Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

GRR/Section 13-FD-c - Navigable Water Evaluation Process | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c - Navigable Water Evaluation Process c - Navigable Water Evaluation Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 13-FD-c - Navigable Water Evaluation Process 13FDCNavigableWatersEvaluationProcess (2).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Federal Emergency Management Agency US Army Corps of Engineers United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulations & Policies Bridges over Navigable Waters Act 33 CFR 115.50 Application for bridge permits Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 13FDCNavigableWatersEvaluationProcess (2).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

2

Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

KESSLER, S.F.

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

3

An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, kWh/Unit = 0.0039 85.1% February 5 12PM to 1PM Annual Values 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 G a l / U n i t P r o d u c e d D...1Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

FIELD DEPLOYMENT EVALUATION OF THE FREEZE-THAW/EVAPORATION (FTE) PROCESS TO TREAT OIL AND GAS PRODUCED WATERS. Task 45. Final topical report  

SciTech Connect

TASK 45 FIELD DEPLOYMENT EVALUATION OF THE FREEZE-THAW/ EVAPORATION (FTE ) PROCESS TO TREAT OIL AND GAS PRODUCED WATERS coupling evaporation with freezing. This offers operators a year- round method for treating produced water. Treating water with the FTE process reduces the volume of water to be disposed of as well as purifying the water to a level acceptable for watering livestock and agricultural lands. This process is currently used at two evaporation facilities, one in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico and one in the Green River Basin in Wyoming. the freezing point below that of pure water. When such a solution is cooled below 32EF, relatively pure ice crystals form, along with an unfrozen brine solution that contains elevated concentrations of salts. Because of the brine's high concentration of these constituents, its density is greater than that of the ice, and the purified ice and brine are easily separated. Coupling the natural processes of freezing and evaporation makes the FTE process a more cost- effective and efficient method for the treatment and disposal of produced water and allows for year-round operation of an FTE facility. drops below 32 F, produced water is automatically pumped from a holding pond and sprayed onto a freezing pad. The freezing pad consists of an elevated framework of piping with regularly placed, upright, extendable spray heads similar to those used to irrigate lawns. As the spray freezes, an ice pile forms over the elevated framework of pipes, and the brine, with an elevated constituent concentration, drains from the ice pile. The high-salinity brine, identified by its high electrical conductivity, is separated using automatic valves and pumped to a pond where it can subsequently be disposed of by conventional methods. As the ice pile increases in height, the sprayers are extended. When the ice on the freezing pad melts, the relatively pure water is pumped from the freezing pad and discharged or stored for later use . No new wastes are generated by the FTE process. and the U. S. Department of Energy has been conducted since 1992 to develop a commercial FTE purification process for produced waters. Numeric process and economic modeling, as well as the laboratory-scale process simulation that confirmed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, was performed by B. C. Technologies, Ltd., and the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) from 1992 to 1995. They then conducted a field evaluation from 1995 to 1997 in New Mexico's San Juan Basin at a conventional evaporation facility operated by Amoco Production Company. The results of this evaluation confirmed that the FTE process has significant commercial economic potential. A new facility was designed in 1998, and its construction is expected to begin in 1999.

Ames A. Grisanti; James A. Sorensen

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Water Efficiency Evaluation Service Contracts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

To help meet Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requirements for comprehensive water evaluations of at least 25% of covered facilities each year, Federal agencies may choose to hire a water management firm. A report was developed that includes the essential elements of a well-formed statement of work (SOW) for comprehensive water assessments to assist agencies in developing contracts with water contractors, which includes:

7

Exposure Evaluation Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

symptoms, further evaluation by HCP, and recommendations from evaluation by referral. It is a clinical judgment based on the history of the exposure, including what is...

8

ORISE: Process and Program Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process and Program Evaluation Process and Program Evaluation As an integral part of producing effective health and safety programs, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) conducts scientific-based process and program evaluation to provide government agencies and organizations with the tools to improve the health of workers and the general public. Whether the goal is to change awareness, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, policies or systems, ORISE helps determine the right evaluation methods based on specific needs and resources, including: Formative evaluations to assess the problem, target audience needs and guide successful process implementation Assessments to identify unmet needs in programs, organizations or communities Audience evaluations to learn about targeted populations

9

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, ... . Because b...

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- February 13, 2013 - February 13, 2013 BBNP Preliminary Process & Market Study ? LBNL Project Manager: Ed Vine DOE Project Manager: Jeff Dowd Project Team: Research Into Action, Inc., NMR Group, Evergreen Economic Consulting, and Nexant, Inc. Page 2 - February 13, 2013 BBNP Preliminary Process & Market Study ? Who we are We are a team of evaluators... independent of the BBNP program with whom DOE has contracted to assess the performance of BBNP and identify lessons learned We are: Research Into Action, NMR Group, Nexant, and Evergreen Economics Page 3 - February 13, 2013 BBNP Preliminary Process & Market Study ? What we are doing, what we hope to learn We are assessing the national BBNP program, not individual grantees or their programs

11

Integrated Water Network Designs for Batch Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Naturally, the corresponding design procedures are interrelated, and their general relations are depicted in Figure 1. ... The available units, storage capacities and processing times of this process are given in Table 1. ... The first design procedure maximizes driving forces in individual processes while the second minimizes the no. of water sources for each process. ...

Kai-Fang Cheng; Chuei-Tin Chang

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

13

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant.

Smith, L.C.

1992-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

15

Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-i- Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling In Urban Areas........................................................................................................................................... 4 BENEFICIAL USES OF RECYCLED WATER................................................................................................ 5 MOTIVATIONS FOR RECYCLED WATER USE

Lund, Jay R.

16

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

17

Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation on Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process presented at the PEM fuel cell pre-solicitation meeting held May 26, 2005 in Arlington, VA.

18

ORISE: Process and Program Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

As an integral part of producing effective health and safety programs, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) conducts scientific-based process and...

19

Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety evaluation requirement of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety. Does not cancel other directives. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13.

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety (NES) evaluation requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 4/14/09. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE M 452.2-2.

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

PROCESSING TIP . . . WATER CONSERVATION MAKES SENSE,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with an understanding of the concepts of Water Loss, Water Waste, Efficient Water Use, Intended Water Use and how each Water Use Total Water Use Intended Water Use Water Loss Efficient Water Use Water Waste Adapted from Use) can be further sub-divided into two categories: · Efficient Water Use, and · Water Waste. All

Navara, Kristen

22

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A concise model for evaluating water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To evaluate water electrolysis in hydrogen production, a concise model was developed to analyze the currentvoltage characteristics of an electrolytic cell. This model describes the water electrolysis capability by means of incorporating thermodynamic, kinetic and electrical resistance effects. These three effects are quantitatively expressed with three main parameters; the thermodynamic parameter which is the water dissociation potential; the kinetic parameter which reflects the overall electrochemical kinetic effect of both electrodes in the electrolytic cell, and the ohmic parameter which reflects the total resistance of the electrolytic cell. Using the model, different electrolytic cells with various operating conditions can be conveniently compared with each other. The modeling results are found to agree well with experimental data and previous published work.

Muzhong Shen; Nick Bennett; Yulong Ding; Keith Scott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Evaluation of instantaneous surface water discharge techniques  

SciTech Connect

To obtain accurate discharge data in any surface water monitoring program, the selection of an appropriate technique is essential. This paper examines five instantaneous discharge techniques most commonly used throughout the Appalachian coal fields. The techniques evaluated in this paper include: (1) dye-dilution; (2) cross-sectional area-velocity; (3) weir; (4) Manning's equation; and (5) direct discharge. Each of the instantaneous discharge techniques was evaluated in terms of: (1) initial equipment investment cost per discharge determination; (2) the advantages and disadvantages of each technique; and (3) the appropriate application of each technique. From this evaluation, it was apparent that a combination of several techniques are needed to determine a variety of discharges depending on the characteristics of the discharge point.

Buckles, J.D.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and

26

GRR/Section 19-TX-b - New Water Right Process For Surface Water and Ground  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TX-b - New Water Right Process For Surface Water and Ground TX-b - New Water Right Process For Surface Water and Ground Water < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 19-TX-b - New Water Right Process For Surface Water and Ground Water 19TXBNewWaterRightProcessForSurfaceWaterAndGroundWater.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Texas Water Development Board Regulations & Policies Tex. Water Code § 11 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 19TXBNewWaterRightProcessForSurfaceWaterAndGroundWater.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

27

GRR/Section 19-CO-e - New Water Right Process for Surface Water and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

19-CO-e - New Water Right Process for Surface Water and 19-CO-e - New Water Right Process for Surface Water and Tributary Ground Water < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 19-CO-e - New Water Right Process for Surface Water and Tributary Ground Water 19COENewWaterRightProcessForSurfaceWaterAndTributaryGroundWater.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 19COENewWaterRightProcessForSurfaceWaterAndTributaryGroundWater.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Developers seeking a new water right to appropriate surface water and

28

Hybrid fuzzy and optimal modeling for water quality evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid fuzzy and optimal modeling for water quality evaluation Dong Wang, 1 Vijay P. Singh, 2 and Yuansheng Zhu 3 Received 1 September 2006; revised 16 December 2006; accepted 19 January 2007; published 8 May 2007. [1] Water quality evaluation... evaluation issues. In addition, the proposed models are flexible and adaptable for diagnosing the eutrophic status. Citation: Wang, D., V. P. Singh, and Y. Zhu (2007), Hybrid fuzzy and optimal modeling for water quality evaluation, Water Resour. Res., 43, W...

Wang, Dong; Singh, Vijay P.; Zhu, Yuansheng

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation Jeff Maguire, Lieko Earle, and Chuck Booten National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy Partnership Produced under direction of the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Interagency Agreement CRD-05-168 and Task No WR49.3000. Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52234 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

31

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results (Brochure)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Results Results Prepared for South Coast Air Quality Management District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory CRD-01-098 Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel Demonstration in a Southern California Vehicle Fleet Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report i Alternative Fuel Trucks YOSEMITE WATERS VEHICLE EVALUATION REPORT Authors Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

32

Evaluating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufacturing Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and increasing awareness of "green" customers have brought energy efficient manufacturing on top of the agendaEvaluating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufacturing Processes Katharina Bunse1 , Julia Sachs kbunse@ethz.ch, sachsj@student.ethz.ch, mvodicka@ethz.ch Abstract. Global warming, rising energy prices

Boyer, Edmond

33

Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes  

SciTech Connect

This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Application Content and Evaluation CriteriaProcess Application Content and Evaluation CriteriaProcess This presentation by Jill Gruber of the DOE Golden Field Office was given at...

35

Microbial Fuel Cells for Recycle of Process Water from Cellulosic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to improve ethanol process economics in biorefineries Decreased water consumption Enables wastewater recycling Electricity or hydrogen generation Inexpensive Versatile Applications...

36

Water Efficiency Evaluation Service Contracts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Efficiency Evaluation Service Contracts Water Efficiency Evaluation Service Contracts Water Efficiency Evaluation Service Contracts October 8, 2013 - 9:57am Addthis To help meet Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requirements for comprehensive water evaluations of at least 25% of covered facilities each year, Federal agencies may choose to hire a water management firm. A report was developed that includes the essential elements of a well-formed statement of work (SOW) for comprehensive water assessments to assist agencies in developing contracts with water contractors, which includes: Project scope Contractor qualifications Assessment phases Deliverables and schedule Additional considerations. For more information on this topic and specific information on SOW model language, download the Template for a Comprehensive Water Assessment

37

EVALUATING TRADEOFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW PROTECTIONS AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SECURITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EVALUATING TRADEOFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW PROTECTIONS AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SECURITY T. E Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA ABSTRACT River basin managers responsible for water allocation decisions are increasingly required

Merenlender, Adina

38

Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Solar Water Heating and Design Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy has been used to heat water for many years, and the design requirements of solar water heating equipment have been studied for ... because that upto this time other sources of energy have been more economical

H. P. Garg

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Underwater and water-assisted laser processing: Part 1general features, steam cleaning and shock processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water is always present in laser processing in air: as vapor, condensate or adsorbate. Water is the working environment in underwater processingbut it can also be added on purpose to gain better results: to avoid redeposition of debris, to cool the material, to increase plasma pressure or to conduct light. Water can also act as a chemical reagent. The first part of the article will review the advantages and disadvantages of laser processing in the presence of water, light transmission by water, and the two most mature methods of water-assisted laser processing: steam cleaning and shock processing.

Arvi Kruusing

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico More Documents & Publications Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale

42

ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect

This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

Steven B. Hawthorne

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes October 8, 2013 - 9:48am Addthis Many water using processes beyond the previously covered best management practices (BMPs) are found at Federal facilities, including vehicle wash systems, maintenance services, cleaning/laundry services, single pass air conditioners, water softening systems, and others. Identify and analyze all water intensive processes for potential efficiency improvements. Overview Laundry facilities are often found at Federal facilities. The laundry facility may be a self-serve laundry where residents and personnel wash their own clothing, a commercial-type laundry service where residents drop off laundry to be washed or dry cleaned, or an industrial laundry facility

44

Evaluating Water Recycling in California Sachi De Souza  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i Evaluating Water Recycling in California By Sachi De Souza B.Sc.Hon (Queen's University) 2005 Recycling in California ii ABSTRACT This document describes how to complete an economic analysis, financial analysis, and cost allocation for a water recycling project. Water recycling is gaining importance

Lund, Jay R.

45

Faculty Position in Mechanical Engineering Water Conservation in Industrial Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faculty Position in Mechanical Engineering Water Conservation in Industrial Processes University of Kansas The Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Kansas is seeking applications in industrial processes. Exceptional candidates with outstanding qualifications could be considered

46

Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

47

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Non-Traditional Sources of Process and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Traditional Sources of Process and Cooling Water Non-Traditional Sources of Process and Cooling Water Research and analysis are being conducted to evaluate and develop cost-effective approaches to using non-traditional (aka impaired or alternative) sources of water to supplement or replace freshwater for cooling and other power plant needs. Opportunities exist for the utilization of lower-quality, non-traditional water sources. Examples of non-traditional waters include surface and underground mine pool water, coal-bed methane produced waters, and industrial and/or municipal wastewater. Read More! IEP research in this area has focused on a variety of issues including feasibility studies for a variety of non-traditional water types and research into developing advanced water treatment technologies to enable coal-based power plants to use impaired water in recirculating cooling systems without notably increased scaling and without significant decreases in cycles of concentration. Feasibility studies involve multiple issues such as the flow of different non-traditional waters available in different regions, such as abandoned mine water, costs associated with collecting and treating each of the variety of non-traditional waters, like oil and natural gas produced water, and consideration of the variety of state-specific regulations pertaining to non-traditional water use.

48

Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation Criteria/Process Jill Gruber Golden Field Office Department of Energy May 18, 2007 The information presented here is an outline of how the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) may be structured. The final application requirements will be shown in the FOA when it is posted on Grants.gov. The schedule and awards are dependent on future appropriations and may change if future appropriations are lower than expected or in the event of a continuing resolution. DOE Points of Contact DOE Golden Field Office: Jill Gruber, Project Officer Bob Kingsley, Contract Specialist Stephanie Carabajal, Contracting Officer DOE HQ: Pete Devlin, Technology Development Manager Preliminary Application Content * Separate applications for each topic * Title should identify the topic area

49

Evaluating Water Transfers in Irrigation Districts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The participation of irrigation districts (IDs) in surface water transfers from agriculture-to-municipal uses is studied by examining IDs economic and political behavior, comparing their performance with non-districts (non-IDs), and analyzing...

Ghimire, Narishwar

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

50

Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Evaluation of Energy Efficiency, Water Requirements and Availability, and CO  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

05/14/2012 1 05/14/2012 1 Evaluation of Energy Efficiency, Water Requirements and Availability, and CO 2 Emissions Associated With the Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, Based on Shell's In-Situ Conversion Process (ICP) F. Dexter Sutterfield, Ph.D., INTEK Inc. Peter M. Crawford and Jeffrey Stone, INTEK Inc. James C. Killen, United States Department of Energy I. Summary A detailed description of background information, the purpose of this paper, methodologies and major assumptions, and results are provided below, beginning with Section II. A summary of this information follows: The United States has been endowed with vast oil shale resources in the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming, about three-fourths of which are located on public lands. Green River

52

Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 April 2008 Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide was developed for the purpose of documenting the appraisal approach and techniques specific to evaluations of classified and unclassified cyber security programs throughout DOE. Office of Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide provides additional insight into the Office of Cyber Security Evaluations (HS-62) evaluation approach and processes associated with assessing classified and unclassified cyber security programs. The objective of this document is to establish a standard approach and methodology for conducting cyber security reviews that is well understood by all inspection participants.

53

Energy Conservation in Process Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption of the chiller and cooling tower in a process cooling application was analyzed using the TRNSYS computer code. The basic system included a constant speed centrifugal chiller and an induced-draft, counterflow cooling tower...

Ambs, L. L.; DiBella, R. A.

54

Water Security Understand, evaluate, and reduce the environmental  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Security Understand, evaluate, and reduce the environmental consequences of demand for water to address this focus through the study of sustainable fisheries management and environmentally compatible, and management. UMCES scientists are engaged in collaborative research enhance environmental science and its

Boynton, Walter R.

55

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Independent External Evaluation of The Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

three objectives since its inception in 2003: 1) Experimenting with open market transactions a market for instream water (153 open-market transactions have been made to date), and QLEs have beenIndependent External Evaluation of The Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program (2003

57

Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water  

SciTech Connect

Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

Nilsen, David N. (Lebanon, OR); Galvan, Gloria J. (Albany, OR); Hundley, Gary L. (Corvallis, OR); Wright, John B. (Albany, OR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Process for the production of hydrogen from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

60

Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above. U.S. Patent No.: 7,153,435 (DOE S-100,646) Patent Application Filing Date: July 22, 2003 Patent Issue Date: December 26...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Water Pollution Control Plant Solar Site Evaluation: San Jos  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

62

Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 18 GW of salinity-gradient power. Although 800 GW of power is currently obtained from hydroelectric processes globally, salinity-gradient energy remains a large and untapped resource. Capturing this energy ... not ions through the membranes to produce pressurized water that generates electricity using mechanical turbines. RED uses membranes for ion but not water transport, and the electrical ...

Bruce E. Logan; Menachem Elimelech

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Money Smart Evaluation Process Evaluation of the Money Smart program involves 3 parts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Money Smart Evaluation Process Evaluation of the Money Smart program involves 3 parts: o Pre on the FCS Agent website under Money Smart. End of session evaluations are also included in the Instructor

64

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nondestructive Evaluation for Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap Materials issues are a key concern for the existing nuclear reactor fleet as material degradation can lead to increased maintenance, increased downtown, and increased risk. Extending reactor life to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. Additionally, new mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. The purpose of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend

65

Review of Optimization Models for Integrated Process Water Networks and their Application to Biofuel Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Biofuel Processes Ignacio E. Grossmann1, Mariano Mart�n2 and Linlin Yang1 1Department Chemical Engineering of these techniques to biofuel plants, which are known to consume large amounts of water. Introduction. Although water stress [1]. Since chemical, petroleum, and especially biofuel processes consume significant amounts

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

66

Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants  

SciTech Connect

This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be significant advantage when using the heated air/heated water process with a less dense less specific surface area packed bed. Use of one configuration over the other depends upon the environment and the desired operating conditions.

James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this scheme for operating TANK with HWSim is successful.LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MWR Retrievals Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave radiative transfer equations. These examples show how improvements in the retrieval of LWP can be obtained by using an iterative approach, but that possible improvements are limited by the accuracy of the forward model absorption coefficients and errors in the brightness temperature measurements. Each of these effects limits the

69

ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

70

Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 April 2008 The Safeguards and Security Appraisal Process Guide provides additional planning techniques and a detailed set of tables that describe the necessary steps to successfully conduct each phase of a safeguards and security appraisal activity. Office of Security Evaluations (HS-61) has prepared the Safeguards and Security Appraisal Process Guide, as part of a continuing effort to enhance the quality and consistency of safeguards and security appraisals. This guide should be used along with the Office of Independent Oversight (HS-60) Appraisal Process Protocols that describes the overall philosophy, scope, and general procedures applicable to all Independent Oversight appraisal

71

Process for removing an organic compound from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Kamaruddin, Henky D. (San Francisco, CA)

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

72

GRR/Section 10 - On-Site Evaluation Process | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 10 - On-Site Evaluation Process GRR/Section 10 - On-Site Evaluation Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 10 - On-Site Evaluation Process 10SiteEvaluation.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Bureau of Land Management U S Army Corps of Engineers United States Environmental Protection Agency Fish and Wildlife Service United States Department of Defense Regulations & Policies Endangered Species Act Clean Water Act Clean Air Act Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 10SiteEvaluation.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative

73

Office of Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, April 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CYBER SECURITY EVALUATIONS CYBER SECURITY EVALUATIONS APPRAISAL PROCESS GUIDE April 2008 Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Office of Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide Preface April 2008 i Preface Department of Energy (DOE) Order 470.2B, Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance Program, and Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) Standard Operating Procedure, SOP-10-01, Independent Oversight Appraisal Process Protocols, February 2008, provide direction for the Office of Independent Oversight (HS-60) to establish the requirements, responsibilities, and processes for the development and maintenance of Appraisal Process Protocols that describe the activities for evaluating the effectiveness of DOE safeguards and security; cyber security; emergency management; and

74

An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water Reactor Fuel with the Potential for Recycle in the United States An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water Reactor Fuel with the Potential for Recycle in the United States The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) of the Department of Energy has been formulated to perform research leading to advanced fuels and fuel cycles for advanced nuclear power systems. One of the objectives of AFCI is to determine if partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the burden on the geologic repository. The AFCI program is periodically reviewed by the Advanced Nuclear Transmutation Technology (ANTT) subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee

75

Evaluation of white matter myelin water fraction in chronic stroke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Multi-component T2 relaxation imaging (MCRI) provides specific in vivo measurement of myelin water content and tissue water environments through myelin water fraction (MWF), intra/extra-cellular water fraction (I/EWF) and intra/extracellular and global geometric mean T2 (GMT2) times. Quantitative MCRI assessment of tissue water environments has provided new insights into the progression and underlying white matter pathology in neural disorders such as multiple sclerosis. It has not previously been applied to investigate changes in white matter in the stroke-affected brain. Thus, the purposes of this study were to 1) use MCRI to index myelin water content and tissue water environments in the brain after stroke 2) evaluate relationships between MWF and diffusion behavior indexed by diffusion tensor imaging-based metrics and 3) examine the relationship between white matter status (MWF and fractional anisotropy) and motor behavior in the chronic phase of stroke recovery. Twenty individuals with ischemic stroke and 12 matched healthy controls participated. Excellent to good test/re-test and inter-rater reliability was observed for region of interest-based voxelwise MWF data. Reduced MWF was observed in whole-cerebrum white matter (pmotor behavior in chronic stroke. These results provide novel insights into tissue-specific changes within white matter after stroke that may have important applications for the understanding of the neuropathology of stroke.

