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1

Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

4

Factors affecting water coning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(December 1977) Randy Keith Parker, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. Richard A. Morse The production of oil that is underlain by water, through a partially penetrating well at a production rate greater than a certain... of well, reservoir, and fluid parameters, it was found that equivalent systems could be determined that had the same water and oil production characteristics. Most of the we' ll, reservoir, and fluid relationships are based on two equations which were...

Parker, Randy Keith

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles...

6

A PM10 emission factor for free stall dairies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was determined using the Coulter Counter Multisizer. The results of this process was a representative dairy PM PSD with 28% of TSP emissions being PM10. The reported PM10 24-hour emission factors were 4.7 kg/1000hd/day for the free-stall areas of the facility...

Goodrich, Lee Barry

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

7

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

Maddalena, Randy

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

9

Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada Ralph L. Seiler sources. Tungsten concentrations in 100 ground water samples from all aquifers used as drinking water indicates that W exhibits Tungsten con- centrations are strongly and positively correlated

11

Development of an ammonia emission protocol and preliminary emission factor for a central Texas dairy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dairies. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), the Texas SAPRA, does not currently use an emission factor to permit or regulate emitted ammonia for the dairy industry. ________________________ This thesis follows the style..., and is subject to gas-phase reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl (-OH) radicals, reaction with gaseous nitric acid (to form particulate ammonium nitrate), and with aerosols to form ammonium salts (Singh et al., 2001). Ammonia that does not react...

Rose, Adam Joseph

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

Spontaneous emission factor for semiconductor superluminescent diodes Yongsheng Zhao, Weihua Han, Junfeng Song, Xuemei Li, Yang Liu, Dingsan Gao,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spontaneous emission factor for semiconductor superluminescent diodes Yongsheng Zhao, Weihua Han emission factor is an important parameter for the characterization of semiconductor light emitting devices difference involved in each device. In this article, the spontaneous emission factor for superluminescent

Cao, Hui

13

Quantitative analysis of factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions at institutions of higher education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States, emissions from buildings comprise 40% of energy consumption and carbon emissions, not including to have 10 times more effect on emissions per square meter than space such as classroom and office, while to the institution's own greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy and water conservation, and other sustainability

Illinois at Chicago, University of

14

Institutional Factors Influencing Water Development in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide for (1) the interbasin diversions proposed by the Texas Water Plan, (2) the creation and management of transfer systems and (3) distribution of water within importing areas and fulfillment of financial obligations. These will be expressed...

Trock, W. L.

15

Establishing Standard Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This procedure provides source energy factors and emission factors to calculate the source (primary) energy and emissions from a building's annual site energy consumption. This report provides the energy and emission factors to calculate the source energy and emissions for electricity and fuels delivered to a facility and combustion of fuels at a facility. The factors for electricity are broken down by fuel type and presented for the continental United States, three grid interconnections, and each state. The electricity fuel and emission factors are adjusted for the electricity and the useful thermal output generated by combined heat and power (CHP) plants larger than one megawatt. The energy and emissions from extracting, processing, and transporting the fuels, also known as the precombustion effects, are included.

Deru, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks of California, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710 Abstract Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel

17

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ammonia will probably result in the emission of other odorants (e. g. volatile fatty acids. volatile amines, indole, phenol, sulfur-containing compounds). Ammonia is produced from the microbial breakdown of uric acid in poultry manure. The decomposition... sulfate (Barthelmie and Pryor, 1998). Additionally, ammonia is an odorant and conditions conducive to the production of ammonia will probably result in the emission of other odorants (e. g. volatile fatty acids, volatile amines, indole, phenol, sulfur...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Retrofits to Municipal Water Supply and Waste Water Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED EMISSIONS REDUCTION CALCULATOR FOR RETROFITS TO MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY AND WASTE WATER FACILITIES Juan-Carlos Baltazar Research Associate Zi Liu, Ph.D. Research Engineer Don R. Gilman, P.E. Senior Software... and used to calculate the electricity savings from potential retrofits to municipal water supply and waste water facilities. The methodology integrates the ASHRAE Inverse Model Toolkit (IMT) 1 used for weather normalization, a peak...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: EnergyPower Finance Jump to:Information of Emission

22

Emission Factor for Antimony in Brake Abrasion Dusts as One of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

originating from automobiles. Abrasion dusts from commercially available brake pads (nonasbestos organic type factors originating from automobiles were approximately 32 µg Sb/braking/car for PM10 and 22 µg Sb of automobiles to the atmospheric Sb concen- tration. The emission factors of pollutants from automobiles have

Short, Daniel

23

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

Rapp, VH; Singer, BC

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Source Apportionment of Stack Emissions from Research and Development Facilities Using Positive Matrix Factorization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions from research and development (R&D) facilities are difficult to characterize due to the wide variety of processes used, changing nature of research, and large number of chemicals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations measured in the main exhaust stacks of four different R&D buildings to identify the number and composition of major contributing sources. PMF identified from 9-11 source-related factors contributing to the stack emissions depending on the building. The factors that were similar between buildings were major contributors to trichloroethylene (TCE), acetone, and ethanol emissions. Several other factors had similar profiles for two or more buildings but not for all four. One factor for each building was a combination of p/m-xylene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. At least one factor for each building was identified that contained a broad mix of many species and constraints were used in PMF to modify the factors to resemble more closely the off-shift concentration profiles. PMF accepted the constraints with little decrease in model fit. Although the PMF model predicted the profiles of the off-shift samples, the percent of total emissions was under-predicted by the model versus the measured data.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Larson, Timothy V.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

26

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

27

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

TRB 08-1311 Link-Based Emission Factors for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRB 08-1311 Link-Based Emission Factors for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Real-World Data H and Zhai 1 ABSTRACT Heavy-duty diesel vehicles contribute a substantial fraction of nitrogen oxides unloaded trucks. Replacing diesel fuel with biodiesel fuel for heavy-duty trucks may reduce tailpipe

Frey, H. Christopher

29

Using Local and Regional Air Quality Modeling and Source Apportionment Tools to Evaluate Vehicles and Biogenic Emission Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inventories of CO, NO_(x) and VOCs from on-road vehicles estimated by vehicle emission factor models and biogenic emissions of isoprene estimated by a popular biogenic emission model are evaluated using local and regional scale air quality modeling and source...

Kota, Sri H

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

30

Water in Emission in the ISO Spectrum of the Early M Supergiant Star mu Cephei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a detection of water in emission in the spectrum of the M2 supergiant atar mu Cep (M2Ia) observed by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) aboard Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and now released as the ISO Archives. The emission first appears in the 6 micron region (nu2 fundamental) and then in the 40 micron region (pure rotation lines) despite the rather strong dust emission. The intensity ratios of the emission features are far from those of the optically thin gaseous emission. Instead, we could reproduce the major observed emission features by an optically thick water sphere of the inner radius about two stellar radii (1300Rsun), Tex = 1500K, and Ncol (H2O) = 3.0E+20/cm2. This model also accounts for the H2O absorption bands in the near infrared (1.4, 1.9, and 2.7 micron) as well. The detection of water in emission provides strong constraints on the nature of water in the early M supergiant stars, and especially its origin in the outer atmosphere is confirmed against other models such as the large convective cell model. We finally confirm that the early M supergiant star is surrounded by a huge optically thick sphere of the warm water vapor, which may be referred to as MOLsphere for simplicity. Thus, the outer atmosphere of M supergiant stars should have a complicated hierarchical and/or hybrid structure with at least three major constituents including the warm MOLsphere (T about 1.0E+3K) together with the previously known hot chromosphere (T about 1.0E+4K) and cool expanding gas-dust envelope (T about 1.0E+2K).

T. Tsuji

2000-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

31

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and local information needs and decisions related to water-quality management and policy (httpThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water-Quality

32

Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Two-dimensional space-resolved emission spectroscopy of laser ablation plasma in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a method for two-dimensional space-resolved emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasma in water to investigate the spatial distribution of atomic species involved in the plasma. Using this method, the laser ablation plasma produced on a Cu target in 5 mM NaCl aqueous solution was examined. The emission spectrum varied considerably depending on the detecting position. The temperature and the atomic density ratio N{sub Na}/N{sub Cu} at various detecting positions were evaluated by fitting emission spectra to a theoretical model based on the Boltzmann distribution. We are successful in observing even a small difference between the distributions of the plasma parameters along the directions vertical and horizontal to the surface. The present approach gives direct information for sound understanding of the behavior of laser ablation plasma produced on a solid surface in water.

