnik distribution which is in excellent agreement with numerical data.

  5. A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

  6. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    nutrient loading of surface streams and reservoirs in northwest Arkansas, identifying and evaluating the viability of alternate water supplies using abandoned, flooded coal mines for the City of Greenwood Phosphorus Flux in Streams and Reservoirs: Effect of Chemical Amendments Basic Information Title: Phosphorus

  7. Costs and Consequences of Flooding Camilo Sarmiento, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costs and Consequences of Flooding Camilo Sarmiento, Ph.D. Senior Economist Fannie Mae #12 the impact that the NFIP has had on the flooding costs and the distribution of these costs among payers the NFIP loss database, the model examines losses in known flood events, infers total losses by cost

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM This brochure describes the flood above Wivenhoe Dam. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood above Wivenhoe Dam drains an area of approximately 7,000 square kilometres. The Brisbane River rises

  9. Mitigating floods : reconstructing Lives : rehabilitating Thatta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gul, Marium

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pakistan was struck by floods in July 2010, the effects of which left 20.36 million people affected and 1.9 million homes damaged or destroyed'. In the province of Sindh in Pakistan, most of the affected population of the ...

  10. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  11. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  12. Deep Placement Gel Bank as an Improved Oil Recovery Process: Modeling, Economic Analysis and Comparison to Polymer Flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyidov, Murad

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    that placement of a DDG in a high permeability zone provided a blockage that diverted water into lower permeability areas, thus increasing the sweep of target zones. Research results demonstrated that, although higher recovery can be achieved with a polymer flood...

  13. Residual Fertilizer Nitrogen in a Flooded Rice Soil1 K. R. REDDY AND W. H. PATRICK, JR. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    in the soil-water-plant system was measured. Approxi- Residual effects of 15 N-labelled fertilizer (ammoniumResidual Fertilizer Nitrogen in a Flooded Rice Soil1 K. R. REDDY AND W. H. PATRICK, JR. 2 ABSTRACT) to majntain jts identity in the soil during the top dressing. The uptake of residual labelled N (that present

  14. Flood analyses for Department of Energy Y-12, ORNL and K-25 Plants. Flood analyses in support of flood emergency planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study involved defining the flood potential and local rainfall depth and duration data for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and K-25 plants. All three plants are subject to flooding from the Clinch River. In addition, the Y-12 plant is subject to flooding from East Fork Poplar and Bear Creeks, the ORNL plant from Whiteoak Creek and Melton Branch, and the K-25 plant from Poplar Creek. Determination of flood levels included consideration of both rainfall events and postulated failures of Norris and Melton Hill Dams in seismic events.

  15. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water Quantity: Missouri has a history of either inadequate amounts of rainfall, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993

  16. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because reclamation of strip mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has

  17. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water Quantity : Missouri has a history of either inadequate amounts of rainfall, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of 93 and 95

  18. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. B>Water Quantity : Missouri has a history of either inadequate amounts of rainfall, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of 93 and 95

  19. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of 93 and 95, water quantity has become a major topic of concern

  20. Scale-up of miscible flood processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying the interactions of physical mechanisms that control the scaling behavior of miscible floods. Displacement performance in a miscible flood is the result of a complex set of competing and interacting mechanisms. Phase behavior is of fundamental importance because the transfer of components from the oil to the injected fluid (as in most CO{sub 2} floods) or from the injected fluid to the oil (as in rich gas floods) can generate mixture compositions with displacement properties very different from those of pure CO{sub 2} and original oil. The goal of this project, is to make more accurate quantitative predictions of the impact of nonuniform flow, crossflow and phase behavior in flows in heterogeneous reservoir rocks. In past reports, we have discussed the instabilities arising from unfavorable mobility ratios that occur during injection of a solvent such as CO{sub 2}. In this report, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computations by a particle-tracking technique are compared for unstable displacements in homogeneous porous media, with and without gravity. In homogeneous porous media without gravity, 2D fingering patterns and the length of the transition zone are nearly the same as those obtained in 3D displacements. When gravity is added, however, calculated gravity tongues and fingering patterns can be very different when viscous and gravity forces are of comparable magnitude. We summarize results obtained by Ph.D. student Hamdi Tchelepi concerning 2D and 3D fingering in homogeneous media, and we compare displacements with and without gravity segregation. The computations show conclusively that there are some situations in which 2D simulations reproduce 3D behavior well and others for which they do not.

  1. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  2. alkaline flooding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basins Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary: To adapt to climate change which results in increasing flood frequency and intensity, the European Community has...

  3. alkaline flooding formulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basins Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary: To adapt to climate change which results in increasing flood frequency and intensity, the European Community has...

  4. Willows Aid Flood Recovery in Los Alamos Desert

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Associate Directorate of Environmental Programs (ADEP) has been busy with various flood recovery activities since last fall. 

  5. Chapter 14 Water Pollution Factory-style hog farms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    were polluted by 2010 deepwater horizon oil spill. #12;Oil-drilling Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico #12Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water

  6. Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Cayman BracSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Cayman Brac 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2-Modified Areas - Little CaymanUrban and Man-Modified Areas - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers

  7. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2011 vol 4 no 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2011 vol 4 no 3 Focusing on ­ Asset Management Table of Contents New Flood Risk Management Program Leaders...........................................1 USACE USACE Flood Risk Management & Silver Jackets Workshop......................................... 16 MMC

  8. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    process, it may be worth the effort. Separate the pages to prevent musty odors. ? When the books are thoroughly dry, close them and use C-clamps to help them retain their shape. Wipe vinyl and leather book covers with a light coating of petroleum jelly..., University of California Cooperative Extension. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, The Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit the Texas...

  9. A Decade of Changes in the Wildcat Creek Flood Control Channel, North Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginsberg, Ben

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Changes in the Wildcat Creek Flood Control Channel, NorthAbstract: The lower Wildcat Creek flood control and ripariancontinue. Introduction Wildcat Creek Watershed is located in

  10. Geologic Assessment of Piedmont and Playa Flood Hazards in the Ivanpah Valley Area, Clark County, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    1 Geologic Assessment of Piedmont and Playa Flood Hazards in the Ivanpah Valley Area, Clark County..................................................................................................................................... 4 Piedmont Geomorphology and Related Flood Hazards..................... 6 The Field Area

  11. Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango Delta Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango Delta March 27, 2014 | Tags:...

  12. Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Peter J.

    Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1 V. E. Toma,1 and H.M. Kim1 Received 30 July 2010, a series of monsoonal deluges over northern Pakistan resulted in catastrophic flooding, loss, especially in North Pakistan was exceptionally rare as deduced from limited data. The location of the deluges

  13. Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General Reevaluation Report Volume I ­ Draft Environmental Impact Statement prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District May 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood

  14. Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Environmental Health Buford Highway NE (F-60) Atlanta, GA 30341 March 2011 #12;2 Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Problem Statement Microbial contamination--both bacterial and viral

  15. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods Christopher P. Konrad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    tracer particles and bed load samplers have demonstrated that partial entrain- ment rather than completePartial entrainment of gravel bars during floods Christopher P. Konrad U.S. Geological Survey a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect

  16. Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters Victor M. Ponce, M.ASCE1 ; Ahmad to study the sensitivity of dam-breach flood waves to breach-outflow hydrograph volume, peak discharge the channel. A dam-breach Froude number is defined to enable analysis through a wide range of site and flow

  17. Environmental Valuation and Decision Making for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    spending time in residence at the Institute. Both IWR and the Corps benefit from such faculty engaging in ongoing water resources studies and research on a reimbursable basis. Visiting scholars are expected development and water resources problems (e.g. drought, floods) and the economies of developing nations

  18. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the quality of Missouri drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of '93 and '95, water quantity has become a major

  19. UCOWRJournal of Contemporary Water researCh & eduCation Universities CoUnCil on Water resoUrCes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    of flooding and cost of protection. van Dantzig's 1956 paper described this risk-based calculation. HeUrnal of Contemporary Water researCh & edUCation issUe 141, pages 1-16, marCh 2009 Dutch Flood Policy Innovations of California - Davis F lood risk management is an important part of life in the Netherlands. The Netherlands

  20. Modelling downstream change in river flood power: a novel approach based on the UK Flood Estimation Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Modelling downstream change in river flood power: a novel approach based on the UK Flood Estimation" (McEwen, 1994: 359). Lawler (1992) recognised that little was known about the downstream change. It is suggested that downstream change in discharge is best represented as a power function in terms of channel

  1. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: CO/sub 2/ miscible flood predictive model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, R.M.; Munoz, J.D.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO/sub 2/ Miscible Flood Predictive Model (CO2PM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp for the US Department of Energy and was used in the National Petroleum Council's (NPC) 1984 survey of US enhanced oil recovery potential (NPC, 1984). The CO2PM is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO/sub 2/ injection or water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes. In the CO2PM, an oil rate versus time function for a single pattern is computed, the results of which are passed to the economic calculations. To estimate multi-pattern project behavior a pattern development schedule is required. After-tax cash flow is computed by combining revenues with costs for drilling, conversion and well workovers, CO/sub 2/ compression and recycle, fixed and variable operating costs, water treating and disposal costs, depreciation, royalties, severance, state, federal and windfall profit taxes, cost and price inflation rates, and the discount rate. A lumped parameter uncertainty model is used to estimate risk, allowing for variation in computed project performance within an 80% confidence interval. The CO2PM is a three-dimensional (layered, five-spot), two-phase (aqueous and oleic), three component (oil, water, and CO/sub 2/) model. It computes oil and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough and recovery from fractional theory modified for the effects of viscous fingering, areal sweep, vertical heterogeneity and gravity segregation. 23 refs., 19 figs., 57 tabs.

  2. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. In this final report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 of the project.

  3. Scale-up of miscible flood processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of the physical mechanisms of miscible floods are reported. Advanced techniques for analysis of crude oils are considered in Chapter 2. Application of supercritical fluid chromatography is demonstrated for characterization of crude oils for equation-of-state calculations of phase equilibrium. Results of measurements of crude oil and phase compositions by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are also reported. The theory of development of miscibility is considered in detail in Chapter 3. The theory is extended to four components, and sample solutions for a variety of gas injection systems are presented. The analytical theory shows that miscibility can develop even though standard tie-line extension criteria developed for ternary systems are not satisfied. In addition, the theory includes the first analytical solutions for condensing/vaporizing gas drives. In Chapter 4, methods for simulation of viscous fingering are considered. The scaling of the growth of transition zones in linear viscous fingering is considered. In addition, extension of the models developed previously to three dimensions is described, as is the inclusion of effects of equilibrium phase behavior. In Chapter 5, the combined effects of capillary and gravity-driven crossflow are considered. The experimental results presented show that very high recovery can be achieved by gravity segregation when interfacial tensions are moderately low. We argue that such crossflow mechanisms are important in multicontact miscible floods in heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, results of flow visualization experiments are presented that illustrate the interplay of crossflow driven by gravity with that driven by viscous forces.

  4. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 63, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1998); P. 11371149, 10 FIGS., 1 TABLE. Electrical conductivity of steam-flooded,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Rosemary

    conductivity of steam-flooded, clay-bearing geologic materials David B. Butler and Rosemary J. Knight ABSTRACT the conductivity of a steam zone by providing a surface conduction path that is enhanced strongly by temperature increases. Clay also increases the residual water saturation in a steam zone, further increasing

  5. Evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flood performance, springer ''A'' sand, NE Purdy Unit, Garvin County, OK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, M.J.; Beaty, W.G.; Simlote, V.N.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes and presents results of an overall program of monitoring and evaluation of a carbon dioxide flood being conducted in the Northeast Purdy Springer ''A'' Sand Unit in Garvin County, Oklahoma. The response of one specific five-spot pattern is described through detailed reservoir simulation utilizing data from observation well logging, pressure transient analysis, carbon dioxide injection profiling, sampling of produced fluids, and monitoring of production rates. A reservoir description satisfying primary, secondary and tertiary performance is also described in detail. History matching of the carbon dioxide flood performance is being utilized to define the effects on reservoir performance of waterblocking, viscous fingering and residual oil saturation to carbon dioxide flooding. These parameters are not laboratory defined. Sensitivity work was conducted to design the best process. In-situ saturation changes obtained from an observation well logging program are presented and correlated with model calculated saturation changes and indicate that oil is being mobilized as predicted by the simulator. A comparison of carbon dioxide injection profiles to water injection profiles and the results of observation well logging indicates that the carbon dioxide is flooding certain reservoir layers that were not waterflooded. The model reservoir description was modified to include these layers. Results of compositional analyses of produced fluids are presented.

  6. NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    is Deputy Director for Water Resources Research. WASTE GUIDE ON THERMAL POLLUTION Copies of an "Industrial, urban water use and needs, water system construction, and flood plain management. The focal point VIaste Guide on Thermal Pollution" may be obtained by writing to: National Thermal Pollution Research

  7. Developing a High-Resolution Texas Water and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    for hyperresolution: global food production; water resources sustainability; flood, drought, and climate change and vegetation; · landatmospheric interactions; soil moisture & evapotranspiration; · inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; · representation of human impacts from water management; · utilizing

  8. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has become a major topic

  9. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non, hazardous waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has become a major topic

  10. Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·Water heaters: Turn off the power that heats the tank and let the tank cool. Place a contain- er underER-002 6-06 Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist Courtney such as a hurricane or flood, your water supplies may have become contaminated or been temporarily cut off. To make

  11. Flood Risk Management Newsletter June 2014 vol 7 no 3 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter June 2014 · vol 7 no 3 1 Table of Contents Annual Spring Connecting Flood Risk, Emergency Managers and Silver Jackets: Annual Spring Flood Assessment Karen Durham; Flood Risk Management Newsletter June 2014 · vol 7 no 3 2 these areas of concern were attributed

  12. Flood Storage Allocation Rules for Parallel Reservoirs B.S. (Tsinghua University, China) 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    i Flood Storage Allocation Rules for Parallel Reservoirs By RUI HUI B.S. (Tsinghua University and minimize flood damage. However, for different hydrograph shapes, corresponding flood storage volumes often differ for the same peak flow reductions. Meanwhile, it is often the case that flood storage volume

  13. Quality assurance flood source and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Alexander, David L [West Richland, WA; Satz, Stanley [Surfside, FL

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a is an improved flood source, and method of making the same, which emits an evenly distributed flow of energy from a gamma emitting radionuclide dispersed throughout the volume of the flood source. The flood source is formed by filling a bottom pan with a mix of epoxy resin with cobalt-57, preferably at 10 to 20 millicuries and then adding a hardener. The pan is secured to a flat, level surface to prevent the pan from warping and to act as a heat sink for removal of heat from the pan during the curing of the resin-hardener mixture.