M.R. Borich; A.L. MacKay; I.M. Vavasour; A. Rauscher; L.A. Boyd

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Office of Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, April 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SECURITY EVALUATIONS SECURITY EVALUATIONS APPRAISAL PROCESS GUIDE April 2008 Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Office of Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide Preface April 2008 i Preface The Office of Security Evaluations (HS-61) has prepared the Safeguards and Security Appraisal Process Guide, as part of a continuing effort to enhance the quality and consistency of safeguards and security appraisals. This guide should be used along with the Office of Independent Oversight (HS-60) Appraisal Process Protocols that describes the overall philosophy, scope, and general procedures applicable to all Independent Oversight appraisal activities, as dictated in DOE Orders 470.2B, Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance Program, and 226.1, Implementation of Department of Energy Oversight Policy. In

77

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

78

GENERAL SUPERSTRUCTURE AND GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE DESIGN OF INTEGRATED PROCESS WATER NETWORKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of multiple sources of water, water-using processes, wastewater treatment and pre-treatment operations water re-use, water regeneration and re-use, water regeneration recycling, local recycling around, etc. These processes in turn generate wastewater, which is usually processed in treatment units before

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

79

Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, July 29, 2009 Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, July 29, 2009 This guide is a subordinate document to the Independent Oversight Appraisal Process Protocols. While the protocols provide general guidance common to all appraisal activities, this document provides additional detail and guidance regarding procedures and methods specific to ES&H appraisals conducted by Independent Oversight. DOE Order 470.2B is an important reference document that defines program requirements and, in particular, defines processes for sites to respond to identified vulnerabilities and to develop corrective action plans. The processes described in this guide are used for all ES&H appraisals, including periodic inspections, special

80

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Prepared under Task Nos. WTN9.1000, ARRB.2204 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluating ecosystem processes in willow short rotation coppice bioenergy plantations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluating ecosystem processes in willow short rotation coppice bioenergy plantations R E B E C C body of research linking bioenergy cultivation to changing patterns of biodiversity, there has been remarkably little interest in how bioenergy plantations affect key ecosystem processes underpinning impor

82

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241  

SciTech Connect

The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation process. It was possible to correlate it with the final amount of non-degraded resins. These results show that these conditions were favorable to destroy the resins, indicating to be the AOP an effective technique to reduce the volume of the waste. (authors)

Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Evaluation of factors affecting the membrane filter technique for testing drinking water.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processing of water samples, approximately...buffered dilution water, and these were...Because ofthe heat sensitivity of...in a boiling water bath. After...method gave higher recovery or was positive...and public swimming pools. Public water...

S C Hsu; T J Williams

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Microsoft Word - Evaluation of Alternate Water Gas Shift for Carbon Capture Final Final Report .doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Alternate Water Evaluation of Alternate Water Gas Shift Configurations for IGCC Systems August 5, 2009 DOE/NETL-401/080509 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States

86

Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency  

SciTech Connect

Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

Daugherty, W.L.

1989-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program - Non-Destructive Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters.

88

Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am-241 contaminated pond water, surface run-off and D and D dust suppression water during the later stages of the D and D effort at Rocky Flats. This novel chemical treatment system allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment of all contaminated waste waters to the very low stream standard of 0.15 pCi/1 with strict compliance to the RFCA discharge criteria for release to off-site surface waters. The rapid development and implementation of the treatment system avoided water management issues that would have had to be addressed if contaminated water had remained in Pond A-4 into the Spring of 2005. Implementation of this treatment system for the Pond A-4 waters and the D and D waters from Buildings 776 and 371 enabled the site to achieve cost-effective treatment that minimized secondary waste generation, avoiding the need for expensive off-site water disposal. Water treatment was conducted for a cost of less than $0.20/gal which included all development costs, capital costs and operational costs. This innovative and rapid response effort saved the RFETS cleanup program well in excess of $30 million for the potential cost of off-site transportation and treatment of radioactive liquid waste. (authors)

Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P. [Golder Associates (United States); Nesta, S. [Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC (United States); Anderson, J. [Rocky Flats Closure Site Services - RFCSS (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Minimization of water consumption under uncertainty for PC process  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is becoming increasingly important for the development of advanced power generation systems. As an emerging technology different process configurations have been heuristically proposed for IGCC processes. One of these schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion for the CO2 removal prior the fuel gas is fed to the gas turbine reducing its size (improving economic performance) and producing sequestration-ready CO2 (improving its cleanness potential). However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be used to obtain optimal flowsheets and designs. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). For the alternative designs, large differences in the performance parameters (for instance, the utility requirements) predictions from AEA and AP were observed, suggesting the necessity of solving the HENS problem within the AP simulation environment and avoiding the AEA simplifications. A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case.

Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperatures to improve reaction kinetics and permeation. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. The first-year screening studies of WGS catalysts identified Cu-ceria as the most promising high-temperature shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and were thus eliminated from further consideration. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. Several catalyst formulations were prepared, characterized and tested in the first year of study. Details from the catalyst development and testing work were given in our first annual technical report. Hydrogen permeation through Pd and Pd-alloy foils was investigated in a small membrane reactor constructed during the first year of the project. The effect of temperature on the hydrogen flux through pure Pd, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25} alloy membranes, each 25 {micro}m thick, was evaluated in the temperature range from 250 C to 500 C at upstream pressure of 4.4 atm and permeate hydrogen pressure of 1 atm. Flux decay was observed for the Pd-Cu membrane above 500 C. From 350-450 C, an average hydrogen flux value of 0.2 mol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2}/s was measured over this Pd-alloy membrane. These results are in good agreement with literature data. In this year's report, we discuss reaction rate measurements, optimization of catalyst kinetics by proper choice of dopant oxide (lanthana) in ceria, long-term stability studies, and H{sub 2} permeation data collected with unsupported flat, 10 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu membranes over a wide temperature window and in various gas mixtures. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was further improved, by proper selection of dopant type and amount. The formulation 10 at%Cu-Ce(30 at%La)Ox was the best; this was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The stability of catalyst performance was examined in 40-hr long tests. A series of hydrogen permeation tests were conducted in a small flat-membrane reactor using the 10 m{micro}-thick Pd-Cu membranes. Small inhibitory effects of CO and CO{sub 2} were found at temperatures above 350 C, while H{sub 2}O vapor had no effect on hydrogen permeation. No carbon deposition took place during many hours of membrane operation. The reaction extent on the blank (catalyst-free) membrane was also negligible. A larger flat-membrane reactor will be used next year with the catalyst wash coated on screens close coupled with the Pd-Cu membrane.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, PI; Jerry Meldon, Co-PI; Xiaomei Qi

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an [H{sup +}] concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured. 24 figs.

Dietz, M.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Bartsch, R.A.

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

92

Evaluation of continuous oxydesulfurization processes. Final technical report, September 1979-July 1981  

SciTech Connect

Three processes developed by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Ledgemont Laboratories, and Ames Laboratories for the oxydesulfurization of coal were evaluated in continuous processing equipment designed, built, and/or adapted for the purpose at the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuels and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP) located at TRW's Capistrano Test Site in California. The three processes differed primarily in the chemical additives (none, sodium carbonate, or ammonia), fed to the 20% to 40% coal/water slurries, and in the oxygen content of the feed gas stream. Temperature, pressure, residence time, flow rates, slurry concentration and stirrer speed were the other primary independent variables. The amount of organic sulfur removed, total sulfur removed and the Btu recovery were the primary dependent variables. Evaluation of the data presented was not part of the test effort.

Jones, J.F.; Wever, D.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

GRR/Section 19-CO-g - Colorado Water Right Adjudication Process | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 19-CO-g - Colorado Water Right Adjudication Process GRR/Section 19-CO-g - Colorado Water Right Adjudication Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 19-CO-g - Colorado Water Right Adjudication Process 19COGColoradoWaterRightAdjudicationProcess (1).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Colorado Division of Water Resources Regulations & Policies Colorado Constitution Article XVI Section 6 37-82-101 et seq. Appropriation and Use of Water 37-92-301 et seq. Determination and Administration of Water Rights Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 19COGColoradoWaterRightAdjudicationProcess (1).pdf 19COGColoradoWaterRightAdjudicationProcess (1).pdf 19COGColoradoWaterRightAdjudicationProcess (1).pdf

94

Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)  

SciTech Connect

The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Benchmark Evaluation Process: From Experimental Data to Benchmark Model  

SciTech Connect

The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) provides a handbook of descriptions, evaluations, and models of experiments with fissionable material. The 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments' (ICSBEP Handbook) is useful for criticality safety analysts and nuclear-data evaluators for validation of neutron transport codes and nuclear cross-section sets. Each of the four main parts of the ICSBEP document provides valuable information. The four parts are as follows: Part 1, detailed description of the experiment; Part 2, evaluation of experimental data to obtain parameter values that define the model and their uncertainties; Part 3, derivation and concise description of the benchmark model; and Part 4, sample calculation results. The ICSBEP Handbook provides a practical, standardized format for documenting nuclear experiments.Valuable, previously unknown data are often discovered during the evaluation process. Besides these discoveries, many other things have been learned during this first decade of evaluating and providing benchmark models of experiments. The current method is described in order to improve understanding of what is required to evaluate benchmark experiments for validation purposes.

Dean, Virginia A.F. [Consultant, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Assessing the efficiency of combined use of surface water and groundwater for process water supply to Kalininskaya NPP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential improvement of the reliability of process water supply system is discussed for the case of an important power facility with the use of combined water intake systems. Hydrological simulation is us...

M. V. Bolgov; R. S. Shtengelov; A. A. Maslov; E. A. Filimonova

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications to EBS Design Optimization Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications to EBS Design Optimization The assessment of generic Engineered Barrier System (EBS) concepts and design optimization to harbor various disposal configurations and waste types needs advanced approaches and methods to analyze barrier performance. The report addresses: 1) Overview of the importance of Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes to barrier performance, and international collaborations; 2) THMC processes in clay barriers; 3) experimental studies of clay stability and clay-metal interactions at high temperatures and pressures; 4) thermodynamic modeling and database development; 5) Molecular Dynamics (MD) study of clay

98

Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.731.49/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.050.75/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

Lene Fjerbaek Sotoft; Ben-Guang Rong; Knud V. Christensen; Birgir Norddahl

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.compounds in the seven oil shale process waters. These

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Procedures for Collecting and Processing Streambed Sediment and Pore Water for Analysis of Mercury as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Procedures for Collecting and Processing Streambed Sediment and Pore Water for Analysis of Mercury Streambed Sediment and Pore Water for Analysis of Mercury as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment for collecting and processing streambed sediment and pore water for analysis of mercury as part of the National

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Evaluation of Technologies to Remove Suspended Solids from Waste Water  

SciTech Connect

The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River Site utilizes pH adjustment, submicron filtration, Hg removal resin, activated carbon, reverse osmosis, cationic exchange, and evaporation to remove contaminants from radioactive waste water. After startup, the ETF had difficulty achieving design capacity. The primary problem was fouling of the ceramic microfilters. Typical filter flow rates were only 20 percent of design capacity.A research program was conducted to identify and evaluate technologies for improving suspended solids removal from radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. Technolgies investigated were a ceramic microfilter, a tubular polymeric ultrafilter, two porous metal filters, a polymeric centrifugal ultrafilter, a deep bed filter, a backwashable cartridge filter, a fabric filter, and a centriguge.

Poirier, M.R.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Application of a Solar UV/Chlorine Advanced Oxidation Process to Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of a Solar UV/Chlorine Advanced Oxidation Process to Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Remediation ... Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, 9105 116th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 ...

Zengquan Shu; Chao Li; Miodrag Belosevic; James R. Bolton; Mohamed Gamal El-Din

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Final Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, December 2012.

104

Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, December 2012.

105

Advanced Water Treatment System: Technological and Economic Evaluations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, ... most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. In this chapter, an advanced water treatment system, based on electrodialysis

Artak Barseghyan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

107

Techno-Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems for Irrigation Water Pumping in India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attempt to develop a simple framework for techno-economics evaluation of renewable energy (RE) systems for irrigation water pumping has been made. The unit cost of water delivered and unit cost of useful energy

Ishan Purohit; Pallav Purohit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

GRR/Section 19-WA-b - New Water Right Permit Process | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 19-WA-b - New Water Right Permit Process GRR/Section 19-WA-b - New Water Right Permit Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 19-WA-b - New Water Right Permit Process 19-WA-b - New Water Right Permit Process.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Washington State Department of Ecology Regulations & Policies Revised Code of Washington Chapter 90.03 Revised Code of Washington Chapter 90.44 Triggers None specified Washington uses a prior appropriation system for the distribution of both surface water and ground water rights in which water users receive the right to use water on a "first in time, first in right" basis. Under Washington law, the waters of Washington belong collectively to the public

109

EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. The path forward includes developing the OBA into a well engineered solution for achieving RCRA clean closure of the EBR-II Primary Reactor Tank system. Several high level tasks are also part of the path forward such as reassigning responsibility of the cleanup project to a dedicated project team that is funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, and making it a priority so that adequate funding is available to complete the project. Based on the experience of the sodium cleanup specialists, negotiations with the DEQ will be necessary to determine a risk-based de minimus quantity for acceptable amount of sodium that can be left in the reactor systems after cleanup has been completed.

Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

GRR/Section 19-CO-c - Designated Ground Water Basin Well Permitting Process  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 19-CO-c - Designated Ground Water Basin Well Permitting Process GRR/Section 19-CO-c - Designated Ground Water Basin Well Permitting Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 19-CO-c - Designated Ground Water Basin Well Permitting Process 19COCDesignatedGroundWaterBasinWellPermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Colorado Division of Water Resources Colorado Ground Water Commission Regulations & Policies CRS 37-90-107 CRS 37-90-108 Ground Water Management District Rules 2 CCR 410-1 - Rules and Regulations for the Management and Control of Designated Ground Water Basins Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 19COCDesignatedGroundWaterBasinWellPermit.pdf 19COCDesignatedGroundWaterBasinWellPermit.pdf

111

SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would require large amounts of nitric acid (and subsequently larger reductant additions) unless a reducing acid is also used.

Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Process intensification: water electrolysis in a centrifugal acceleration field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intensification of hydrogen production by carrying out water electrolysis in a centrifugal acceleration field has been demonstrated. A prototype single cell rotary water electrolyser was constructed, and a number...

L. Lao; C. Ramshaw; H. Yeung

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Improvement in urban storm water management: analysing the innovation process through the three  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOYER 1 Improvement in urban storm water management: analysing the innovation process through to associate hard sciences and social sciences. Keywords Storm water management; observatories; innovation management is a good example: inefficient water networks in the city (regarding waste water as well as storm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Exergoeconomic Evaluation of Desalinated Water Production in Pipeline Gas Station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pipelines transporting gas often are thousands of kilometers long, a number of compressor stations are needed, which consume a significant amount of energy. To improve the efficiency of the compressor stations, the high temperature exhaust gases from the gas turbines which drive the compressors are used for producing steam or other motive fluid in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steam or other vapor is then used to drive a turbine, which in turn drives other compressors or other applications. This paper is to discuss the techno-economic evaluation of different desalination process using the exhaust of 25 MW gas turbine in gas station. MED, MSF and RO desalination systems have been considered. Nadoshan pipeline gas stations with 25 MW gas turbine drivers in Iran were considered as a case study. In this regard, the simulation has been performed in Thermoflex Software. Moreover, the computer code has been developed for thermodynamic simulation and exergoeconomic analysis. Finally, different scenarios have been evaluated and comprised in view of economic, exergetic and exergoeconomic.

M.H. Khoshgoftar Manesh; S. Khamis Abadi; H. Ghalami; M. Amidpour

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: Current and future challenges for better water supply sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Desalination capacity has rapidly increased in the last decade because of the increase in water demand and a significant reduction in desalination cost as a result of significant technological advances, especially in the reverse osmosis process. The cost of desalinated seawater has fallen below US$0.50/m3 for a large scale seawater reverse osmosis plant at a specific location and conditions while in other locations the cost is 50% higher (US$1.00/m3) for a similar facility. In addition to capital and operating costs, other parameters such as local incentives or subsidies may also contribute to the large difference in desalted water cost between regions and facilities. Plant suppliers and consultants have their own cost calculation methodologies, but they are confidential and provide water costs with different accuracies. The few existing costing methodologies and software packages such as WTCost and DEEP provide an estimated cost with different accuracies and their applications are limited to specific conditions. Most of the available cost estimation tools are of the black box type, which provide few details concerning the parameters and methodologies applied for local conditions. Many desalination plants built recently have greater desalinated water delivery costs caused by special circumstances, such as plant remediation or upgrades, local variation in energy costs, and site-specific issues in raw materials costs (e.g., tariffs and transportation). Therefore, the availability of a more transparent and unique methodology for estimating the cost will help in selecting an appropriate desalination technology suitable for specific locations with consideration of all the parameters influencing the cost. A techno-economic evaluation and review of the costing aspects and the main parameters influencing the total water cost produced by different desalination technologies are herein presented in detail. Some recent developments, such as the increase of unit capacity, improvements in process design and materials, and the use of hybrid systems have contributed to cost reduction as well as reduction in energy consumption. The development of new and emerging low-energy desalination technologies, such as adsorption desalination, will have an impact on cost variation estimation in the future.

Noreddine Ghaffour; Thomas M. Missimer; Gary L. Amy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Treatment of sea water using electrodialysis: Current efficiency evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, desalination of seawater using a laboratory scale electrodialysis (ED) cell was investigated. At steady state operation of ED, the outlet concentration of dilute stream was measured at different voltages (2?6V), flow rates (0.1?5.0mL/s) and feed concentrations (5000?30,000ppm). The electrical resistance of sea water solution in the dilute compartment was initially calculated using basic electrochemistry rules and average concentration of feed and dilute streams. Then, current intensity in each run was evaluated using Ohm's law. Finally, current efficiency (CE) which is an important parameter in determining the optimum range of applicability of an ED cell was calculated. It was found out that, at flow rates larger than 1.5mL/s, higher feed concentrations lead to larger values of CE. However, exactly opposite behavior was observed at lower flow rates. Increasing the feed flow rate increases CE to a maximum value then decreases it down to zero for all cell voltages and feed concentrations. In the case of higher feed concentrations, maximum values of CE are obtained at higher flow rates. As expected, in almost all experiments, CE increases by intensifying cell voltage. CE values of up to 48 indicate effective ion transfer across the ion exchange membranes in spite of low separation performance of the ED cell.

Mohtada Sadrzadeh; Toraj Mohammadi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Solar utility and renewability evaluation for biodiesel production process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new design concept using solar utility to supply steam and electricity for biodiesel production was proposed. A new indicator, called the renewability index, was then defined and quantified by exergy to evaluate the benefits of substituting fossil fuel utility facilities with solar utility facilities. To reduce the unfavorable environmental impacts of the biodiesel production process, a novel process on an 8000ta?1 scale with solar utility facilities was designed and simulated using Aspen Plus. The results show that the amount of fossil fuel consumption saved per year amounts to 1275t of standard coal and 4676t of CO2 release is also eliminated every year. The renewability index of the biodiesel production process with solar utility facilities is 99.9%, 10.5% higher than that with fossil fuel utility facilities. The results reported in this paper indicate that the unfavorable environmental impacts of the biodiesel production process also deserve attention and the impacts can be eliminated by using solar utility facilities.

Zhi Hou; Danxing Zheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CA 94720 ABSTRACT in the boiler used to make process steam.water, gas condensate, and boiler blowdown. A summary of thewater, gas condensate, and boiler blowd01m. Retort water and

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

120

Evaluation of IR techniques for detection of wall thinning in service water piping  

SciTech Connect

Service water piping systems at electric power plants provide cooling for a variety of safety and non-safety related components and systems. Assessing integrity of the service water piping system includes detection and analysis of pipe wall thinning. Conventional inspection techniques usually involve the time-intensive process of ultrasonic thickness measurements, based on a grid system, of the entire pipe length. An alternative to this process may lie in the use of active infrared thermography techniques for detection of thin wall areas in the pipe. The EPRI NDE Center participated in a preliminary evaluation of this technology at Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. Based on the promising results of the Vermont Yankee activity, the Center worked with Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc. (TWI) in an effort to optimize the IR thermal injection technique for service water piping applications. The primary goals of this effort were to determine the practical depth resolution capabilities of the thermal injection method in carbon steel, and also to minimize the effects of pipe curvature on detection capabilities. Both of these efforts were subject to the constraint that the system be sufficiently portable for use in an electrical power plant, where space and access to the pipe surface is often limited.

Zayicek, P. [EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, NC (United States); Shepard, S.M. [Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc., Lathrup Village, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571  

SciTech Connect

In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will indicate which test method is the most accurate and most cost effective. This paper provides a benefit to Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and other Department of Defense (DOD) programs that may be performing uranium measurements. (authors)

Tucker, Brian J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States)] [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States); Workman, Stephen M. [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)] [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy and Water Conservation in Biodiesel Purification Processes .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel purification processes generate wastewater streams that require a large amount of energy when distillation is used as a treatment technology. Process simulation software was (more)

Hastie, Michele

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations for K West Basin  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to develop the rational for the material balances that are documented in the KW Basin water system Level 1 process flow diagrams.

REED, A.V.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

Forward osmosis for desalination and water treatment : a study of the factors influencing process performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis explores various factors that have significant impacts on FO process performance in desalination and water treatment. These factors mainly include working temperatures, solution (more)

Zhao, Shuaifei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Evaluation of Offshore Wind Simulations with MM5 in the Japanese and Danish Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Offshore Wind Simulations with MM5 in the Japanese and Danish Coastal Waters Teruo to evaluate the accuracy of offshore wind simulation with the mesoscale model MM5, long-term simulations to simulate offshore wind conditions in the Japanese coastal waters even using a mesoscale model, compared

Heinemann, Detlev

126

Evaluation of feeds for melt and dilute process using an analytical hierarchy process  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company was requested to evaluate whether nuclear materials other than aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel should be considered for treatment to prepare them for disposal in the melt and dilute facility as part of the Treatment and Storage Facility currently projected for construction in the L-Reactor process area. The decision analysis process used to develop this analysis considered many variables and uncertainties, including repository requirements that are not yet finalized. The Analytical Hierarchy Process using a ratings methodology was used to rank potential feed candidates for disposition through the Melt and Dilute facility proposed for disposition of Savannah River Site aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel. Because of the scoping nature of this analysis, the expert team convened for this purpose concentrated on technical feasibility and potential cost impacts associated with using melt and dilute versus the current disposition option. This report documents results of the decision analysis.

Krupa, J.F.