Matsumoto, Ayumu; Tamura, Ayaka; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Yukio H. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

34

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry Summary: There are increasing numbers of poultry production buildings, with large, densely housed flocks to allow producers to meet the increasing demand for poultry products and, yet, reduce the environmental

Mukhtar, Saqib

35

Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

less damage to marine life. However, if the geology Desalination Methods for Producing Drinking Water of water are produced: · Treated fresh water that has low concentra- tions of salts and minerals day (mgd) using a long vertical tube distil- lation (LVT) process to produce water for the City

38

FACTORS DETERMINING RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND IN NORTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA, THE CASE OF MERAWI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACTORS DETERMINING RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND IN NORTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA, THE CASE OF MERAWI among different households of the town of Merawi, North Western Ethiopia. Understanding variables

Walter, M.Todd

39

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

40

Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies during 19802000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies; accepted 1 July 2002; published 24 October 2002. [1] Decreased methane emissions from paddy rice may have contributed to the decline in the rate of increase of global atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration over

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Factor water treatment up-front in IPP plant design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes how independent power producers profit from drawing on the expertise of a water-treatment supplier at the inception of a project. Concepts presented here apply to other major subsystems. The nature of independent power project development, both domestic and international, has resulted in many innovative approaches to client service. The highly competitive, fast-track nature of project development requires that financial pro forma plans remain fluid, with periodic updates made as the project races from conceptual design through financial closing. Suppliers are continually called upon to provide insight and expertise to facilitate the project. Their expertise is also sought by organizations considering the purchase of an existing independent power producer (IPP) facility. Many foundation steps'' occur during early commercial development. Among these are: response to a request for proposals, power slates agreements, feasibility studies, site qualification, contract negotiation, host development, and steam sales agreements. As the project moves forward, development of comprehensive design and equipment specifications, equipment selection, and financial analysis are required. One aspect frequently overlooked because of the multitude of business and technical issues involved is the water supply. With public water supplies often inaccessible, it may be necessary to make use of a poor-quality source--such as effluent from publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), acid mine drainage, host-facility process discharge, landfill leachate, and produced water from oil fields. Even if surface water or groundwater is available, the quality and often the quantity may be unknown, or there may be no provisions for discharge of wastewater.

Levine, J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

44

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Behavioral Factors Influencing Fish Entrapment at Offshore Cooling-Water Intake Structures in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behavioral Factors Influencing Fish Entrapment at Offshore Cooling-Water Intake Structures in Southern California MARK HELVEY Introduction Fish entrapment by offshore cooling-water intake structures. Based on con- comitant in-plant impingement monitoring, it was also learned that these same reef species

46

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

47

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Furnace (2) Heater (35) Water Heater (32) ~ Space u.. c:Emissionsfrom Gas-fired Water Heaters, Report No. 1507,gas furnaces and water heaters," JAPCA 31:1268 (1981). Table

Traynor, G.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonia emission factors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FROM WASTE-TO-ENERGY FACILITIES WITH OPERATIONAL CONTROLS... program for the theory that combustion controls can be utilized to minimize NOx emissions. ... Source: Columbia...

49

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel-and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City D. A. Thornhill, A. E. Williams, T. B be low. The second figure shows the background versus diesel factors. There may be a slight horizontal factors. In this case, even when the diesel factor's contributions are very high, the background factor

Meskhidze, Nicholas

51

Economic investigation of discount factors for agricultural greenhouse gas emission offsets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches to discount factors, estimation and incorporation of discount factors procedures are developed. Discount factors would be imposed by credit purchasers due to noncompliance with regulatory program of the credits with GHG program including...

Kim, Man-Keun

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

52

Dust covering factor, silicate emission and star formation in luminous QSOs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present Spitzer IRS low resolution, mid-IR spectra of a sample of 25 high luminosity QSOs at 2silicate emission feature in the average spectrum, but also in four individual objects. These are the Silicate emission in the most luminous objects obtained so far. When combined with the silicate emission observed in local, low luminosity type-I AGNs, we find that the silicate emission strength is correlated with luminosity. The silicate strength of all type-I AGNs also follows a positive correlation with the black hole mass and with the accretion rate. The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, expected from starburst activity, are not detected in the average spectrum of luminous, high-z QSOs. The upper limit inferred from the average spectrum points to a ratio between PAH luminosity and QSO optical luminosity significantly lower than observed in lower luminosity AGNs, implying that the correlation between star formation rate and AGN power saturates at high luminosities.

R. Maiolino; O. Shemmer; M. Imanishi; H. Netzer; E. Oliva; D. Lutz; E. Sturm

2007-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

53

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

54

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Bromly, Reduction of Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions from Gasthan 10 ! lm), and nitrogen dioxide ( N0 2) standards areare nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N0 2); although,

Traynor, G.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transmission x-ray micro- scopes (STXM) have achieved high resolution ($30 nm) using zone plate condensers to their compact size, high brightness, and high conversion efficiency. The properties of EUV and SXR emission from for cellular microscopy. At these wavelengths transmission through water is relatively high compared to carbon

Harilal, S. S.

56

HI Absorption in the Gigamaser Galaxy TXS 2226-184 and the Relation between HI Absorption and Water Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the discovery of HI in absorption toward the gigamaser galaxy TXS2226-184 using the VLA. The absorption appears to consist of two components -- one with a width of 125 km/s, and one broader (420 km/s), both toward the compact radio source in the nucleus of the galaxy. Based on these large velocity widths we suggest that the HI absorption is produced in the central parsecs of the galaxy, on a similar scale to that which gives rise to the water maser emission. This brings to eight the number of galaxies known to exhibit both water masers and HI absorption. We explore the relationship between these two phenomena, and present a physically motivated (but unfruitful) search for water maser emission in five radio galaxies known to exhibit strong HI absorption.

G. B. Taylor; A. B. Peck; C. Henkel; H. Falcke; C. G. Mundell; C. P. O'Dea; S. A. Baum; J. F. Gallimore

2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

58

An Analysis of the Effects of Sociodemographic Factors on Daily Per Capita Residential Water Use in Texas Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consideration of numerous factors including hydrologic and physiographic factors, engineering feasibility and economic feasibility. At the same time, it is increasingly evident that water needs are closely tied to population growth and to the social, economic...

Murdock, Steve H.; Albrecht, Don E.; Hamm, Rita R.; Bachman, Kenneth; Parpia, Banoo

59

Implementing greenhouse gas emissions caps: A case study of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our almost forty-year experience with landmark federal environmental statutes, demonstrates unequivocally that implementing grand and noble environmental goals is an arduous and difficult experience. California is now embarking on a similar project: implementing the country's most ambitious greenhouse gas emissions limitations, including rolling back the state's emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The state's leadership on climate change legislation deserves significant praise. But the hard work in actually achieving emissions limits is just beginning. In this Essay, Professor Ann Carlson provides a case study of the country's largest municipally owned utility - the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) - and the challenges it will face in holding its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The case study is particularly useful to anticipate challenges utilities across the country will face if the federal government also mandates greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The DWP's energy mix, with its heavy reliance on coal, looks quite similar to the energy mix of the country as a whole (and quite different from the rest of California's electricity market). The challenges are daunting. They include shifting rapidly to renewable energy sources in the face of labor pressures to have DWP own its own sources; building miles of transmission lines to bring the renewable energy to DWP's customer base; repowering natural gas facilities while attempting to comply with stringent Clean Water Act requirements; and eliminating the utility's reliance on coal over the next two decades. These efforts will raise complex environmental and other value clashes, pitting those concerned about jobs, water pollution, species protection, and aesthetic harms against a utility admirably committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions significantly. Whether and how we resolve these clashes remains an open and contested question.

Carlson, A.E. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School for Law

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Form factor in K+ --> pi+ pi0 gamma: interference versus direct emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the effect of a form factor in the magnetic contribution to K+ --> pi+ pi0 gamma. We emphasize how this can show up experimentally: in particular we try to explore the difference between a possible interference contribution and a form factor in the magnetic part. The form factor used for K+ --> pi+ pi0 gamma is analogous to the one for KL --> pi+ pi- gamma, experimentally well established.

Luigi Cappiello; Giancarlo D'Ambrosio

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cherokee Reservoir: supplement to factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several rates and/or measurements were assumed in preparation of the Factors Affecting Water Quality in Cherokee Reservoir report prepared by Iwanski, et al. (1980). The following discussions and data were generated to support future modeling efforts of Cherokee Reservoir water quality. These discussions are not wholly intended to define conclusions or new findings, but rather lend support to assumed parameters in the modeling effort. The data include: (1) long-term BOD analyses; (2) limiting nutrient studies algal assays; (3) phytoplankton biomass; (4) primary productivity; and (5) solids transport. 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Poppe, W.L.