  14. Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Therefore, if the entire flood control capacity of a reservoir is available, only an extremely severe flood event would require the implementation of the EOS for most reservoir projects, and thus the bulk of the research has been focused on how to manage... operations objectives. In other words, the REOS provide a set of rules that reflect the risk of flooding upstream as well as downstream of the dams. The USACE and other reservoir management agencies may use the methodology proposed in this study...

  15. Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lickley, M.J.

    The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure—much of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

  16. Multiobjective Design and Optimization of Polymer Flood Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekkawong, Peerapong

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    (Pareto front) to maximize oil production while preserving polymer performance. Then an optimal polymer flood design can be considered from post-optimization analysis. A 2D synthetic example, and a 3D field-scale application, accounting for geologic...

  17. Chilean glacial lake outburst flood impacts on dam construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauro, Flavia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) occurred in the Colonia Glacier (Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile) from April 2008 to March 2009. Lago Cachet 2 emptied four times producing a maximum excess discharge in the ...

  18. DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India ROHAN D, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Drowned and Dammed comprehensively reconsiders the debate with physical infrastructure such as embankments, canal networks, and inevitably the Hirakud Dam. In seeking

  19. Multiobjective Design and Optimization of Polymer Flood Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekkawong, Peerapong

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The multiobjective genetic algorithm can be used to optimize two conflicting objectives, oil production and polymer utility factor in polymer flood design. This approach provides a set of optimal solutions which can be considered as trade-off curve...

  20. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Quarterly] report, March 31--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost- effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. Last quarter we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous emulsification in alkali/acidic crude oil systems with and without added surfactant. We have observed that the roll cell size and formation time depend strongly on the pH and ionic strength of the alkaline solution. For a particular roll cell size, the addition of surfactant causes the cells to take longer to form, causing an interfacial resistance to mass transfer and making the interface more rigid. We have shown that interfacial turbulence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for spontaneous emulsification. Low interfacial tension is also a necessary condition. This quarter a microwave interferometric procedure was developed for the determination of low water content (0. 5 to 10 vol%) of water-in-oil macroemulsions. The apparatus operates at a frequency of 23.48 GHz in the K-band microwave region. The procedure is based on the large differences in dielectric properties between water and oil, and it utilizes the variation in phase shift as sample path length is varied. Measurements are accurate to within 0.5 vol% water.

  1. Flood Plain or Floodway Development (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section describes situations when a permit is needed for the construction, reconstruction, or modification of dams, waste or water treatment facilities, and pipeline crossings, among others.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  3. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  4. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. We have made significant progress on all three tasks and we are on schedule on both technical and budget. In this report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 for the first six months of the second year of the project.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Water injection will continue to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  7. Experimental Investigation on the Use of Water Soluble Polyacrylamides as Thickeners During CO_(2) WAG EOR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tovar, Francisco

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    and core flood experiments in heavy oil indicate that the use of chemicals in the water slug may improve mobility control during WAG. Therefore, stability studies of common polymers used for EOR applications in CO_(2) saturated environments becomes...

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Use of Water Soluble Polyacrylamides as Thickeners During CO_(2) WAG EOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tovar, Francisco

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    , which has a good correlation to previous laboratory measurements and EOS predictions for live oil. The core flooding experiments gave insights regarding the role of miscibility, frontal advance rate, heterogeneity and water viscosity on the viscous...

  9. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  10. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and non-point source nutrient loading of surface streams and reservoirs in northwest Arkansas, identifying and evaluating the viability of alternate water supplies using abandoned, flooded coal mines for the City and Sediment Phosphorus Flux in Streams and Reservoirs: Effect of Chemical Amendments Basic Information Title

  11. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water Quantity: Missouri has a history of either inadequate amounts of rainfall, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years

  12. Hydropower at flood control reservoirs - the variable speed option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurence, K.; Yale, J. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of hydroelectric turbine-generators to flood control has been limited due to the inability of a single turbine to operate efficiently over the wide head and flow ranges encountered. Multiple and different unit combinations have been applied to this problem, but the cost of the additional unit(s), powerhouse, and supporting facilities typically causes the project to become unfeasible. Variable speed operation can increase the operating range of a single turbine, and significantly improve efficiency over single speed units. This can make hydroelectric generation at flood control projects feasible. This paper presents a comparison of the application of variable speed units, two speed units, and single speed units at the Blue River Dam Hydroelectric Project. The project consists of the addition of a powerhouse to an existing Army Corps of Engineers flood control project. Efficiency data for the different types of units are compared and historical flow and release data are used in a computer model to simulate plant operation.

  13. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  14. Hydrodynamic model of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP Industrial site flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaschenko, V N; Gerasimenko, T V; Vachev, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the Fukushima-Daiichi was designed and constructed the maximal tsunami height estimate was about 3 m based on analysis of statistical data including Chile earthquake in 1960. The NPP project industrial site height was 10 m. The further deterministic estimates TPCO-JSCE confirmed the impossibility of the industrial site flooding by a tsunami and therefore confirmed ecological safety of the NPP. However, as a result of beyond design earthquake of 11 March 2011 the tsunami height at the shore near the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP reached 15 m. This led to flooding and severe emergencies having catastrophic environmental consequences. This paper proposes hydrodynamic model of tsunami emerging and traveling based on conservative assumptions. The possibility of a tsunami wave reaching 15 m height at the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP shore was confirmed for deduced hydrodynamic resistance coefficient of 1.8. According to the model developed a possibility of flooding is determined not only by the industrial site height, magni...

  15. Precipitation analysis for a flood early warning system in the Manafwa River Basin, Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecinati, Francesca

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The communities living in the Manafwa River Basin experience frequent floods threatening their lives and property. Climate change and anthropogenic perturbations to the natural environment increase flooding frequency. This ...

  16. Feasibility analysis and design of a flood barrier concept for the City of New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingilis, Demetres

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding has always been a major concern for coastal communities. However, many parts of New York City never had to worry about flooding until Hurricane Sandy hit in October 2012. The hurricane brought a record level storm ...

  17. Simulation Study for Improving Seawater Polymer Flood Performance in Stratified High Temperature Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Geng

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer flood has achieved technical and commercial success, especially for its large-scale application in the Daqing oilfield in China. However, previous field tests indicated polymer flood was not economically successful for high temperature...

  18. Soil Testing Following Flooding, Overland Flow of Wastewater and other Freshwater Disasters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Feagley, Sam E.; Pitt, John L.; McFarland, Mark L.

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Freshwater flooding can seriously affect soil fertility and the physical and chemical properties of soil. This publication explains how to reclaim flooded soil. Having the soil tested for microbes, pesticides, hydrocarbons and other contaminants...

  19. Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango Delta Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango Delta Africa.gif Why it Matters: The...

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  1. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2 Fstocoll Table of Contents Mark Roupas to Flood Risk Management, Emergency Management, and Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience for his role overseeing emergency management and flood risk management activities. Roupas served twenty

  2. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 April 2014 vol 7 no 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 April 2014 vol 7 no 3 Fstocoll Table of Contents Reflections Conferences...................................................12 Reflections on the Flood Risk Management in a series of recurring messages to the flood risk management community of practice, my first thought was

  3. Flood Risk Management Newsletter October 2014 vol 8 no 1 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter October 2014 · vol 8 no 1 1 Table of Contents Informal Management and Flood Risk Management (FRM) Communities of Practice. For the purpose of this article of the USACE October 2014 · vol 8 no 1 Mark Roupas #12; Flood Risk Management Newsletter October 2014 · vol

  4. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2013 vol 6 no 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2013 vol 6 no 3 Fstocoll Table of Contents Social-Cognitive Aspects of Risk and Performance Management in Flood Response is to be a system of models that will support decision making in emergency situations, like flood risk management

  5. Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory of methane from flooded unexploited coal seams Field experience from the flooding operations of the abandoned gassy coal seams in abandoned mines. The tests included the following main stages: - Determining

  6. Flooding/storm/gale Force Wind Remove Anyone From Immediate Danger If Safe To Do So

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Flooding/storm/gale Force Wind Remove Anyone From Immediate Danger If Safe To Do So Flooding 1/gale Force Wind 1. Move all people away from windows. 2. Close all curtains, drapes and blinds. 3. Shelter. If using a mobile phone, DiAl 0800 823-637. Flooding/storm/gale Force Wind #12;

  7. Forestflood relation still tenuous comment on `Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Nick A

    Forest­flood relation still tenuous ­ comment on `Global evidence that deforestation amplifies cover change, and conclude that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the developing world% of the variation in reported flood occurrences, considerably more than forest cover or deforestation (o10

  8. 8/13/12 Futurity.org What the world can learn from China's water crisis 1/5www.futurity.org/earth-environment/what-the-world-can-learn-from-china's-water-crisis/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nutrients--and about 300 million rural residents lack access to safe drinking water. (Credit: Federico lack access to safe drinking water. Water can unleash fury. Recent floods in Beijing overwhelmed8/13/12 Futurity.org ­ What the world can learn from China's water crisis 1/5www.futurity.org/earth

  9. Injection pressure falloff with flooded zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariadji, Tutuka

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Fracture half-length for the input data of the simulator, 4 Comparisons of static reservoir pressure and reservoir properties of Well No. I after matching with different drainage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 13 13 14 LIST... OF FIGURES Figure I Hazebroek, Rainbow, and Matthews method for determining static Page reservoir pressure 2 Reservoir model 3 Fracture well system 4 Water-oil and gas-oil relative permeability curve data 5 Matching result of Well No. I 15 6 Horner...

  10. History of Floods in the South Platte River Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    History of Floods in the South Platte River Basin Nolan Doesken Colorado Climate Center Colorado State University 25th South Platte Forum Longmont, CO October 22, 2014 #12;Acknowledgment: Thanks is it -- the History Annual Peak Flows S. Platte River at Julesburg 1902-2013 #12;#12;#12;Now, let's head upstream

  11. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Responding to Power Outages and Floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    People and the environment can be harmed if a home's onsite wastewater treatment system does not work properly after a flood or power outage. This publication explains the steps to take after such an event to get the system back into service. 4 pp...

  12. CEDAR RIVER, CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA, FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    developed as standard designs in order to minimize estimated construction cost. The estimated total cost: The purpose of the Project is to provide cost effective, environmentally-sensitive, and technically feasible lies within the 100-year floodplain. Historically, major floods have resulted from a combination

  13. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM TO BRISBANE CITY This brochure for the Brisbane River below Wivenhoe Dam to Brisbane City. It includes reference information which will be useful kilometres of which about half is below Wivenhoe Dam. The Lockyer-Laidley Valley drains into the Brisbane

  14. Mitigating Flood Loss through Local Comprehensive Planning in Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jung Eun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and environment planning and policy. When sustainability was embraced by international organizations and governmental organizations managing development programs and projects, the term, ?sustainable development? became popular (Beatley, 1998). Currently...; and a more economically integrated and diverse population (Vale & Campanella, 2005). Based on previous literature (Beatley, 1998; Berke, 1995; Mileti, 1999), this study develops principles of sustainability that can be applied to flood mitigation...

  15. Control of microbiologically induced corrosion and accumulation of solids in a seawater flood system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewar, E.J.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of sessile bacteria (mainly sulfate reducers) is important for controlling microbiologically-induced corrosion (MIC) and suspended solids in a large seawater flood system. Bactericide treatments and mechanical cleaning are the major bacteria control methods; when combined with oxygen removal, pH control, and flow maintenance, they permit relatively troublefree operation in terms of corrosion and water quality. Coupon corrosion rates decreased from monthly averages as high as 0.5 mm/y down to <0.05 mm/y when the sessile sulfate reducing bacteria counts decreased from about 4 x 10/sup 5/ cells/cm/sup 2/ down to 6 x 10/sup 2/. A suitable monitoring program is required for a timely detection of potential problems and for treatment evaluations. Sessile bacteria counts and bactericide demand are two of the techniques found useful.