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

127

Diagenetic saline formation waters: Their role in crustal processes  

SciTech Connect

Formation waters typical of most sedimentary basins are Bi-rich, Na-Ca-Cl brines. High Cl content is due to halite dissolution and high Ca content to albitization of metastable detrital plagioclase deposited in both sands and shales. High Br content is due to halite recrystallization, especially during deformation, and to the conversion of carnallite to sylvite. Minor elements and isotopes are all controlled by mineral/water reactions. Saline formation waters are thus a normal diagenetic product formed during burial. Diagenetic formation waters constitute a previously unrecognized loop in crustal cycling. Transfer of Li, B, S, Cl, Ca, and Br from sediments to brines, and then discharge of brines back to the ocean, explains why these six elements are depleted in the average igneous crust relative to the average sedimentary crust. Diagenetic saline formation waters are limited in volume only by the availability of sedimentary halite and detrital plagioclase. Thus, the volume of fluids available for MVT-type mineralization and late stage sediment diagenesis is much larger than would be true if formation waters were modified surficial brines. Discharge of saline formation waters from sedimentary basins accounts for efficient chloride cycling (225 Ma residence time in the ocean), and for most of the chloride content of the world's rivers not due to aerosols. Expulsion of large volumes of diagenetic formation waters during tectonism can account for rapid excursions in oceanic chemistry, as in the case of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr.

Land, L.S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. Geology)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Integrated Numerical Modeling Process for Evaluating Automobile Climate Control Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FCC-70 FCC-70 Integrated Numerical Modeling Process for Evaluating Automobile Climate Control Systems John Rugh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Copyright © 2002 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ABSTRACT The air-conditioning (A/C) system compressor load can significantly impact the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric automobiles. With the increasing emphasis on fuel economy, it is clear that the A/C compressor load needs to be reduced. In order to accomplish this goal, more efficient climate control delivery systems and reduced peak soak temperatures will be necessary to reduce the impact of vehicle A/C systems on fuel economy and tailpipe emissions. Good analytical techniques are important in identifying promising concepts. The goal at

129

Evaluation of engine coolant recycling processes: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Engine coolant recycling continues to provide solutions to both economic and environmental challenges often faced with the disposal of used engine coolant. General Motors` Service Technology Group (STG), in a continuing effort to validate the general practice of recycling engine coolants, has conducted an in-depth study on the capabilities of recycled coolants. Various recycling processes ranging from complex forms of fractional distillation to simple filtration were evaluated in this study to best represent the current state of coolant recycling technology. This study incorporates both lab and (limited) fleet testing to determine the performance capabilities of the recycled coolants tested. While the results suggest the need for additional studies in this area, they reveal the true capabilities of all types of engine coolant recycling technologies.

Bradley, W.H. [General Motors, Warren, MI (United States). Service Technology Group

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Effectiveness of purification processes in removing algae from Vaal Dam water at the Rand Water Zuikerbosch treatment plant in Vereeniging / H. Ewerts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of purification processes at the Rand Water Zuikerbosch treatment plant near Vereeniging. Raw water is (more)

Ewerts, Hendrik

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Evaluation of Irrigation Efficiency Strategies for Far West Texas: Feasibility, Water Savings And Cost Considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES TR-360 2009 Evaluation of Irrigation Efficiency Strategies for Far West Texas: Feasibility, Water Savings And Cost Considerations Prepared for: Far West Texas Water... and Agricultural Engineering, TAMU Zhuping Sheng, Texas AgriLife Research Texas Water Resources Institute Technical Report No. 360 Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2118 June 2009 EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY STRATEGIES...

Michelsen, Ari; Chavez, Marissa; Lacewell, Ron; Gilley, James; Sheng, Zhuping

132

Towards Achieving Clean Water Goals: An Evaluation of California's Mandatory Minimum Penalty Enforcement Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at a municipal activated sludge plant. Water Research, 17(processes in activated sludge plants: Performance andhigh-rate activated sludge plants for nitrogen removal via

Vasquez, Victor Rigor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A design-for-environment study for plating processes -- Evaluations of wastewater precipitation and separation technologies  

SciTech Connect

A wastewater pollution prevention study was performed for two plating processes. This study included wastewater precipitation process analysis, and evaluation of separation and recycling alternatives. The pollution prevention opportunity assessment goals are: to reduce and reuse wastewater, to develop a design-for-environment plating process, and to conduct a material life-cycle analysis (LCA) for selected materials and with well-defined boundary. From an analysis of coordination chemistry and a series of precipitation process tests, it was found that treatment with optimized pH and mixing rate, proper coprecipitants (such as iron salts), and chemical dosages were needed to dissociate metal ions from the chelated complexes (Cu-EDTA) in the wastewater. In this study, reverse osmosis and ion exchange, separation/recycling technologies were also evaluated. A water reclamation project with these two technologies was implemented. The analysis indicated, that with recycling systems, 33% of the wastewater could be reclaimed and more than 90% of reduction of copper in wastewater was achieved. With the LCA, a greener approach was implemented to reduce the wasted parts disposal problems.

Chang, L.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Criteria for an effective water resource planning process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In examining the present status of water resource planning in the Pacific Northwest, numerous critical inadequacies become readily apparent. One method of minimizing some of these inadequacies is through administrative ...

Bowers, James Myron

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiance Services Company manages a new technology called the Radiance Process, a dry non-toxic technology for surface cleaning. The Radiance Process received the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's 1997 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention...

Robison, J. H.

137

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal, more populations were moved from rural area into urban area, and more costs were input in water quality

Yu, Qian

138

GRR/Section 6-TX-b - Construction Storm Water Permitting Process | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6-TX-b - Construction Storm Water Permitting Process 6-TX-b - Construction Storm Water Permitting Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 6-TX-b - Construction Storm Water Permitting Process 06TXBConstructionStormWaterPermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Texas Commission on Environmental Quality EPA Regulations & Policies TPDES Construction General Permit (TXR150000) 30 Texas Administrative Code 205 General Permits for Waste Discharges Texas Water Code 26.040 General Permits Clean Water Act Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 06TXBConstructionStormWaterPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

139

Study on Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method of Cooling Water System of Surface Water Source Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water source heat pump system is a green air-conditioning system which has high efficiency, energy saving, and environmental protection, but inappropriate design of the system type of water intake will impact on ...

Jibo Long; Siyi Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Technical evaluation of a small-scale reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tunisian standards for drinking water tolerate a maximum Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) of 1.5 g/L. The domestic water presents usually a salinity greater than 0.5 g/L. In the last few years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. The performances of such type of RO units with respect to the Tunisia tap waters are needed. A technico-economical evaluation of small-scale (100 L/day) reverse osmosis desalination unit has been studied. Water pre-treatment is composed of three filtration operations. Water is pumped through the RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. Before use, the desalinated water is treated with UV light. The salinity and the temperature of the tested domestic water are located respectively between 0.5 and 1.3 g/L and between 12 and 29C. The pre-treatment allows eliminating all the suspension matters, as the turbidity and the Solid Density Index are reduced to zero FTU and surrounding one unit respectively. No chemicals are used in the pre-treatment, so membrane scaling can not be avoided if reject water presents a high scaling power. The supersaturation relative to calcium carbonate and gypsum were estimated for reject water. Their values indicate that the tested waters have no risk to scale the RO membrane. The recovery rate of the RO unit was evaluated vs. different operating conditions such as applied pressure, raw water TDS and water temperature. The small capacity unit was able to deliver a treated water of a 100 mg/L TDS with a conversion rate ranging between 25 and 37%. The water treatment cost was evaluated at 0.01 /L which is roughly the tenth of that of bottled table water.

H. Elfil; A. Hamed; A. Hannachi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Corrosion evaluation of the PNS CITROX process for chemical decontamination of BWR structural materials  

SciTech Connect

The effects of PNS Citrox decontamination on the corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600 were assessed. Evaluations involved decontaminated surface morphology examination, as well as constant extension rate tensile (CERT) testing in BWR water. Quenched and tempered low alloy steel was also included for evaluation of general corrosion. The Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS) Citrox decontamination included laboratory one- and three-step processes as well as an in-plant three- step Citrox process applied at the Vermont Yankee Power Plant. For the laboratory Citrox decontamination, intergranular attack (IGA) up to 3.2 mils in depth was observed in the sensitized Type 304 stainless steel. No IGA occurred in the laboratory decontaminated Alloy 600. On the other hand, no IGA was found in sensitized Type 304 stainless steel for the in-plant Citrox decontamination, but shallow and extremely narrow IGA was observed in the Alloy 600. Results of CERT stress corrosion cracking tests indicated that sensitized Type 304 stainless steel exposed to the three-step laboratory Citrox decontamination suffered degradation of IGSCC resistance. However, no degradation of IGSCC resistance was observed for the steel exposed to the one-step laboratory process or to PNS Citrox decontamination at the Vermont Yankee Plant. Moderate general corrosion in the range of one to three mils per decontamination cycle was observed in quenched and tempered low alloy steel. However, very low general corrosion was found in sensitized Type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600.

Wang, M.T.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Multi-Level Learning Processes in (Water) Resource Governance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Approaches to Adaptive Water Management Under Uncertainty) Twin2Go (Coordinating Twinning Partnerships and sectors management of problem sources not effects decentralized and more flexible management approaches in management goals open and shared information sources (including linking science and decision making

Slatton, Clint

144

Evaluation of production processes for LNG in arctic climate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Most of nowadays base load LNG plants are localized in the area around equator, with stable warm air and cooling water temperature. For new (more)

Borlaug, Terje

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SOx, NOx, and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making.

Gang Xu; Yong-ping Yang; Shi-yuan Lu; Le Li; Xiaona Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Evaluation of Buildup of Activated Corrosion Products for Highly Compact Marine Reactor DRX without Primary Coolant Water Purification System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Buildup of Activated Corrosion Products for Highly Compact Marine Reactor DRX without Primary Coolant Water Purification System

Odano, N

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Incorporating and Evaluating Environmental Instream Flows in a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multi-objective optimization model to characterize the tradeoffs between water supply shortages and fish 10 population capacity in a stream on the west-slope of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Harman and Stewardson (2005) evaluated a range...

Pauls, Mark

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

149

Evaluation and simplification of the assimilable organic carbon nutrient bioassay for bacterial growth in drinking water.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A modified assimilable organic carbon (AOC) bioassay is proposed. We evaluated all aspects of the AOC bioassay technique, including inoculum...raw waters need to be filtered prior to an AOC analysis. Glass fiber filters used with either...

L A Kaplan; T L Bott; D J Reasoner

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Theoretical and practical response evaluation of a fiber optic sensor for chlorinated hydrocarbons in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The response behavior of a polymer-coated mid-infrared fiber optical sensor for chlorinated hydrocarbons in water is evaluated practically and theoretically. The sensor ... - and tetrachloroethylene obtained in a...

E. Rosenberg; R. Krska; R. Kellner

151

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the Technical Progress Report for the eleventh quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1997. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. These results are described in the Results and Discussion section of this report. (2) Oil assays were completed on the HT I Run PB-05 product blend. Background information is presented in the Results and Discussion section of this report. The results are presented in Appendix 1. (3) Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. Background information is presented in the Results and Discussion section of this report. The results are presented in Appendix 2. (4) CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. Those results are described briefly in the Results and Discussion section of this report. The full report is presented in Appendix 3. (5) At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. These activities are described in Appendix 4. (6) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. A summary of Delaware's progress is provided in the Results and Discussion section. (7) The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL (Appendix 5). (8) The University of Delaware submitted a paper on the resid reactivity work for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997 in San Francisco, California. The paper, ''Kinetics of Hydroprocessing of Coal-Derived Vacuum Resids'', is appended (Appendix 6).

G.A. Robbins; G.W. Heunisch; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1989-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents, and degrading various compounds.

Hawthorne, Steven B. (Grand Forks, ND); Miller, David J. (Grand Forks, ND); Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie (Grand Forks, ND); Hammond, Peter James (York, GB); Clifford, Anthony Alan (Leeds, GB)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

PREFERENTIAL FLOW THROUGH EARTHEN LANDFILL COVERS: FIELD EVALUATION OF ROOT ZONE WATER QUALITY MODEL (RZWQM) AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract PREFERENTIAL FLOW THROUGH EARTHEN LANDFILL COVERS: FIELD EVALUATION OF ROOT ZONE WATER into the waste, earthen landfill covers are constructed once a landfill reaches its capacity. Formation earthen landfill covers during service. Most commonly used water balance models that are used

155

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solubility and begin the scale inhibition process. This also descales existing scale build-up in the system. Ozone is manufactured from ambient air and injected into the bypass system through a venturi type injector. This kills algae, slime and bacteria...

Coke, A. L.

157

Process evaluation of the gasification of leningrad oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of experiments on the thermal processing of Leningrad oil shale in a laboratory reactor under the conditions...

Yu. A. Strizhakova; N. Ch. Movsum-Zade; T. A. Avakyan; T. V. Usova

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Pore-Level Investigation of Heavy Oil Recovery During Water Alternating Solvent Injection Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study concerns with the microscopic and macroscopic fluid distribution and flow behavior during water alternating solvent (WAS) injection process to heavy oil using micromodel generated from thin section ...

A. A. Dehghan; S. A. Farzaneh; R. Kharrat; M. H. Ghazanfari

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

TiO2-based photocatalytic process for purification of polluted water: bridging fundamentals to applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent years have witnessed a rapid accumulation of investigations on TiO2-based photocatalysis, which poses as a greatly promising advanced oxidation technology for water purification. As the ability of this advanced oxidation process is ...

Chuan Wang; Hong Liu; Yanzhen Qu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ground water remediation at the Moab, Utah, USA, former uranium-ore processing site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seepage from the Moab, Utah, USA, former uranium-ore processing site resulted in ammonia and uranium contamination of naturally occurring saline ground water in alluvium adjacent to the Colorado River. An interim...

Donald R. Metzler; Joseph D. Ritchey; Kent A. Bostick

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Removal of inorganic anions from drinking water supplies by membrane bio/processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is designed to provide an overview of the main membrane-assisted processes that can be used for the removal of toxic inorganic anions from drinking water supplies. The emphasis has been placed on in...

Svetlozar Velizarov; Joo G. Crespo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models  

SciTech Connect

A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

In Cooperation with the National Park Service Water Quality Program Biogeochemical Processes in an Urban, Restored  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Cooperation with the National Park Service Water Quality Program Biogeochemical Processes in an Urban, Restored Wetland of San Francisco Bay, California, 2007­ 2009: Methods and Data for Plant, Sediment, and Water Parameters By Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Mark C. Marvin-DiPasquale, Jennifer L. Agee, Le

164

Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

165

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

166

Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis (Matson and Harris 1979). With the exception of the high lime softening process, these technologies 3 are very expensive and have many operating problems. The unit price of water treatment... with reverse osmosis is about three times the price of lime softening (You et al. 1999). The conventional lime soda process is used in cooling water systems to minimize or eliminate scale formation by removing calcium and magnesium hardness...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Institutional processes affecting the provision of water resources for public recreational use in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INSTITUTIONAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE PROVISION OF WATER RESOURCES FOR PUBLIC RECREATIO'NAL USE IN TEXAS A Thesis by WILLIAM EARI RICHARDSON Submitted to the Graduate College cf Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development INSTITUTIONAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE PROVISION OF WATER RESOURCES FOR PUBLIC RECREATIONAL USE IN TEXAS A Thesis by WILLIAM EARL RICHARDSON Approved...

Richardson, William Earl

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space velocities. Equilibrium CO conversion at 400 C was measured at a space velocity of 30,000 h{sup -1} with the 10{micro}m- thick Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} membrane operating under a pressure differential of 100 psi. No carbon deposition took place during operation. The performance of the coupled Cu-ceria catalyst/membrane system at 400 C was stable in {approx} 30 h of continuous operation. The overall conclusion from this project is that Cu-doped ceria catalysts are suitable for use in high-temperature water-gas shift membrane reactors. CO{sub 2}-rich operation does not affect the catalyst activity or stability; neither does it affect hydrogen permeation through the Pd-Cu membrane. Operation in the temperature range of 400-430 C is recommended.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

Mareth, Brett

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

Evaluation and Comparison of Ecological Models Simulating Nitrogen Processes in Treatment Wetlands,Implemented in Modelica.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Two ecological models of nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands have been evaluated and compared. These models have been implemented, simulated, and visualized in the (more)

Edelfeldt, Stina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Evaluating the effects of wildfire on stream processes in a Colorado front range watershed, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impacts of a September 2010 wildfire on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes are being evaluated in a Colorado Front Range stream.

Sheila F. Murphy; Jeffrey H. Writer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on t...

Olga C Damman; Michelle Hendriks; Jany Rademakers; Diana MJ Delnoij

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation of Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webinar  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation of Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webinar, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

175

Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation of Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webinar  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation of Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webinar, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings program.

176

Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 7, Performance evaluation of the 600-gph reverse osmosis water purification unit (ROWPU): Reverse osmosis (RO) components  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this work is to ascertain whether the performance of the current 600-gph reverse osmosis water-purification unit (ROWPU) is adequate to meet the water-quality standards recommended in Volume 4 of this study. A secondary objective is to review the design of the treatment units used in the ROWPU, as well as the prescribed mode of operation, and to make constructive recommendations. Reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) is a complicated water-treatment process that is not described easily with a few process parameters. Furthermore, published literature on the type of membrane currently used in the ROWPU was scarce. Therefore, we required a mathematical model that could be used to extrapolate existing information to different operating conditions. It was successful for seawater and single-salt solutions, but it proved to be unsuccessful for just any mix of salts that might be encountered in nature. 99 refs., 69 figs., 60 tabs.

Marinas, B.J.; Ungun, Z.; Selleck, R.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Evaluation of Packed Columns in Supercritical Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used was 1/4 inch Raschig rings with a surface area of 220 ft 2 /ft 3 . The supercritical systems studied were carbon dioxide/ethanol/water and carbon dioxide/isopropanol/water at 102 atmos pheres and 35 0 C and 102 atmospheres and 40 0 C... to the differences in performance of the two systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the most commonly used supercritical solvents because it is non-toxic and non-flammable. Carbon dioxide is inexpensive rela tive to other solvents and has a conveniently low critical...

Rathkamp, P. J.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

178

THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF PROCESSES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM CARBONACEOUS FUEL.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research work presents the thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production using steam methane reforming process at different conditions. The model is developed using HSC 4.1 (more)

Kaini, Bhanu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Safety-oriented Resilience Evaluation in Chemical Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to compare the resilience levels of two ethylene production designs demonstrated the proposed approaches and gave insights on process resilience of the designs....

Dinh, Linh Thi Thuy

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Evaluation of public engagement in the Yolo County budget process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The County Administrator???s Office of Yolo County continues to seek new opportunities to improve processes for operational improvement. In recent years, many local governments have (more)

Williams, Lyndsey Kathleen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A method for carbon oxide concentration evaluation in high-temperature combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for evaluating carbon oxide concentration in high-temperature combustion processes is presented. The paper offers an optimizing control problem for fuel combustion process using a stabilizing regulatory controller, which affects the fuel/air ...

K. E. Arystanbaev, A. T. Apsemetov

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

A method for carbon oxide concentration evaluation in high-temperature combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for evaluating carbon oxide concentration in high-temperature combustion processes is presented. The paper offers an optimizing control problem for fuel combustion process using a stabilizing regulatory ...

K. E. Arystanbaev; A. T. Apsemetov

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Doohee (Macungie, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Dynamic Control for Batch Process Systems Using Stochastic Utility Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

single turn; 3. once in operation, it is not possible to shut down a furnace, e.g., to take corrective measures; and 4. batching takes approximately 5 to 10 times longer than serial processing. Products can be processed either as a full batch (the... maximum number of products, i.e. the full capacity of the processor) or as a partial batch. The full batch condition poses fewer decision-making problems since management is needed only to determine which product type has priority in processing...

Park, Hongsuk

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

185

A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL  

SciTech Connect

Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

Prahl, C.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Author's personal copy Modelling and automation of water and wastewater treatment processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Jeppsson, 2006), including sewage systems and surrounding land use. From the methodological viewpoint on the applications of modelling and automation to water and wastewater treatment processes. The session, under sludge processes, to which unconventional and innovative control strategies were applied. But there were

187

Design and development of a supplier evaluation process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-cost sourcing is a strategy many companies, including Pratt & Whitney, use to reduce part costs. As they increase their efforts to resource products to low-cost regions, Pratt & Whitney needs a robust process to ...

Corum, Andrew (Andrew R.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Using Stable Water Isotopes to Evaluate Basin-Scale Simulations of Surface Water Budgets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two rare but naturally occurring isotopes of water, 1H218O and 1H2H16O, are becoming of practical use in diagnosis of climate and earth system model performance. Their value as tracers and validation tools in hydrological subsystems derives from ...

A. Henderson-Sellers; K. McGuffie; D. Noone; P. Irannejad

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A hybrid ED/RO process for TDS reduction of produced waters  

SciTech Connect

Large volumes of produced waters are generated from natural gas production. In the United States the prevailing management practice for produced waters is deep well injection, but this practice is costly. Therefore minimizing the need for deep well injection is desirable. A major treatment issue for produced waters is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), which consist mostly of inorganic salts. A hybrid electrodialysis/reverse-osmosis (ED/RO) treatment process is being developed to concentrate the salts in produced waters and thereby reduce the volume of brine that needs to be managed for disposal. The desalted water can be used beneficially or discharged. In this study, laboratory feasibility experiments were conducted by using produced waters from multiple sites. A novel-membrane configuration approach to prevent fouling and scale formation was developed and demonstrated. Results of laboratory experiments and plans for field demonstration are discussed.

Tsai, S.P.; Datta, R.; Frank, J.R. [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Development and evaluation of on-line detection techniques for polar organics in ultrapure water  

SciTech Connect

An on-line monitor that can perform rapid, trace detection of polar organics such as acetone and isopropanol in ultrapure water (UPW) is necessary to efficiently recycle water in semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The detection of these analytes is problematic due to their high solubility in water, resulting in low partitioning into sensor coatings for direct water analysis or into the vapor phase for detection by vapor phase analyzers. After considering various options, we have evaluated two conventional laboratory techniques: gas chromatography and ion mobility spectroscopy. In addition, optimizations of sensor coating materials and sample preconditioning systems were performed with the goal of a low cost, chemical sensor system for this application. Results from these evaluations, including recommendations for meeting the needs of this application, are reported.

Frye, G.C.; Blair, D.S.; Schneider, T.W.; Mowry, C.D.; Colburn, C.W.; Donovan, R.P.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the UnitedStates to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint.

Yi-Wen Chiu; May Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

GRR/Section 13-FD-a - Farmland Evaluation Process | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3-FD-a - Farmland Evaluation Process 3-FD-a - Farmland Evaluation Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 13-FD-a - Farmland Evaluation Process 13-FD-a - FarmlandEvaluationProcess.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies United States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Land Management Regulations & Policies Farmland Protection Policy Act DOA FPPA Regulations 7 CFR 658 Statutory definition of "farmland" - 7 USC 4201 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 13-FD-a - FarmlandEvaluationProcess.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative

194

GRR/Section 13-FD-d - Airport Evaluation Process | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3-FD-d - Airport Evaluation Process 3-FD-d - Airport Evaluation Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 13-FD-d - Airport Evaluation Process 13FDDAirportEvaluationProcess.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Federal Aviation Administration United States Department of Defense Regulations & Policies 49 USC 44718: Structures Interfering with Air Commerce 49 USC 40103: Sovereignty & Use of Airspace Pub. L. 111-383 - the "Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 14 CFR 77 - Safe, Efficient Use, and Preservation of the Navigable Airspace Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 13FDDAirportEvaluationProcess.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

195

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

196

Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

199

An investigation of numerical dispersion in the hot water injection process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dispersion is important in the simulation of the hot water injection process with heat loss. Numerical results are compared to the analytical solution of the simple convective-diffusion problem and Lauwerier's analytical solution to the hot water... simulated, then some type of method for controlling numerical dispersion will have to be implemented. It is obvious from the numerical results that numerical dispersion is affected by injection velocity and distance travelled, but these variables do...