1981-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

62

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

Glenn C. England

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

64

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

1Prepared by BG Rahm & SJ Riha (NYS Water Resources Institute), D Yoxtheimer (Penn State Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research), E Boyer (PA Water Resources Research Center), D Carder (WVU Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions), K Davi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions), K Davis & S Belmecheri (Penn State University) Environmental water Center for Outreach and Research), E Boyer (PA Water Resources Research Center), D Carder (WVU Center sessions: 1. What data sources are currently available for collecting information on water and air systems

66

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ultrasound acoustic emission in water-stressed plants of Picea abies Karst.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequencies (Tyree and Dixon, 1983) over- comes this problem. We report the occur- rence of ultrasonic of acoustic emission rate using a broad band Bruel and Kjaer model 8312 sensor, and a counting device similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Acoustic Emission and Guided Ultrasonic Waves for Detection and Continuous Monitoring of Cracks in Light Water Reactor Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acoustic emission (AE) and guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) are considered for continuous monitoring and detection of cracks in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components. In this effort, both techniques are applied to the detection and monitoring of fatigue crack growth in a full scale pipe component. AE results indicated crack initiation and rapid growth in the pipe, and significant GUW responses were observed in response to the growth of the fatigue crack. After initiation, the crack growth was detectable with AE for approximately 20,000 cycles. Signals associated with initiation and rapid growth where distinguished based on total rate of activity and differences observed in the centroid frequency of hits. An intermediate stage between initiation and rapid growth was associated with significant energy emissions, though few hits. GUW exhibit a nearly monotonic trend with crack length with an exception of measurements obtained at 41 mm and 46 mm.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

70

From Acid Dip to Thriving Waters The Impact of Emissions Reductions on Lake Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Range Transboundary Air Pollution for various pollutants including sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx countries implementing domestic regula- tions to control emissions of pollutants. While the problems October 1, 2007 Abstract We develop an optimal control model for the recovery of a representative

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

71

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF MECHA WOREDA, AMHARA REGION, ETHIOPIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are used: shallow dug wells, spring and deep wells. A survey was carried out with 160 household in 16 waterFACTORS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF MECHA WOREDA, AMHARA REGION, ETHIOPIA A Project Paper Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell

Walter, M.Todd

72

Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for “smoldering compounds” emitted by burning the semi-arid SW fuels should likely be increased by about a factor of 2.7 to better represent field fires. Based on the lab/field comparison, we present a table with emission factors for 365 pyrogenic species (including unidentified species) for 4 broad fuel types: pine understory, semi-arid shrublands, evergreen canopy, and duff. To our knowledge this is the most complete measurement of biomass burning emissions to date and it should enable improved representation of smoke in atmospheric models. The results provide important insights into the nature of smoke. For example, ~35% (range from 16-71%) of the mass of gas-phase NMOC species was attributed to the species that we could not identify. These unidentified species are likely not represented in most models, but some provision should be made for the fact that they will react in the atmosphere. In addition, the total mass of gas-phase NMOC divided by the mass of co-emitted PM2.5 averaged ~2.6 for the main fire types with a range from ~1.8-8.8. About 36-63% of the NMOC were likely semivolatile or of intermediate volatility. Thus, the gas-phase NMOC represent a large reservoir of potential precursors for secondary formation of organic aerosol. For the one fire in organic soil (Alaskan duff) about 28% of the emitted carbon was present as gas-phase NMOC in contrast to the other fuels for which NMOC accounted for only ~1-3% of emitted carbon. 71% of the mass of NMOC emitted by the smoldering duff was un-identified. The duff results highlight the need to learn more about the emissions from smoldering organic soils. The ?NMOC/“NOx-as-NO” ratio was consistently about ten for the main fire types when accounting for all NMOC, indicating strongly NOx-limited O3 production conditions. Finally, the fuel consumption per unit area was measured on 6 of the 14 prescribed fires and averaged 7.08 ± 2.09 (1?) Mg ha-1.

Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Gilman, Jessica; Warneke, Carsten; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Jung, H.; Weise, David

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

73

Process for treating ammonia and nitrite containing waters to prevent nitric oxide emissions therefrom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for controlling the emission of nitrogen dioxide from, and the amount of one or more organisms, selected from the group consisting of fungi, algae and bacteria, growing in a system for handling a flow of condensate of steam, the condensate containing ammonia, ammonia precursors, or a mixture thereof. It comprises contacting the condensate in a substantially continuous manner with an amount of an oxidizing biocide which substantially prevents the emission of nitrogen dioxide from the condensate handling system but which does not substantially inhibit the growth of the organisms in the condensate handling system; and periodically contacting the condensate with an amount of a second biocide which substantially reduces the amount of the organisms.

Gallup, D.L.; Featherstone, J.L.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

74

Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.

Richard Barvainis; Robert Antonucci

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

75

Aquatic Botany 64 (1999) 6375 Methanogenesis and methane emissions: effects of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, substrate type and presence of Phragmites australis Simon GrĂĽnfeld, Hans Brix Department of Plant Ecology Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. were studied in outdoor experimental mesocosms. Water table sediments (1 versus 55 mmol m-2 per day). The presence of P. australis in inundated sediments attenuated

Brix, Hans

76

Methane emissions from rice fields: The effects of climatic and agricultural factors. Final report, March 1, 1994--April 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work reported was performed for the purpose of refining estimates of methane emissions from rice fields. Research performed included methane flux measurements, evaluation of variables affecting emissions, compilation of a data base, and continental background measurements in China. The key findings are briefly described in this report. Total methane emissions, seasonal patterns, and spatial variability were measured for a 7-year periods. Temperature was found to be the most important variable studies affecting methane emissions. The data archives for the research are included in the report. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Khalil, M.A.K. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Physics] [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering] [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inventory for Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions. J. Air &T. A. Cackette (2001), Diesel engines: Environmental impact2003), http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/diesel.htm BAAQMD, Bay

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentallyfor interchangeability experiments for storage water heaterfor experiments with storage water heater AW01. 53

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A Study of Institutional Factors Affecting Water Resource Development in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency in water use, rights should be made negotiable. Some trading or leasing of rights is practiced now on an informal basis. A change or clarification of water law to permit purchase and sale of rights would facilitate exchange so that water would...

Trock, W. L.; Casbeer, T. J.

80

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Alexoff, David (Westhampton, NY)

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contained in transparent plastic bottles: characterizing theon disposable translu- cent plastic bottles of 1-2 litres inof water-filled plastic bottles exposed to sunlight [

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water disinfection in rural Bolivia. BMC Public Health 2011childhood diarrhoea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized,disinfection in rural Bolivia Andri Christen 1,2 , Gonzalo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A study of some factors affecting the efficient use of irrigation water in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Be Equalled or Exceeded for 75 Per Cent of Time............................... 51 18. Amount of Rainfall in Growing Season Likely to Be Equalled or Exceeded for 90 Per Cent of Time............................... 52 19. Inches Water Required per Square Foot... for Depth One Foot......................................................................................................... 66 INTRODUCTION At present much water is being wasted on the three million acres of irrigated land in Texas. The purpose...

Harrington, Edwin Lincoln

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

onward. Table A-4: Carbon Emission Factors of ElectricityAdjustment factor Carbon Emission Factor (kg C/kWh)L ABORATORY Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of

Lin, Jiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Factors Influencing Water Heating Energy Use and Peak Demand in a Large Scale Residential Monitoring Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as well as obtain improved appliance energy consumption indexes and load profiles. A portion of the monitoring measures water heater energy use and demand in each home on a 15-minute basis....

Bouchelle, M. P.; Parker, D. S.; Anello, M. T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Heaters 7.0 Glossary of Abbreviations AGA American Gas Association ANSI American National Standards

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matter from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles.D.H. , Chase, R.E. , 1999b. Gasoline vehicle particle sizeFactors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

Ban-Weiss, George A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Investigation of the scaling factor LVuw in the recovery of oil by water flooding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rnediuxn and. the Buid system, but also by the length of the flooded system and the x'ate of irjection. They further cor eluded that for floods performed in identical porous media and with the same oil-water viscosity ratio, the total length... water) as a scaling w coefficient. In other words, all floods conducted in a given porous rnediuxn, with a given oil-watex viscosity ratio and haVing the same value of this scalixxg coefficient must behave similarly and yield equal recoveries fax...