  16. Proceedings ASCE International Water Resources Engineering Conference August 8-12, 1999, Seattle, WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    and flood control. Eutrophic conditions are caused by increased water temperatures due to lack of shadingProceedings ASCE International Water Resources Engineering Conference August 8-12, 1999, Seattle and Columbia Rivers. It is a eutrophic water body susceptible to algae blooms and crashes and periods of high p

  17. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor B. Eng. Mgmt Committee Member, Mechanical Engineering). Abstract Liquid water formation and flooding in PEM fuel cell gas

  18. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  19. Flood Fighting Research Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdfInactive JumpFirst WindWaterFloatingFighting

  20. Regional flood hazard assessment of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional flood-hazard assessments performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants are reviewed, compared, and contrasted to determine the relationship of probable maximum flood methodology with respect to US Department of Energy design and evaluation guidelines. The Paducah assessment was carried out using probable maximum flood methodology, while the Portsmouth assessment utilized probabilistic techniques. Results indicated that regional flooding along nearby rivers would not inundate either plant, and that the guidelines were satisfied. A comparison of results indicated that the probable maximum flood recurrence interval associated with the Paducah assessment exceeded the 10,000 years depending on the choice of the probabilistic model used to perform the assessment. It was concluded, based on an analysis of two data points, that smaller watersheds driven by single event storms could be assessed using probabilistic techniques, while probable maximum flood methodology could be applied to larger drainage basins flooded by storm sequences. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in established West Texas carbon dioxide floods. The project is not economic.

  2. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Geological Survey, Water Res. Investigations Rep. 95-United States. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc, 35, 1525-hydrology. J. American Water Resources Association, 39, 771-

  3. Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, Ann D.; Lund, Jay R.; Townsley, Edwin S.; Faber, Beth A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yuba River, California: water control manual. Sacramento (River, California: water control manual. Sacramento (CA):Nov 9. [DWR] Department of Water Resources. 1969. California

  4. Rebuilding your flooded home: Guidelines for incorporating energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repairs to your flood-damaged home can add energy efficiency at the same time you address pressing structural needs, mainly by replacing and upgrading insulation in walls and floors, and checking your foundation for flood damage. Many energy efficiency options are available to you today that may not have been widely available when you built your house even if that was only a few years ago. Cost-effectiveness depends on several factors, including cost of fuel and materials, efficiency levels of the structure and components, and climate. This booklet offers some general tips to improve the efficiency of your home`s shell and equipment. Additional information on any issue covered in this booklet is available from various agencies within or near your community, including your state energy office, local community action agency, utilities, Red Cross and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offices.

  5. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  6. 8/9/12 Global water sustainability flows through natural and human challenges 1/2www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809141621.htm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lack access to safe drinking water. Water can unleash fury. Floods in Beijing on July 21 overwhelmed8/9/12 Global water sustainability flows through natural and human challenges 1/2www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809141621.htm TweetTweet 14 1 1 Share This: See Also: Earth & Climate Water Drought Research

  7. Petrophysical and Geochemical Properties of Columbia River Flood Basalt: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. C.; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, Jim A.

    2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20%-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multi- well characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  8. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  9. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Oil Saturated Core (Exp#7) ........................... 154 Fig. 4.64 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 1st PV of VW (Exp#7) ...... 155 Fig. 4.65 ? Vertical Slice CT Images of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 1st PV of VW (Exp#7...) ........................................................................................... 157 xiv Fig. 4.68 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 2nd PV of VW (Exp#7) ..... 158 Fig. 4.69 ? Vertical Slice CT Images of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 2nd PV of VW (Exp#7...

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  11. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  12. INTERCHANGE OF STREAM AND INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and intragravel oxygen resupply 2 Transport processes: Stream-intragravel interchange 3 Ground-water oxygen transport 6 Intragravel oxygen balance ' Field verification of the slope-interchange mechanism 8 environmental factors causing mortality, such as floods and freezing (Royce, 1959). Other important factors

  13. Evaluation and Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide Flooding Through Sweep Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Richard

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide displacement is a common improved recovery method applied to light oil reservoirs (30-45{degrees}API). The economic and technical success of CO{sub 2} floods is often limited by poor sweep efficiency or large CO{sub 2} utilization rates. Projected incremental recoveries for CO{sub 2} floods range from 7% to 20% of the original oil in place; however, actual incremental recoveries range from 9% to 15% of the original oil in place, indicating the potential for significant additional recoveries with improved sweep efficiency. This research program was designed to study the effectiveness of carbon dioxide flooding in a mature reservoir to identify and develop methods and strategies to improve oil recovery in carbon dioxide floods. Specifically, the project has focused on relating laboratory, theoretical and simulation studies to actual field performance in a CO{sub 2} flood in an attempt to understand and mitigate problems of areal and vertical sweep efficiency. In this work the focus has been on evaluating the status of existing swept regions of a mature CO{sub 2} flood and developing procedures to improve the design of proposed floods. The Little Creek Field, Mississippi has been studied through laboratory, theoretical, numerical and simulation studies in an attempt to relate performance predictions to historical reservoir performance to determine sweep efficiency, improve the understanding of the reservoir response to CO{sub 2} injection, and develop scaling methodologies to relate laboratory data and simulation results to predicted reservoir behavior. Existing laboratory information from Little Creek was analyzed and an extensive amount of field data was collected. This was merged with an understanding of previous work at Little Creek to generate a detailed simulation study of two portions of the field – the original pilot area and a currently active part of the field. This work was done to try to relate all of this information to an understanding of where the CO{sub 2} went or is going and how recovery might be improved. New data was also generated in this process. Production logs were run to understand where the CO{sub 2} was entering the reservoir related to core and log information and also to corroborate the simulation model. A methodology was developed and successfully tested for evaluating saturations in a cased-hole environment. Finally an experimental and theoretical program was initiated to relate laboratory work to field scale design and analysis of operations. This work found that an understanding of vertical and areal heterogeneity is crucial for understanding sweep processes as well as understanding appropriate mitigation techniques to improve the sweep. Production and injection logs can provide some understanding of that heterogeneity when core data is not available. The cased-hole saturation logs developed in the project will also be an important part of the evaluation of vertical heterogeneity. Evaluation of injection well/production well connectivities through statistical or numerical techniques were found to be as successful in evaluating CO{sub 2} floods as they are for waterfloods. These are likely to be the lowest cost techniques to evaluate areal sweep. Full field simulation and 4D seismic techniques are other possibilities but were beyond the scope of the project. Detailed simulation studies of pattern areas proved insightful both for doing a “post-mortem” analysis of the pilot area as well as a late-term, active portion of the Little Creek Field. This work also evaluated options for improving sweep in the current flood as well as evaluating options that could have been successful at recovering more oil. That simulation study was successful due to the integration of a large amount of data supplied by the operator as well as collected through the course of the project. While most projects would not have the abundance of data that Little Creek had, integration of the available data continues to be critical for both the design and evaluation stages of CO{sub 2} floods. For cases w

  14. CityFIT Urban Guide: Modelling and Deploying indicators of Property Exposure to Flooding in Lagos using LIDAR DEM and DSM data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosuro, Sulaiman

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    application was prototyped for disseminating time-series flood model information and for reporting details of flood events as they occur to serve for model calibration and enhancement, thereby completing the flood modelling lifecycle....

  15. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tucker sand from Hepler field, Crawford County, Kansas, was characterized using routine and advanced analytical methods. The characterization is part of a chemical flooding pilot test to be conducted in the field, which is classified as a DOE Class I (fluvial-dominated delta) reservoir. Routine and advanced methods of characterization were compared. Traditional wireline logs indicate that the reservoir is vertically compartmentalized on the foot scale. Routine core analysis, X-ray computed tomography (CT), minipermeameter measurement, and petrographic analysis indicate that compartmentalization and lamination extend to the microscale. An idealized model of how the reservoir is probably structured (complex layering with small compartments) is presented. There was good agreement among the several methods used for characterization, and advanced characterization methods adequately explained the coreflood and tracer tests conducted with short core plugs. Tracer and chemical flooding tests were conducted in short core plugs while monitoring with CT to establish flow patterns and to monitor oil saturations in different zones of the core plugs. Channeling of injected fluids occurred in laboratory experiments because, on core plug scale, permeability streaks extended the full length of the core plugs. A graphic example of how channeling in field core plugs can affect oil recovery during chemical injection is presented. The small scale of compartmentalization indicated by plugs of the Tucker sand may actually help improve sweep between wells. The success of field-scale waterflooding and the fluid flow patterns observed in highly heterogeneous outcrop samples are reasons to expect that reservoir flow patterns are different from those observed with short core plugs, and better sweep efficiency may be obtained in the field than has been observed in laboratory floods conducted with short core plugs.

  16. FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BV Jump to:FAS Technologies LLC JumpNational Flood

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre) CO{sub 2} demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. Testing of present Colliver lease injection water on Lansing-Kansas City (L-KC) oomoldic rock indicates that injection brine must be filtered to < {approx}3-5 um and <15 um to prevent plugging of rocks with permeability as low as 1 md (millidarcy; 0.001 um2) and 10 md (0.01 um2), respectively. Pressure build-up testing on the Carter-Colliver No.7 well is interpreted to indicate the L-KC reservoir surrounding this well is {approx}9 ft (2.7 m) thick having an average effective water permeability of 25-35 md (0.025-0.035 um2) that is connected to the wellbore by either a high permeability fracture, bed, or region with low skin. Reservoir simulation evaluation of gridcell size effect on model oil recovery prediction indicates that, based on the model prediction of distribution of produced oil and CO{sub 2} volumes, oil recovery is strongly influenced by gravity segregation of CO{sub 2} into the upper higher permeability layers and indicates the strong control that vertical permeability and permeability barriers between depositional flood cycles exert on the CO{sub 2} flooding process. Simulations were performed on modifications of the 60-acre, two-injector pattern to evaluate oil recovery using other large-scale patterns. Simulations indicated that several 73-acre patterns with a single injector located near the Colliver No.7 could provide improved economics without increasing the amount of CO{sub 2} injected. The US Energy Partners ethanol plant in Russell, KS began operations in October ahead of schedule.

  18. Determining the optimal river gauge location for a flood early warning system in Uganda using HEC-RAS and AHP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Joyce, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding of the Manafwa River in Eastern Uganda causes significant damage in the district of Butaleja, and often occurs without advance warning. In 2012, the American Red Cross in Uganda requested MIT to develop a flood ...

  19. Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan By K. L. Rasmussen investigation into three years of anomalous floods in Pakistan provides insight into their formation, unifying for the formation of anomalous easterly midlevel flow across central India into Pakistan that advected deep

  20. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2011 vol 5 no 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2011 vol 5 no 1 Table of Contents Awards for the NFRMP Risk Management Program Judy Soutiere, SPK In October 2011, we celebrate the 2nd anniversary of the guidance establishing the National Flood Risk Management Program in each Division and District of the Corps

  1. Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations) for uncertainty analysis with respect to two major types of risk in river hydrodynamics: flash flood and dam failure. LSA is com- pared to a Global Uncertainty Analysis (GUA) consisting in running Monte Carlo

  2. The Geology and Geography of Floods Jim E. O'Connor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -documented dam-failure floods have been during Pleistocene ice ages when glaciers and changing hydrologic of ice caps and failures of ice and landslide Vlams. The fundamental limits to dam-failure floods of natural dam failures. In this paper, we outline some of the primary factors that influence the magnitude

  3. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes) was tested as a catalyst binder in a microbial fuel cell. 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Anti-flooding Catalyst binder a b s t r a c

  4. Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell BRUNO KIEFFER1, ETHIOPIA 4 DEEPARTEMENT DES SCIENCES DE LA TERRE ET DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT, UNIVERSITEE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES 50 the shield volcanoes. KEY WORDS: Ethiopia; flood basalts; shield volcanism; superswell INTRODUCTION According

  5. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 June 2010 vol 3 no 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . He has also worked in private practice as well as in County and State government. Mr. Rabbon Operations...........2 Workshop on Beach Nourishment Design ..... 8 Who Looks Good in a Silver Jacket reviews; emergency management ­ inspection of completed works program, flood preparedness, and flood

  6. Location-Aided Flooding: An Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination Protocol for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Location-Aided Flooding: An Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination Protocol for Wireless Sensor such as the broadcast storm problem [6]. In this paper, we present an energy-efficient flooding mechanism, termed of battery and, hence, any solution must be energy-efficient. . Self-configuration. Since it is not feasible

  7. Environmental Hazards 2 (2000) 157168 Modeling flooding extent from Hurricane Floyd in the coastal plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Pitt County, North Carolina. The patterns of flood extent derived from the two models were compared of Pitt County, North Carolina. The patterns of flood extent derived from the two models were compared plains of North Carolina Jeffrey D. Colby*, Karen A. Mulcahy, Yong Wang Department of Geography, East

  8. A kinematic wave model for rivers with flood plains and other irregular geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabak, Esteban G.

    A kinematic wave model for rivers with flood plains and other irregular geometries Pablo M. Jacovkis Esteban G. Tabak March 2006 Abstract A general kinematic wave model for flood propagation) This kinematic wave equation, which has been studied by [3], can be derived from the complete system (1, 2) under

  9. An optimal viscosity profile in enhanced oil recovery by polymer flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    An optimal viscosity profile in enhanced oil recovery by polymer flooding Prabir Daripa a,*, G in oil reservoir is one of the effective methods of enhanced (tertiary) oil recovery. A classical model reserved. Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery; Polymer flooding; Linear stability 0020-7225/$ - see front

  10. HighResolution Numerical Methods for MicellarPolymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trangenstein, John A.

    been used to study the micellar­ polymer flooding process in enhanced oil recovery [12], [18], [19 in practical im­ plementation of enhanced oil recovery techniques at this time, there is increasing interestHigh­Resolution Numerical Methods for Micellar­Polymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer

  11. A study of water driven oil encroachment into gas caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritch, Harlan J

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (frequently thin and commonly referred to as an oil rim). Prior to the introduction of sound conservation practices, large quantities of gas were often produced and vented by operators seeking to induce a flow of oil into wells initially productive only.... : "The Prediction of Oil Recovery by Water Flood, " Seconder Recover of Oil in the United States, API (1950), Second Edition, 160. Elliott, J. K. : "The Effect of Initial Gas Content and Distribution on the Residual Gas Content of Cores after Water...