McVay, Duane Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Engineering and economic evaluation of direct hot-water geothermal energy applications on the University of New Mexico campus. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The potential engineering and economic feasibility of low-temperature geothermal energy applications on the campus of the University of New Mexico is studied in detail. This report includes three phases of work: data acquisition and evaluation, system synthesis, and system refinement and implementation. Detailed process designs are presented for a system using 190/sup 0/F geothermal water to substitute for the use of 135 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/y (141 TJ/y) of fossil fuels to provide space and domestic hot water heating for approximately 23% of the campus. Specific areas covered in the report include economic evaluation, environmental impact and program implementation plans.

Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

1980-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

202

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Evaluation of an integrated Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining process model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data Mining projects are implemented by following the knowledge discovery process. This process is highly complex and iterative in nature and comprises of several phases, starting off with business understanding, and followed by data understanding, data ... Keywords: Analytical testing, CRISP-DM, Evaluation, IKDDM, Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDDM) process models

Sumana Sharma; Kweku-Muata Osei-Bryson; George M. Kasper

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEMENT RIVERTON PROCESSING SITE  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated). A few of the key findings include: ? Physical removal of the tailings and associated materials reduced contaminant discharges to groundwater and reduced contaminant concentrations in the near-field plume. ? In the mid-field and far-field areas, residual contaminants are present in the vadose zone as a result of a variety of factors (e.g., evaporation/evapotranspiration from the capillary fringe and water table, higher water levels during tailings disposal, and geochemical processes). ? Vadose zone contaminants are widely distributed above the plume and are expected to be present as solid phase minerals that can serve as secondary sources to the underlying groundwater. The mineral sample collected at the site is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. ? Water table fluctuations, irrigation, infiltration and flooding will episodically solubilize some of the vadose zone secondary source materials and release contaminants to the groundwater for continued down gradient migration extending the overall timeframe for flushing. ? Vertical contaminant stratification in the vadose zone and surficial aquifer will vary from location to location. Soil and water sampling strategies and monitoring well construction details will influence characterization and monitoring data. ? Water flows from the Wind River, beneath the Riverton Processing Site and through the plume toward the Little Wind River. This base flow pattern is influenced by seasonal irrigation and other anthropogenic activities, and by natural perturbations (e.g., flooding). ? Erosion and reworking of the sediments adjacent to the Little Wind River results in high heterogeneity and complex flow and geochemistry. Water flowing into oxbow lakes (or through areas where oxbow lakes were present in the past) will be exposed to localized geochemical conditions that favor chemical reduction (i.e., naturally reduced zones) and other attenuation processes. This attenuation is not sufficient to fully stabilize the plume or to reduce contaminant concentrations in the groundwater to target levels. Consistent with these observations, the team recommended increased emphasis on collecting data in the zones where secondary source minerals are projected to accumulate (e.g., just above the water table) using low cost methods such as x-ray fluorescence. The team also suggested several low cost nontraditional sources of data that have the potential to provide supplemental data (e.g., multispectral satellite imagery) to inform and improve legacy management decisions. There are a range of strategies for management of the legacy contamination in the groundwater and vadose zone near the Riverton Processing Site. These range from the current strategy, natural flushing, to intrusive remedies such as plume scale excavation of the vadose zone and pump & treat. Each option relates to the site specific conditions, issues and opportunities in a unique way. Further, each option has advantages and disadvantages that need to be weighed. Scoping evaluation was performed for three major classes

Looney, B.; Denham, M.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

205

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Toward evaluating the effect of climate change on investments in the water resources sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toward evaluating the effect of climate change on investments in the water resources sector: insights from the forecast and analysis of hydrological indicators in developing countries* Kenneth of the risks of climate change and the challenges of limiting human influence on the environment

207

Facility Energy Management Guidelines and Criteria for Energy and Water Evaluations in Covered Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Guidelines and criteria describe meeting requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), including defining facilities covered by the provision, designating facility energy managers to ensure compliance, and conducting comprehensive energy and water evaluations.

208

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A WATER SHIELD FOR A SURFACE POWER REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

Water based reactor shielding is being investigated for use on initial lunar surface power systems. A water shield may lower overall cost (as compared to development cost for other materials) and simplify operations in the setup and handling. The thermal hydraulic performance of the shield is of significant interest. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design is evaluated with 2 kW power input to the water in the Water Shield Testbed (WST) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental data from the WST is used to validate a CFD model. Performance of the water shield on the lunar surface is then predicted with a CFD model anchored to test data. The experiment had a maximum water temperature of 75 C. The CFD model with 1/6-g predicts a maximum water temperature of 88 C with the same heat load and external boundary conditions. This difference in maximum temperature does not greatly affect the structural design of the shield, and demonstrates that it may be possible to use water for a lunar reactor shield.

REID, ROBERT S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PEARSON, J. BOSIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEWART, ERIC T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater and Radionuclide Migration in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater, using FEHM, evaluate perturbed groundwater behavior associated with underground nuclear tests to an instantaneous pressurization event caused by a nuclear test when different permeability and porosity

210

Evaluation of the efficiency of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane-based water purifiers for microbiological decontamination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indigenously developed polysulfone Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane-based domestic and industrial water purification units were evaluated for their ability to filter bacteria and viruses from water. Escherichia coli (105 cfu/ml) and P1 phage (106 pfu/ml) were filtered through a Domestic Water Purifier (DWP) (dead-end UF unit) and a large-scale spiral water purifier (cross-flow UF unit) and the filtrates were analysed for bacterial and phage counts. Both units were found to be efficient in the complete removal of E. coli and a 99.99% removal of the P1 phage was observed. Both the domestic and industrial water purifiers are highly efficient in the removal of bacteria and viruses. UF membranes were also characterised for Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO) by the polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide methods, which showed that MWCO was 6065 kDa. These MWCO results were further validated using the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) rejection behaviour of these membranes, which showed about 90% rejection. The technique involving the estimation of MWCO, coupled with the rejection characteristics of E. coli and P1 phage, provides an excellent tool to evaluate the efficiency of water purifiers based on UF membrane technology.

V. Nagar; R. Shashidhar; A.K. Sharma; J.R. Bandekar; R.C. Bindal; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches  

SciTech Connect

This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effect of differing mineral contents in process water on the quantity and nitrogen concentration of protein isolates from defatted soy and cottonseed flours  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solids and nitrogen in the whey fractions. Positive effects of using deionized process waters in the cotton- seed protein isolation process were shown only with non-storage protein (NSP) curds, the minor isolates. Deionized process waters increased... of deionization of process water on curd 25 28 Effect of deionization of process water on whey . . . . . 35 Results from cottonseed protein isolation process . . . . . . . 36 Effect of deionization of process water on residue . 42 Effect of deionization...

Kim, Heikyung

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. (Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)); Frank, Richard A. (Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division-Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

215

Evaluation of hybrid polymer containing iron oxides as As(III) and As(V) sorbent for drinking water purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of utilization of a novel hybrid polymer containing iron oxides as an arsenate and arsenite sorbent in water treatment. This material was primarily obtained as a by-product in the water de-ironing process by means of N-chlorosulfonamide polymers. The sorption properties of the hybrid polymer, including pH and coexisting ions influence on arsenic removal efficiency, were examined using kinetic and equilibrium experiments in a batch regime. In the column process, conducted with As-spiked natural water containing both As(III) and As(V), the breakthrough of the sorbent bed occurred after the solution amounting to about 4800 bed volumes passed through the column. The regeneration and re-use of the sorbent with NaOH and NaCl solution was also studied, indicating the possibility of repeated use of the sorbent with only a slight decrease in its sorptive properties for four cycles.

Daniel Oci?ski; Irena Jacukowicz-Sobala; Jerzy Raczyk; El?bieta Kocio?ek-Balawejder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

February 13, 2013 Webinar: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation … Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webcast  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webcast Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webcast February 13, 2013 Ed Vine: Hello everyone and good afternoon. My name is Ed Vine and I am a staff scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, otherwise known as LBNL, and I'm the LBNL project manager for the evaluation of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. You may hear the term BBNP-it's a short- handed version for that. So thank you for joining us and welcome to today's webinar on the preliminary process and market evaluation of the BBNP. This evaluation addresses the national program with a goal of identifying what elements of grantee programs are most successful at bringing about market changes that will result in sustainable energy savings. The study provides a preliminary assessment focused on

217

Thermoelectric Microdevice Fabrication Process and Evaluation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system), radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are used for power [1]. Thermoelectric devicesThermoelectric Microdevice Fabrication Process and Evaluation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL of integrated thermal management and power management and distribution. Micro thermoelectric converters

218

Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes  

SciTech Connect

The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A nutritional evaluation of to, a staple African food, cooked using three different processing methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TO, A STAPLE AFRICAN FOOD, COOKED USING THREE DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS A Thesis by BEVERLY THURMOND JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the deqree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology A NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TO, A STAPLE AFRICAN FOOD, COOKED USING THREE DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS A Thesis by BEVERLY THURMOND JOHNSON Approved as to style...

Johnson, Beverly Thurmond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

220

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin for the applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process for simultaneous gas recovery and water disposal in production wells  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted a geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin to evaluate the applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for gas recovery and water disposal in production wells. A review of available publications was conducted to identify, (1) natural gas reservoirs which generate large quantities of gas and water, and (2) underground injection zones for produced water. Research efforts were focused on unconventional natural gas formations. The Antrim Shale is a Devonian gas shale which produces gas and large quantities of water. Total 1992 production from 2,626 wells was 74,209,916 Mcf of gas and 25,795,334 bbl of water. The Middle Devonian Dundee Limestone is a major injection zone for produced water. ``Waterless completion`` wells have been completed in the Antrim Shale for gas recovery and in the Dundee Limestone for water disposal. Jack McIntyre`s patented process has potential application for the recovery of gas from the Antrim Shale and simultaneous injection of produced water into the Dundee Limestone.

Maryn, S.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

223

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evaluation of TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim Title Evaluation of TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5092E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lutz, James D. Document Number LBNL-5092E Pagination 11 Date Published December 22 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5092E Abstract This report evaluates the hot water temperatures and flow rates as calculated by the combined HWSim and TANK simulation models. Notes This work was sponsored by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) which is funded by the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, under Residential Water Heating Program Contract No. 500-08-060. This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

225

Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

Leakage Evaluated and Controlled from Industrial Process Pipeline by Optimum Gasket Assembly Stress  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 Leakage Evaluated and Controlled from Industrial Process Pipeline by Optimum Gasket Assembly and vehicles), but they have ignore the leakage between pipelines in process industries. When hazardous something to do with false selection of gaskets, inappropriate setting and repair, as well as poor

Chen, Shu-Ching

227

Facility Energy Management Guidelines and Criteria for Energy and Water Evaluations in Covered Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Facility Energy Management Guidelines and Criteria for Energy and Water Evaluations in Covered Facilities (42 U.S.C. 8253 Subsection (f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) 25 November 2008 I. Background A. Authority Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) amends section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, by adding a new subsection (f) Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings (42 U.S.C. 8253(f); referred to as "the statute" in this guidance). The new subsection prescribes a framework for facility energy project management and benchmarking, including the following elements: * Designated "facility energy managers" for ensuring compliance of "covered facilities"

228

Facility Energy Management Guidelines and Criteria for Energy and Water Evaluations in Covered Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facility Energy Management Guidelines and Criteria for Energy and Water Evaluations in Covered Facilities (42 U.S.C. 8253 Subsection (f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) 25 November 2008 I. Background A. Authority Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) amends section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, by adding a new subsection (f) Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings (42 U.S.C. 8253(f); referred to as "the statute" in this guidance). The new subsection prescribes a framework for facility energy project management and benchmarking, including the following elements: * Designated "facility energy managers" for ensuring compliance of "covered facilities"

229

Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Optimization of water use and cost of electricity for an MEA carbon capture process, January 26, 2012  

SciTech Connect

DOE goals are: 90% CO{sub 2} capture, Less than 30% increase in COE, and to reduce water use by 70% at 50% cost of dry cooling. Objectives are: (1) Develop detailed models of supercritical power plant, MEA carbon capture process, CO{sub 2} compression; and (2) Optimize process for conflicting goals of minimizing water use and COE CO{sub 2} capture greatly increases COE and water use, power gen. 1/3 of fresh water use, and water scarcity is increasing.

Eslick, J.; Miller, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Evaluation of the soft measures' effects on ambient water quality improvement and household and industry economies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Various ecological footprint calculators, carbon footprint calculators and water footprint calculators have been developed in recent years. The basic concepts of ecological behaviour record notebooks and of carbon dioxide emission calculators have been developed since the late 20th century. The first carbon dioxide emission calculator was developed in 1991. Likewise, water pollutant discharge calculators have been developed to estimate the effects of soft measures introduced into households to reduce pollutant discharge since 2004. The soft measures which have been developed in Japan may consist of a wider framework, household sustainable consumption, which has been developed in Europe, and can be referred to cleaner consumption. In this research, summarisation of the short history of ecological behaviour record notebooks and ecological footprint calculators in Japan since the 1980s was conducted, and the soft measures in households to reduce pollutant discharge were evaluated for their effects on ambient water quality improvement as well as household and industry economies. Effects of the soft measures on related industry economies were investigated using an InputOutput Tableanalysis and the effects of the imported goods were evaluated with an import effect matrix, which was developed in this research. The effects of the soft measures on household expenditures were estimated to be a decrease by 2.5% or USD 285 person?1year?1 in 20032006. The results show that the soft measures positively affect the chemical fibre industry and significantly affect the detergent industry. Analysis of the import effect matrix proved that the six industries were tightly related through extensive amounts of imported goods. The soft measures in households may lead to household sustainable consumption and thus reduce disadvantageous human impacts on water environments. The effects of the measures introduced to improve the environment should be qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated to avoid redundant concerns and discord between the environment and the economy, which may be worried when the relationship is not well understood.

Yoshiaki Tsuzuki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, July 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY AND HEALTH EVALUATIONS APPRAISAL PROCESS GUIDE July 2009 Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide Preface July 2009 i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), published its Appraisal Process Protocols to describe the philosophy, scope, and general procedures applicable to all Independent Oversight appraisal activities. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Evaluations (HS-64) initially prepared this companion guide as part of a continuing effort to enhance the quality and consistency of ES&H oversight appraisals. The

237

Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of fission products from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1997 status  

SciTech Connect

The primary goals of this effort in FY 1997 were to survey local end users of wastewater treatment technology and then to evaluate recently available treatment processes in light of user needs. Survey results indicate that local sites are confronted with a limited, and shrinking, budget for treating aqueous waste streams. Therefore, a process will be selected primarily on the basis of sorbent costs, use of existing equipment, and disposal costs for spent processing materials. Current laboratory testing and economic studies have been directed toward addressing the technical issues specific to the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from groundwater and process wastewater. This year`s efforts have concentrated on evaluating the engineered form of crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) for near neutral pH applications. Both powder and pellet forms of CST can be obtained through UOP; this task evaluated only the engineered form of the sorbent for wastewater remediation. Preliminary experimental efforts included measuring the average particle size, surface water content, total sodium content, ion exchange capacity, and equilibration mixing time. The as received material contains approximately 10% fines, which adhere to the CST pellet. The cesium and strontium ion-exchange capacities, based on multiple contacts with 50 ppm of the metal, are 0.8 meq/g and 1.1 meq/g, respectively. Batch tests indicated that an equilibrium mixing time of 100 h was required for cesium sorption. Group 2 cations (Sr, Ca, and Mg) required greater than 500 h. Particle diffusion coefficients were estimated for each of these cations from the batch studies.

Bostick, D.T.; DePaoli, S.M.; Guo, B.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Evaluation of night capable sensors for the detection of oil on water. Final report, May 1993-March 1994  

SciTech Connect

During May, 1993, the USCG participated in a field exercise conducted at the Canadian Forces Base, Petawawa, Canada. Environment Canada set up a test facility that consisted of a lined pool separated into twelve individual tanks. Four types of petroleum products were added to nine of the tanks while three tanks were left clean as control tanks. The field exercise provided an opportunity to evaluate several night-capable sensors for detection of oil slicks on water. The USCG evaluated the day and night imaging capabilities of long wave infrared (LWIR) sensors (FLIR 2000, WF-360TL, and RS- 18C) installed on three Coast Guard aircraft. Three commercially-available hand-held medium wave infrared (MWIR) sensors (AGEMA Thermovision 210, FSI PRISM, and IRC-160ST) were also evaluated. Surface truth data were collected at the test site and through the use of visible-spectrum imagers (S-VHS camcorder and WF-360TL TV camera - day and Dark Invader Owl NVG camcorder night). Sensor imagery was recorded to S-VHS tape format for post exercise review and processing Analysis of the images confirmed several aspects of expected phenomenology. Both IR and visible spectrum sensors were readily able to detect the oil slicks during daytime sorties. Infrared, Infrared images, Long wave infrared, Medium wave infrared, Night vision goggles, Oil slick detection, visible spectrum, Remote sensing of oil slicks.

Hover, G.L.; Plourde, J.V.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Economic and environmental evaluation of microalgae biodiesel production using process simulation tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work introduces a systematic method for the economic and environmental analysis and design of new technologies applied to the 3rd generation (from microalgae) biodiesel production process. The evaluation method is based on the integrated use of process simulation techniques with economic and environmental models. The approach is applied to a new technology introduced by some of the authors, where the glycerol produced in the transesterification is used as carbon source for microalgae growth. Firstly, a state of the art biodiesel production plant in the process simulator it is modelled and the economical and environmental performance is computed. Then, the new technology is introduced and its performance are compared. The method presented is very useful for decision-makers in order to evaluate the inclusion of new technologies to improve the chemical process operation and topological designs.

Robert Brunet; David Carrasco; Eduardo Muoz; Gonzalo Guilln-Goslbez; Ioanis Katakis; Laureano Jimnez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Single-Step Process for the Deposition of High Water Contact Angle and High Water Sliding Angle Surfaces by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-Step Process for the Deposition of High Water Contact Angle and High Water Sliding Angle Surfaces by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge ... The process used a high voltage alternating current (10?000 or 22?500 Hz) with a constant dissipated power of 100 W (1.1 W cm2) generated by a Corona generator 7010R from SOFTAL electronic GmbH. ... high adhesion, presumably by generating large van der Waals' forces from the large surface area in very close contact with water. ...

Nicolas D. Boscher; David Duday; Stphane Verdier; Patrick Choquet

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluating LSM-Based Water Budgets over a West African Basin Assisted with a River Routing Scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (ALMIP-2), this study evaluates the water balance simulated by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and ...

Augusto C. V. Getirana; Aaron Boone; Christophe Peugeot

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

UNH Jerard/Fussell 1 Project Summary -Dynamic Evaluation of Machine Tool Process Capability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNH ­ Jerard/Fussell 1 Project Summary - Dynamic Evaluation of Machine Tool Process Capability large and small plant operations and decisions. For example, we show some real world examples where part, annual expenditures on machining operations total more than $200 Billion or about 2% of GDP. · Self

New Hampshire, University of

243

Peer Review As part of the overall evaluation process for faculty members, standing peer review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peer Review As part of the overall evaluation process for faculty members, standing peer review, scholarship, and service. Peer review committees may be established at the discipline and/or at the division level (interdisciplinary). Peer review committees will consist of at least five tenured faculty members

Gering, Jon C.

244

Evaluation of Authorization Basis Management Systems and Processes at the Pantex Plant  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0 0 Evaluation of Authorization Basis Management Systems and Processes at the OVERSIGHT Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................... 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 4 2.0 RESULTS ......................................................................................... 6 Line Management Responsibility for Safety ................................ 6 Clear Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities ........................... 10 Competence Commensurate with Responsibility ...................... 15 Balanced Priorities ........................................................................ 18 Identification and Flowdown of Requirements.......................... 22 Hazard Analysis and Controls

245

February 13, 2013 Webinar: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webcast  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

February 13, 2013 Webinar: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Webcast ; Better Buildings Neighborhood Program; national program with a goal of identifying what elements of grantee programs are most successful at bringing about market changes that will result in sustainable energy savings

246

Requirements for the Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) -- Determined by Field Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TR- 23 Vol II 1969 Requirements for Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) ? Determined by Field Evaluation E.B. Smith J.B. Herbich J.D. Benson Texas...TR- 23 Vol II 1969 Requirements for Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) ? Determined by Field Evaluation E.B. Smith J.B. Herbich J.D. Benson Texas...

Herbich, J. B.; Smith, E. B.; Benson, J. D.

1969-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

Hawthorne, Steven B. (Grand Forks, ND); Miller, David J. (Grand Forks, ND); Yang, Yu (Greenville, NC); Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie (Grand Forks, ND)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Evaluation Methodology for Advance Heat Exchanger Concepts Using Analytical Hierarchy Process  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the secondary/process heat exchanger (SHX) for power production and process heat application for a Next Generation Nuclear Reactors (NGNR). The potential options for use as an SHX are explored such as shell and tube, printed circuit heat exchanger. A shell and tube (helical coiled) heat exchanger is a recommended for a demonstration reactor because of its reliability while the reactor design is being further developed. The basic setup for the selection of the SHX has been established with evaluation goals, alternatives, and criteria. This study describes how these criteria and the alternatives are evaluated using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP).

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality  

SciTech Connect

From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Control System Development for Integrated Biological Waste Water Treatment Process of a Paper Production Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A bioreactor, integrated with an anoxic reactor and a settler for waste water treatment from a paper production plant is under investigation to implement a control system for enhancing effluent quality. In order to reveal the operation of the integrated process to achieve a specific goal, a methodology for control system development is proposed. In this paper, preliminary results of some steps of the methodology are presented, in order to address the oxygen uptake rate control. A dynamic model is developed for future analysis for the conceptual design of different generated control configurations.

Alicia Romn-Martnez; Pastor Lanuza-Perez; Margarito Cepeda-Rodrguez; Elvia M. Mata-Padrn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses  

SciTech Connect

This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

Paffenhofer, G.A.

1992-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

254

Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

Paffenhofer, G.A.

1992-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

255

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Economic Materials from Oil Shale Retort Water by anDerived from In Situ Oil Shale Processing", Proceedings, 2ndWastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters

Poole, L.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Glacial Cooling in the Tropics: Exploring the Roles of Tropospheric Water Vapor, Surface Wind Speed, and Boundary Layer Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is a modeling study of possible roles for tropospheric water vapor, surface wind speed, and boundary layer processes in glacial cooling in the Tropics. The authors divide the Tropics into a region of persistent deep convection and a ...

Richard Seager; Amy C. Clement; Mark A. Cane

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

The role of science, stakeholder engagement, and decision making process design in advancing innovation around water management in Massachusetts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sustainable Water Management Initiative is a multi-stakeholder process that the Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs convened in early 2010 to seek advice on how to more sustainably manage ...