McWilliams, Morris Hampton

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the increase of integrated radon exposures in water. The CR-39 etch detector is observed to be more sensitive to alpha particles than LR 115 Type 2 film. The exposure period ranged from 1 to 10 days. The linearity test was done at room temperature. The actual...

Yasmeen, Nuzhat

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

Armitage, D.M.; Bacon, D.J.; Massey-Norton, J.T.; Miller, J.D.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

95

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices by Texas Beef Cattle Producers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of variance ATTAINS Assessment, TMDL Tracking and Implementation System BMP Best management practice CWA Clean Water Act DOI Diffusion of innovations EPA Environmental Protection Agency EQIP Environmental Quality Incentives Program GCSP... quality. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Assessment, TMDL Tracking and Implementation System (ATTAINS) database (2013), Texas has approximately 191,000 miles of streams and rivers; nearly 2 million acres of lakes...

Peterson, Jennifer

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

96

Water Ice, Silicate and PAH Emission Features in the ISO Spectrum of the Carbon-rich Planetary Nebula CPD-56 8032  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined ISO SWS and LWS spectroscopy is presented of the late WC-type planetary nebula nucleus CPD-56 8032 and its carbon-rich nebula. The extremely broad coverage (2.4-197 microns) enables us to recognize the clear and simultaneous presence of emission features from both oxygen- and carbon- rich circumstellar materials. Removing a smooth continuum highlights bright emission bands characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hereafter PAHs) in the 3-14 micron region, bands from crystalline silicates longwards of 18 microns, and the 43- and 62-micron bands of crystalline water ice. We discuss the probable evolutionary state and history of this unusual object in terms of (a) a recent transition from an O-rich to a C-rich outflow following a helium shell flash; or (b) a carbon-rich nebular outflow encountering an O-rich comet cloud.

Martin Cohen; M. J. Barlow; R. J. Sylvester; X. -W. Liu; P. Cox; T. Lim; B. Schmitt; A. K. Speck

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

97

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Emissions of metals, chromium and nickel species, and organics from municipal waste-water-sludge incinerators. Volume 7. Site 8 emission-test report: Appendices. Final report, 1989-91  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Site 8 facility is a 24.1 million gallons per day (MGD) secondary biological treatment plant with a 0.1 MGD septage handling facility. The wastewater influent comes from predominantly (90 percent) domestic sources. The treatment facility serves a population of approximately 175,000. All 22 tons per day of sludge solids are dewatered by two belt presses to a concentration of 22 to 25 percent solids. Approximately 15 to 17 tons of solids are dewatered by one press and fed to the fluidized bed incinerator. The air pollution control system associated with this incinerator consists of a water injection venturi, and an impingement tray scrubber. A pilot-scale wet eletrostatic precipitator had been installed and was tested. Volume 7 contains the appendices for volume 6. These are (1) Incinerator and Scrubber Operating Data; (2) Sampling and Analytical Methods; (3) Sample Calculations; (4) Analytical Data and Reports, and (5) Continuous Emission Monitoring Data Calibrations/One-min averages.

Segall, R.R.; DeWees, W.G.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model Inputs Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid tonne CO2/MWh)  CO2 Emission factor for fuel  (tonne CO2/TJ)Improvements and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unit*year) Heavy Metals to Water Heavy Metals to Water mg NiMatter Emissions (Water) Heavy Metals mg Hg/20 /unit*yearMatter Mg/year Emissions (Water) Heavy Metals Gg Hg/20 /year

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction PotentialsModel Inputs Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity (tonne CO2/MWh)  CO2 Emission factor for fuel (

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive ...

Thornhill, D. A.

105

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electric and gas water heaters, both of which areMEPS revisions. For gas water heaters, the energy factor islevel. For electric water heaters, continued efficiency

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

A study of the factors affecting the sustainability of community managed rural water supply schemes in Sri Lanka  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Disparities in water supply coverage in urban and rural areas are high in developing countries, with rural coverage being much lower. The inability of governments to provide the service because of resource constraints, and ...

Amerasinghe, Nishanthi Manjula

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentialsand Its Impact on CO2 Emission," Iron & Steel, 2010, 45(5):Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity (

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use at power plants in the Texas grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possibility of using electricity dispatching strategies to achieve a 50% nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction from electricity generating units was examined using the grid of the Electricity Reliability Council of ...

Alhajeri, Nawaf S.

112

Experimental investigation of factors controlling the calcium carbonate ion activity product of shallow water carbonate-rich sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to compute the saturation state of the solution wi th respect to calcite and aragonite. CHAPTER III RESULTS IN SITU ANALYSES For stations selected for the equilibration experiment, the mea- sured in situ pH, AT, and the calculated saturation relative... 5 Mg Organic low Mg calcite 6rain Size C J I A Joulters Cay oolites 111-6 Grass bed 111-10 III-MR Lily Banks oolite shoal (high energy) Mangrove swamp mud, high organics IV-6 111-4 Shallow water sandy bottmn between two parallel patch...

Bernstein, Lawrence Douglas

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

115

Optimal irreversible stimulated emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

116

Emissions of metals, chromium and nickel species, and organics from municipal waste-water-sludge incinerators. Volume 9. Site 9 emission-test report: Appendices. Final report, 1989-91  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Site 9 is a secondary plant designed for 15 million gallons per day (MGD) of wastewater flow. The sludge incinerator at Site 9 is a seven (7) hearth, multiple hearth furnace (MHF) built by Nichols Engineering in 1974 controlled by an adjustable throat venturi scrubber with a nominal pressure drop of 20 in. w.c.. After leaving the venturi, the gases pass upward through a three (3) plate tray scrubber with a Chevron mist eliminator. A 10 ft. x 10 ft., upflow, wet electrostatic precipitator, manufacturer testing. Volume 9 contains the appendices PB92-151620 for Volume 8. These include: (1) Incinerator and Scrubber Operating Data, (2) Sampling and Analytical Methods; (3) Sample Calculations; (4) Analytical Data and Reports; (5) Continuous Emission Monitoring Data, Calibrations/One-min Averages, and (6) External Audit Report.

Segall, R.R.; DeWees, W.G.; Lewis, F.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DATA A. LĂłpez (a) , R. Molina (b) (a limited due to several factors. These factors include the need of greater computational time than to the projection data to obtain two-dimensional slices or cross sections (images) of activity distribution. #12

Granada, Universidad de

118

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

L & M band infrared studies of V4332 Sagittarii - detection of the water-ice absorption band at 3.05 microns and the CO fundamental band in emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L and M band observations of the nova-like variable V4332 Sgr are presented. Two significant results are obtained viz. the unusual detection of water ice at 3.05 microns and the fundamental band of 12CO at 4.67 microns in emission. The ice feature is a first detection in a nova-like variable while the CO emission is rarely seen in novae. These results, when considered together with other existing data, imply that V4332 Sgr could be a young object surrounded by a circumstellar disc containing gas, dust and ice. The reason for a nova-like outburst to occur in such a system is unclear. But since planets are believed to form in such disks, it appears plausible that the enigmatic outburst of V4332 Sgr could be due to a planetary infall. We also give a more reliable estimate for an epoch of dust formation around V4332 Sgr which appears to have taken place rather late in 1999 - nearly five years after its outburst.

Dipankar P. K. Banerjee; Watson P. Varricatt; Nagarhalli M. Ashok

2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne microbial emissions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and microbial activity (or soil emissions... statistics and emission factors Sinton and18 Fridley, 2000. The microbial source for NOx has been estimated... sources, 60%...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fuel-Based On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel-Based On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions Inventory for the Denver Metropolitan Area Sajal S of Denver 2101 E. Wesley Ave. Denver, CO 80208 #12;Mobile Source Emissions Inventory Methods MOBILE emission factors -g/mile uncertain Vehicle miles traveled -very uncertain Speed correction factors Inventory

Denver, University of

122

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Outlook June 4, 2013 Steven Simmons CO2 Emission Outlook for the Pacific NW (ID-MT- OR-WA) Key Factors that determine Emissions Levels 1 Demand & Conservation 50 60 70 2 1. Demand

123

IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany:Information IDS Climate Change andSmart Grids

124

Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow CarbonOpen1Model |Rural PublicEMFAC) Jump

125

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

127

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

129

Energy Implications of Alternative Water Futures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Implications of Alternative Water Futures First Western Forum on Energy & Water water, energy, and GHG emissions. Water-related energy use is expected to rise. Conservation canWaterUse(MAF) Historical Use More Resource Intensive Less Resource Intensive Current Trends #12;Water and Energy Link

Keller, Arturo A.