  12. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 125, No. 3, pp. 143-153, May/June 1999 Some Derived Operating Rules for Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    1 Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 125, No. 3, pp. 143-153, May/June 1999 for reservoirs in series and in parallel for water supply, flood control, hydropower, water quality-term operation for hydropower production and energy storage. For reservoirs in parallel, additional new special

  13. Water quality for secondary and tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key element in many secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes is the injection of water into an oil-bearing formation. Water is the fluid which displaces the oil in the pore space of the rock. A successful waterflood requires more than the availability of water and the pumps and piping to inject the water into the formation. It requires an understanding of how water enters the oil bearing formation and what happens once the injected water comes into contact with the rock or sand, the oil, and the water already in the reservoir. Problems in injectivity will arise unless care and constant monitoring are exercised in the water system for a flood operation. This study examines water availability and quality in relation to waterflooding.

  14. ANALYSIS OF PWR SBO CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FLOODING USING THE RISMC TOOLKIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  15. Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications for defending coastal cities from natural weather-caused disasters. It may also be a very cheap method for producing a big amount of cyclical renewable hydropower, land reclamation from the ocean, lakes, riverbanks, as well as land transportation connection of islands, and islands to mainland, instead of very costly over-water bridges and underwater tunnels.

  16. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. The pilot water injection plant became operational 4/18/03 and began long-term injection in the CO2I No.1 on 4/23/03. The CO2I No.1 exhibits sufficient injectivity for pilot requirements with average absolute permeability surrounding this well equal to {approx}85 millidarcies. Response to injection in the CO2I No.1 has established that conductivity between CO2I No.1 and CO2 No.12, No.10, No.18 and TB Carter No.5 is sufficient for the demonstration. Workovers of the CO2 No.16 and CO2 No.13 were completed in April and May, respectively. Pressure response indicates No.16 communicates with the flood pattern area but core, swab-test, and pressure response data indicate permeability surrounding No.16 is not adequate to maintain the production rates needed to support the original pattern as the well is presently completed. Decisions concerning possible further testing and stimulation have been postponed until after testing of the No.13 is complete. Production rates for the No.13 are consistent with a surrounding reservoir average absolute permeability of {approx}80 md. However, pressure and rate tests results, partially due to the nature of the testing conducted to date, have not confirmed the nature of the CO2I No.1-CO2 No.13 conductivity. A build-up test and conductivity test are planned to begin the first weeks of the next quarter to obtain reservoir properties data and establish the connectivity and conductivity between CO2 I-1 and CO2 No.13. A new geomodel of the pattern area has been developed based on core from No.16 and the new wireline logs from the No.10, No.12, No.16, and No.13. The new geomodel is currently being incorporated into the basic calculations of reservoir volume and flood design and predicted response as well as the reservoir simulators. Murfin signed a letter agreement with FLOCO2 of Odessa, TX for supply of CO2 storage and injection equipment. Technology transfer activities have included presentations to the Environmental Protection Agency, Prof. Accountants Soc. of KS, Am. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, and a US Congressional aide staff member. The Associated Press also released a story concerning the project that was picked up by many Kansas newspapers.

  18. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  19. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies the effects of such things as temperature, electrolyte concentration and the effect of different types of electrolytes were taken into consideration.

  20. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of the physical mechanisms of miscible floods are reported. Advanced techniques for analysis of crude oils are considered in Chapter 2. Application of supercritical fluid chromatography is demonstrated for characterization of crude oils for equation-of-state calculations of phase equilibrium. Results of measurements of crude oil and phase compositions by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are also reported. The theory of development of miscibility is considered in detail in Chapter 3. The theory is extended to four components, and sample solutions for a variety of gas injection systems are presented. The analytical theory shows that miscibility can develop even though standard tie-line extension criteria developed for ternary systems are not satisfied. In addition, the theory includes the first analytical solutions for condensing/vaporizing gas drives. In Chapter 4, methods for simulation of viscous fingering are considered. The scaling of the growth of transition zones in linear viscous fingering is considered. In addition, extension of the models developed previously to three dimensions is described, as is the inclusion of effects of equilibrium phase behavior. In Chapter 5, the combined effects of capillary and gravity-driven crossflow are considered. The experimental results presented show that very high recovery can be achieved by gravity segregation when interfacial tensions are moderately low. We argue that such crossflow mechanisms are important in multicontact miscible floods in heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, results of flow visualization experiments are presented that illustrate the interplay of crossflow driven by gravity with that driven by viscous forces.

  1. Characterizing the Hydrology of Shallow Floodplain Lakes in the Slave River Delta, NWT, Canada, Using Water Isotope Tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    , all delta lakes underwent heavy-isotope enrichment due to evaporation, although lakes flooded, Using Water Isotope Tracers Bronwyn E. Brock*{ Brent B. Wolfe*{ and Thomas W. D. Edwards* *Department using water isotope tracers and total suspended sediment (TSS) analyses. A suite of 41 lakes from three

  2. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) .................................................... 203 Fig. 4.110 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.111 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 3 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.112 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core (CGI-Fracked...) ...................................... 204 Fig. 4.113 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI- Fracked) .................................................................................................. 204 Fig. 4.114 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after...

  3. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  4. A correlation between wettability and the recovery of oil by water flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert Thomas

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    formed by placing a second fluid in contact with a solid that has already been in contact with the other fluido Consequently~ the terms advancing and receding angles, as used in this work~ merely serve to denote whether oil or brine was originally...

  5. The Statistical Reservoir Model: calibrating faults and fractures, and predicting reservoir response to water flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    geomechanics to have a significant influence on hydrocarbon production rates through changes in the effective 2004). Geomechanics not only predicts a reservoir response in the near field, but also at long range i

  6. Model studies to investigate the effects of fixed streamlines on water flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Axel Venton

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for advice and assistance in building the equipment for this project and to Mrs' Jeanne Green for typing the thesis' 26 REFERENCES 1 ~ Higgins, R. V. and Leighton, A. J. : "A Computer Method to Calculate Two-Phase Flow in Any Irregularly Bounded Porous...

  7. Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . 30 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0123456789 Channel Length (cm) Abs . V a lue of V o lum e A v e r aged Cur r e nt D e nsity (A /cm 2 ) 10 0.6 A/cm2 0.8 A/cm2 1.2 A/cm2 - Base case 1.5 A/cm2 3.0 A/cm2 Infinite Cathode Overpotential= - 0.5V....3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0123456789 Channel Length (cm) Abs. V a lue of V o lum e A ver aged C u r r e nt D e ns ity (A/ c m 2 ) 10 Dry - Base case 25% Humidified 50% Humidified 75% Humidified 100% Humidified Cathode Overpotential= -0.5V Figure 10...

  8. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of the surge line and steam generator tubes. Currently no satisfactory mechanistic ooding models exist yet, so current safety analysis codes employ empirical correlations to predict ooding. With their default ooding models, the SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP...

  9. Design against nature : flooding, water supply, and public space in Los Angeles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thelander, Max William

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting in the late 19th century, Southern California saw the first of several waves of explosive population growth that have resulted in today's mega-region. While many early settlers were attracted by the city's famous ...

  10. Water balance of Pin-Point and Flush-Flood irrigated rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roel Dellazoppa, Alvaro

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rice. (May 1996) Alvaro Roel Dellazoppa, Ingeniero Agronomo, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. James L. Heilman Appearance of red rice (Oryza Sativa) as the main weed problem in rice production has forced...

  11. The effect of cross flow in a stratified reservoir during a water flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommers, Gordon Edmund

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE August 1970 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECT OF CROSS FLOW IN A STRATIFIED RESERVOIR DURING A WATERFLOOD A Thesis by GORDON EDMUND SOMMERS Approved as to style and content by: (C a'rman of Committee) (Hea of Depart nt...) (Member ) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) August 1970 111 ABSTRACT The Effect of Crossflow in a Stratified Reservoir During a Waterflood. (August 1970) Gordon Edmund Sommers, B. S. , Texas A@M University Directed by: Dr. Joseph S. Osoba...

  12. Flooding The Vote: Hurricane Katrina and Voter Participation in New Orleans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Betsy

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The flooding of New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina resulted in a massive and rapid exodus of individuals from New Orleans to locations around the United States. In the midst of the hurricane recovery, the City of New Orleans ...

  13. PROGRESSION OF STREAMBANK EROSION DURING A LARGE FLOOD, RIO PUERCO ARROYO, NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROGRESSION OF STREAMBANK EROSION DURING A LARGE FLOOD, RIO PUERCO ARROYO, NEW MEXICO Eleanor R includes uplands of north-central New Mexico. The Rio Puerco is the principal source of sediment

  14. Calibration of a Distributed Flood Forecasting Model with Input Uncertainty Using a Bayesian Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Calibration of a Distributed Flood Forecasting Model with Input Uncertainty Using a Bayesian, Berkeley, CA, United States. In the process of calibrating distributed hydrological models, accounting in calibrating GBHM parameters and in estimating their associated uncertainty. The calibration ignoring input

  15. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1980-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  16. FLOODING AND GAS EMISSIONS OF OLD IRON MINES IN LORAIN LAGNY Candice1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    related to abandoned mine workings. This study has been extended to other sectors of the Lorraine basin reservoirs of "Rosselange", Franchepré and "Orne". Then, investigation was made in non-flooded reservoirs

  17. After the flood : crisis, voice and innovation in Maputo's solid waste management sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle (Gabrielle K.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores responses to the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in two neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique in the wake of catastrophic flooding in 2000. In these neighborhoods, small-scale service providers ...

  18. Resource Management Services: Land Use, Part 501: Use of Flood Control Lands (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No regulated activity or development is allowed to take place on lands used for flood control purposes unless a permit is obtained. These regulations describe provisions for the application,...

  19. The effect of surface flooding on the physical-biogeochemical dynamics of a warm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Mark

    Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia Abstract Warm core eddies (WCEs) formed from the East suggest that EAC WCEs with relatively shallow surface flooding contain more phy- toplankton biomass than

  20. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.S.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1982-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  1. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., James S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Westmoreland, Clyde G. (Rockwood, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  2. Flooding of the continental shelves as a contributor to deglacial CH4 rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Flooding of the continental shelves as a contributor to deglacial CH4 rise ANDY RIDGWELL,1 MARK of the continental shelves that were exposed and vegetated during the glacial sea-level low stand and that can help

  3. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. On September 27, 2002 the US DOE approved the proposed modified plan to flood a 10+-acre pattern. On November 1, 2002 Murfin Drilling Company purchased the 70-acre pilot area and will continue as the operator of the pilot. Murfin is seeking working interest partners and meetings with local small independents were conducted. To date, White Eagle Resources and John O. Farmer Oil Company have committed to working interest in the project. Arrangements have been made with Rein Operating to test the Rein No. 7 water supply well on the neighboring lease. Based on review of wellbore conditions in the Colliver No. 9 and No. 16 it has been decided to use the No. 16 in the pilot. A new tank battery was installed near the Colliver No. 10 well and the existing producers plumbed to the new tank battery to isolate production from the pilot area. Reservoir simulations have indicated that the low-permeability interval in the Carter-Colliver CO2I No. 1 injection well below 2,900 ft does not exhibit sufficient injectivity to warrant special stimulation or conformance treatment programs at the present time. Discussions have been initiated with FLOCO2 and preliminary conditions have been agreed upon for the exchange of CO2 for the use of storage and pump equipment at the pilot. A short-term injection test and the well reworks have been scheduled. Proposed modifications to the project plan were reviewed in the previous quarterly technical progress report. A presentation was given at the DOE Class II Review Meeting in Midland, TX on December 12, 2002.

  5. MONITORING PRESENT DAY CHANGES IN WATER VAPOUR AND THE RADIATIVE ENERGY BALANCE USING SATELLITE DATA,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    precipitation events are expected to exert an adverse effect on agriculture, water resources, human health in the total area affected by drought and the flood risk associated with increased frequency of heavy of droughts. While there is evidence for this response (e.g. Neelin et al., 2006; Seager et al. 2007

  6. Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    'Connor1 Received 2 May 2008; revised 13 January 2009; accepted 28 January 2009; published 28 March 2009 to flow reductions associated with flood control. We measured flow velocity, water depth, and wind consequences for transport and fate of sediments and energy and nutrient-rich materials, which in turn interact

  7. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, ASCE/EWRI Omaha, Nebraska, May 21 26, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, ASCE/EWRI Omaha, Nebraska, May 21 ­ 26, 2006 1 Integrated Watershed Management Robert Pitt1 1 Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental damage from increased flooding and drainage system failures. · Habitat destruction caused by frequent

  8. TRANSPORT AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA PROPERITIES FOR STEAM FLOODING OF HEAVY OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon/water and CO{sub 2} systems are frequently found in petroleum recovery processes, petroleum refining, and gasification of coals, lignites and tar sands. Techniques to estimate the phase volume and phase composition are indispensable to design and improve oil recovery processes such as steam, hot water, or CO{sub 2}/steam combinations of flooding techniques typically used for heavy oils. An interdisciplinary research program to quantify transport, PVT, and equilibrium properties of selected oil/CO{sub 2}/water mixtures at pressures up to 10,000 psia and at temperatures up to 500 F has been put in place. The objectives of this research include experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, and volumetric properties of hydrocarbon/CO{sub 2}/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils. Highlighting the importance of phase behavior, researchers ([1], and [2]) insist on obtaining truly representative reservoir fluids samples for experimental analysis. The prevailing sampling techniques used for compositional analysis of the fluids have potential for a large source of error. These techniques bring the sample to atmospheric conditions and collect the liquid and vapor portion of the samples for further analysis. We developed a new experimental technique to determine phase volumes, compositions and equilibrium K-values at reservoir conditions. The new methodology is able to measure phase volume and composition at reservoir like temperatures and pressures. We use a mercury free PVT system in conjunction with a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph capable of measuring compositions on line at high pressures and temperatures. This is made possible by an essentially negligible disturbance of the temperature and pressure equilibrium during phase volume and composition measurements. In addition, not many samples are withdrawn for compositional analysis because a negligible volume (0.1 {micro}l to 0.5 {micro}l) is sent directly to the gas chromatograph through sampling valves. These amounts are less than 1 x 10{sup -5} % of total volume and do not affect the overall composition or equilibrium of the system. A new method to compute multi-component phase equilibrium diagrams based on an improved version of the Peng-Robinson equation has been developed [3]. This new version of the Peng-Robinson equation uses a new volume translation scheme and new mixing rules to improve the accuracy of the calculations. Calculations involving multicomponent mixtures of CO{sub 2}/water and hydrocarbons have been completed. A scheme to lump multi-component materials such as, oils into a small set of ''pseudo-components'' according to the technique outlined by Whitson [4] has been implemented. This final report presents the results of our experimental and predicted phase behavior diagrams and calculations for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/water and real oils at high pressures and temperatures.