Corson-Rikert, Tyler Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

259

1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important when  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of H2S in septic sewers causing pipe corrosion. 2. CO2 Stripping of some ground waters, industrial1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important wastewaters to the stream. Gas/Liquid Interface Gas Liquid Gas transfer to the liquid is absorption Gas

Stenstrom, Michael K.

260

Field evaluation of the availability for corn and soybean of phosphorus recovered as struvite from corn fiber processing for bioenergy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??FIELD EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABILITY FOR CORN AND SOYBEAN OF PHOSPHORUS RECOVERED AS STRUVITE FROM CORN FIBER PROCESSING FOR BIOENERGY A paper to be submitted (more)

Thompson, Louis Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A combined graph theory and analytic hierarchy process approach for multicriteria evaluation of hydrogen energy systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen is a renewable energy source and has the potential to mitigate the green house gas effect and to meet the increasing global electricity demand. In the present study, a multicriteria methodology is developed by combining graph theory and analytic hierarchy process methods for the evaluation and selection of hydrogen energy systems. The hydrogen energy system alternatives are assessed with respect to economic, environmental, performance and social criteria by computing the hydrogen energy system preference index. A detailed procedure for determination of hydrogen energy system preference index is suggested. Two examples relating to hydrogen production processes and hydrogen energy technologies are cited in order to demonstrate and validate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed methodology. In each example, a list of all possible choices from the best to the worst alternatives is obtained taking into account different evaluation criteria.

Pramod B. Lanjewar; R.V. Rao; A.V. Kale

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

E-Print Network 3.0 - as recycling process Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy 98 Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling Summary: is limited by the extent of treatment process that wastewater undergoes...

265

Investigation of modal processing for low frequency acoustic communications in shallow water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acoustic receptions at a vertical line array collected during the SW06 experiment were processed to show the feasibility of broadband mode decomposition as a preprocessing method to shorten time-spread and concentrate received signal energy in a small number of independent channels. The vertical array spanned the water column from 12 m depth to the bottom. PSK m-sequence modulated signals with different carrier frequencies were transmitted from a distance of 19.2 km. Signals were processed for both the case of ordinary internal waves activity and the case with abnormally strong internal wave solitons. The measured sound velocity and known bottom properties were accounted for. Mode filtering was based on a broadband pseudo-inverse processing of the received VLA signals. The broadband mode filtering decomposed the received signal into a number of independent signals with a reduced time-spread. The constellation of signals from the output of mode filters showed that a simple demodulator can achieve a high quality reception. Even during strong internal waves activity the acoustic energy was concentrated in a small number of the first acoustical modes. The receiver estimated the mode-time intensity distribution and used the strongest modes for demodulation. High quality reception is demonstrated with the data.

Andrey K. Morozov; James C. Preisig; Joseph C. Papp

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Investigation of modal processing for low frequency acoustic communications in shallow water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acoustic receptions at a vertical line array collected during the SW06 experiment were processed to show the feasibility of broadband mode decomposition as a preprocessing method to shorten time?spread and concentrate received signal energy in a small number of independent channels. The vertical array spanned the water column from 12 m depth to the bottom. PSK m?sequence modulated signals with different carrier frequencies were transmitted from a distance of 19.2 km. Signals were processed for both the case of ordinary internal waves activity and the case with abnormally strong internal wavesolitons. The measured sound velocity and known bottom properties were accounted for. Mode filtering was based on a broadband pseudo?inverse processing of the received VLA signals. The broadband mode filtering decomposed the received signal into a number of independent signals with a reduced time?spread. The constellation of signals from the output of mode filters showed that a simple demodulator can achieve a high quality reception. Even during strong internal waves activity the acoustic energy was concentrated in a small number of the first acoustical modes. The receiver estimated the mode?time intensity distribution and used the strongest modes for demodulation. High quality reception is demonstrated with the data.

Andrey Morozov; James Preisig; Joseph Papp

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Technology Evaluation for the Big Spring Water Treatment System at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) is an active manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that is located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. Building 9201-2 was one of the first process buildings constructed at the Y-12 Complex. Construction involved relocating and straightening of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) channel, adding large quantities of fill material to level areas along the creek, and pumping of concrete into sinkholes and solution cavities present within the limestone bedrock. Flow from a large natural spring designated as ''Big Spring'' on the original 1943 Stone & Webster Building 9201-2 Field Sketch FS6003 was captured and directed to UEFPC through a drainpipe designated Outfall 51. The building was used from 1953 to 1955 for pilot plant operations for an industrial process that involved the use of large quantities of elemental mercury. Past operations at the Y-12 Complex led to the release of mercury to the environment. Significant environmental media at the site were contaminated by accidental releases of mercury from the building process facilities piping and sumps associated with Y-12 Complex mercury handling facilities. Releases to the soil surrounding the buildings have resulted in significant levels of mercury in these areas of contamination, which is ultimately transported to UEFPC, its streambed, and off-site. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) is the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations prime contractor responsible for conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Complex. In order to mitigate the mercury being released to UEFPC, the Big Spring Water Treatment System will be designed and constructed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. This facility will treat the combined flow from Big Spring feeding Outfall 51 and the inflow now being processed at the East End Mercury Treatment System (EEMTS). Both discharge to UEFPC adjacent to Bldg. 9201-2. The EEMTS treats mercury-contaminated groundwater that collects in sumps in the basement of Bldg. 9201-2. A pre-design study was performed to investigate the applicability of various treatment technologies for reducing mercury discharges at Outfall 51 in support of the design of the Big Spring Water Treatment System. This document evaluates the results of the pre-design study for selection of the mercury removal technology for the treatment system.

Becthel Jacobs Company LLC

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evaluation of a 6-wire thermocouple psychrometer for determination of in-situ water potentials  

SciTech Connect

A 6-wire, Peltier-type thermocouple psychrometer was designed and evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring in-situ water potentials in dry-drilled boreholes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The psychrometer consists of a wet-bulb, chromel-constantan, sensing junction and a separate dry-bulb, copper-constantan, reference junction. Two additional reference junctions are formed where the chromel and constantan wires of the wet-bulb sensing junction are soldered to separate, paired, copper, lead wires. In contrast, in the standard 3-wire thermocouple psychrometer, both the wet bulb and dry bulb share a common wire. The new design has resulted in a psychrometer that has an expanded range and greater reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy compared to the standard model.

Loskot, C.L.; Rousseau, J.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kurzmack, M.A. [Foothill Engineering Consultants, Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory's research on assessment and control of water contamination associated with oil shale operations is directed toward the identification of potential water contamination problems and the evaluation of alternative control strategies for controlling contaminants released into the surface and underground water systems from oil-shale-related sources. Laboratory assessment activities have focused on the mineralogy, trace element concentrations in solids, and leaching characteristics of raw and spent shales from field operations and laboratory-generated spent shales. This report details the chemical, mineralogic, and solution behavior of major, minor, and trace elements in a variety of shale materials (spent shales from Occidental retort 3E at Logan Wash, raw shale from the Colony mine, and laboratory heat-treated shales generated from Colony mine raw shale). Control technology research activities have focused on the definition of control technology requirements based on assessment activities and the laboratory evaluation of alternative control strategies for mitigation of identified problems. Based on results obtained with Logan Wash materials, it appears that the overall impact of in situ processing on groundwater quality (leaching and aquifer bridging) may be less significant than previously believed. Most elements leached from MIS spent shales are already elevated in most groundwaters. Analysis indicates that solubility controls by major cations and anions will aid in mitigating water quality impacts. The exceptions include the trace elements vanadium, lead, and selenium. With respect to in situ retort leaching, process control and multistaged counterflow leaching are evaluated as alternative control strategies for mitigation of quality impacts. The results of these analyses are presented in this report.

Peterson, E.J.; Henicksman, A.V.; Fox, J.P.; O'Rourke, J.A.; Wagner, P.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

An evaluation of the benefits of combined steam and fireflooding as a recovery process for heavy oils  

SciTech Connect

Lack of oil mobility is a major problem with in situ combustion field projects, since the combustion front displaces oil into an essentially unheated reservoir. One way of ensuring oil mobility is to utilize steam injection during the early life of the process, and then switch to combustion when heated communication paths have been developed. The in situ combustion characteristics of cores from the Primrose reservoir of Northeastern Alberta were investigated in a comprehensive series of 22 combustion tube tests. The program was carried out in order to evaluate the effectiveness of fireflooding in both cores that had been preheated to the extent that the oil was mobile and in those which were steam-flooded prior to dry combustion. Both normal- and 95% oxygen-enriched air were evaluated. Wet combustion tests were performed utilizing both liquid water and steam injection. The effects of parameters such as pressure, oxygen enrichment and injection flux on the combustion characteristics were examined. This paper will discuss the results of this study, which show that steam co-injection is more effective at lowering the oxygen requirement than was combustion following steam. Additionally, the cores which were preheated exhibited similar oxygen requirements to those which were presteamed to a near-residual saturation.

Moore, R.G.; Laureshen, C.J.; Belgrave, J.D.M.; Ursenbach, M.G. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Jha, K.N. [Dept. of Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Hydrogen production from methane and solar energy Process evaluations and comparison studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three conventional and novel hydrogen and liquid fuel production schemes, i.e. steam methane reforming (SMR), solar SMR, and hybrid solar-redox processes are investigated in the current study. H2 (and liquid fuel) productivity, energy conversion efficiency, and associated CO2 emissions are evaluated based on a consistent set of process conditions and assumptions. The conventional SMR is estimated to be 68.7% efficient (HHV) with 90% CO2 capture. Integration of solar energy with methane in solar SMR and hybrid solar-redox processes is estimated to result in up to 85% reduction in life-cycle CO2 emission for hydrogen production as well as 99122% methane to fuel conversion efficiency. Compared to the reforming-based schemes, the hybrid solar-redox process offers flexibility and 6.58% higher equivalent efficiency for liquid fuel and hydrogen co-production. While a number of operational parameters such as solar absorption efficiency, steam to methane ratio, operating pressure, and steam conversion can affect the process performances, solar energy integrated methane conversion processes have the potential to be efficient and environmentally friendly for hydrogen (and liquid fuel) production.

Feng He; Fanxing Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.  

SciTech Connect

Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

275

Towards Achieving Clean Water Goals: An Evaluation of California's Mandatory Minimum Penalty Enforcement Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State University. Andreen, WL. (2003). Water Quality Today-Has the Clean Water Act Been a Success. Ala. L. Rev. , 55,3), 33-62. California State Water Resources Control Board (

Vasquez, Victor Rigor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Evaluation of a process-based ecosystem model for long-term biomass and stand development of Eucalyptus globulus plantations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Versatile process-oriented ecosystem models are discussed as promising tools for the analyses of ecosystem services beyond wood yield, such as catchment water yield,...Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Australia...

Peter Miehle; Rdiger Grote; Michael Battaglia

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Meeting the mandate for clean water : an evaluation of privately managed U.S. water and wastewater systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliable provision of clean and safe drinking water is critical for public health, economic stability and growth in the United States. Due to a combination of financial, regulatory and operational challenges, however, it ...

Freund, Evan Benjamin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Interactions between nitrifying bacteria and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during detoxification of oil sands process affected water  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of process water are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands by the Syncrude and Suncor operations in northern Alberta. Freshly produced tailings water is acutely toxic, but it has been shown to slowly detoxify over time. As detoxification proceeds, there is also a precipitous decrease in ammonia concentrations. The present study examines these two microbially-mediated processes in relation to levels of bacteria and toxicants in mixtures of fresh and aged (detoxified) tailings water. Detoxification of tailings water was greatly accelerated when equal volumes of fresh and detoxified (natural aging for one year) tailings water were mixed. Addition of phosphorus further stimulated detoxification, causing levels of ammonia and naphthenic acids (toxic organic acids leached during bitumen extraction) to decrease to those of detoxified water within two months. Such changes were not observed when phosphorus was not added, or when it was added to less diluted (10-.1 or 3-.1) fresh tailings water. Populations of nitrifying bacteria and naphthenic acid degraders increased markedly in the phosphorus-amended mixtures, but not in its absence. Addition of CS{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of nitrification) to these mixtures prevented ammonia oxidation. Surprisingly, it also prevented the increase in naphthenic acid-degraders and retarded the loss of naphthenic acids. These results suggest the existence of interactions in fresh tailings water between nitrifying bacteria, naphthenic acid degraders and toxicants. The activity of naphthenic acid-degraders apparently remains low until ammonia is oxidized, whereas that of nitrifying bacteria remains low until concentrations of naphthenic acids or other toxicants decrease below some threshold level. Understanding these interactions may lead to more efficient and effective processes to detoxify oil sands process water.

Sobolewski, A. [Microbial Technologies, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Research, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 16, 2014 NIKKEN SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International... of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 District heating and cooling system in Nakanoshima 4 Characteristics of heat supply plant in Nakanoshima district -River water is utilized as heat...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Preliminary evaluation of VTA effectiveness to protect runoff water quality on small pork production facilities in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/or Robertson County sites on the following dates: January 9, 2013 February 10, 2013 March 10, 2013 April 3, 2013 May 9, 2013 May 16, 2013 May 21, 2013 June 3, 2013 June 10, 2013 July 15, 2013 Results from the analysis... Research Service Texas Water Resources Institute TR-452 November 2013 Preliminary evaluation of VTA effectiveness to protect runoff water quality on small pork production facilities in Texas STATE NONPOINT SOURCE GRANT PROGRAM TSSWCB PROJECT...

Wagner, K.; Harmel, D.; Higgs, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An evaluation of invertebrate dynamics in a drinking water distribution system: a South African perspective .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The occurrence of invertebrates in drinking water supplies is a common consumer complaint with studies showing that very few drinking water distribution networks are totally (more)

Shaddock, Bridget

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Water flow processes in a soil column with a cylindrical macropore: Experiment and hierarchical modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interdomain water transfer could be estimated using mass balance calculations. In a hierarchical modeling

Mohanty, Binayak P.

283

Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties in friction stir processed SKD61 tool steel  

SciTech Connect

A SKD61 tool steel was friction stir processed using a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tool. Microstructure, tensile properties and wear characteristic were evaluated. Fine grains with a martensite structure were produced in the friction stir processed zone, which led to the increase of the microindentation hardness. The grains became finer when the heat input was lowered. The transverse tensile strength of the friction stir processed zone was equal to that of base metal and all the tensile specimens fractured at base metal zone. The wear width and depth of the friction stir processed zone at the load of 1.96 N were 339 {mu}m and 6 {mu}m, as compared to 888 {mu}m and 42 {mu}m of the base metal, decreased by 62% and 86%. Findings of the present study suggest that low heat input is an effective method to produce a friction stir processed zone composed of relatively fine grain martensitic structure with good tensile properties and wear characteristic.

Chen, Y.C., E-mail: armstrong@hit.edu.cn [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nakata, K. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process  

SciTech Connect

This project was aimed at obtaining process engineering and scale-up data at a laboratory scale to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a patented post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture process?the Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP). Unique features of the IVCAP include its ability to be fully-integrated with the power plant?s steam cycle and potential for combined sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal and CO{sub 2} capture. Theoretical and experimental studies of this project were aimed at answering three major technical questions: 1) What additives can effectively reduce the water vapor saturation pressure and energy requirement for water vaporization in the vacuum stripper of the IVCAP? 2) What catalysts can promote CO{sub 2} absorption into the potassium carbonate (PC) solution to achieve an overall absorption rate comparable to monoethanolamine (MEA) and are the catalysts stable at the IVCAP conditions and in the flue gas environment? 3) Are any process modifications needed to combine SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} removal in the IVCAP? Lab-scale experiments and thermodynamic and process simulation studies performed to obtain detailed information pertinent to the above three technical questions produced the following results: 1) Two additives were identified that lower the saturation pressure of water vapor over the PC solution by about 20%. 2) The carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme was identified as the most effective catalyst for promoting CO{sub 2} absorption. The absorption rate into the CO{sub 2}-lean PC solution promoted with 300 mg/L CA was several times slower than the corresponding 5 M MEA solution, but absorption into the CO{sub 2}-rich PC solution was comparable to the CO{sub 2}-rich MEA solution. The tested CA enzymes demonstrated excellent resistance to major flue gas impurities. A technical-grade CA enzyme was stable at 40{degrees}C (104{degrees}F) over a six-month test period, while its half-life was about two months at 50{degrees}C (122{degrees}F). Enzyme immobilization improved the CA enzyme?s thermal stability by up to three times compared to its free counterpart. 3) Two process modifications were proposed to improve the technical performance of the IVCAP for combined SO{sub 2} removal and CO{sub 2} capture. The results from a techno-economic study of a 528 MWe (gross) pulverized coal-fired, subcritical steam power plant revealed that the cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance with the IVCAP was about 30% lower than conventional MEA-based processes. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the IVCAP ranged from $40 to 46/MWh, an increase of 60 to 70% compared to a reference power plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The overall conclusion of this study is that the IVCAP is a technically feasible and economically more attractive process than available MEA-based processes. A scale-up study using the slipstream of an actual coal-derived flue gas and development of a more stable CA enzyme are recommended for future studies.

Lu, Yongqi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Ruhter, David; Khodayari, Arezoo; Rood, Mark

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

Sustaining Industrial Energy Efficiency in Process Cooling in a Potentially Water-Short Future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Energy-Intensive Plants* Source: Anonymous US petrochemical company *Includes refineries and ethylene plants ESL-IE-14-05-18 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Estimated Water Use... Sources Strategy: Education on New(er) Technologies and Approaches Barriers to Use of Unconventional Water Sources (sea water, brackish water or brine water) High pipeline costs; Need to address upgrades to metallurgy as well as minimizing...

Ferland, K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

Not Available

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Evaluation and comparison of models and modelling tools simulating nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, two ecological models of nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands have been evaluated and compared. These models were implemented, simulated, and visualized using the Modelica modelling and simulation language [P. Fritzson, Principles of Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation with Modelica 2.1 (Wiley-IEEE Press, USA, 2004).] and an associated tool. The differences and similarities between the MathModelica Model Editor and three other ecological modelling tools have also been evaluated. The results show that the models can well be modelled and simulated in the MathModelica Model Editor, and that nitrogen decrease in a constructed treatment wetland should be described and simulated using the Nitrification/Denitrification model as this model has the highest overall quality score and provides a more variable environment.

Stina Edelfeldt; Peter Fritzson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Labs Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and predictive capability. Recommended improvements include: greater flexibility for input of mass transfer parameters, time-variable gas inlet concentration, direct output of loading and temperature profiles along the bed, and capability to conduct simulations of beds in series.

Pompilio, L. M. [Syracuse University; DePaoli, D. W. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

An evaluation of household drinking water treatment systems in Peru : the table filter and the safe water system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) storage, and education. Tests on the SWSs in Peru demonstrated 99.6% E.coli removal and 95% total coliform removal. Only 30% of the SWSs tested contained water at or above the WHO-recommended concentration of free ...

Coulbert, Brittany, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Theoretical model for evaluation of variable frequency drive for cooling water pumps in sea water based once through condenser cooling water systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In sea water based once through cooling water system for power plants, sea water is pumped through the condenser and the return hot water is let back to sea. The cooling water pumps (CWP) in power plants generally operate at constant speed, pumping variable quantities of water depending on the tide level in the sea. The variable flow causes variation in condenser back pressure resulting in changes in the turbine cycle heat rate. If the pump speed is controlled using a variable frequency drive (VFD) to maintain design flow irrespective of the tide level, the CWP power consumption can be reduced compared to the case with constant speed CWP. However, the turbine cycle heat rate benefit that could have accrued at tide levels above the pre defined level (for fixing the CWP head) with constant speed CWP would have to be sacrificed. This paper provides a theoretical model with a typical case study to establish viability of providing VFD for \\{CWPs\\} in power plants with sea water based once through condenser cooling water system.

R. Harish; E.E. Subhramanyan; R. Madhavan; S. Vidyanand

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Suitability of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency for the simulation of the water balance of landfill cover systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Cover systems are widely used to safeguard landfills and contaminated sites. The evaluation of the ... water balance is crucial for the design of landfill covers. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performanc...

K. Berger; S. Melchior; G. Miehlich

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hillslope Hydrological Processes in a Costa Rican Rainforest: Water Supply Partitioning Using Isotope Tracers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems in many rural areas. In this study, stable isotope tracing of ?^(18)O and ?D was used to determine the source of water in a stream, and the relative contributions of water budget components (e.g., groundwater, soil water). Samples were collected...

DuMont, Andrea Lyn

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

294

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Process for analyzing CO.sub.2 in air and in water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO.sub.2 into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte phase. CO.sub.2 is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO.sub.2 with the membrane into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species in the second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO.sub.2 to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 in the first CO.sub.2 sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument.

Atwater, James E. (Eugene, OR); Akse, James R. (Roseburg, OR); DeHart, Jeffrey (Yoncalla, OR)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Process for analyzing CO[sub 2] in air and in water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO[sub 2] into a first CO[sub 2] sample phase and a second CO[sub 2] analyte phase. CO[sub 2] is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO[sub 2] with the membrane into a first CO[sub 2] sample phase and a second CO[sub 2] analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species in the second CO[sub 2] analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO[sub 2] to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO[sub 2] in the first CO[sub 2] sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument. 43 figs.

Atwater, J.E.; Akse, J.R.; DeHart, J.

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

297

Evaluation of a Conjunctive SurfaceSubsurface Process Model (CSSP) over the Contiguous United States at RegionalLocal Scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents a comprehensive evaluation on a Conjunctive SurfaceSubsurface Process Model (CSSP) in predicting soil temperaturemoisture distributions, terrestrial hydrology variations, and landatmosphere exchanges against various in situ ...

Xing Yuan; Xin-Zhong Liang

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A process for evaluation and state approval of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This document contains copies of the vugraphs used by C. R. Hodgin for the November 6, 1991 presentation summarizing the process to be used for evaluation of the Emergency Response Dispersion Model. (MHB)

Hodgin, C.R.

1991-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

299

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Multiple regression models: A methodology for evaluating trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 2001; accepted 28 January 2002 Abstract The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water in finished drinking water, using data from the Menidi Treatment Plant of Athens. A number of routinely Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multiple regression model; Trihalomethanes; Drinking water

Arhonditsis, George B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Methodology for Predicting Water Content in Supercritical Gas Vapor and Gas Solubility in Aqueous Phase for Natural Gas Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The streams in the natural gas process contain light hydrocarbons, mainly methane and ethane, associated with non-hydrocarbon supercritical gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, etc.). ... For system that contains supercritical gases, the gas solubility in water can be related to the Henry's law constant. ...