130

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx emissions, heat rate, gross load and capacity factor of 32 units from 9 different power plants were analyzed Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

Frey, H. Christopher

132

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fuel output. By definition, the energy consumption of theEnergy Accounting ..6 2.2 Definitioncycle. Definition of FFC Factors for Energy and Emissions

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The effects of cold water injection and two-phase flow on skin factor and permeability estimates from pressure falloff analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

33 54 78 LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Data for Bottomhole Temperature Calculation Reservoir and Thermal Properties for Model Verification Page 34 35 Water and Oil Viscosities for Model Verification . . 36 10 12 13 14 15 Water and Oil... Relative Permeabilities for Model Verification Data for Single-Phase Flow Runs Low Oil Viscosity for Single-Phase Flow Runs High Oil Viscosity for Single-Phase Flow Runs Data for Two-Phase Flow Runs Sumaary of Numerical Simulation Runs Results...

Linge, Frode

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This compound belongs to a chemical family of fuel oxygenates that enhance gaso- line combustion by increasing oxygen available for the process. Added to gasoline, MTBE has reduced carbon monoxide and ozone emissions by promoting more complete burning.... Texas follows the EPA drinking water advisory of 20 to 40 micrograms per liter. How can MTBE be Removed from Well Water? MTBE requires a specific treatment process for removal from water. Well owners can use granular activated carbon or charcoal...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

135

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

137

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric water demand Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and this in turn reduces carbon dioxide emissions and water use. CO2... emissions Coal Dam Demand ... Source: Crimmins, Michael A. - School of Earth and Environmental...

140

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Review - 2011 (so far) Tim Johnson October 4, 2011 DOE DEER Conference, Detroit JohnsonTV@Corning.com 2 Summary * California LD criteria emission regs are tightening....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Elastic emission polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

144

Benefits and Costs for California from Water Transfers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economic losses from a lack of water markets are clear. Manyseparate factors: the lack of water caused by the droughtprograms. The lack of available water during the drought

Bazdarich, Michael; Thornberg, Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in managing water resources for hydroelectric power ...

Stéphane Alarie

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basis 5 Burning oil is also known as kerosene or paraffin used for heating systems. Aviation Turbine biomass heating systems. The emission factors are based on the factor provided in SAP2005, Table 12. Page - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat

147

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

148

Emissions from US waste collection vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

Maimoun, Mousa A., E-mail: mousamaimoun@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Gammoh, Fatina T. [Quality Department, Airport International Group, Amman (Jordan); McCauley Bush, Pamela [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

151

Excess Emissions (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

152

Allocating emissions permits in cap-and-trade programs: Theory and evidence Preliminary.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions trading program are used to analyze these relationships empirically. I ...nd robust evidence an important a factor in the widespread adoption of emissions trading programs. More recently, a third design

Fowlie, Meredith

153

Emissions Trading and Social Justice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

Farber, Daniel A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

Milner, J.R.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

College Of Wooster 2012 Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Coal and Natural Gas Combustion Default Values From EPA Greenhouse Gas Rule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

56410 CO2 = 1 X 10 -3 X Fuel X HHV X EF Where CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions for the specific fuel type high heat value. EF =Fuel default CO2 Emission Factor from Table C-1Page 56410 CO2 Coal CO2 = 1 X 10 -3 Default CO2 Emission Factor For Bituminous Coal = 93.40 kg/mmbtu Default CH4 Emission Factor

Wilson, Mark A.

157

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal resolution. Published studies indicate higher emission rates from soils and animal wastes at higher temperatures, and temporal variation in fertilizer application. A recent inverse modeling study indicates temporal variation in regional NH{sub 3} emissions. Monthly allocation factors were derived to estimate monthly emissions from soils, livestock and wild animal waste based on annual emission estimates. Monthly resolution of NH{sub 3} emissions from fertilizers is based on fertilizer sales to farmers. Statewide NH{sub 3} emissions are highest in the late spring and early summer months.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

159

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Anomalous Microwave Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved knowledge of diffuse Galactic emission is important to maximize the scientific return from scheduled CMB anisotropy missions. Cross-correlation of microwave maps with maps of the far-IR dust continuum show a ubiquitous microwave emission component whose spatial distribution is traced by far-IR dust emission. The spectral index of this emission, beta_{radio} = -2.2 (+0.5 -0.7) is suggestive of free-free emission but does not preclude other candidates. Comparison of H-alpha and microwave results show that both data sets have positive correlations with the far-IR dust emission. Microwave data, however, are consistently brighter than can be explained solely from free-free emission traced by H-alpha. This ``anomalous'' microwave emission can be explained as electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The anomalous component at 53 GHz is 2.5 times as bright as the free-free emission traced by H-alpha, providing an approximate normalization for models with significant spinning dust emission.

A. Kogut

1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Measurement of vehicle emissions and the associated dispersion near roadways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

halance I, echnique sufl'ers I&vo disadva&i&, ages: (1) the emission factor may &&nly l&e calcula4cd for exis&, ing roads and (2) I, he analys4 &nusI, have accuraLe air quality, I, raflic, and inel, eorological da4a to estimal, e the emission rate...

Hlavinka, M. W

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Geographical scenario uncertainty in generic fate and exposure factors of toxic pollutants for life-cycle impact assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In environmental life-cycle assessments (LCA), fate and exposure factors account for the general fate and exposure properties of chemicals under generic environmental conditions by means of 'evaluative' multi-media fate and exposure box models. To assess the effect of using different generic environmental conditions, fate and exposure factors of chemicals emitted under typical conditions of (1) Western Europe, (2) Australia and (3) the United States of America were compared with the multi-media fate and exposure box model USES-LCA. Comparing the results of the three evaluative environments, it was found that the uncertainty in fate and exposure factors for ecosystems and humans due to choice of an evaluative environment, as represented by the ratio of the 97.5th and 50th percentile, is between a factor 2 and 10. Particularly, fate and exposure factors of emissions causing effects in fresh water ecosystems and effects on human health have relatively high uncertainty. This uncertainty i s mainly caused by the continental difference in the average soil erosion rate, the dimensions of the fresh water and agricultural soil compartment, and the fraction of drinking water coming from ground water.

Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Lundi, Sven; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, D.

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

164

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

166

Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Tim Johnson October 16, 2012 2 Environmental Technologies Summary * Regulations - LEVIII finalized, Tier 3? RDE in Europe developing and very...

170

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

MEASUREMENT OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM WOOD REMEDIAL TREATMENT: CHAMBER TESTS AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

products on indoor air quality. The emissions of two wood remedial treatment products (water in real conditions during a roof renovation work in an old building. A petroleum-based solvent product of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products. Simple models can be applied to emission

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in west Los Angeles: Year 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emission inventory.1 For a description of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can also (or completely) converting engine-out CO, HC and NO emissions to carbon dioxide (CO2), water

Denver, University of

174

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

Uppsala Universitet

175

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Extended silicate dust emission in PG QSOs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper addresses the origin of the silicate emission observed in PG QSOs, based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Scenarios based on the unified model suggest that silicate emission in AGN arises mainly from the illuminated faces of the clouds in the torus at temperatures near sublimation. However, detections of silicate emission in Type 2 QSOs, and the estimated cool dust temperatures, argue for a more extended emission region.To investigate this issue we present the mid-infrared spectra of 23 QSOs. These spectra, and especially the silicate emission features at ~10 and ~18 mu can be fitted using dusty narrow line region (NLR) models and a combination of black bodies. The bolometric luminosities of the QSOs allow us to derive the radial distances and covering factors for the silicate-emitting dust. The inferred radii are 100-200 times larger than the dust sublimation radius, much larger than the expected dimensions of the inner torus. Our QSO mid-IR spectra are consistent with the bulk of the silicate dust emission arising from the dust in the innermost parts of the NLR.

M. Schweitzer; B. Groves; H. Netzer; D. Lutz; E. Sturm; A. Contursi; R. Genzel; L. J. Tacconi; S. Veilleux; D. -C. Kim; D. Rupke; A. J. Baker

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Reuse ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water Purification Introduction As population growth and associated factors...