  9. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  10. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex; French, W. Todd

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine if the effectiveness of a microbial permeability profile modification technique can be improved through polymer flooding.

  11. South African Association of Geomorphologists, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2000 Flood plain formation in semi-arid central Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourke, Mary C.

    South African Association of Geomorphologists, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2000 Flood plain of sediment waves and the close succession of a series of high-energy overbank flows contribute

  12. Institutional considerations in reallocation and transfer of water resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaman, Bill Joseph

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of reservoirs change, reafiocation of storage sometimes becomes more attractive. The conditions that affect reservoir operation, the agencies involved in reservoir management, the laws that apply to reservoir operations, and types of storage reallocations... construction to managing flood plain use, water demand management, and optimizing the operation of existing facilities As discussed earlier, various reservoir purposes can be conflicting or complementary. For instance, the purposes of conservation storage...

  13. Meal Preparation and Food Safety During and After a Flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature water. Air dry before opening. Or you can sanitize dishes, glassware, metal pans and utensils. s Hand can opener. s Battery-powered radio. s Extra batteries. s Camp stove or other emergency cooking

  14. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  15. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  16. The displacement of gas by oil in the presence of connate water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dardaganian, Stephen Garabed

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mixed stream of oil and gas. The mobile gas phase established within the core was then dis- placed by an oil flood. The assumption was made that the residual gas saturation within the oil bank would be the same as that which would occur within a... water bank resulting from a waterflood. The results indicate that the residual gas saturation within and behind the oil bank increases as the gas saturation prior to the flood increases. The relationship between the initial and residual gas...

  17. Changes in Flood Management along the Pajaro River: A Transition to Watershed Management Approaches and Lessons from the Water Framework Directive and Flood Directive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagger, Stacie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    human actions causing environmental damage and the full-costand include the environmental damage and recovery costs (

  18. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  19. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  20. Chemical reactions of UF{sub 6} with water on ingress to damaged model 48X 10 ton cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothman, A.B.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry studies of the effects of water flooding in Model 48X 10-ton UF{sub 6} storage cylinders, as a result of impact fractures, were conducted to support the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review of the Paducah Tiger Overpack for transportation of those cylinders. The objectives of the study were to determine the maximum amount of water that could be admitted to the interior of such a damaged cylinder, the resulting geometries and chemical compositions from reactions of water with the UF{sub 6} contents of the cylinder, and the end-state water moderated and reflected configurations for input to nuclear criticality safety analyses. The case identified for analysis was the flooding of the inside of a cylinder, submerged horizontally in 3 ft of water. The flooding was driven by an initial pressure drop of 13 psig, through an assumed fracture (1/32 in. wide {times} 1/2 in. deep {times} 18 in. long) in the barrel of the cylinder. During the initial addition of water, transient back pressures occur from the effects of the heats of reaction and solution at the water/UF{sub 6} interface, with some chugging as more water is added to alternately coot the reaction surface and then heat it again as the added water reacts with more UF{sub 6}.

  1. Effects of the Georgia flood of `94 on Lake Blackshear Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findlay, R.C.; Northrop, J.H. [Northrop, Devine & Tarbell, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); Crisp, R.L. Jr. [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tropical Storm Alberto produced record rainfall in central Georgia in early July, 1994. The area drains into Lake Blackshear, formed in the Flint River by Lake Blackshear Dam. The level of the lake rose 3.5 m (11.5 ft) above normal and caused the worst flooding of the area in recorded history. The north embankment of the dam was overtopped, causing a 215 m (700 ft) breach. Prior to the breach, a few concentrated boils were observed in the tailwater downstream of the non-breached portion of the dam. This portion remained intact through the flood, but the presence of the boils raised questions regarding its integrity. The effects of the flood on the north embankment are discussed, as well as the geotechnical investigation conducted to assess subsurface conditions at the breach and intact portions and the plan for remediation.

  2. Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean continental drift and the oldest known

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean in the Nullagine Synclinorium (and Meentheena Centrocline) of the East Pilbara Basin, Western Australia, has been. Langereis, Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean

  3. A graphical method to study suspended sediment dynamics during flood events in the Wadi Sebdou, NW Algeria (19732004)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A graphical method to study suspended sediment dynamics during flood events in the Wadi Sebdou, NW sediment concentration Semiarid watershed Flood Wadi Algeria s u m m a r y Small sub-basins are numerous period (1973­2004) was analyzed at the outlet of the Wadi Sebdou basin (256 km2 ) in northwest Algeria

  4. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  5. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  6. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmeltzer, J. S., Millier, J. J., Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  7. Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 313321 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks 313 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 313321 (2005) © EGU Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial Artificial neural networks (ANNs) provide a quick and flexible means of developing flood flow simulation

  8. Criteria for displacement by gas versus water in oil reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Larry Dean

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the problem. Croes and SchwarzIp stud1ed the eff1c1ency of water flooding and presented results show1ng effic1ency and water cut as a function of total production for a range of v1scosity rat1os between I and 500. They also used the1r results to compare... of the oil in place at various values of the displac1ng fluid-to-oil ratio (DFOR)* was used as the measure of displacement effic1ency. This procedure was used for two reasons. F1rst, economic limits may be established based on DFOR. Recovery at various...

  9. NOAA, 2012 Climate Prediction Applications Science Workshop (CPASW), Climate Services for Water and other Natural Resources: Abstract Submission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    types of modeling systems, the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction System (ESP) and the Statistical Water observations, verification, climate variability, and climate sensitivity. The NWS began looking at ways resources managers who may schedule hydro power, manage reservoirs, plant crops, and plan for floods

  10. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  11. Building boundary is necessary for the real estate industry, flood management, and homeland security applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jie

    Abstract Building boundary is necessary for the real estate industry, flood management, and homeland security applications. The extraction of building boundary is also a crucial and difficult step, and Purdue University campus are evaluated. Introduction Airborne lidar (light detection and ranging

  12. Floods in Pakistan: Socio-political and 'techno-nature' challenges a first glance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Floods in Pakistan: Socio-political and 'techno-nature' challenges ­ a first glance Urs Geiser 1. Over the coming days, rains continued not only in Northwest Pakistan, but in Baluchistan as well quarter of Pakistan's land area is inundated. The spatial spread of the disaster is well known

  13. ERDC/EL TN-11-1 Flood Risk Management: Insights from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDC/EL TN-11-1 March 2011 Flood Risk Management: Insights from an Expert Modeling Process by M. D preparedness planning that harmonizes efforts of implementing agencies and stakeholders. Risk management are essential for effective risk management policy. Formal (versus ad hoc) analyses of risk manager and stake

  14. Culvert Design for Flood Routing considering Sediment Transport W.J. Rahmeyer PhD.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    Culvert Design for Flood Routing considering Sediment Transport W.J. Rahmeyer PhD.1 and W routing methodologies do not consider sediment bed-load transport through the culverts or pipelines of road crossings. Many practitioners either ignore the transport of sediment through a culvert or assume

  15. Calibration of a distributed flood forecasting model with input uncertainty using a Bayesian framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Calibration of a distributed flood forecasting model with input uncertainty using a Bayesian; revised 20 June 2012; accepted 28 June 2012; published 15 August 2012. [1] In the process of calibrating that the developed method generally is effective in calibrating GBHM parameters and in estimating their associated

  16. Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Received 6 May 2005 Availble online 7 February 2006 Abstract The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago dam-failure and unsteady flow modeling to estimate a peak discharge and flow hydrograph. FailurePeak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R

  17. 7200 years of Rho^ne river flooding activity in Lake Le Bourget, France: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    -level fluctuations. While the intensity of the MS signal might be widely affected by the human impact on soil conditions in the NW Alps. Key words: River discharge, floods, palaeohydrology, climate, human impact). In order to understand these natural oscillations and then to compare them to modern human-induced `global

  18. CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - The Westphalian deposit is constituted by numerous exploited coal seams of different thicknesses. These seamsCO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area Candice Lagnya, a former coal mining area. To understand the origin of this production, a borehole of 90 meters deep

  19. High-speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    High-speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack Yoohwan Kim',Ju-Yeon Jo', H during the Distributed Denial-oJService (DDoS) attack. By allocating bandwidths separately for TCP.9% of the attack trafic while legitimate traflc showed nearly identical performance as in the non-attacked

  20. High-Speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merat, Francis L.

    1 High-Speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack Yoohwan Kim1 , Ju-Yeon Jo1 Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 ABSTRACT Protection from Distributed Denial-of-Service attacks has been of a great interest recently and substantial progress has been made for preventing some attack

  1. ach year across the US, mesoscale weather events--flash floods, tornadoes, hail,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plale, Beth

    E ach year across the US, mesoscale weather events--flash floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds of mesoscale weather research; its disparate, high-volume data sets and streams; or the tremendous urgent need for a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology--particularly one

  2. HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON HIGHLANDS, Malaysia 4 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, USA ABSTRACT: Hydropower as possible for daily hydropower generation as well as to prevent any spillage at dam. However

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF REAL TIME FLOOD PREDICTION CAPABILITIES IN PUERTO RICO TO EVALUATE UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    DEVELOPMENT OF REAL TIME FLOOD PREDICTION CAPABILITIES IN PUERTO RICO TO EVALUATE UNCERTAINTIES of Electrical and Computer Engineering 1,2,3 University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez Abstract Due to the complex terrain and the tropical influence, Puerto Rico is characterized by small watersheds, high rainfall

  4. Impact of Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Wireless Ad hoc Networks: Model and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Wireless Ad hoc Networks: Model and Analysis Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr Emmanuel Baccelli INRIA, France Emmanuel.Baccelli@inria.fr Abstract--Jitter. This paper investigates on the impact of the standardized jitter mechanism on network-wide packet

  5. The Impact of Climate Change on Hurricane Flooding Inundation, Property Damages, and Population Affected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Ashley E.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bret Low Estimate 2030 ... 58 19 Flood Building Loss Estimation ................................................................. 61 xiii FIGURE...) studied historical shoreline changes in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to sea level, hurricanes and other strong storms can also greatly affect the morphology of barrier islands. This has been a popular topic of research in the past few years...

  6. FLUID DYNAMICAL AND MODELING ISSUES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    FLUID DYNAMICAL AND MODELING ISSUES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Prabir Daripa developed flows in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In a recent exhaustive study [Transport in Porous Media, 93 fluid flows that occur in porous media during tertiary dis- placement process of chemical enhanced oil

  7. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise Jochen Hinkela,1st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range- ment and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four

  8. Preferential transport of nitrate to a tile drain in an intermittent-flood-irrigated field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Preferential transport of nitrate to a tile drain in an intermittent-flood-irrigated field: Model measured NO3 flux concentrations in a subsurface tile drain, several monitoring wells and nested reasonably well. However, NO3 flux concentrations in the subsurface tile drain and piezometers at the field

  9. Multicriteria design of rain gauge networks for flash flood prediction in semiarid catchments with complex terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troch, Peter

    events. Using weather radar observations and a dense network of 40 tipping bucket rain gauges, this studyMulticriteria design of rain gauge networks for flash flood prediction in semiarid catchments. [1] Despite the availability of weather radar data at high spatial (1 km2 ) and temporal (5­15 min

  10. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  11. Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdfInactive JumpFirst WindWaterFloating

  12. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  13. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  14. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  15. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  16. Development of a HEC-HMS model to inform river gauge placement for a flood early warning system in Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaatz, Joel Alan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Communities in the downstream region of the Manafwa River Basin in eastern Uganda experience floods caused by heavy precipitation upstream. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has partnered with the Red Cross ...

  17. Risk prevention and policy formulation : responding to the 1999 mud-floods catastrophe in El Litoral Central, Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parisca-Blanco, Sonia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifteen days of constant and intense rainfall in Venezuela culminated on December 16 1999, in catastrophic landslides and flooding along 25 miles of the Vargas State coastal strip. This catastrophe ravaged the Caracas ...