Chorng H. Twu; Suphat Watanasiri; Vince Tassone

2007-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

304

ABSTRACT: Water resource management in West Africa is often a complicated process due to inadequate resources, climatic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Volta River Basin include high popu- lation densities, population growth rate, poverty, watershed sizeABSTRACT: Water resource management in West Africa is often a complicated process due to inadequate Basin, West Africa.) Taylor, Joie C., Nick van de Giesen, and Tammo S. Steenhuis, 2006. West Africa

Walter, M.Todd

305

Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of fission products from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1996 status  

SciTech Connect

This report describes laboratory results acquired in the course of evaluating new sorbents for the treatment of radiologically contaminated groundwater and process wastewater. During FY 1996, the evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin for the removal of cesium and strontium from wastewaters was completed. Additionally, strontium sorption on sodium nonatitanate powder was characterized in a series of multicomponent batch studies. Both of these materials were evaluated in reference to a baseline sorbent, natural chabazite zeolite.

Bostick, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guo, B. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Exploring Frontiers in Kinetics and Mechanisms of Geochemical Processes at the Mineral/Water Interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exploring Frontiers in Kinetics and Mechanisms of Geochemical Processes at the Mineral in the Earth's Critical Zone is the kinetics. The timescales for geochemical processes range from milliseconds geochemical processes including surface complexation, mineral transformations, and oxidation

Sparks, Donald L.

307

Coproduction of sulphuric acid and hydrogen by sulphur-assisted water electrolysis process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The addition of sulphur powder to the anode compartment of the sulphuric acid-water electrolysis cell resulted in the suppression of oxygen... 4 2? ...) by the ...

Y. S. Shih; M. J. Jong

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Nuclear Explosives Safety Evaluation Process (DOE-STD-3015-2004)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SENSITIVE DOE-STD-3015-2004 November 2004 Superseding DOE-STD-3015-2001 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY EVALUATION PROCESS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://tis.eh.doe.gov/techstds/. DOE-STD-3015-2004 iii FOREWORD This Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Standard is approved for use by the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Military Application and Stockpile Operations, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and is available for use with DOE O 452.1, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, and DOE O 452.2, SAFETY OF

309

A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Heterogeneous and Monolithic Catalyst Development for the Biodiesel Production Process & Evaluation of Static Mixers for the Esterification Process .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the present biodiesel production process, sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid are the conventional homogeneous catalysts used, in spite of their drawbacks, such as soap (more)

Annamalai, Nagarajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Multiregional InputOutput Model for the Evaluation of Spanish Water Flows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Halfway through the first decade of the 21st century water withdrawals in Spain have been slightly less than 40 km3 per year (own estimations from ref 2), being around 60% abstracted by agriculture, 14.5% by the water distribution sector (distributed to industries and households), 16% by the energy and gas sectors, and 4% by industries. ... We also relate these water flows and demands with the regional water availability, in order to offer insights on the Spanish water stress, defined as volume of water consumed/availability per capita. ... Total WF to GDP ratio (SI Table SI2) is on average higher for Spain than for EU and lower than for the RW (the opposite for the last ratios of WF per capita). ...

Ignacio Cazcarro; Rosa Duarte; Julio Snchez Chliz

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

314

Computational Modeling of Coal Water Slurry Combustion Processes in Industrial Heating Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal water slurry (CWS) is typically composed of 6070% coal, 3040% water, and 1% chemical additives. It has been developed over the last 20 years as an alternative to fuel oil mainly in industrial and utility b...

L. J. Zhu; B. Q. Gu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor  

SciTech Connect

700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Evaluation of the economic simplified boiling water reactor human reliability analysis using the SHARP framework .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??General Electric plans to complete a design certification document for the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor to have the new reactor design certified by the (more)

Dawson, Phillip Eng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design, modeling and process economic analysis are employedper day. Like BTL process, economic analysis has shown thatused as major input for process economic analysis in the

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Evaluation of the Rockwell International flash-hydroliquefaction process. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Department of Energy, UOP/SDC has evaluated the Rockwell Hydroliquefaction Process to determine the adequacy of the existing PDU data base and to assess the practicability and operability of the process. UOP/SDC conducted nine studies. Their findings follow: (1) A complete designed set of experiments must be run on the present PDU to make possible satisfactory analysis of the effects of variables especially the effect of diluents in the H/sub 2/ feed and the possibility of carbon deposition problems. (2) Basic improvements in the equipment and operation of the PDU should first be made (Ten specific recommendations are made). (3) A reactor design concept must be developed that looks feasible for design, fabrication, and operation. (4) A conceptual commercial design and economics should be prepared based on a realistic set of design bases and criteria. (5) If the above are accomplished successfully with attractive results, then and only then: (a) A study should be made of the refining requirements of the product, which are expected to be expensive based on the H/C ratio. (b) The PDU should be modified for continuous runs of up to one month to: Confirm the data correlations, estimate the reliability of the reactor and process, adhere to the requirements stated above, test cryogenic gas separation, study fouling and erosion, study lockhopper feeding, establish initial reliability of the coal injector and precombustion assembly head, collect scale-up and design data, and conduct a materials study and confirm materials choices. (c) Determine particle size of the char and of the solids in the oil product, the degree to which they may be separated, and how the ash should be removed from the product oil.

Sirohi, V.P.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Water and Energy Issues in Gas-to-Liquid Processes: Assessment and Integration of Different Gas-Reforming Alternatives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and water management effects are analyzed for the development of syngas processes under the integration of three gas reforming alternatives ... Gandrick et al.(9) considered the recycling of the light gas from FT synthesis and refining areas to fire gas turbines to produce electricity and the reuse of the gas turbines to produce superheated steam. ... We address in this paper several aspects related to such issues: (a) A comparative analysis is developed for assesing the impact of the use of different reforming technologies on energy and water usage. ...

Diana Yered Martnez; Arturo Jimnez-Gutirrez; Patrick Linke; Kerron J. Gabriel; Mohamed M. B. Noureldin; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

2013-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Design and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Point-of-Use Ultraviolet Water Disinfection Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of small quantities of by-products, such as dichloromethane in the former and benzene in the later, after quality along with sufficient provision of water supply and improved hygiene and sanitation (2). We socioeconomic, temporal and geographic scales. Water quality may be improved through more effective central

Kammen, Daniel M.

322

Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2009-2010 Evaluation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems was compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period. The Hot Water System Laboratory (HWS Lab) test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for the tests.

323

Evaluation of the CRITERIA Irrigation Scheme Soil Water Balance Model in Texas Initial Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CRITERIA model was created in the 1990s in Italy, and is based on the soil water balance computation procedures developed at the Wageningen University in the Netherlands in the 1980s. CRITERIA has been used as an analysis and regional water...

Bonaiti, G.; Fipps, G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Exergy Analysis as a Tool to Analyze the Performance of Water Depuration Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, water and energy interaction was analyzed from the point of view of a detailed exergy analysis of the two operating wastewater plants ... dry incineration or biogas cogeneration. The unit exergy ...

A. Lozano; J. Uche; A. Martnez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil Shale Products. LERCfor Use 1n Oil Shale and Shale Oil. OSRD-32, 1945. Jeris, J.Water coproduced with shale oil and decanted from it is

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of chemical analyses to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods are obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, new analytical instruments and techniques to examine coal-derived samples are being evaluated. The data obtained form this study are used to guide process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank, established and maintained for use in this project, is available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) is being examined. From the literature and experimental data, a kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. Such a model will provide insights to improve process performance and the economics of direct coal liquefaction.

Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Evaluation Of A Turbidity Meter For Use At The Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation's (SRR's) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a ''peanut'' vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 wt%. A ''go/no-go'' decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a ''go'' decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a ''no-go'' determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards for testing both Optek units and to determine the viability of a ''go/no-go'' CU response for each of the units. Statistical methods were used by SRNL to develop the critical CU value for the ''go/no-go'' decision for these standards for each Optek unit. Since only one sludge simulant was available for this testing, the sensitivity of these results to other simulants and to actual sludge material is not known. However, limited testing with samples from the actual DWPF process (both SRAT product samples and SMECT samples) demonstrated that the use of the ''go/no-go'' criteria developed from the sludge simulant testing was conservative for these samples taken from Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), the sludge batch currently being processed. While both of the Optek units performed very reliably during this testing, there were statistically significant differences (although small on a practical scale) between the two units. Thus, testing should be conducted on any new unit of this Optek model to qualify it before it is used to support the DWPF operation.

Mahannah, R. N.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

EVALUATION OF A TURBIDITY METER FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediations (SRRs) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a peanut vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 weight percent (wt%). A go/no-go decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a go decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a no-go determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. Subsequent to the issuance of the initial version of this report but under the scope of the original request for technical assistance, WSE asked for this report to be revised to include the go/no-go CU value corresponding to 0.28 wt% solids. It was this request that led to the preparation of Revision 1 of the report. The results for the 0.28 wt% solids value were developed following the same approach as that utilized for the 0.14 wt% solids value. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards for testing both Optek units and to determine the viability of a go/no-go CU response for each of the units. Statistical methods were used by SRNL to develop the critical CU value for the go/no-go decision for these standards for each Optek unit. Since only one sludge simulant was available for this testing, the sensitivity of these results to other simulants and to actual sludge material is not known. However, limited testing with samples from the actual DWPF process (both SRAT product samples and SMECT samples) demonstrated that the use of the go/no-go criteria developed from the sludge simulant testing was conservative for these samples taken from the sludge batch, Sludge Batch 7b, being processed at the time of this testing. While both of the Optek units performed very reliably during this testing, there were statistically significant differences (although small on a practical scale) between the two units. Thus, testing should be conducted on any new unit of this Optek model to qualify it before it is used to support the DWPF operation.

Mahannah, R.; Edwards, T.

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

330

Solar process water heat for the Iris Images Custom Color Photo Lab. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report of the solar facility locted at Iris Images Custom Photo Laboratory in Mill Valley, California. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100/sup 0/F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxiliary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Freeze protection in this mild climate was originally provided by closed-loop circulation of hot water from the storage tank. Later this was changed to a drain-down system due to a freeze when electrical power failed. This system has been relatively successful with little or no scheduled maintenance. The site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are included.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

19,20). In the coking step, coal is heated III the absencethe "coking" process in In the second step the which coal isCoal Liquefaction Wastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters from Petroleum Refining Sour Waters from Coking

Poole, L.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications, Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program goals were to develop and demonstrate significant improvements in processing methods, process controls and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1,370{degrees}C. The program focused on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} high temperature ceramic composition and hot-isostatic-pressing as the method of densification. Stage I had as major objectives: (1) comparing injection molding and colloidal consolidation process routes, and selecting one route for subsequent optimization, (2) comparing the performance of water milled and alcohol milled powder and selecting one on the basis of performance data, and (3) adapting several NDE methods to the needs of ceramic processing. The NDE methods considered were microfocus X-ray radiography, computed tomography, ultrasonics, NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent liquid dye penetrant and X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis. The colloidal consolidation process route was selected and approved as the forming technique for the remainder of the program. The material produced by the final Stage II optimized process has been given the designation NCX 5102 silicon nitride. According to plan, a large number of specimens were produced and tested during Stage III to establish a statistically robust room temperature tensile strength database for this material. Highlights of the Stage III process demonstration and resultant database are included in the main text of the report, along with a synopsis of the NCX-5102 aqueous based colloidal process. The R and D accomplishments for Stage I are discussed in Appendices 1--4, while the tensile strength-fractography database for the Stage III NCX-5102 process demonstration is provided in Appendix 5. 4 refs., 108 figs., 23 tabs.

Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Wilkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Photoinduced Water Oxidation by a Tetraruthenium Polyoxometalate Catalyst: Ion-pairing and Primary Processes with Ru(bpy)32+ Photosensitizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoinduced Water Oxidation by a Tetraruthenium Polyoxometalate Catalyst: Ion-pairing and Primary Processes with Ru(bpy)32+ Photosensitizer ... Two interrelated issues relevant to this behavior have been examined in detail: (i) the effects of ion pairing between the polyanionic catalyst and the cationic Ru(bpy)32+ sensitizer, and (ii) the kinetics of hole transfer from the oxidized sensitizer to the catalyst. ... This process competes appreciably with the primary photoreaction of the excited sensitizer with the sacrificial oxidant, even in high ionic strength media. ...

Mirco Natali; Michele Orlandi; Serena Berardi; Sebastiano Campagna; Marcella Bonchio; Andrea Sartorel; Franco Scandola

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

335

Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion  

SciTech Connect

Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106.

Feero, Amie J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Schofield, John S. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

336

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phyllis Fox INTRODUCTION Oil shale retorting produces fromWaste Water from Oil Shale Processing" ACS Division of FuelEvaluates Treatments for Oil-Shale Retort Water," Industrial

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at constant pressure Coal water slurry Diffusion coefficient (Damkohler number) Activation energy Higher heating value Gasification rate constant Flame lift off distance Mass of CWS drop Number of coal particles in a single CWS drop Prandtl number... of gasification and combustion of liquid and coal. This is due to the fact that basic combustion theories apply to both processes with some differences to compensate for the difference in the ignition and combustion characteristics of a liquid drop and slurry...

Bhadra, Tanmoy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Performance Evaluation of Hot Water Efficiency Plumbing System Using Thermal Valve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Korea two popular water distribution systemsthe branch type and the separate type systemshave serious drawbacks. The branch type suffers from temperature instability while the separate type suffers from excessive piping. Neither of them re...

Cha, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Seo, H. Y.

339

Evaluation of Resource Use and Economic Effects Due to Irrigation Water Availiability in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

subject to conjecture. Future agricultural price and production control programs are unknown and can only be hypothesized. These factors and others are important to water requirements of agriculture and must be dealt with by measurement or estimation...

Trock, W. L.; Schmer, F. A.

340

Time Domain Terahertz Non Destructive Evaluation of Water Intrusion in Composites and Corrosion under Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time domain terahertz (a.k.a. T-Ray or THz) imaging is used to detect water intrusion and delamination in composite structures used in radomes. Corrosion is detected on pipes beneath...

White, Jeffrey S; Zimdars, David A

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Evaluation of a Forward Operator to Assimilate Cloud Water Path into WRF-DART  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assimilating satellite-retrieved cloud properties into storm-scale models has received limited attention despite its potential to provide a wide array of information to a model analysis. Available retrievals include cloud water path (CWP), which ...

Thomas A. Jones; David J. Stensrud; Patrick Minnis; Rabindra Palikonda

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oils wastewater sludge by in-situ subcritical methanol transesterification: Process evaluation and optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biodiesel are gaining increased public and scientific attention as an alternative to petroleum diesel fuel, driven by factors such as oil price spikes, energy security and environmental concerns. In this study, low grade wastewater sludge originated from wastewater treatment unit of vegetable oil factory as a viable alternative lipid source for biodiesel production was evaluated. The lipid mass fraction of the dry and ash-free sludge was 12.440.87%, which mainly comprised of C16C18 fatty acids. The in-situ transesterification process under subcritical water and methanol conditions was applied as a green pathway to convert lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The reaction parameters investigated were temperatures (155215C), pressures (5.56.5MPa) and methanol to lipid mass ratios (1:1, 5:1 and 9:1). The highest FAME yield of 92.673.23% was obtained at 215C, 6.5MPa and methanol to lipid mass ratio of 5:1. Statistical analysis based on response surface methodology in 3-factor-3-level central composite designed experiments and analysis of variance were applied to examine the relation between input parameters and the response and to locate the optimum condition. Results showed that 98% of the variability in the response could be adequately explained by the second-order polynomial model. The optimum FAME yield (90.37%) was obtained at 215C, 6.5MPa and methanol to lipid mass ratio of 5.12:1. Experimental validation (N=3) demonstrated satisfactory agreement between the observed and predicted values with an error of at most 3.3%.

Farrel Gunawan; Alfin Kurniawan; Iwan Gunawan; Yi-Hsu Ju; Aning Ayucitra; Felycia E. Soetaredjo; Suryadi Ismadji

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Evaluation of electrodialysis for scaling prevention of nanofiltration membranes at high water recoveries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The water recovery of nanofiltration in drinking water production is limited to 8085%. When the water recovery is increased, there is a risk of scaling of sparingly soluble salts, such as CaSO4 or CaCO3, onto the membrane surface. There is a need for robust technologies that handle the problem of mineral scaling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, allowing operation at higher recoveries, i.e., with a higher production of potable water. In this study, the retentate stream of a nanofiltration unit was therefore desalinated by electrodialysis. Two different ion exchange membrane pairs, namely AMX-CMX (Neosepta, Japan) and FTAM-FTCM (Fumasep, Germany) were used for this purpose. The membrane pairs were compared on the basis of their removal efficiency of the main ions present in natural waters, with special attention to calcium and sulphate ions. The economic feasibility of retentate treatment by electrodialysis is discussed as well. The FTAM anion exchange membranes of Fumasep were able to remove sulphate ions faster, relative to chloride or nitrate ions. This is unexpected, because sulphate ions have a high hydrated ionic radius and steric hindrance typically obstructs their transport through anion exchange membranes, as is the case with the AMX membranes. This feature makes the FTAM membranes appropriate for the desalination of retentate streams of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, in water recycling applications. The other membranes can be regarded as non-selective.

Steven Van Geluwe; Leen Braeken; Thomas Robberecht; Maarten Jans; Claude Creemers; Bart Van der Bruggen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Condensers . Reboiler . . . . Boiler Feed Water Heater.COLUMN EFFECT OF ELIMINATING BOILER FEEDWATER PREHEAT EFFECTThese units preheat boiler feedwater. also preheat low-

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Evaluating the robustness of phylogenetic methods to among-site variability in substitution processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...evolution organized by Ziheng Yang and Nick Goldman Evaluating the robustness of...2003), so evaluating the relative merits of these methods has been an important...Junhyong Kim, Tracy Heath, Ziheng Yang, Nick Goldman and two anonymous reviewers...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF INTEGRATED WATER SYSTEMS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-reuse and regeneration-recycling as an approach for wastewater minimization. They have also proposed a methodology, and treating wastewater is minimized. A superstructure, which incorporates all feasible design alternatives for water treatment, reuse and recycle, is proposed. We formulate this structure as a non-convex Non

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

349

Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process June 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Sahid C. Smith Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process June 2009 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Review Team thanks Ms. Sonitza Blanco, Team Lead Planning and Coordination Waste Disposition Project U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office and Mr. Pete Hill, Liquid Waste Planning Manager for Washington Savannah River Company, for their

350

Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Interim report, 1994 Summer  

SciTech Connect

The federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This interim report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology-a hot water heater conversion system to convert electrically heated hot water tanks to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Winiarski, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States with consumption of nearly 1.5 quads/year of energy (10{sup 15} quad = 1015 Btu) and cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) seeks to evaluate new energy -- saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP with funding support from the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of 4 candidate energy-saving technology-a water heater conversion system to convert electrically powered water heaters to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Winiarski, D.W.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A novel recycling process using the treated citric acid wastewater as ingredients water for citric acid production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, an integrated process coupling citric acid and methane fermentations was proposed to solve severe wastewater pollution problem in cassava-based citric acid production. The accumulation patterns of the potential and major inhibitors in this process, including organic compounds, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total ions and pigments were investigated. Both simulation and experimental results indicated that these inhibitors could reach their equilibrium levels after 37 fermentation runs when reutilizing the treated citric acid wastewater. As a result, the proposed citric acid fermentation process by recycling the wastewater treated in methane fermentation could be stably operated for more than 15 runs, which could save a large amount of fresh water and relieve the severe wastewater pollution in citric acid production potentially.

Hong-Jian Zhang; Jian-Hua Zhang; Jian Xu; Lei Tang; Zhong-Gui Mao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the corresponding technical basis for the excluded FEPs and the descriptions of how the included FEPs were incorporated in the biosphere model. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report concern characteristics of the reference biosphere, the receptor, and the environmental transport and receptor exposure pathways for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios considered in biosphere modeling. This revision provides the summary of the implementation of included FEPs in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included); for excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report is one of the 10 documents constituting the biosphere model documentation suite. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' describes in detail the biosphere conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters and their development. Outputs from these six reports are used in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis and Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' to generate the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' analyzes the output of these two BDCF reports.

M. Wasiolek; P. Rogers

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

354

Initial Evaluation of Processing Methods for an Epsilon Metal Waste Form  

SciTech Connect

During irradiation of nuclear fuel in a reactor, the five metals, Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, migrate to the fuel grain boundaries and form small metal particles of an alloy known as epsilon metal ({var_epsilon}-metal). When the fuel is dissolved in a reprocessing plant, these metal particles remain behind with a residue - the undissolved solids (UDS). Some of these same metals that comprise this alloy that have not formed the alloy are dissolved into the aqueous stream. These metals limit the waste loading for a borosilicate glass that is being developed for the reprocessing wastes. Epsilon metal is being developed as a waste form for the noble metals from a number of waste streams in the aqueous reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) - (1) the {var_epsilon}-metal from the UDS, (2) soluble Tc (ion-exchanged), and (3) soluble noble metals (TRUEX raffinate). Separate immobilization of these metals has benefits other than allowing an increase in the glass waste loading. These materials are quite resistant to dissolution (corrosion) as evidenced by the fact that they survive the chemically aggressive conditions in the fuel dissolver. Remnants of {var_epsilon}-metal particles have survived in the geologically natural reactors found in Gabon, Africa, indicating that they have sufficient durability to survive for {approx} 2.5 billion years in a reducing geologic environment. Additionally, the {var_epsilon}-metal can be made without additives and incorporate sufficient foreign material (oxides) that are also present in the UDS. Although {var_epsilon}-metal is found in fuel and Gabon as small particles ({approx}10 {micro}m in diameter) and has survived intact, an ideal waste form is one in which the surface area is minimized. Therefore, the main effort in developing {var_epsilon}-metal as a waste form is to develop a process to consolidate the particles into a monolith. Individually, these metals have high melting points (2617 C for Mo to 1552 C for Pd) and the alloy is expected to have a high melting point as well, perhaps exceeding 1500 C. The purpose of the work reported here is to find a potential commercial process with which {var_epsilon}-metal plus other components of UDS can be consolidated into a solid with minimum surface area and high strength Here, we report the results from the preliminary evaluation of spark-plasma sintering (SPS), hot-isostatic pressing (HIP), and microwave sintering (MS). Since bulk {var_epsilon}-metal is not available and companies could not handle radioactive materials, we prepared mixtures of the five individual metal powders (Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Re) and baddeleyite (ZrO{sub 2}) to send the vendors of SPS, HIP, and MS. The processed samples were then evaluated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for bulk density and phase assemblage with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and phase composition with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physical strength was evaluated qualitatively. Results of these scoping tests showed that fully dense cermet (ceramic-metal composite) materials with up to 35 mass% of ZrO{sub 2} were produced with SPS and HIP. Bulk density of the SPS samples ranged from 87 to 98% of theoretical density, while HIP samples ranged from 96 to 100% of theoretical density. Microwave sintered samples containing ZrO{sub 2} had low densities of 55 to 60% of theoretical density. Structurally, the cermet samples showed that the individual metals alloyed in to {var_epsilon}-phase - hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) alloy (4-95 mass %), the {alpha}-phase - face-centered-cubic (FCC) alloy structure (3-86 mass %), while ZrO{sub 2} remained in the monoclinic structure of baddeleyite. Elementally, the samples appeared to have nearly uniform composition, but with some areas rich in Mo and Re, the two components with the highest melting points. The homogeneity in distribution of the elements in the alloy is significantly improved in the presence of ZrO{sub 2}. However, ZrO{sub 2} does not appear to react with the alloy, nor was Zr found in the alloy.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Zumhoff, Mac R.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

355

Study of degumming process and evaluation of oxidative stability of methyl and ethyl biodiesel of Jatropha curcas L. oil from three different Brazilian states  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work describes the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. The kernel samples provided by Embrapa-PI, were first crushed in a blender and then subjected to extraction with hexane. The oil yield was between 54.710.47 and 64.162.88%. The J.curcas oil was then submitted to two different kinds of degumming, first with water and second with H3PO4 to evaluate the influence of these processes in the yield of the transesterification reaction. Methyl and ethyl biodiesel prepared from the degummed oil with H3PO4 had higher conversions than those prepared with the degummed with water. Therefore, among the processes of degumming studied, H3PO4 was more suitable for the treatment of J.curcas oil. The study shows the results about oxidation stability were good, because the biodiesels methyl and ethyl biodiesel have induction period at 13.51h and 13.03h without antioxidant addition when submitted a Rancimat text. Such biodiesels had their physicochemical parameters defined under the specifications of ANP Resolutions n 14/2012 (ANP- National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels from Brazil). The results showed that J.curcas cultivation in Brazil is an adequate source for biodiesel production, considering the technical standards available.