178

The Measurement of Trace Emissions and Combustion Characteristics for a Mass Fire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

32 The Measurement of Trace Emissions and Combustion Characteristics for a Mass Fire Ronald A of emissions from biomass burning on global climate. While the burning of biomass constitutes a large fraction of world emis- sions, there are insufficient data on the combustion efficiency, emission factors, and trace

179

Statistical Image Reconstruction Methods for Simultaneous Emission/Transmission PET Scans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Image Reconstruction Methods for Simultaneous Emission/Transmission PET Scans Hakan are necessary for estimating the attenuation correction factors (ACFs) to yield quantitatively accu- rate PET to recon- struct lower noise PET emission images from simultaneous trans- mission/emission scans

Erdogan, Hakan

180

Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom- up emission inventory (with error and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using

Chance, Kelly

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Estimation and Reduction Methodologies for Fugitive Emissions from Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.0214 Compressor Seals Gas/Vapor 0.228 Pressure Relief Seals Gas/Vapor 0.104 Flanges All 0.00083 Open-Ended Lines All 0.0017 Sampling Connections All 0.0150 Table 1. Average Emission Factors for Fugitive Emissions (kg/hr/source). The product of the emission...Tssion Factor Emission Factor Val ves Gas a LLb HL c 0.0451 0.0852 0.00023 d 0.00048 0.00171 0.00023 Pump Sea Is LL HL 0.437 0.3885 0.0120 0.0135 Compressor Seal se Pressure ReI ief Valves Flanges Open -Ended Lines Gas Gas All All 1...

Scataglia, A.

182

Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

Kumar, Nikhil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

185

Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

Watson, Andrew

186

Emission Abatement System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

187

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

188

Optical emission in magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was investigated by studying the optical emission from laser-induced plasma plumes expanding across an external transverse magnetic field. KrF excimer laser pulses with a pulse duration of 23 ns and a wavelength of 248 nm were used to produce plasmas from Al, Cu, and Co targets. Various optical emission lines obtained from Al and Cu targets show an obvious enhancement in the intensity of optical emission when a magnetic field of {approx}0.8 T is applied, while the optical emission lines from Co targets show a decrease in the optical emission intensity. The enhancement factors of optical emission lines were measured to be around 2 for the Al and Mn (impurity) lines from Al targets, and 6-8 for Cu lines from Cu targets. Temporal evolution of the optical emission lines from the Al samples shows a maximum enhancement in emission intensity at time delays of 8-20 {mu}s after the incident laser pulse, while from the Cu targets it shows a continuous enhancement at time delays of 3-20 {mu}s after the pulse. The enhancement in the optical emission from the Al and Cu plasmas was presumably due to the increase in the effective plasma density as a result of magnetic confinement. The decrease in the emission intensity from the Co plasmas was suggested to be due to the decrease of effective plasma density as a result of the magnetic force.

Shen, X. K.; Lu, Y. F.; Gebre, T.; Ling, H.; Han, Y. X. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Intelligent field emission arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Photon enhanced thermionic emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

192

Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Field emission electron source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Nitric oxide emissions from the high-temperature viscous boundary layers of hypersonic aircraft within the stratosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors study the nitric oxide emission characteristics of supersonic aircraft resulting from heating of viscous boundary layers along the skin of the aircraft. Previous study has concentrated on nitric oxide emissions coming from combustion products from the scramjet engines. This work shows that above mach 8, emissions from viscous heating become a significant factor in total emission of nitric oxide. Above mach 16 it becomes the dominant source of emission.

Brooks, S.B.; Lewis, M.J.; Dickerson, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

195

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Water Resource System Optimization by Geometric Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water resources planners and systems analysts are continually confronted with many complex optimization problems. Two major factors contribute to this problem. Firstly, mathematical modeling and system description capabilities in water resources...

Meier, W. L.; Shih, C. S.; Wray, D. J.

197

WATER PRODUCTION BY COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 OBSERVED WITH THE SWAN INSTRUMENT ON THE SOHO SPACECRAFT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global water production rates were determined from the Ly{alpha} emission of hydrogen around comet 103P/Hartley 2, observed with the SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies) all-sky camera on the SOHO spacecraft from 2010 September 14 through December 12. This time period included the November 4 flyby by the EPOXI spacecraft. Water production was three times lower than during the 1997 apparition also measured by SWAN. In 2010, it increased by a factor of {approx}2.5 within one day on September 30 with a similar corresponding drop between November 24 and 30. The total surface area of sublimating water within {+-}20 days of perihelion was {approx}0.5 km{sup 2}, about half of the mean cross section of the nucleus. Outside this period it was {approx}0.2 km{sup 2}. The peak value was 90%, implying a significant water production by released nucleus icy fragments.

Combi, M. R. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E. [LATMOS, CNRS/INSU, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin, 11 Bd d'Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France); Ferron, S. [ACRI-st, Sophia-Antipolis (France); Maekinen, J. T. T., E-mail: mcombi@umich.edu, E-mail: Jean-Loup.Bertaux@aerov.jussieu.fr, E-mail: eric.quemerais@latmos.ipsl.fr, E-mail: Stephane.Ferron@aerov.jussieu.fr, E-mail: Teemu.Makinen@fmi.fi [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Box 503, SF-00101 Helsinki (Finland)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

On the Detectability of Prompt Coherent GRB Radio Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Both induced Compton scattering and induced Raman scattering strongly limit the observability of the extremely bright (emission recently predicted to emanate from gamma-ray bursts. Induced Compton scattering is the main limiting factor when the region around the progenitor is not dense but when one still considers the scattering effect of the a tenuous circumburst ISM. For a medium of density 0.01 n_{0.01} cm^{-3} and a path length L_{kpc} kpc and emission that is roughly isotropic in its rest frame the brightness temperature is limited to emission occurs. Thus, for a burst at distance D the predicted emission is only visible if the jet is ultra-relativistic, with Gamma > 10^3 (D/100 Mpc), or if the intrinsic opening angle of the emission is extremely small. Thus the presence or absence of such radio emission provides an excellent constraint on the Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow during the very early stages of its outburst. Induced Raman scattering imposes an even more stringent limit independent of the emission opening angle, but only effective if GRB emission must propagate through a dense progenitor wind within ~ 10^{15} cm from the blast center.

J. -P. Macquart

2007-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

199

Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci [Yildiz Technical University Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

Colorado at Boulder, University of

203

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Water Masers Toward Ultracompact HII Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a survey in the 6_{16}-5_{23} rotational water transition toward 33 galactic ultracompact HII regions. Maser emission is detected toward 18 of these sources; two are new detections. High quality spectra are provided for all 18 sources. We discuss the detection rate of this survey and the correlation of various maser properties with other physical parameters. In addition, we report wide-bandwidth (316 km/s), moderate-resolution (~ 3'') water maser observations of the HH80-81 region. We report the first detection of water maser emission at the approximate velocity of the molecular core. This emission is coincident with the extreme tip of the thermal jet, and well-removed from the much stronger and well-known maser emission at the position of VLA-3.

S. Kurtz; P. Hofner

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Dispersion modeling for prediction of emission factors for cattle feedyards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Upon implementation of the Federal Clean Air Act and with the anticipated increase in resources of state air pollution regulatory agencies, regulation of air quality will expand to agricultural production and processing industries. This expansion...

Parnell, Sarah Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico: EnergyMithun Jump to: navigation,InformationModula

207

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text09-0018-CXBasinDeseretDevelopingthe MekongEnergy

208

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text09-0018-CXBasinDeseretDevelopingthe

209

U.S. zero emission coal alliance techology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal to maintain its major role in supplying the world's energy, eventually all emissions to the atmosphere must be eliminated. Not only must conventional pollutants, like sulfur compounds and dust particles be kept out of the air, but also the far larger quantities of carbon dioxide that result from the combustion of carbon. We present a new technology for coal-based power that generates hydrogen from carbon and water, avoids emissions to the atmosphere, and disposes of the carbon dioxide as inert, solid mineral carbonates. Based on the available resources, coal power is sustainable for centuries. Our zero emission technology makes coal energy as clean as renewable energy.

Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Department of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pe'er, Asaf [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mizuta, Akira [KEK Theory Center, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Harikae, Seiji, E-mail: hito@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Quants Research Department, Financial Engineering Division, Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co., Ltd., Mejirodai Bldg., 3-29-20 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8688 (Japan)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Controlled spontaneous emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Practical guide: Tools and methodologies for an oil and gas industry emission inventory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the preparation of Title V Permit applications, the quantification and speciation of emission sources from oil and gas facilities were reevaluated to determine the {open_quotes}potential-to-emit.{close_quotes} The existing emissions were primarily based on EPA emission factors such as AP-42, for tanks, combustion sources, and fugitive emissions from component leaks. Emissions from insignificant activities and routine operations that are associated with maintenance, startups and shutdowns, and releases to control devices also required quantification. To reconcile EPA emission factors with test data, process knowledge, and manufacturer`s data, a careful review of other estimation options was performed. This paper represents the results of this analysis of emission sources at oil and gas facilities, including exploration and production, compressor stations and gas plants.