  18. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  19. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  20. Simulation Study to Investigate the Effect of Natural Fractures on the Performance of Surfactant-Polymer Flood in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayedakram, Nawaf Ibrahim A

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    (Salehi 5 - 1? BN (>5) is -current of , 1999). -surfactant , 2009). 6 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research is to study the effect of natural fractures on surfactant polymer flood (SPF... SIMULATION STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF NATURAL FRACTURES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOOD IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by NAWAF IBRAHIM A. SAYEDAKRAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  2. Dambreak flood analyses and emergency action plan: West branch and main stem of the Penobscot River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingert, R. [Northrop, Devine, & Tarbell, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); Paul, W. [Great Northern Paper Co., Millinocket, ME (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1994, Great Northern Paper (GNP) updated the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) for their hydro system on the Penobscot River in northern Maine. The EAP update incorporated results of dam failure analyses conducted to determine the extent of flooding resulting from the postulated failure of GNP dams under Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions with the implementation of current operation and emergency response procedures. GNP hydro operators, in consultation with public safety agencies, reorganized and modified the EAP to make it easier to use by the actual planholders, thus improving its overall effectiveness. A key for the effectiveness of the EAP update was the development of new notification maps using the ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS).

  3. Analysis of core-concrete interaction event with flooding for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses salient aspects of the methodology, assumptions, and modeling of various features related to estimation of source terms from an accident involving a molten core-concrete interaction event (with and without flooding) in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various containment configurations are considered for this postulated severe accident. Several design features (such as rupture disks) are examined to study containment response during this severe accident. Also, thermal-hydraulic response of the containment and radionuclide transport and retention in the containment are studied. The results are described as transient variations of source terms, which are then used for studying off-site radiological consequences and health effects for the support of the Conceptual Safety Analysis Report for ANS. The results are also to be used to examine the effectiveness of subpile room flooding during this type of severe accident.

  4. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  5. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  6. Conditional Reliability, Sub-Monthly Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, A.A.; Olmos, H.E.; Hoffpauir, R.J.; Wurbs, R.A.

    .................................................................... 9 2.1 Conditional Reliability CR Record ................................................................................. 14 2.2 Beginning of SIM Output CRM File for the CRM Example .......................................... 25 2.3 TABLES Input... record field 9 to provide beginning reservoir storage for program SALT and TABLES 5CR2 record routines root1.SUB SIMD sub-monthly time step simulation results root1.FFA SIMD flood frequency analysis file with annual series of peak flow and storage...

  7. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2002. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre, 24.3 ha) CO2 demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. In addition, evaluation of the economics of commercial application in the surrounding area was performed. In a meeting on January 14, 2002 the possibility of staging the demonstration, starting with a 10-acre sub-pattern flood was raised and the decision made to investigate this plan in detail. The influence of carbon dioxide on oil properties and the influence of binary interaction parameters (BIP) used in the VIP simulator were investigated. VIP calculated swelling factors are in good agreement with published values up to 65% mole-fraction CO2. Swelling factor and saturated liquid density are relatively independent of the BIP over the range of BIPs used (0.08-0.15) up to 65% mole-fraction CO2. Assuming a CO2 EOR recovery rate projected as being most likely by current modeling, commercial scale CO2 flooding at $20/BO is possible in the leases in Hall-Gurney field. Relatively small floods (240-320 acres, 4-6 patterns) are economically viable at $20/BO in areas of very high primary and secondary productivity (>14 MBO/net acre recovery). Leases with moderately high primary and secondary productivity (> 10 MBO/net acre recovery) can be economic when combined with high productivity leases to form larger floods (>640 acres, 9 or more patterns).

  8. The development of a flood routing model for the flow analyses of mine tailings materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokohl, Don Richard

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FLOOD ROUTING MODEL FOR THE FLOW ANALYSES OF MINE TAILINGS MATERIALS A Thesis DON RICHARD ROKOHL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PLOOD ROUTING MODEL POR THE FLOW ANALTSES OF MINE TAILINGS MATERIALS A Thesis by DON RICHARD ROKOHL Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle (Co...

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2002 to September 30, 2002. On September 27, 2002 the US DOE approved the proposed modified plan to flood a 10+-acre pattern. MV Energy has received informal notification that GE Capital will approve sale of the portion of the Colliver lease involved in the pilot. Murfin Drilling Company is seeking local small independent partners for the pilot and has received commitment from White Eagle Energy and John O. Farmer Oil Company to date. A Contract was signed between the Kansas Department of Commerce & Housing and Murfin formalizing the KSDOC&H contribution of $88,000 to the pilot project. This money will be used for well rework and testing. The results of this small flood will be used to evaluate the viability of performing a larger-scale demonstration and will be used by the partners to decide their role in a larger-scale demonstration. The 10+-acre pattern requires the least up-front expense to all parties to obtain the data required to accurately assess the viability and economics of CO2 flooding in the L-KC and of a larger-scale demonstration. Proposed modifications to the project plan were reviewed in the previous quarterly technical progress report.

  10. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrel Schmitz; Lewis Brown F. Leo Lynch; Brenda Kirkland; Krystal Collins; William Funderburk

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115?C (239?F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66?C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 ?m diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly extends the number of oil fields in which MPPM can be implemented.

  11. Evaluating the purity of a {sup 57}Co flood source by PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiFilippo, Frank P., E-mail: difilif@ccf.org [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Flood sources of {sup 57}Co are commonly used for quality control of gamma cameras. Flood uniformity may be affected by the contaminants {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co, which emit higher energy photons. Although vendors specify a maximum combined {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co activity, a convenient test for flood source purity that is feasible in a clinical environment would be desirable. Methods: Both {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co emit positrons with branching 19.6% and 14.9%, respectively. As is known from {sup 90}Y imaging, a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is capable of quantitatively imaging very weak positron emission in a high single-photon background. To evaluate this approach, two {sup 57}Co flood sources were scanned with a clinical PET/CT multiple times over a period of months. The {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co activity was clearly visible in the reconstructed PET images. Total impurity activity was quantified from the PET images after background subtraction of prompt gamma coincidences. Results: Time-of-flight PET reconstruction was highly beneficial for accurate image quantification. Repeated measurements of the positron-emitting impurities showed excellent agreement with an exponential decay model. For both flood sources studied, the fit parameters indicated a zero intercept and a decay half-life consistent with a mixture of {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co. The total impurity activity at the reference date was estimated to be 0.06% and 0.07% for the two sources, which was consistent with the vendor’s specification of <0.12%. Conclusions: The robustness of the repeated measurements and a thorough analysis of the detector corrections and physics suggest that the accuracy is acceptable and that the technique is feasible. Further work is needed to validate the accuracy of this technique with a calibrated high resolution gamma spectrometer as a gold standard, which was not available for this study, and for other PET detector models.

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2002 to September 30, 2002. Assessment of the demonstration site has defined many aspects of the reservoir. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre, 24.3 ha) CO2 demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. Further analysis of the pilot site by the partners has indicated that a staged demonstration is considered optimal. A phased approach to implementation of the demonstration is proposed to reduce the risk of uncertainties as to whether the reservoir has basic properties (connectivity and ability to pressure-up) conducive to a meaningful CO2 flood demonstration. The proposed plan is to flood a 10+-acre pattern. The results of this small flood will be used to evaluate the viability of performing a larger-scale ({approx}60-acre) demonstration and will be used by the partners to decide their role in a larger-scale demonstration. The 10+-acre pattern requires the least up-front expense to all parties to obtain the data required to accurately assess the viability and economics of CO2 flooding in the L-KC and of a larger-scale demonstration. In general, the following significant modifications to the original Statement of Work are proposed: (1) The proposed plan would extend the period of Budget Period 1 to May 7, 2003. (2) Redefine the period of Budget Period 2 from 3/7/01-3/7/05 to 5/7/03-3/7/08. (3) Redefine the period of Budget Period 3 from 3/7/05-3/7/06 to 3/7/08-3/7/09. (4) To allow initial verification of the viability of the process before proceeding into the flood demonstration, move activities involved with preparing wells in the flood pattern (Task 5.1), repressurizing the pattern (Task 5.2), and constructing surface facilities (Task 5.3) from Budget Period 2 to Budget Period 1. (5) Allow US Energy Partners (USEP) to be a supplier of carbon dioxide from the ethanol plant in Russell, Kansas. (6) Change the pilot flood pattern, including the number and location of wells involved in the pilot. (7) Expenses are shifted from Budget Period 2 to Budget Period 1 to cover costs of additional reservoir characterization. All modified activities and tasks would maintain the existing required industry match of 55% in Budget Period 1, 65% in Budget Period 2, and 90% in Budget Period 3. Carbon dioxide supplied by the USEP ethanol facility would be valued such that the total cost of CO2 delivered to the demonstration site injection wellhead would not exceed the $3.00/MCF cost of supplying CO2 from Guymon, OK. Total cost of the modified project is $4,415,300 compared with $5,388,064 in the original project. The modified project would require no additional funding from US DOE.

  13. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  14. High temperature hot water distribution system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA0l-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: * Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. * Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  15. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  16. Oklahoma City Flash Flood Event, 31 May -1 June 2013 Annual Exceedance Probabilities (AEPs) for Worst Case 4-hour and 6-hour Rainfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma City Flash Flood Event, 31 May - 1 June 2013 Annual Exceedance Probabilities (AEPs HOLDENVILLEHOLDENVILLE MIDWEST CITYMIDWEST CITY OKLAHOMA CITYOKLAHOMA CITY Hydrometeorological Design Studies Center

  17. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  18. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  19. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  20. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  1. An urban infill : a residual site in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savvides, Andreas L. (Andreas Loucas)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is concerned with the treatment of residual sites in the context of the urban environment and in particular with the wounds inflicted by the passage of the Massachusetts Turnpike through the city of Boston. The ...

  2. Engineered Infills for Concrete K.A. Snyder (Editor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    .............................................................................. 12 2.2.1Nuclear Facility Decommissioning and Closures

  3. Economic analysis of waterflood infill drilling in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reviere, Randall Hooge

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    becomes incremental oil. There are three comnon techniques used for production scheduling: material balance equations, reservoir simulation, and decline curves. Material balance equations have modest data requirements, but certain crucial information... to understand the relation of well spacing to ultimate recovery. Cutler tentatively proposed "that the ultimate production for wells of equal size in the same pool where there is interference (shown by a difference in the production-decline curves...

  4. RetroFILL : residual spaces as urban infill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobel, Marika

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In any city there are small slivers and chunks of awkward spaces - in between buildings, occupying edge conditions, not large enough to warrant many forms of traditional use - which can be termed residual. These areas of ...

  5. DOE Tour of Zero: The Charlottesville Infill by Promethean Homes |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrack graphics workDepartment of13 Custom builder TC

  6. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  7. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in Lawrence Field. Geologic and geocellular modeling needed for reservoir characterization and res

  8. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  9. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of depressurization following nuclear testing. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for wells with anthropogenic trends can be large, ranging from several feet to hundreds of feet. Vertical water-level differences at 27 sites in Yucca Flat with multiple open intervals were compared. Large vertical differences were noted in volcanic rocks and in boreholes where water levels were affected by nuclear tests. Small vertical differences were noted within the carbonate-rock and valley-fill aquifers. Vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in volcanic rocks and from pre-Tertiary clastic rocks toward volcanic- or carbonate-rock units.

  10. Grain sorghum response to different flooding periods at the early boot stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zolezzi del Rio, Oscar

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following steps should be considered in this drainage research program: 1. Compile as much of the drainage data as is possible and publish it in one report, 2. Since there are so many parameters that effect drainage, try to work with models to eliminate... of inundations of different lengths at the sensitive early vegetative growth stage have been determined. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine the effects of different lengths of flooding at the other sensitive stage, the early...

  11. Flooded First Street at Y-12 Plant | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorking Outside theFlooded First Street at

  12. An interdisciplinary approach to characterize flash flood occurrence frequency for mountainous Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Theresa Marie Modrick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge anticline, Ventura Basin, southern California, GSAground-water basin, Ventura County, California, WaterA.Trabuco Santa Barbara Ventura SanBernardino Orange Orange

  13. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  14. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.

  15. Discussion of "Development and Verification of an Analytical Solution for Fore-casting Nonlinear Kinematic Flood Waves" by Sergio E. Serrano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Kinematic Flood Waves" by Sergio E. Serrano Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, July/August 2006, Vol. 11, No presents an interesting method to forecast nonlinear kinematic flood waves (Serrano, 2006). As a first to the Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE). The range of time lags for which this analytical solution is applicable being

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  17. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  18. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  19. Processing Woman Creek runoff water by reverse osmosis. [From Rocky Flats oil shale plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.; Dickman, A.A.; Marshall, S.C.; Esquibel, N.S.

    1981-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobil reverse osmosis pilot plant facility was used to evaluate cleanup of surface runoff water from the Rocky Flats Plant. The ability of the reverse osmosis process had been tested previously for removal of chemical of radionuclide contamination that could be picked up in water impounded from flood conditions at the Plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate the ability of pretreatment equipment to remove silt and colloids and to determine if membrane scaling would result. Membrane scaling did take place, and modifications will be needed to improve the pretreatment equipment.

  20. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  1. CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological sequestration of CO2, whether by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery, or saline aquifer injection is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. While tremendous experience exists for EOR, and CBM recovery has been demonstrated in existing fields, saline aquifer injection studies have only recently been initiated. Studies evaluating the availability of saline aquifers suitable for CO2 injection show great potential, however, the long-term fate of the CO2 injected into these ancient aqueous systems is still uncertain. For the subject study, a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests were conducted on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin. By conducting these tests on whole core samples rather than crushed core, an evaluation of the impact of the CO2 flood on the rock mechanics properties as well as the geochemistry of the core and brine solution has been possible. This empirical data could provide a valuable resource for the validation of reservoir models under development for these engineered CO2 systems.