Francisca Diana da Silva Arajo; Iranildo C. Arajo; Isabella Cristhina G. Costa; Carla Vernica Rodarte de Moura; Mariana H. Chaves; Eugnio Celso E. Arajo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Evaluation of synthetic salt water desalination by using a functionalized polysulfone based bipolar membrane electrodialysis cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The work reported herein describes the study of desalination of synthetic salt water at laboratory scale in five different feed concentrations using a lab-made functionalized high molecular weight polysulfone (PSu) polymer based monopolar (cation exchange and anion exchange) and bipolar ion exchange membranes (with PVA as the intermediate layer) using bipolar membrane electrodialysis cell. Various parameters such as conductivity, solution pH, feed concentration, current efficiency, energy consumption, transport number, fluxes and water dissociation efficiency were determined. During the 8h treatment under optimal conditions (i.e. time, current, higher acid and base concentrations), for the various initial feed concentrations (from 10g/L to 50g/L), the current efficiencies obtained ranged from 27% to 75%. And for the highest feed concentration, the highest current efficiency (?max. of about 75% for \\{PSu\\} and 63% for polystyrene divinylbenzene (PSDVB)) with lowest energy consumption (?max. of about 1.2Wh/mol for \\{PSu\\} and 2.6Wh/mol for PSDVB) in addition to acid-base production (?max. of about 0.018N acid: 0.016N base for \\{PSu\\} and 0.012N acid: 0.013N base for PSDVB) was observed. The results of the study demonstrated the promising potential of functionalized polysulfone based ion exchange membranes for greater water dissociation efficiency in desalination of water.

Krishnaveni Venugopal; Sangeetha Dharmalingam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Evaluation of a spatially-distributed Thornthwaite water-balance model  

SciTech Connect

A small watershed of low relief in coastal New Hampshire was divided into hydrologic sub-areas in a geographic information system on the basis of soils, sub-basins and remotely-sensed landcover. Three variables were spatially modeled for input to 49 individual water-balances: available water content of the root zone, water input and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The individual balances were weight-summed to generate the aggregate watershed-balance, which saw 9% (48--50 mm) less annual actual-evapotranspiration (AET) compared to a lumped approach. Analysis of streamflow coefficients suggests that the spatially-distributed approach is more representative of the basin dynamics. Variation of PET by landcover accounted for the majority of the 9% AET reduction. Variation of soils played a near-negligible role. As a consequence of the above points, estimates of landcover proportions and annual PET by landcover are sufficient to correct a lumped water-balance in the Northeast. If remote sensing is used to estimate the landcover area, a sensor with a high spatial resolution is required. Finally, while the lower Thornthwaite model has conceptual limitations for distributed application, the upper Thornthwaite model is highly adaptable to distributed problems and may prove useful in many earth-system models.

Lough, J.A. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Complex Systems Research Center)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Binary Cooling Tower Process: An Energy Conserving Water Reuse Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Binary Cooling Tower (BCT) harnesses cooling system waste heat to accomplish concentration of waste and process streams. The BCT can also be integrated to isolate and improve the efficiency of critical cooling loops. This paper describes the BCT...

Lancaster, R. L.; Sanderson, W. G.; Cooke, R. L., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shaleand Oil Shale Products. LERC Rept. of Invest. 77-1, 1977.Significant to In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Quart. Colo.

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Surface water transport and distribution of uranium in contaminated sediments near a nuclear weapons processing facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extent of remobilization of uranium from contaminated soils adjacent to a nuclear weapons processing facility during episodic rain events was investigated. In addition, information on the solid phase associations of U in floodplain and suspended...

Batson, Vicky Lynn

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, MAY 2000 181 Evaluating the Impact of Process Changes on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, MAY 2000 181 Evaluating--Cluster tools are highly integrated machines that can perform a sequence of semiconductor manufacturing. In addition, we present an integrated simulation model that in- cludes a process model. For a given scheduling

Rubloff, Gary W.

362

Detecting and Evaluating the Effect of Overlaying Thin Cirrus Cloud on MODIS Retrieved Water-Cloud Droplet Effective Radius  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detecting and Evaluating the Effect Detecting and Evaluating the Effect of Overlaying Thin Cirrus Cloud on MODIS Retrieved Water-Cloud Droplet Effective Radius F.-L Chang and Z. Li Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Z. Li Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction Cirrus clouds can largely modify the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiances. The ubiquitous presence of cirrus clouds has a global coverage of about 20% to30% and more than 70% in the tropics (Wylie et al. 1994). The probability of cirrus clouds overlaying a low-level boundary layer cloud system is greater than 50% (Hahn et al. 1982, 1984; Tian and Curry 1989; Mace et al. 1997). They are often optically thin and semitransparent and frequently reside in high altitude overlapping with a low-level

363

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE estimates that if algae fuel replaced all the petroleumalgae feedstock instead of the lipid is converted to fuelsfuels production from microalgae The detail conversion process is the same as green waste-to-liquid process introduced earlier and algae

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Process design and evaluation of value-added chemicals production from biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three different biodiesel production processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. The process for producing biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol was designed using commercial chemical catal...

A. -Ra Go; Jae Wook Ko; Sang Jun Lee

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Acknowledgements The Review Team thanks Mr. Glyn Trenchard, Team Lead for Planning and Coordination Waste Disposition Project, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of River Protection, Mr. Paul Rutland, RPP System Planning Manager for Washington River Protection Solutions, and Mr. Ernie Lee,

366

Evaluation of improved technologies for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1995 status  

SciTech Connect

A number of new sorbents are currently being developed for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from contaminated, caustic low-level liquid waste (LLLW). These sorbents are potentially promising for use in the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and process wastewater containing the two radionuclides. The goal of this subtask is to evaluate the new sorbents to determine whether their associated treatment technology is more selective for the decontamination of wastewater streams than that of currently available processes. Activities during fiscal year 1995 have included completing the characterization of the standard treatment technology, ion exchange on chabazite zeolite. Strontium and cesium sorption on sodium-modified zeolite was observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of wastewater components: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The most significant loss of nuclide sorption was noted in the first 0- to 4-meq/L addition of the cations to a wastewater simulant. Radionuclide sorption on the pretreated zeolite was also determined under dynamic flow conditions. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, which was developed at the Savannah River Site, was selected as the first new sorbent to be evaluated for wastewater treatment. Nuclide sorption on this resin was greater when the resin had been washed with ultrapure water and air dried prior to use.

Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.; McTaggart, D.R.; Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guo, B. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energys request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Supercritical transesterification processing permits efficient fuel system and combustion chamber designs to optimize fuel utilization in diesel engines.,

369

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION  

SciTech Connect

The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

Hathcock, D

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Reverse osmosis for removing synthetic organics from drinking water: a cost and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis for removing organic compounds from drinking water has considerable promise. Bench and pilot plant studies on actual waters have shown that several organics proposed for regulation can be removed by reverse osmosis. As membrane technology improves, rejection of more difficult to remove compounds is expected to improve. Also, smaller volumes of concentrate are expected to be produced that can be handled more cost-effectively. One major concern with the use of reverse osmosis is concentrate disposal, which may increase the overall cost of treatment and disposal. The cost of reverse osmosis is very sensitive to such factors as recovery, economies of scale, systems configuration, membrane type, and electric power cost. In certain situations, reverse osmosis is a viable treatment option that is not cost-prohibitive.

Lykins, B.W.; Clark, R.M.; Fronk, C.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Outdoor field evaluation of passive tritiated water vapor samplers at Canadian power reactor sites  

SciTech Connect

Tritium is one of several radioactive nuclides routinely monitored in and around CANDU{reg_sign} (CANada Deuterium Uranium) power reactor facilities. Over the last ten years, passive samplers have replaced active sampling devices for sampling tritiated water vapor in the workplace at many CANDU stations. The potential of passive samplers for outdoor monitoring has also been realized. This paper presents the result of a 1-y field trial carried out at all five Canadian CANDU reactor sites. The results indicate that passive samplers can be used at most sampling locations to measure tritiated water vapor in air concentrations as low as 1 Bq m{sup -3} over a 30-d sampling period. Only in one of the five sampling locations was poor agreement observed between active and passive monitoring data. This location, however, was very windy and it is suspected that the gusty winds were the source of the discrepancies observed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Wood, M.J. [Chalk River Lab., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

373

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

K.A. Lokhandwala; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; C. Bailey; M. Jacobs; R. Baker; Membrane Group

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

374

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

375

On Managing Texas Rural Water Supply Systems: A Socioeconomic Analysis and Quality Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

expected to provide a critical probe and insight into an evaluation methodology that may be used in future studies investigating public programs. To this end, the research reported here is exploratory in nature and may set grounds for more critical studies...

Singh, R.N.

376

Evaluation of stack criteria pollutant gas absorption in the new generation thermoelectric water condenser fitted with laminar impinger type heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to establish an Acid Rain Program to reduce the adverse effects of acidic deposition. The Act specifically stipulated that CEMS (continuous emissions monitoring systems) be used to measure the stack emissions under this program. Along with these rules, comes the task of the Stack Tester (Reference Method) to routinely perform RATA (Relative Accuracy Test Audit) tests on the installed CEMS. This paper presents a laboratory and field test sequence to evaluate the signal attenuation through the gas sample conditioning, water condensation removal process, using laminar flow impinger heat exchangers. This method is compared to the EPA CFR 40, Part 60, Appendix A, Method 6, glass impinger train, commonly used by RATA stack testers. CFR 40, Part 75 revisions as of the CAAA 1990, requires more stringent certification and CEMS performance standards. These standards are summarized and related to gas absorption in both the thermoelectric cooler heat exchanger and the Method 6 glass impinger train system. As an incentive to reduce the frequency of RATA tests required per year, emitters are encouraged to achieve relative accuracies of 7.5% or less compared to the reference method. This incentive requires better reference method test apparatus definition. This paper will explore these alternatives and provide test data for comparison to the currently available apparatus. Also discussed is the theory of Electronic Gas Sample Coolers and their practical application to the removal of water from stack gas.

Baldwin, T. [Baldwin Environmental, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Application of the Colorado River Simulation System Model to Evaluate Water Shortage Conditions in the Central Arizona Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Colorado River system water management and reservoir operations ... following categories: water allocations, water deliveries, flood control, reservoir operating requirements and criteria,...

Jess R. Gastlum; Chuck Cullom

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Preliminary evaluation of a concept using microwave energy to improve an adsorption-based, natural gas clean-up process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a preliminary evaluation performed to: (1) determine if microwave energy could be used to regenerate a zeolite adsorbent and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of using microwave energy to improve the desorption phase of a pressure swing adsorption process applied to upgrading natural gas (methane) contaminated with nitrogen. Microwave regeneration was evaluated by comparing the adsorption characteristics of a zeolite preconditioned by heating under vacuum to the characteristics of the same zeolite after various lengths of exposure to microwave energy. The applicability of microwave regeneration to natural gas cleanup was evaluated by measuring the rise in adsorbent temperature resulting from the microwave exposure. Microwave energy consumed by heating the adsorbent is not productive and must therefore be minimal for a process to be economically viable. Exposure of the methane-saturated chabazite for 2 minutes to microwave energy effectively regenerated the adsorbent, but resulted in a 75{degrees}F (42{degrees}C) rise in adsorbent temperature. This temperature rise indicates that the concept is unacceptable for natural gas processing due to excessive energy consumption.

Grimes, R.W.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Water quantity and quality model for the evaluation of water-management strategies in the Netherlands: application to the province of Friesland  

SciTech Connect

The Netherlands have a rather complex water-management system consisting of a number of major rivers, canals, lakes and ditches. Water-quantity management on a regional scale is necessary for an effective water-quality policy. To support water management, a computer model was developed that includes both water quality and water quantity, based on three submodels: ABOPOL for the water movement, DELWAQ for the calculation of water quality variables and BLOOM-II for the phytoplankton growth. The northern province of Friesland was chosen as a test case for the integrated model to be developed, where water quality is highly related to the water distribution and the main trade-off is minimizing the intake of (eutrophicated) alien water in order to minimize external nutrient load and maximizing the intake in order to flush channels and lakes. The results of the application of these models to this and to a number of hypothetical future situations are described.

Brinkman, J.J.; Griffioen, P.S.; Groot, S.; Los, F.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361  

SciTech Connect

A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

NONE

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that these are highly preliminary, incomplete, and optimistic estimates. Biophotolysis processes, indirect or direct, clearly require considerable basic and applied R and D before a more detailed evaluation of their potential and plausible economics can be carried out. For example, it is not yet clear which type of algae, green algae, or cyanobacteria, would be preferred in biophotolysis. If lower-cost photobioreactors can be developed, then small-scale (<1 ha) single-stage biophotolysis processes may become economically feasible. A major basic and applied R and D effort will be required to develop such biophotolysis processes.

Benemann, J.R.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Bridge scour evaluation with a one-dimensional water surface profile model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neglected. Later, Laursen (1962) modified equation (18) and presented the following equa; tions for estimating the long contraction scour at bridge piers for live ? bed scour ? = 5. 5( ? ) [( ? + 1)' ? I] (19) and for clear-water scour b D (~+1) ~ ? =5... whose support lea. d me to the completion. Also, a. special note of thanks to all my friends for their support. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Pa. ge I INTRODUCTION . I. 1 Genera. l I. 2 General Category of Scour I. 3 The Objectives of This Research II...

Zhou, Ke

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

An evaluation of factors influencing Salmonella contamination of commercially processed frog legs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was changed to eliminate the severing of the gastrointestinal tract which contributed to contamination of the legs with Salmonella. ln addition, more extensive sanitizing measures were initiated in the processing plant. Under these conditions the incidence... preliminary improvements with respect to processing procedures and equipment sanitation. Samples taken during the second visit represented significant changes in sanitary efforts at the processing plant. These changes were based on observations and test...

Wyatt, Lawrence Eddie

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Evaluation of ground-water quality impacts of lignite waste disposal at a Texas lignite mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be responsible for the high degree of selen1um attenuation 1s adsorption of the element by amorphous iron and alum1num ox1des and organic matter abundant in the clay soils of the study area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my thes1s.... LABORATORY DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT INVESTIGATION . . Methods. Preliminary Evaluation Mechanism of Selenium Attenuation. Freundlich Isotherm. . Control Batch Tests Distribution Coefficient Dependence on Soil Type. . . . . Distribution Coefficient...

Green, Deborah Joan

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling ... The phototransformation of the widely used biocide triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was quantified for surface waters using artificial UV light and sunlight irradiation. ... The pH of surface waters, commonly ranging from 7 to 9, determines the speciation of triclosan (pKa = 8.1) and therefore its absorption of sunlight. ...

Cline Tixier; Heinz P. Singer; Silvio Canonica; Stephan R. Mller

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between alternative solar storage system designs; almost allThe behavior of the storage solar receiver-reactor is baseddaytime (charging) storage process Boeing solar receiver [5J

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Conceptual evaluation of the potential role of fractures in unsaturated processes at Yucca Mountain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Process Models, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. U.S. GeologicalUnsaturated Zone Model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam.Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain,

Hinds, Jennifer J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Residual Stress Evaluation of Materials Manufactured by High-Energy Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents several applications of the step by step hole drillling method for measuring residual stress distribution introduced in different components manufactured by the high energy process.

J. F. Flavenot; J. Lu

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Grant monitoring by charities: The process of grant-making and evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents the results of a survey of grant monitoring in 170 UK charities. The monitoring ... Although over 70 per cent of donors monitored grants, a much smaller percentage proceeded to evaluate...

Ken Ashford; Julia Clarke

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Evaluation of coal and its influence on coke quality and the coking process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evaluation of coal batch is considered, along with its influence on coke quality and the coking properties. The quality of the coal available for coking at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat is ...

G. R. Gainieva; V. I. Byzova; N. N. Nazarov; L. D. Nikitin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

A new FMEA method by integrating fuzzy belief structure and TOPSIS to improve risk evaluation process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) model is a technique used to evaluate ... . This paper aimed to propose a new FMEA model combining technique for order of preference ... overcome the shortcomings of the tr...

Behnam Vahdani; M. Salimi; M. Charkhchian

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Comparative evaluation of crop water use efficiency, economic analysis and net household profit simulation in arid Northwest China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Decreasing water availability for agricultural production has prompted researchers to focus on comparing and evaluating water use efficiency (WUE) of different crops in various water management strategies. A field survey was conducted to investigate the amount of irrigation water, inputs and yields of eight crops (spring wheat, maize, onion, cotton, hot pepper, sunflower, melons and fennel) grown under furrow irrigation systems in an arid region, Minqin county, Northwestern China (NWC). Previous publications reporting crop WUE were identified and major statistics of evapotranspiration (ET), yield (Y) and WUE were calculated for each crop. By comparing with literature reporting, the mean WUE of onion (8.71kgm?3), cotton (0.56kgm?3), sunflower seed (0.78kgm?3) and fennel (0.51kgm?3) grown in NWC were at the same high levels; while WUE of wheat (0.87kgm?3) and maize (1.17kgm?3) were slightly lower and WUE of hot pepper (2.68kgm?3) and melons (3.27kgm?3) were extremely low. Great potential of saving water could be achieved to realize increased or ideal WUE values for crops in NWC. The total net profit per household of cotton (1606.62$hh?1) was significantly larger and of onion (?3132.30$hh?1) significantly lower than that of other crops. Cotton, sunflower seed, melons and hot pepper had significantly higher crop production values per unit water than other crops, 0.39$m?3, 0.36$m?3, 0.32$m?3 and 0.31$m?3, respectively. The net household profits were significantly higher when excluding onion production for its extremely low price in 2011. With simulation based on different combinations of onion production and increase of migrant workers, the average net household profit could be optimized to provide benefits to local farmers and policy makers regarding income increase and rural policy design.

Yubing Fan; Chenggang Wang; Zhibiao Nan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Evaluation of cracking in steam generator feedwater piping in pressurized water reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

Cracking in feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to steam generators in 15 pressurized water reactor plants. Sections with cracks from nine plants are examined with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Using transmission electron microscopy, fatigue striations are observed on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a cyclic stress value of 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses and it is concluded that the overriding factor in the cracking problem was the presence of such undocumented cyclic loads.

Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, July 29, 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This guide is a subordinate document to the Independent Oversight Appraisal Process Protocols. While the protocols provide general guidance common to all appraisal activities, this document provides additional detail and guidance regarding procedures and methods specific to ES&H appraisals conducted by Independent Oversight. DOE Order 470.2B is an important reference document that defines program requirements and, in particular, defines processes for sites to respond to identified vulnerabilities and to develop corrective action plans. The processes described in this guide are used for all ES&H appraisals, including periodic inspections, special reviews, targeted nuclear safety inspections, or other appraisal activities, because the reviews differ only in detail.

395

Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions  

SciTech Connect

To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that the observed surface Pu residue was from the buried sources, not atmospheric fallout. (6) The

Fred J. Molz, III

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

396

A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the Technical Progress Report for the twelfth quarter of activities. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) Thirty-nine samples from four run conditions of HTI Run PB-07 were received. Appropriate samples were characterized by proton NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vacuum distillation, and solvent quality tests. (2) The University of Delaware completed their subcontract this quarter. A meeting was held on April 30, 1997 at the University to close out the subcontract. (3) Twelve sets of samples were chosen from the CONSOL sample bank for the study of the insoluble and presumed unreactive material from process stream samples. Each set consists of the whole process stream and the 454 C{sup +} (850 F{sup +}) distillation resid derived from that process stream. Processing data for all samples were compiled. The samples represent four Wilsonville pilot plant runs and two HTI runs.

Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Methodology for technology evaluation under uncertainty and its application in advanced coal gasification processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has attracted interest as a cleaner alternative to conventional coal-fired power generation processes. While a number of pilot projects have been launched to ...

Gong, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

Chau, Chi-Fai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evaluation of Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry for At-Line Process Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A low-field medium-resolution NMR spectrometer, with an operating frequency of 29 MHz for 1H, has been developed for use in process analysis. The information that is...

Nordon, Alison; McGill, Colin A; Littlejohn, David

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evaluation of Seafood Processing Wastes in Prepared Feeds for Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

byproduct consistently provided the highest performance values at 80 percent replacement. The catfish byproduct yielded the lowest fish performance at all levels. This study indicates that dry extrusion of seafood processing wastes can be used to replace a...

Pernu, Benjamin Mark

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

An Evaluation of Proposed Representations of Subgrid Hydrologic Processes in Climate Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temporal and spatial scales that characterize surface hydrologic processes provide conceptual and practical difficulties to the development of parameterization schemes for incorporation into climate models. In particular, there is a ...

G. Thomas; A. Henderson-Sellers

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Evaluation of ettringite-related swelling mechanisms for treated chromite ore processing residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accelerated one-dimensional unconfined swell tests were conducted for ferrous sulfate chromite ore processing residue (COPR) field-treated samples. The field-treated samples were subjected to wet and dry cycle...

Deok Hyun Moon; Mahmoud Wazne

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Process for treating ammonia and nitrite containing waters to prevent nitric oxide emissions therefrom  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for controlling the emission of nitrogen dioxide from, and the amount of one or more organisms, selected from the group consisting of fungi, algae and bacteria, growing in a system for handling a flow of condensate of steam, the condensate containing ammonia, ammonia precursors, or a mixture thereof. It comprises contacting the condensate in a substantially continuous manner with an amount of an oxidizing biocide which substantially prevents the emission of nitrogen dioxide from the condensate handling system but which does not substantially inhibit the growth of the organisms in the condensate handling system; and periodically contacting the condensate with an amount of a second biocide which substantially reduces the amount of the organisms.

Gallup, D.L.; Featherstone, J.L.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

404

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept - Task 2: Evaluation of Process Steps.  