Thompson, C.C. [C-K Associates, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Killian, T.L. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Generalized Emission Functions for Photon Emission from Quark-Gluon Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effects on photon emission from the quark gluon plasma have been studied as a function of photon mass, at a fixed temperature of the plasma. The integral equations for the transverse vector function (${\\bf \\tilde{f}(\\tilde{p}_\\perp)}$) and the longitudinal function ($\\tilde{g}({\\bf \\tilde{p}_\\perp})$) consisting of multiple scattering effects are solved by the self consistent iterations method and also by the variational method for the variable set \\{$p_0,q_0,Q^2$\\}, considering the bremsstrahlung and the $\\bf aws$ processes. We define four new dynamical scaling variables, $x^b_T$,$x^a_T$,$x^b_L$,$x^a_L$ for bremsstrahlung and {\\bf aws} processes and analyse the transverse and longitudinal components as a function of \\{$p_0,q_0,Q^2$\\}. We generalize the concept of photon emission function and we define four new emission functions for massive photon emission represented by $g^b_T$, $g^a_T$, $g^b_L$, $g^a_L$. These have been constructed using the exact numerical solutions of the integral equations. These four emission functions have been parameterized by suitable simple empirical fits. In terms of these empirical emission functions, the virtual photon emission from quark gluon plasma reduces to one dimensional integrals that involve folding over the empirical $g^{b,a}_{T,L}$ functions with appropriate quark distribution functions and the kinematic factors. Using this empirical emission functions, we calculated the imaginary part of the photon polarization tensor as a function of photon mass and energy.

S. V. Suryanarayana

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

217

TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial Ryegrass under Different Irrigation Regimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

80 TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial). effects of irrigation on N2 O emissions from perennial ryegrass AUTHOR: Jason Lewis and Dale Bremer and frequencies, and irrigated with different amounts of water, all of which may affect N2 O emissions

218

Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fugitive emissions in an emissions trading program, as theexists between an emissions trading program that allows aircreation of other ROC emissions trading programs. JOURNAL OF

Cohen, Nancy J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

222

Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emergi

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

223

Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

224

The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methanol, ace- tone, acetonitrile, and hydrogen cyanide,ratios of many VOC to acetonitrile, which is thought to beMS species and PM 10 acetonitrile acetaldehyde acrylonitrile

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology with kriging constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology. Abstract For chemistry-transport models operating at regional scales, surface emissions are the input data a methodology to optimize surface emissions at local scale i.e. to compute correction factors for the available

Menut, Laurent

226

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrĂ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

227

Field emission from organic materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Emission altitude in radio pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a method of estimation of emission altitudes using observational data - precise measurements of pulse profile widths at low intensity level. The analysis of emission altitudes obtained using this method for a large number of pulsars gives constraints that should be useful for theory of coherent pulsar emission. It seems that radio emission originates at altitudes of about few percent of the light cylinder and that they depend on frequency, pulsar period and period derivative.

J. Kijak

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DEER Conference Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks Overview Emission Standards - US and Worldwide Technology Options for Meeting Emissions System Integration ...

230

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is available on the Defra website and has been produced by Nikolas Hill (AEA) for the Department of Energy) 34 Direct Emissions from Light Goods Vehicles (LGVs) 38 Direct Emissions from Rail Freight 39 Direct 57 Other bioenergy 58 Waste 59 X. OVERSEAS ELECTRICITY EMISSION FACTORS (ANNEX 10) 63 Summary

234

Prompt optical emission and synchrotron self-absorption constraints on emission site of GRBs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We constrain the distance of the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) prompt emission site from the explosion centre, R, by determining the location of the electron's self absorption frequency in the GRB prompt optical-to-X/gamma-ray spectral energy distribution, assuming that the optical and the gamma-ray emissions are among the same synchrotron radiation continuum of a group of hot electrons. All possible spectral regimes are considered in our analysis. The method has only two assumed parameters, namely, the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting source Gamma, and the magnetic field strength B in the emission region (with a weak dependence). We identify a small sample of 4 bursts that satisfy the following three criteria: (1) they all have simultaneous optical and gamma-ray detections in multiple observational time intervals; (2) they all show temporal correlations between the optical and gamma-ray light curves; and (3) the optical emission is consistent with belonging to the same spectral component as the gamma-ray emission...

Shen, Rong-Feng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

Boyer, Edmond

236

5, 94059445, 2005 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title and Physics Discussions Sensitivity analysis of methane emissions derived from SCIAMACHY observations through, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

5, 243270, 2008 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract and temperature on the emission of methane from plant biomass and structural components I. Vigano 1 , H. van.roeckmann@phys.uu.nl) 243 #12;BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses E. Sanhueza;ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

239

Coronal emission lines as thermometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

Frederick, J. D.

242

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

P. Danielewicz

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

243

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

Danielewicz, P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Evaluating point and process fugitive emission sources of particulate matter from feed mills associated with cattle feed yards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 843 kg/m' (0. 0526 lb/ft') and 2688 m/min (8820 fpm), respectively. Since the dimensions of the rectangular exhaust duct were 27. 9x35. 6 cendmeters (I lx14 inches), the volume rate of flow of air handled by this cyclone was determined to be 267 m.... Emission factors for feed mills (Shannon et al. , 1974) Table 2. 1988 AP-42 emission factors for feed mills Table 3. Intemn AP-42 emission actors for grain elevators 12 Table 4. Proposed emission factors for feed mills 14 Table 5. Source sampling...

Demny, Michael Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(petrol ICE, diesel ICE, LPG ICE, petrol HEV), engine size (2 litres) and vehicle age. The ‘most used vehicle’ reported by the participants was taken as the reference vehicle for the emissions analysis. Where one or more... fleet average of petrol and diesel car emissions factors. Multiplying total distance travelled by these speed-emissions factors gave us an estimate of the total ‘hot’ emissions for each vehicle when the engine was warmed up. As a final adjustment...

Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David; on behalf of the iConnect consortium

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with food production, should not use fresh water supplies, and should have neutral greenhouse gas emissions after a life cycle analysis (LCA) [7,8]. Biofuels derived from algal biomass feedstocks are generating considerable interest around the world...

Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

Minnesota, University of

248

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SEARCH FOR HIGHENERGY EMISSION FROM GAMMARAY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ SEARCH FOR HIGH­ENERGY EMISSION FROM GAMMA­RAY BURSTS Gamma­Ray Bursts With A Large Water Cerenkov Detector by Tom Yang Milagrisimo, the first­stage prototype for radiation from the directions of gamma­ray bursts that are listed in BATSE's 4B catalog. No evidence

California at Santa Cruz, University of

249

Tropical methane emissions: A revised view from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical methane emissions: A revised view from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT Christian Frankenberg,1; accepted 26 June 2008; published 12 August 2008. [1] Methane retrievals from near-infrared spectra recorded spectroscopic parameters, causing a substantial overestimation of methane correlated with high water vapor

Haak, Hein

250

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

251

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAĂ­S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereĂ­s an untapped market using resources right under our feet,Ă® the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

252

Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC HOT WATER (DHW)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000 Btu/hr), electric resistance and heat pump water heaters, list Energy Factor (EF). For large gas storage water heaters (rated input of greater than 75,000 Btu/hr), list Recovery Efficiency (RE), Thermal Efficiency, Standby Loss and Rated Input. For instantaneous gas water heaters, list the Thermal Efficiency

254

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants in the exhaust see Heywood2 . Properly operating modern for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel canOn-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 4 Sajal S. Pokharel, Gary

Denver, University of

255

Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

256

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

257

A knife-edge array field emission cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

Lee, B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

259

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

California at Davis, University of

260

Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................ 18 Calculation of Biomass, Biogas or Landfill Net Emissions ..................................... 19

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Professor David B. Kittelson Department Meeting Ultra Fine Particles in the Atmosphere 15 March 2000 Engine Exhaust Particle Emissions: Some Perkins Engine Company #12;Emissions of Ultrafine and Nanoparticles from Engines · Current emission

Minnesota, University of

262

Can carbon finance contribute to the promotion of solar water heating in Bolivia?   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential applications of renewable energy can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions while improving the quality of life for households. Thermosiphon solar water heaters are passive systems using solar energy to supply hot water...