  2. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  3. MODELLING A COASTAL LAKE FOR FLOOD AND QUALITY E. Giusti, S. Marsili-Libelli*, A. Gualchieri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water shortage due to climate changes and by land subsidence. To cope with these adversities a project, when the water level falls below the sea level. This, in addition to representing a water shortage/quality model of the lake and its tributaries to be integrated in a Decision Support System to manage the water

  4. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus afternoon NWRA board of director's meeting. Plains farmers survey their land in western Nebraska, probably

  5. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  6. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  7. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable?2 P. J. Webster*, V.E. Toma and H-M Kim5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Peter J.

    1 1 Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable?2 3 4 P. J. Webster*, V.E. Toma and H-M Kim5 School During July 2010, a series of monsoonal deluges over northern Pakistan resulted in25 catastrophic31 July deluges, especially in North Pakistan was exceptionally rare as deduced from limited32 data

  9. Proceedings of the 1998 USCOLD Annual Lecture, Buffalo, New York. August 1998 A FRAMEWORK FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTREME FLOODS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    on the probability of dam failure and the severity of the incremental consequences of dam failure. Past practice also FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTREME FLOODS FOR DAM SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENTS Robert E. Swain 1 , David Bowles 2 , and Dean extensive use of quantitative risk assessment in support of dam safety decision making (Von Thun and Smart

  10. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  11. Water Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm On December 12, 2014, in Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water...

  13. Water Management Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

  14. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  15. Field results of the polymer flooding pilot project in eastern Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCauley, R.T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moran field in Allen County, Kans., has been producing since the early 1900s. Flooding became the principal means of production in this pool in 1957. Inexco purchased the Moran field in 1968. In June of 1975, Inexco Oil Co. initiated a Polymer Pilot Project on the Kreiger Lease in the Moran field. In March of 1977, this project was expanded from it's original 20 acres to a 126-acre project. This case history addresses the financial and technical success of this project and is considered significant in terms of the future of enhanced recovery projects in this type of reservoir. Inexco has demonstrated the feasibility and successful recovery of additional oil from the Moran Pool by means of the addition of polymer to the existing waterflood. This work describes the operations and interpretation of the results.

  16. Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicol, David M [UNIV OF IL; Jin, Dong [UNIV OF IL

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

  17. Drinking Water Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  18. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  19. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined. Solids of relevant mineralogy and a multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes.

  20. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  1. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  2. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  3. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  4. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses, seismic mapping, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation indicate a lithologic and structural component to excessive in situ water permeability. Higher formation water salinity was found to be a good pay indicator. Thus spontaneous potential (SP) and resistivity ratio approaches combined with accurate formation water resistivity (Rw) information may be underutilized tools. Reservoir simulation indicates significant infill potential in the demonstration area. Macro natural fracture permeability was determined to be a key element affecting both gas and water production. Using the reservoir characterization results, we generated strategies for avoidance and mitigation of unwanted water production in the field. These strategies include (1) more selective perforation by improved pay determination, (2) using seismic attributes to avoid small-scale fault zones, and (3) utilizing detailed subsurface information to deliberately target optimally located small scale fault zones high in the reservoir gas column. Tapping into the existing natural fracture network represents opportunity for generating dynamic value. Recognizing the crucial role of stress release in the natural generation of permeability within tight reservoirs raises the possibility of manmade generation of permeability through local confining stress release. To the extent that relative permeabilities prevent gas and water movement in the deep subsurface a reduction in stress around a wellbore has the potential to increase the relative permeability conditions, allowing gas to flow. For this reason, future research into cavitation completion methods for deep geopressured reservoirs is recommended.

  5. Development and verification of simplified prediction models for enhanced oil recovery applications. CO/sub 2/ (miscible flood) predictive model. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, G.W.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening model for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding has been developed consisting of a reservoir model for oil rate and recovery and an economic model. The reservoir model includes the effects of viscous fingering, reservoir heterogeneity, gravity segregation and areal sweep. The economic model includes methods to calculate various profitability indices, the windfall profits tax, and provides for CO/sub 2/ recycle. The model is applicable to secondary or tertiary floods, and to solvent slug or WAG processes. The model does not require detailed oil-CO/sub 2/ PVT data for execution, and is limited to five-spot patterns. A pattern schedule may be specified to allow economic calculations for an entire project to be made. Models of similar architecture have been developed for steam drive, in-situ combustion, surfactant-polymer flooding, polymer flooding and waterflooding. 36 references, 41 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; Compositional flow visualization experiments; Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  7. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; Compositional flow visualization experiments; and Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems. The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2003 to September 30, 2003. Conductivity testing between the CO{sub 2}I No.1 and CO{sub 2} No.13 was performed over the period 08/20/03 through 09/05/03. Observed response in CO{sub 2} 13 production rates to changes in CO{sub 2}I No.1 injection rates are consistent with sufficient permeability between CO{sub 2}I No.1 and CO{sub 2} No.13 for a viable CO{sub 2} flood with a sufficient Process Pore Volume Rate (PPV). Based on the permeabilities near the CO{sub 2} No.16, a 2-producing well pattern has been determined to be optimal but may be changed during the flood depending on the response observed in the CO{sub 2} No.16. Present inter-well test results indicate there is greater permeability architecture complexity than originally predicted and that a low-permeability region or barrier that restricts but does stop flow may exist between the CO{sub 2}I No.1 and the CO{sub 2} No.13. Pilot area repressurization began on 09/05/03, immediately after CO{sub 2}I No.1-CO{sub 2} No.13 conductivity testing was complete, by increasing injection in the CO{sub 2}I No.1, CO{sub 2} No.10, and CO{sub 2} No.18. Adequate reservoir pressure in the portion of the pilot area needed to be above minimum miscibility pressure should be reached in November at which time initial CO{sub 2} injection could begin. It is estimated the 2-producing well, 10+-acre (4.05 ha) producing pattern will produce 18,000-21,000 BO (barrels oil; 2,880-3,360 m{sup 3}). Depending primarily on surface facilities costs, operating expenses, and the price of oil, for the predicted range of oil recovery the pilot is estimated to either break-even or be profitable from this point forward. Final arrangements and agreements for CO{sub 2} supply and delivery are being worked on and will be finalized in the next month.

  9. Jesus L. Rodriguez Lead Water Conservation Officer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    nursery stock is allowed from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., for 10 minutes per zone. Flood irrigation systems are restricted to 8 days per month. Low-volume irrigation, including micro-jet and drip systems and hand.m., for 10 minutes per zone. Flood irrigation systems are restricted to 8 days per month. Low

  10. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  11. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  12. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    of common minerals and contaminants found in Arizona water sources. · Adescriptionofdrinkingwaterregulations...............................................15 2. Properties of Water 2.1 Minerals in Water...............................................23 2.2 Contaminants in Water......................................27 3. Water Quality and Regulations 3.1 Major Water

  13. Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  15. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. [Quarterly report], January 1--April 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient application of miscible floods to heterogeneous reservoirs requires the designer to take advantage of more than one of the physical mechanisms that act and interact to determine displacement performance. In this report, the investigators summarize the interactions of phase behavior, nonuniform flow, and crossflow and based on novel results obtained during the course of their experimental efforts. They suggest design opportunities for application of gas injection to near-miscible recovery processes, to enhanced gravity drainage, and even to fractured reservoirs. To design such processes intelligently, the quantitative scaling of the interplay of phase equilibria, reservoir heterogeneity, viscous fingering and particularly crossflow must be understood. In essence, they propose to make use of crossflow, i.e. transport in the direction transverse to the basic flow direction, to sweep portions of reservoirs that can be reached only very slowly by direct displacement. In this report, the core displacement and flow visualization experiments described suggest that the effects of low interfacial tensions (IFT`s) and gravity can be used to advantage in the design of multicontact miscible displacements for heterogeneous reservoirs, including fractured reservoirs.

  16. Potential Mississippi oil recovery and economic impact from CO sub 2 miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moring, J.A.; Rogers, R.E. (Petroleum Engineering Dept., Mississippi State Univ., MS (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maturing of Mississippi oil reservoirs has resulted in a steady decline in crude oil production in the state. This paper reports that, to evaluate the potential of enhanced recovery processes, particularly in the use of the state's large CO{sub 2} reserves, for arresting this trend, the subject study was performed. A computer data base of over 1315 Mississippi reservoirs was established. All reservoirs were screened for applicability of the carbon dioxide miscible process. With models developed by the National Petroleum Council and DOE, incremental oil that could be produced from the carbon dioxide miscible process was calculated. Under selected economic conditions, carbon dioxide miscible flooding with utilization of carbon dioxide from the state's Norphlet formation (3-7 tcf reserves of high-purity CO{sub 2}) could produce 120 million barrels of incremental oil in Mississippi. Incremental state revenues as a consequence of this production were calculated to be $45 million of severance taxes, $50 million of corporate income taxes, and $60 million of royalty payments, expressed as present values.

  17. Manual on Conditional Reliability, Daily Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP (Draft)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph

    files describing the hydrology and the water management facilities and practices for the river basin or region of concern along with other related information. The programs are connected through input/output files. Certain programs create files... ......................................................................................................... 245 LIST OF FIGURES 2.1 System Schematic for the Example ................................................................................. 22 3.1 Stream Flow Hydrograph and Water Management Targets...

  18. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of transportation, urban blight, agricultural practices, land use, etc. Water resources problems often result fromWATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING formulate sound policy without a good deal of knowledge not presently available. Without adequate models

  19. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  20. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

  1. Conceptual design of a pressure tube light water reactor with variable moderator control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachamin, R.; Fridman, E. [Reactor Safety Div., Inst. of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Galperin, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the development of innovative pressure tube light water reactor with variable moderator control. The core layout is derived from a CANDU line of reactors in general, and advanced ACR-1000 design in particular. It should be stressed however, that while some of the ACR-1000 mechanical design features are adopted, the core design basics of the reactor proposed here are completely different. First, the inter fuel channels spacing, surrounded by the calandria tank, contains a low pressure gas instead of heavy water moderator. Second, the fuel channel design features an additional/external tube (designated as moderator tube) connected to a separate moderator management system. The moderator management system is design to vary the moderator tube content from 'dry' (gas) to 'flooded' (light water filled). The dynamic variation of the moderator is a unique and very important feature of the proposed design. The moderator variation allows an implementation of the 'breed and burn' mode of operation. The 'breed and burn' mode of operation is implemented by keeping the moderator tube empty ('dry' filled with gas) during the breed part of the fuel depletion and subsequently introducing the moderator by 'flooding' the moderator tube for the 'burn' part. This paper assesses the conceptual feasibility of the proposed concept from a neutronics point of view. (authors)

  2. Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water...

  3. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  4. Water Rights (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

  5. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  6. Lawn Water Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  7. Water Quality Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Quality Act establishes water conservation and protection, as well as the prevention, abatement, and control of water pollution, as the policy of the state of Montana. The Act establishes...

  8. Review: Globalization of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

  9. Lawn Water Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  10. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of California’s Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

  11. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power plants, water withdrawals for electricity generationelectricity generation in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric power plantsplant with CCS technologies requires roughly 1,000 gallons of water for every megawatt-hour of electricity generation (

  12. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. Abstract: The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling...

  13. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

  14. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold water to the water heater and hot water from the waterinduced draft water heaters, water heaters with flue designsInput Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tank

  15. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

  16. Report on Produced Water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    purposes include water for hydraulic fracturing at oil and gas sites, water for power generation, dust control, and fire control. To initiate production Johnston et al....

  17. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requires water for land reclamation and revegetation (2).energy from coal. Land reclamation and coal burning tomain water uses are for land reclamation and revegetation.

  18. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  19. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection Obeying Environmental Laws Individual Permit Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm...

  20. Water Quality Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the minimum water quality requirements for all surface waters of the state.

  1. Drinking Water Problems: Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  2. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  3. Sandia Energy - Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Security Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Water Infrastructure Security Water Infrastructure...

  4. Design and implementation of a CO2 flood utilizing advanced reservoirs characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching water floods depletion: Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S., Casteel, J.F.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  5. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  6. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  7. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, water flood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Through technology transfer workshops and other present at ions, the knowledge gained in the comparative study of these two fields can then be applied to increase product ion from the more than 100 other Delaware Mountain Group reservoirs.

  8. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fixtures Market Overview: Water Savings Potential forNew Jersey. American Water Works Association ResearchResidential End Uses of Water (REUWS). 1999. American Water

  9. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11/11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  10. Forestry and Water -An Update on Water Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the freshwater environment Implementing good practice Halladale: Turbidity 01.01.1995 - 01.01.2011 0 2 4 6 8 10;17/11/116 Demonstrating how the integrated application of a range of land management practices can help reduce flood risk Agricultural production -£1,113 -£911 -£306 Forestry Costs -£710 -£539 -£369 Net Present Value £906 £4,379 £9

  11. Seepage flow-stability analysis of the riverbank of Saigon river due to river water level fluctuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oya, A; Hiraoka, N; Fujimoto, M; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saigon River, which flows through the center of Ho Chi Minh City, is of critical importance for the development of the city as forms as the main water supply and drainage channel for the city. In recent years, riverbank erosion and failures have become more frequent along the Saigon River, causing flooding and damage to infrastructures near the river. A field investigation and numerical study has been undertaken by our research group to identify factors affecting the riverbank failure. In this paper, field investigation results obtained from multiple investigation points on the Saigon River are presented, followed by a comprehensive coupled finite element analysis of riverbank stability when subjected to river water level fluctuations. The river water level fluctuation has been identified as one of the main factors affecting the riverbank failure, i.e. removal of the balancing hydraulic forces acting on the riverbank during water drawdown.