SciTech Connect

A novel direct coal liquefaction technology is being investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates under DOE Contract DE-AC22-95PC95050. The novel concept consists of a new approach to coal liquefaction chemistry which avoids some of the inherent limitations of current high-temperature thermal liquefaction processes. The chemistry employed is based on hydride ion donation to solubilize coal at temperatures (350-400{degrees}C) significantly lower than those typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. The process concept being explored consists of two reaction stages. In the first stage, the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second, the products are catalytically upgraded to acceptable refinery feedstocks. The program explores not only the initial solubilization step, but integration of the subsequent processing steps, including an interstage solids-separation step, to produce distillate products. A unique feature of the process concept is that many of the individual reaction steps can be decoupled, because little recycle around the liquefaction system is expected. This allows for considerable latitude in the process design. Furthermore, this has allowed for each key element in the process to be explored independently in laboratory work conducted under Task 2 of the program.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

A Membrane Process for Industrial Water Treatment: From Bench to Pilot Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

A rotary membrane filtration system was used to separate die lubricant from a manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by factors of 20 to 25, carbon oxygen demand by 1.5 to 2, and total organic carbon by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand remained constant. The rotary membranes were not fouled as badly as static membranes, and the rotary membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the static membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary ultrafilter can concentrate the die lubricant, remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lubricant suitable for in-plant recycling. The recycling system operated for 6 weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that when recycled die lubricant was used, the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. Rotary ultrafiltration presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

Eric S. Peterson; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; Jessica Trudeau

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

A software for performance evaluation and comparison of people detection and tracking methods in video processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Digital video content analysis is an important item for multimedia content-based indexing (MCBI), content-based video retrieval (CBVR) and visual surveillance systems. There are some frequently-used generic object detection and/or tracking (D&T) ... Keywords: Multimedia performance evaluation, People detection, People tracking, Surveillance systems

Bahadir Karasulu; Serdar Korukoglu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Kinetic evaluation of the tri-reforming process of methane for syngas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conversion of natural gas was carried out via tri-reforming of methane in a fixed bed reactor employing a Ni/?-Al2O3 catalyst. The kinetic evaluations were performed in a temperature range from 923 to 1,123K...

Leonardo J. L. Maciel

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Use of Water Quality Index Models for the Evaluation of Surface Water Quality: A Case Study for Kirmir Basin, Ankara, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water quality is an important factor for health and safety issues associated with public health and also for aquatic life. More and more water quality issues are becoming a significant concern due to the growt...

Ozlem TuncDede; Ilker T. Telci; Mustafa M. Aral

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

In-situ remediation of nitrate-contaminated ground water by electrokinetics/iron wall processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The feasibility of using electrokinetics coupled with a zero valent iron (Fe0) treatment wall to abiotically remediate nitrate-contaminated soils was investigated. Upon completion of each test run, the contaminated soil specimen was sliced into five parts and analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen. Nitrogen mass balance was used to determine the major transformation products. In control experiments where only electrokinetics was used at various constant voltages, 25 to 37% of the nitrate-nitrogen was transformed. The amount of nitrate-nitrogen transformed improved when a Fe0 wall (20 g or about 810% by weight) was placed near the anode. For test runs at various constant voltages, the amount of nitrate-nitrogen transformed ranged from 54 to 87%. By switching to constant currents, the amount of nitrate-nitrogen transformed was about 84 to 88%. The major transformation products were ammonia-nitrogen and nitrogen gases. Nitrite-nitrogen was less than 1% in all experimental runs. Two localized pH conditions exist in the system, a low pH region near the anode and a high pH region near the cathode. Placing of an iron wall near the anode increases the pH in that area as time increases. Movement of the acid front did not flush across the cathode. This research has demonstrated that the electrokinetics/iron wall process can be used to remediate nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

Chin F. Chew; Tian C. Zhang

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Quantitative comparison of processes of oil-and water-based mud-filtrate invasion and corresponding effects on borehole resistivity measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for hydrocarbon exploration and production, drilling fluids sustain a pressure higher than that of formationQuantitative comparison of processes of oil- and water-based mud-filtrate invasion-filtrate invasion on borehole resistivity measurements. We simulate the process of mud-fil- trate invasion

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

411

Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Evaluating the effect of surface modifications on Ni based electrodes for alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In an effort to improve the efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogen production, surface modifications to Ni based electrodes were made by means of mechanical polishing using sandpapers of different sand grain sizes and chemical coating using electrochemical deposition of Ni and Co. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied to reveal and compare the apparent and intrinsic activities of the electrodes, as indicated by the Tafel curves based on the geometric surface area and effective surface area, respectively. A relative roughness factor, which was estimated from the double layer capacitance in the impedance measurement, was introduced to characterise the effective surface area. The relative roughness factor of the six modified electrodes varied from 3.3 to 5.6. The electrode polished with the P400 sandpaper achieved the best apparent activity by possessing the lowest overpotential of 422mV at the current density of 750Am?2. For electrodes modified by the mechanical polishing, the Tafel curves collapsed into a narrow band when the current density was divided by the relative roughness factor, which validated the method of using the relative roughness factor for quantifying the effective surface area. The intrinsic activity of the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni electrode can be expressed as ?=0.02+0.191Log(j?), where j? is the current density based on the effective surface area. For the electrodes modified by electrochemical depositions of Ni and Co, a variation in the intrinsic activity was observed for the different electrodes. This was attributed to their surface composition differences.

Kai Zeng; Dongke Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The Laboratory Performance Appraisal Process and Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan Preparation Guidance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0136 0136 Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 Section J - Appendix B J-B-1 ATTACHMENT J.2 APPENDIX B PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENT PLAN FISCAL YEAR 2014 Applicable to the Operation of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory A Department of Energy National Laboratory Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 Modification No.0136 Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 Section J - Appendix B J-B-2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page No. INTRODUCTION J-B-5 I. DETERMINING THE CONTRACTOR'S PERFORMANCE RATING AND PERFORMANCE-BASED FEE AND AWARD TERM ELIGIBILITY (as applicable) J-B-5 Performance Evaluation Methodology J-B-6 Calculating Individual Goal Scores and Letter Grade J-B-8 Determining the Amount of Performance-Based Fee Earned J-B-8

415

Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Water Adsorption/Desorption Process in Modern and Archaeological Wood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated the adsorption/desorption mechanism of water and the variation of water adsorption for modern and archaeological wood using near-infrared spectroscopy. A mixture...

Inagaki, Tetsuya; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Redox cycle stability of mixed oxides used for hydrogen generation in the cyclic water gas shift process  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with CaO, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in cyclic water gas shift reactor. For the first time stability of such oxides were tested for 100 redox cycles. Optimally added oxides significantly improved the activity and the stability of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Increased stability was attributed to the impediment of neck formation. - Abstract: Repeated cycles of the reduction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with reductive gas, e.g. hydrogen and subsequent oxidation of the reduced iron material with water vapor can be harnessed as a process for the production of pure hydrogen. The redox behavior of iron oxide modified with various amounts of SiO{sub 2}, CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in the present study. The total amount of the additional metal oxides was always below 15 wt%. The samples were prepared by co-precipitation using urea hydrolysis method. The influence of various metal oxides on the hydrogen production capacity and the material stability was studied in detail in terms of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis. Furthermore, the activity and the stability of the samples were tested in repeated reduction with diluted H{sub 2} and re-oxidation cycles with H{sub 2}O. The results indicate that combination of several oxides as promoter increases the stability of the iron oxide material by mitigating the sintering process. The positive influence of the oxides in stabilizing the iron oxide material is attributed to the impediment of neck formation responsible for sintering.

Datta, Pradyot, E-mail: pradyot.datta@gmail.com

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Carbon capture by sorption-enhanced water-gas shift reaction process using hydrotalcite-based material  

SciTech Connect

A novel route for precombustion decarbonization is the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process. In this process carbon dioxide is removed from a synthesis gas at elevated temperature by adsorption. Simultaneously, carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide by the water-gas shift reaction. The periodic adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide is induced by a pressure swing cycle, and the cyclic capacity can be amplified by purging with steam. From previous studies is it known that for SEWGS applications, hydrotalcite-based materials are particularly attractive as sorbent, and commercial high-temperature shift catalysts can be used for the conversion of carbon monoxide. Tablets of a potassium promoted hydrotalcite-based material are characterized in both breakthrough and cyclic experiments in a 2 m tall fixed-bed reactor. When exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, steam, and nitrogen at 400{sup o}C, the material shows a breakthrough capacity of 1.4 mmol/g. In subsequent experiments the material was mixed with tablets of promoted iron-chromium shift catalyst and exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, steam, hydrogen, and nitrogen. It is demonstrated that carbon monoxide conversion can be enhanced to 100% in the presence of a carbon dioxide sorbent. At breakthrough, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide simultaneously appear at the end of the bed. During more than 300 cycles of adsorption/reaction and desorption, the capture rate, and carbon monoxide conversion are confirmed to be stable. Two different cycle types are investigated: one cycle with a CO{sub 2} rinse step and one cycle with a steam rinse step. The performance of both SEWGS cycles are discussed.

van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Hufton, J.R.; van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For the first time, an efficient simultaneous trans/esterification process for biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow with considerable free fatty acids (FFAs) content has been explored employing an infrared radiation assisted reactor (IRAR). The impacts of methanol to tallow molar ratio, IRAR temperature and H2SO4 concentration on goat tallow conversion were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, 96.7% FFA conversion was achieved within 2.5h at 59.93wt.% H2SO4, 69.97C IRAR temperature and 31.88:1 methanol to tallow molar ratio. The experimental results were also modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) and marginal improvement in modeling efficiency was observed in comparison with RSM. The infrared radiation strategy could significantly accelerate the conversion process as demonstrated through a substantial reduction in reaction time compared to conventionally heated reactor while providing appreciably high biodiesel yield. Moreover, the in situ water removal using silica-gel adsorbent could also facilitate achieving higher FFA conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Owing to the occurrence of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides present in goat tallow, overall 98.5wt.% FAME content was determined at optimal conditions in the product biodiesel which conformed to ASTM and EN biodiesel specifications.

R. Chakraborty; H. Sahu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared.

S. Karellas; K.D. Panopoulos; G. Panousis; A. Rigas; J. Karl; E. Kakaras

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Geoarchaeological investigation of natural formation processes to evaluate context of the clovis component at the Gault site (41BL323), Bell County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

particles of the sedimentary matrix and therefore subject to the influences of same natural processes (Butzer 1982; Hassan 1985; Isaac 1967; Schiffer 1976, 1987; Shackley 1978; Shipman 1981; Villa 1982; Waters 1992). ____________ This thesis follows... particles of the sedimentary matrix and therefore subject to the influences of same natural processes (Butzer 1982; Hassan 1985; Isaac 1967; Schiffer 1976, 1987; Shackley 1978; Shipman 1981; Villa 1982; Waters 1992). ____________ This thesis follows...

Alexander, Dawn Aileen Joyce

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

Kieffer, F.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Complete calculation of evaluated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for s-process nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Present contribution represents a significant improvement of our previous calculation of Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates. Addition of newly-evaluated neutron reaction libraries, such as ROSFOND and Low-Fidelity Covariance Project, and improvements in data processing techniques allowed us to extend it for entire range of sprocess nuclei, calculate Maxwellian-averaged cross section uncertainties for the first time, and provide additional insights on all currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations using ENDF libraries and current Java technologies will be discussed and new results will be presented.

Pritychenko, B.

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

424

Site selection and preliminary evaluation of potential solar-industrial-process-heat applications for federal buildings in Texas  

SciTech Connect

The potential for solr process heat applications for federal buildings in Texas is assessed. The three sites considered are Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock; Fort Bliss, El Paso; and Dyess Air Force Base, Abilene. The application at Lubbock is an electroplating and descaling facility for aircraft maintenance. The one at El Paso is a laundry facility. The Abilene system would use solar heat to preheat boiler feedwater makeup for the base hospital boiler plant. The Lubbock site is found to be the most appropriate one for a demonstration plant, with the Abilene site as an alternate. The processes at each site are described. A preliminary evaluation of the potential contribution by solar energy to the electroplating facility at Reese AFB is included. (LEW)

Branz, M A

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

427

EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms  

SciTech Connect

This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17, regardless of the addition of SCIX or SWPF streams. This indicates that the blending strategy for these sludge batches should be reevaluated by Savannah River Remediation (SRR). (2) In general, candidate frits were available to accommodate CST additions to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. A larger number of candidate frits were typically available for the sludge batches when CST is added to Tank 51 rather than Tank 40, meaning that more compositional flexibility would be available for frit selection and DWPF operation. Note however that for SB8 and SB17, no candidate frits were available to accommodate CST going to Tank 40 with and without SWPF streams. The addition of SWPF streams generally improves the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. (3) The change in production rate from 40 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batches per year (i.e., the current production rate) to 75 SRAT batches per year, without SWPF streams included, had varied results in terms of the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. Therefore, this variable is not of much concern in terms of incorporating the SCIX streams. Note that the evaluation at 75 SRAT batches per year (approximately equivalent to 325 canisters per year) is more conservative in terms of the impact of SCIX streams as compared to a production rate of 400 canisters per year. Overall, the outcome of this paper study shows no major issues with the ability to identify an acceptable glass processing window when CST from the SCIX process is transferred to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. The assumptions used and the model limitations identified in this report must be addressed through further experimental studies, which are currently being performed. As changes occur to the planned additions of MST and CST, or to the sludge batch preparation strategy, additional evaluations will be performed to determine the potential impacts. As stated above, the issues with Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17 should be further evaluated by SRR. A

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

Evaluation of weapons-grade mixed oxide fuel performance in U.S. Light Water Reactors using COMETHE 4D release 23 computer code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The COMETHE 4D Release 23 computer code was used to evaluate the thermal, chemical and mechanical performance of weapons-grade MOX fuel irradiated under U.S. light water reactor typical conditions. Comparisons were made to and UO? fuels exhibited...

Bellanger, Philippe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Proceedings ASCE EWRI World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005 May 15-19, 2005 Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants Scott A. Wells1 , Dmitriy into receiving waters, there is much interest in providing a model of temperature dynamics in wastewater using detailed temperature data from a Washington County, Oregon, USA wastewater treatment facility

Wells, Scott A.

432

The study of potable water treatment process in Algeria (boudouaou station) -by the application of life cycle assessment (LCA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In LCA studies, contributions by individuals to the environmental ... to double the volume of water used in agriculture to eradicate malnutrition in 2025 [23]. The fact remains that "the right to water is a palpa...

Messaoud-Boureghda Mohamed-Zine

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Recycling process water in ready-mixed concrete operations. Final report, 1 September 1997--31 December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate water quality standards and the possibility of reusing concrete wastewater as aggregated irrigation and/or batch mixing water in the production of fresh concrete.

Chini, A.R.; Muszynski, L.C.; Ellis, B.S.

1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

434

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

Bud'ko, I. O. [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation)] [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. G. [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)] [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O'Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

On the evaluation of Fast-SAGD process in naturally fractured heavy oil reservoir  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Very recently, Fast-SAGD as a modification of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has been much attended due to lower cumulative steam oil ratio as well as higher cumulative oil production. However, there are still many suspicions about the successful application of this method in naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) in which faults, fissures, vugs, micro-fractures, poorly interconnected matrix pore structure as well as undesirable wettability are combined with high-viscosity oil. In this communication, initially, Fast-SAGD has been compared with traditional SAGD in an Iranian naturally fractured heavy oil reservoir with oil wet rock using CMG-STARS thermal simulator. Moreover, the effects of operational parameters on Fast-SAGD method have been investigated. In addition, a novel economical model has been established in which all economical parameters including input cash flow costs such as the rate of oil production and oil price, and the output cash flow costs such as capital expenditures (CAPEX), operating expenditures (OPEX), injection material and pipe line tariffs, have been considered. During the optimization of the operational parameters, it was observed that by increasing steam injection rate into both offset and SAGD wells in Fast-SAGD system, ultimate recovery factor (RF) increased, but ultimate net present value (NPV) increased up to an optimal point which could be due to the increased SOR value. By increasing steam injection pressure into offset well, both the ultimate RF and NPV increased up to an optimal point. To optimally select parameters such as the number of cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) cycles, elevation of CSS well and well spacing of SAGD well pair, sensitivity analysis should be performed to achieve the best case economically and technically due to the lack of a decrease or increase trend. In contrast to conventional reservoirs, the performance affected by start-up time at the offset well during Fast-SAGD process in fractured reservoirs indicates that earlier start-up time of steam injection leads to high RF and NPV.

Arash Kamari; Abdolhossein Hemmati-Sarapardeh; Amir H. Mohammadi; Hani Hashemi-Kiasari; Erfan Mohagheghian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and observed fields retrieved from AIRS radiances. Models: OSS: Optimal Spectral Sampling model developed at AER was used to simulate clear sky AIRS radiance spectra in CAM3. RRTMG/McICA: ARM-supported LW and SW radiative transfer model developed at AER for application to GCMs. RRTMG has been fully

438

Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Shevenell, L.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture Process for Post-Tenure Peer Review The Department has an elected faculty evaluation committee that does peer reviews of all  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture Process for Post-Tenure Peer Review The Department has an elected faculty evaluation committee that does peer reviews of all tenure-line faculty annual evaluation and Human Development Guidelines approved on August 2, 2011, the committee will now provide peer review

Boas, Harold P.

440

Very low friction for diamond sliding on diamond in water Plasma Processing Laboratory, Auburn University, 200 Broun Hall, Auburn, Alabama 36849  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Very low friction for diamond sliding on diamond in water Y. Tzeng Plasma Processing Laboratory for publication 17 September 1993) This letter reports the lowest coefficient of friction measured for diamond a load of 50 g, the coefficient of friction falls to -0.001. This clearly shows the effectiveness

Tzeng, Yonhua

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water evaluation process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring.

Bumgarner, Joseph D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaluation of standard durability tests towards the qualification process for the glass-zeolite ceramic waste form  

SciTech Connect

Glass-bonded zeolite is being developed as a potential ceramic waste form for the disposition of radionuclides associated with the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) spent nuclear fuel conditioning activities. The utility of several standard durability tests was evaluated as a first step in developing methods and criteria that can be applied towards the process of qualifying this material for acceptance into the DOE Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. The effects of pH, leachant composition, and sample surface-area-to leachant-volume ratios on the durability test results are discussed, in an attempt to investigate the release mechanisms and other physical and chemical parameters that are important for the acceptance criteria, including the establishment of appropriate test methodologies required for product consistency measurements.

Simpson, L.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory (Illinois)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Chapter 29 - Portfolio and Project Planning and Management in the Drug Discovery, Evaluation, Development, and Regulatory Review Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Drug discovery, evaluation, development, and regulatory review are complex, lengthy, and costly processes that involve in excess of 10,000 interdependent activities. In order to be successful in biopharmaceutical new product development, one needs a set of general principles that provide guidance in the construction of a Research and Development (R&D) Portfolio, the construction of individual Product Development Plans, and the subsequent updates required to keep the portfolio and product development plans current as learning occurs. The following five Principles of Optimal Product Development form the basis for defining a decision-based operational model, identifying and quantifying the critical information required at each major decision-point, projecting the probabilities of various outcomes, and informing key stakeholders (management, board, and investors) with the clear and concise status information that is needed for effective product development governance.

Charles Grudzinskas; Charles T. Gombar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A Study to Investigate Cloud Feedback Processes and Evaluate GCM Cloud Variations Using Statistical Cloud Property Composites From ARM Data  

SciTech Connect

The representation of clouds in Global Climate Models (GCMs) remains a major source of uncertainty in climate change simulations. Cloud climatologies have been widely used to either evaluate climate model cloud fields or examine, in combination with other data sets, climate-scale relationships between cloud properties and dynamical or microphysical parameters. Major cloud climatologies have been based either on satellite observations of cloud properties or on surface observers views of cloud type and amount. Such data sets provide either the top-down view of column-integrated cloud properties (satellites) or the bottom-up view of the cloud field morphology (surface observers). Both satellite-based and surface cloud climatologies have been successfully used to examine cloud properties, to support process studies, and to evaluate climate and weather models. However, they also present certain limitations, since the satellite cloud types are defined using radiative cloud boundaries and surface observations are based on cloud boundaries visible to human observers. As a result, these data sets do not resolve the vertical distribution of cloud layers, an issue that is important in calculating both the radiative and the hydrologic effects of the cloud field. Ground-based cloud radar observations, on the other hand, resolve with good accuracy the vertical distribution of cloud layers and could be used to produce cloud type climatologies with vertical layering information. However, these observations provide point measurements only and it is not immediately clear to what extent they are representative of larger regimes. There are different methods that can be applied to minimize this problem and to produce cloud layering climatologies useful for both cloud process and model evaluation studies. If a radar system is run continuously over a number of years, it eventually samples a large number of dynamical and microphysical regimes. If additional data sets are used to put the cloud layering information into the context of large-scale dynamical regimes, such information can be used to study interactions among cloud vertical distributions and dynamical and microphysical processes and to evaluate the ability of models to simulate those interactions. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has established several Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) that provide continuous, long-term observations of clouds and radiation. ARM, with its overall goal of improving the treatment of radiation and clouds in climate models has provided unique observing systems for accelerating progress on the representation of cloud processes. In this project, six and a half years (January 1998 to June 2004) of cloud observations collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Oklahoma ACRF were used to produce a cloud-type climatology. The climatology provides cloud amounts for seven different cloud types as well as information on the detailed structure of multi-layer cloud occurrences. Furthermore, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output was used to define the dynamic regimes present during the observations of the cloud conditions by the vertically pointing radars at the SGP ACRF. The cloud-type climatology and the ECMWF SGP data set were then analyzed to examine and map dynamical conditions that favor the creation of single-layer versus multi-layer cloud structures as well as dynamical conditions that favor the occurrence of drizzle in continental stratus clouds. In addition, output from the ECMWF weather model forecasts was analyzed with the objective to compare model and radar derived cloud type statistics, in order to identify the major model deficiencies in cloud vertical distribution and map their seasonal variations. The project included two primary goals. The first was to create a cloud type climatology over the Southern Great Planes site that will show how cloud vertical distribution varies with dynamic and thermodynamic regime and how these variations would affect cloud climate fe

George Tselioudis

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

445

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Demineralization of Saline Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...application to saline-water conversion of the electrodialysis process than...Webster well water would danmage the electrodialysis memiibrane...stack. In the electrodialysis process, power...thus potable water, meeting health...

W. S. Gillam; J. W. McCutchan

1961-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

450

United States Environmental Protection Agency Perchlorate Method 332.0 via Microbore and Capillary Chromatographic Formats: Statistical Evaluation of the Use of 18O-Perchlorate Internal Standard with Deionized-Water Matrices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with a deionized-water matrix. The evaluation...matography (LC) and atmospheric-pressure-ionization...organic pollutants in water at trace levels...pump, an eluent generator, a conductivity...supplied by an eluent generator. Electrolytic suppressors...prepared in deionized water at 0.25, 0......

L.E. Vanatta; R.W. Slingsby