  12. Ex-vessel melt-coolant interactions in deep water pool: Studies and accident management for Swedish BWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Chu, C.C.; Spencer, B.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Frid, W. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Loewenhielm, G. (Vattenfall AB, Vaellingby (Sweden))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Swedish BWRs having an annular suppression pool, the lower drywell beneath the reactor vessel is flooded with water to mitigate against the effects of melt release into the drywell during a severe accident. The THIRMAL code has been used to analyze the effectiveness of the water pool to protect lower drywell penetrations by fragmenting and quenching the melt as it relocates downward through the water. Experiments have also been performed to investigate the benefits of adding surfactants to the water to reduce the likelihood of fine-scale debris formation from steam explosions. This paper presents an overview of the accident management approach and surfactant investigations together with results from the THIRMAL analyses.

  13. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of gas injection processes are reported. The research examines how the physical mechanisms at work during a gas injection project interact to determine process performance. In particular, the authors examine: the interactions of equilibrium phase behavior and two-phase flow that determine local displacement efficiency and minimum miscibility pressure, the combined effects of viscous fingering, gravity segregation and heterogeneity that control sweep efficiency in 2- and 3-dimensional porous media, the use of streamtube/streamline methods to create very efficient simulation technique for multiphase compositional displacements, the scaling of viscous, capillary and gravity forces for heterogeneous reservoirs, and the effects of the thin films and spreading behavior on three-phase flow. The following key results are documented: rigorous procedures for determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) or minimum miscibility enrichment (MME) for miscibility have been developed for multicomponent systems; the complex dependence of MMP`s for nitrogen/methane floods on oil and injection gas composition observed experimentally is explained for the first time; the presence of layer-like heterogeneities strongly influences the interplay of gravity segregation and viscous fingering, as viscous fingers adapt to preferential flow paths and low permeability layers restrict vertical flow; streamtube/streamline simulation techniques are demonstrated for a variety of injection processes in 2 and 3 dimensions; quantitative scaling estimates for the transitions from capillary-dominated to gravity-dominated to viscous-dominated flows are reported; experimental results are given that demonstrate that high pressure CO{sub 2} can be used to generate low IFT gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs if fractures are suitably connected; and the effect of wetting and spreading behavior on three-phase flow is described. 209 refs.

  14. Origin of Scale-Dependent Dispersivity and Its Implications For Miscible Gas Flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Bryant; Russ Johns; Larry Lake; Thomas Harmon

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersive mixing has an important impact on the effectiveness of miscible floods. Simulations routinely assume Fickian dispersion, yet it is well established that dispersivity depends on the scale of measurement. This is one of the main reasons that a satisfactory method for design of field-scale miscible displacement processes is still not available. The main objective of this project was to improve the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of dispersion and mixing, particularly at the pore scale. To this end, microsensors were developed and used in the laboratory to measure directly the solute concentrations at the scale of individual pores; the origin of hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated from first principles of laminar flow and diffusion at the grain scale in simple but geometrically completely defined porous media; techniques to use flow reversal to distinguish the contribution to dispersion of convective spreading from that of true mixing; and the field scale impact of permeability heterogeneity on hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated numerically. This project solved a long-standing problem in solute transport in porous media by quantifying the physical basis for the scaling of dispersion coefficient with the 1.2 power of flow velocity. The researchers also demonstrated that flow reversal uniquely enables a crucial separation of irreversible and reversible contributions to mixing. The interpretation of laboratory and field experiments that include flow reversal provides important insight. Other advances include the miniaturization of long-lasting microprobes for in-situ, pore-scale measurement of tracers, and a scheme to account properly in a reservoir simulator (grid-block scale) for the contributions of convective spreading due to reservoir heterogeneity and of mixing.

  15. Urbanizing Watersheds and Changing River Flood Dynamics: Implications for Urban Wetland Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Urbanization alters river hydrology, morphology, water quality, and habitat and ecology. Most of these associated changes are due to an increase in impervious surface cover (ISC) throughout the watershed. But the spatial location of urban areas...

  16. Irrigation Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles

    2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Irrigation water quality is determined by the total amounts of salts and the types of salts the water contains. In this publication you'll learn why well water can be salty, what problems salty water can cause, what tests should be done...

  17. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    table The water table itself may cross many layers. Extraction of water from confined and unconfinedTD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration

  18. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    , effectiveness of best management practices and trends in water quality. SCOPE This report is for continued water Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station with auto- sampler and data sonde. The Portland site. Garret Bridge site. 2 #12;Figure 2 Portland site. METHODS The Garrett Bridge site is a full storm-water

  19. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    for the training of scientists in water resources. Through the years, projects have included irrigation, ground water modeling, non-point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water, efficient septic heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter Basic Information Title

  20. Water Waves Roger Grimshaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,2) provide a kinematic description of water waves, which to this point means that the conditionsWater Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves

  1. Water Conservation Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Martha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beans Carrots Cucumbers Eggplant Peas Peppers Summer Squash Pumpkins Tomatoes Watermelon Winter Squash Water

  2. The effect of the volume of liquid injected on recovery in solvent slug flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles Hay

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of slug size on oil recovered. A series of verti. cal displacements was performed on a kerosene- and-water saturated core 10 feet in length, using butane as the solvent and methane as the inert dksplacing medium. Breakthrough recovery was fo... screen snd glass wool in the outlet nipple served to retain all sand within the pipe. Fluids used included technical grade methane, technical grade normal butane as the slug material, and kerosene to represent crude oil. Distilled water served...

  3. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships development. (2) Water Pollution and Water Quality Control - Nonpoint Source Pollution Definition: Degradation of water quality from nonpoint source pollution. (3) Water Use Efficiency Definition: Minimize water use

  4. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  5. Be Water Smart 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W aterSmart, a water conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain... gardens as just one method of demonstrating how water conservation can function in an attractive landscape. In December of 2005, the first demonstration WaterSmart rain garden was established at the Bay Area Courthouse Annex in Clear Lake City...

  6. Be Water Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W aterSmart, a water conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain... gardens as just one method of demonstrating how water conservation can function in an attractive landscape. In December of 2005, the first demonstration WaterSmart rain garden was established at the Bay Area Courthouse Annex in Clear Lake City...

  7. LINEAR TRANSIENT FLOW SOLUTION FOR PRIMARY OIL RECOVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    in a low-permeability, compressible, layered reservoir filled with oil, water and gas. The sample to accelerate oil production. At some later time, the infill wells may be converted into waterflood injectors the lost production at the infill well because of conversion to a waterflood injector. #12;INTRODUCTION

  8. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern for the project as it limited CO{sub 2} injectivity. To reduce voidage balance, and reservoir pressure, a disposal well was therefore drilled. Several injection surveys indicated the CO{sub 2} injection wells had severe conformance issues. After close monitoring of the project to the end of 1999, it was evident the project would not recover the anticipated tertiary reserves. The main reasons for under-performance were poor in zone CO{sub 2} injection into the upper San Andres layers, poorer offtake rates from newly drilled replacement wells and a higher than required reservoir pressure. After discussion internally within Phillips, externally with the Department of Energy (DOE) and SCU partners, a redevelopment of South Cowden was agreed upon to commence in year 2000. The redevelopment essentially abandoned the original development for Budget Phase II in favor of a revised approach. This involved conformance techniques to resolve out of zone CO{sub 2} injection and use of horizontal wells to improve in zone injectivity and productivity. A phased approach was used to ensure short radius lateral drilling could be implemented effectively at South Cowden. This involved monitoring drilling operations and then production response to determine if larger investments during the second phase were justified. Redevelopment Phase 1 was completed in May 2000. It was deemed a success in regard to finding suitable/cost-effective technology for drilling horizontal laterals and finding a technique that could sustain long-term productivity from the upper layers of the San Andres reservoir. Four existing vertical producing wells were isolated from their existing completions and sidetracked with horizontal laterals into the upper layers of the San Andres. Overall average offtake rates for the four wells increased by a factor of 12 during the first four months after completion of Phase 1. Phase 2 of the redevelopment focused on current CO{sub 2} vertical injection wells. Techniques were applied to resolve near well conformance concerns and then either single or dual laterals were dril

  9. Ground-water temperature fluctuations at Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberlander, P.L.; Myers, D.A.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The well field serving the Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery has experienced reduced water temperatures following continued, periodic withdrawal of large volumes of water. In January 1985, the well field temperature was 49/sup 0/F, which is less than the optimal 52/sup 0/F for raising salmon and steelhead trout. The aquifer supplying the hatchery is in hydraulic and thermal connection with the Snake River and a flooded embayment of the Palouse River. Ground-water temperatures in the well field cycle on an annual basis in response to changes in surface water temperature and pumping rate. Numerical simulation of the well field, using a simplified mixing cell model, demonstrates the coupling of well field hydraulics and aquifer thermal response. Alternative pumping schedules indicate that it is feasible to adjust ground-water pumping to effectively store heat in the aquifer during the summer months when surface water temperatures are elevated. Sensitivity analysis of this model indicated that the primary controls of the system's thermal response are the volume of the aquifer assumed to contribute to the well field and temperature of the overlying surface water body.

  10. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong [Univ. of Petroleum Changping, Beijing (China)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  11. Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley; Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.; Balliet, Ryan; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Newman, John

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells may become the energy-delivery devices of the 21st century with realization of a carbon-neutral energy economy. Although there are many types of fuel cells, polymerelectrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are receiving the most attention for automotive and small stationary applications. In a PEFC, hydrogen and oxygen are combined electrochemically to produce water, electricity, and waste heat. During the operation of a PEFC, many interrelated and complex phenomena occur. These processes include mass and heat transfer, electrochemical reactions, and ionic and electronic transport. Most of these processes occur in the through-plane direction in what we term the PEFC sandwich as shown in Figure 1. This sandwich comprises multiple layers including diffusion media that can be composite structures containing a macroporous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) and microporous layer (MPL), catalyst layers (CLs), flow fields or bipolar plates, and a membrane. During operation fuel is fed into the anode flow field, moves through the diffusion medium, and reacts electrochemically at the anode CL to form hydrogen ions and electrons. The oxidant, usually oxygen in air, is fed into the cathode flow field, moves through the diffusion medium, and is electrochemically reduced at the cathode CL by combination with the generated protons and electrons. The water, either liquid or vapor, produced by the reduction of oxygen at the cathode exits the PEFC through either the cathode or anode flow field. The electrons generated at the anode pass through an external circuit and may be used to perform work before they are consumed at the cathode. The performance of a PEFC is most often reported in the form of a polarization curve, as shown in Figure 2. Roughly speaking, the polarization curve can be broken down into various regions. First, it should be noted that the equilibrium potential differs from the open-circuit voltage due mainly to hydrogen crossover through the membrane (i.e., a mixed potential on the cathode) and the resulting effects of the kinetic reactions. Next, at low currents, the behavior of a PEFC is dominated by kinetic losses. These losses mainly stem from the high overpotential of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR). As the current is increased, ohmic losses become a factor in lowering the overall cell potential. These ohmic losses are mainly from ionic losses in the electrodes and separator. At high currents, mass-transport limitations become increasingly important. These losses are due to reactants not being able to reach the electrocatalytic sites. Key among the issues facing PEFCs today is water management. Due to their low operating temperature (< 100 C), water exists in both liquid and vapor phases. Furthermore, state-of-the-art membranes require the use of water to provide high conductivity and fast proton transport. Thus, there is a tradeoff between having enough water for proton conduction (ohmic losses), but not too much or else the buildup of liquid water will cause a situation in which the reactant-gas-transport pathways are flooded (mass-transfer limitations). Figure 3 displays experimental evidence of the effects of water management on performance. In Figure 3(a), a neutron image of water content displays flooding near the outlet of the cell due to accumulation of liquid water and a decrease in the gas flowrates. The serpentine flow field is clearly visible with the water mainly underneath the ribs. Figure 3(b) shows polarization performance at 0.4 and 0.8 V and high-frequency resistance at 0.8 V as a function of cathode humidification temperature. At low current densities, as the inlet air becomes more humid, the membrane resistance decreases, and the performance increases. At higher current densities, the same effect occurs; however, the higher temperatures and more humid air also results in a lower inlet oxygen partial pressure.

  12. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  13. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was determined. The aim was to characterize the microstructure of the adsorbed layers. Work was began with alkyl phenoxy polyoxyether type nonionic surfactants and anionic meta xylene sulfonates.

  14. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. [Alkyl phenoxy polyoxyether type nonionic surfactants and anionic meta xylene sulfonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was determined. The aim was to characterize the microstructure of the adsorbed layers. Work was began with alkyl phenoxy polyoxyether type nonionic surfactants and anionic meta xylene sulfonates.

  15. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  16. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. What's your water footprint? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Leslie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower..., the time of day you run your sprinkler system, and how long the water runs while you brush your teeth. Conservation in such everyday tasks is important, but water experts have begun to use a more all-encompassing survey of water use by calculating...

  18. What's your water footprint?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Leslie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower..., the time of day you run your sprinkler system, and how long the water runs while you brush your teeth. Conservation in such everyday tasks is important, but water experts have begun to use a more all-encompassing survey of water use by calculating...

  19. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components to alpine stream baseflow. This research is showing that groundwater in alpine areas spends between a few years to several decades in the saturated zone below the surface, before feeding into streams or being pumped for use. This lag time may act to reduce the impact on water resources from extreme wet or dry years. Furthermore, our measurements show that the temperature of water when it reaches the water table during recharge is 4 to 9 degrees higher than would be expected for direct influx of snowmelt, and that recharge likely occurs over diffuse vegetated areas, rather than along exposed rock faces and fractures. These discoveries have implications for how alpine basins will respond to climate effects that lead to more rain than snow and earlier snow pack melting.

  20. Modelling floods in theAmmer catchment:limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 833847 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling floods in theAmmer catchment:limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach 833 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 833847 (2003) © EGU Modelling floods in the Ammer catchment: limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach R. Ludwig1