Hayek, Niklas

2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

Young, I.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

264

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

265

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies 2011 DOE...

266

Sources of CO emissions in an HCCI engine: A numerical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Factors influencing a reliable prediction of CO emissions in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are investigated using an improved probability density function (PDF)-based engine cycle model. A previously validated PDF-based stochastic reactor model is utilized to identify critical sources of CO emissions numerically. The full cycle model includes detailed chemical kinetics, accounts for the inhomogeneities in temperature and composition, and has been demonstrated to provide sufficiently reliable predictions of the combustion and engine parameters and emissions.

Bhave, Amit; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Montorsi, Luca [Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41100 Modena (Italy); Mauss, Fabian [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Computerized Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dilepton emission at temperature dependent baryonic quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fireball of QGP is evoluted at temperature dependent chemical potential by a statistical model in the pionic medium. We study the dilepton emission rate at temperature dependent chemical potential (TDCP) from such a fireball of QGP. In this model, we take the dynamical quark mass as a finite value dependence on temparature and parametrization factor of the QGP evolution. The temperature and factor in quark mass enhance in the growth of the droplets as well as in the dilepton emission rates. The emission rate from the plasma shows dilepton spectrum in the intermediate mass region (IMR) of (1.0-4.0) GeV and its rate is observed to be a strong increasing function of the temperature dependent chemical potential for quark and antiquark annihilation.

S. Somorendro Singh; Yogesh Kumar

2012-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

269

A critical evaluation of factors affecting reservoir yield estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statement of Problem Estimation of reservoir yield is fundamental to water resources planning and management. Effective management of the surface water resource of a river basin requires an understanding of the amount of water which can be provided... and approaches used in handling various complicating factors. Water supply planning and management involves complex institutional, legal, hydrologic, and physical systems. Streamflow, reservoir sedimentation, evaporation, water demands, and other variables...

Bergman, Carla Elaine

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

271

Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

272

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

Welch, M. J.

1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

273

Emission control technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

On-line monitoring of incinerator emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of efforts to develop an on-line emissions monitor to detect specific organic compounds for incinerators, the authors tested a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled with a long-path cell (LPC). A mixture of toluene, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene with elemental ratio C:H:Cl = 3:3.1:0.9 was incinerated in a methane/air flame. The effluent was continuously passed through a heated long-path cell. Eleven target compounds were simultaneously analyzed: methane, toluene, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, ethylene, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. During the testing, the incinerator temperature and the excess air ratio were deliberately changed to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions in the incinerator. Test results indicate that the FTIR/LPC system can successfully follow concentration changes in the emissions that are associated with the change in the incinerator operations. In addition to carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and benzene have been found to be major products of incomplete combustion of the mixture. In this paper, the authors also discuss problems related to obtaining representative calibration standards and to developing adequate methods for continuous monitoring of emissions.

Mao, Zhuoxiong; Demirgian, J.C.; Hwang, E.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The use of satellite-measured aerosol optical depth to constrain biomass burning emissions source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, effective fuel load, and species emission factors as alternative inputs and daily versions, Fire Radiative Power (FRP)-based Quick Fire Emission Data set QFED, and 11 calculated, Earth Science Directorate, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 613, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA

Chin, Mian

277

Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy While dryWashington'sResultsEnergyEfficiencyThe

280

Probing Protoplanetary Disks with Silicate Emission: Where is the silicate emission zone?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent results indicate that the grain size and crystallinity inferred from observations of silicate features may be correlated with spectral type of the central star and/or disk geometry. In this paper, we show that grain size, as probed by the 10 um silicate feature peak-to-continuum and 11.3-to-9.8 um flux ratios, is inversely proportional to log L_star. These trends can be understood using a simple two-layer disk model for passive irradiated flaring disks, CGPLUS. We find that the radius, R_10, of the 10 um silicate emission zone in the disk goes as (L_star/L_sun)^0.56, with slight variations depending on disk geometry (flaring angle, inner disk radius). The observed correlations, combined with simulated emission spectra of olivine and pyroxene mixtures, imply a grain size dependence on luminosity. Combined with the fact that R_10 is smaller for less luminous stars, this implies that the apparent grain size of the emitting dust is larger for low-luminositysources. In contrast, our models suggest that the crystallinity is only marginally affected, because for increasing luminosity, the zone for thermal annealing (assumed to be at T>800 K) is enlarged by roughly the same factor as the silicate emission zone. The observed crystallinity is affected by disk geometry, however, with increased crystallinity in flat disks. The apparent crystallinity may also increase with grain growth due to a corresponding increase in contrast between crystalline and amorphous silicate emission bands.

J. E. Kessler-Silacci; C. P. Dullemond; J. -C. Augereau; B. Merin; V. C. Geers; E. F. van Dishoeck; N. J. Evans II; G. A. Blake; J. M. Brown

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

field emission electron microprobe | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field emission electron microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

282

EMSL - field emission electron microprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field-emission-electron-microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

283

Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

285

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding electric generation....

286

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ohio's 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions to customers. Electric utilities and...

287

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maryland’s 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires all electric companies and electricity suppliers to provide customers with details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of...

288

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

289

Emissions trading under market imperfections.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the… (more)

Lappi, Pauli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Emissions trading and technological change.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Emissions trading programmes have grown in number and scope over the last forty years, and in the last decade they have become a centrepiece of… (more)

Calel, Raphael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Silicate emission in Orion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present mid-infrared spectro-imagery and high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion bar and of a region in the Orion nebula. These observations have been obtained in the Guaranteed Time with the Circular Variable Filters of the ISO camera (CAM-CVF) and with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Our data shows emission from amorphous silicate grains from the entire HII region and around the isolated O9.5V star Theta2 Ori A. The observed spectra can be reproduced by a mixture of interstellar silicate and carbon grains heated by the radiation of the hot stars present in the region. Crystalline silicates are also observed in the Orion nebula and suspected around Theta2 Ori A. They are probably of interstellar origin. The ionization structure and the distribution of the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) are briefly discussed on the basis of the ISO observations.

D. Cesarsky; A. P. Jones; J. Lequeux; L. Verstraete

2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

Environmental management of water projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is divided in three parts and contains the following: PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. Environmental conditions for water resource projects. Characteristics of some large scale reservoirs. Biological parameters of the TVA Eurasian watermilfoil management program. Ecological parameters influencing aquatic plant growth. Biological parameters influencing growth and reproduction of hydrilla. PART II: EVALUATION OF SELECTED AQUATIC HERBICIDES. Technical review of the factors affecting 2,4-D for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting endothall for aquatic use. Technical review of factors affecting diquat for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting use of dicamba. Technical review of the factors affecting aquatic use of dichlobenil. PART III: EVALUATION OF VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS. Strategies for aquatic vegetation management. (A) conversion of factors for U.S. and metric units. (B) Glossary of terms. Index.

Gangstad, E.O.; Stanley, R.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

Goldschein, Perry S.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Plasma Instability Theory of Gamma-Ray Burst Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A plasma instability theory is presented for the prompt radiation from gamma-ray bursts. In the theory, a highly relativistic shell interacts with the interstellar medium through the filamentation and the two-stream instabilities to convert bulk kinetic energy into electron thermal energy and magnetic field energy. The processes are not efficient enough to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, so a shock cannot form through this mechanism. Instead, the interstellar medium passes through the shell, with the electrons radiating during this passage. Gamma-rays are produced by synchrotron self-Compton emission. Prompt optical emission is also produced through this mechanism, while prompt radio emission is produced through synchrotron emission. The model timescales are consistent with the shortest burst timescales. To emit gamma-rays, the shell's bulk Lorentz factor must be greater than approximately 1000. For the radiative processes to be efficient, the interstellar medium density must satisfy a lower limit that is a function of the bulk Lorentz factor. Because the limits operate as selection effects, bursts that violate them constitute new classes. In particular, a class of optical and ultraviolet bursts with no gamma-ray emission should exist. The lower limit on the density of the interstellar medium is consistent with the requirements of the Compton attenuation theory, providing an explanation for why all burst spectra appear to be attenuated. Several tests of the theory are discussed, as are the next theoretical investigations that should be conducted.

J. J. Brainerd

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

295

Treatment of produced water by simultaneous removal of heavy metals and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a photoelectrochemical cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Early produced water treatment technologies were developed before carbon dioxide emissions and hazardous waste discharge were recognised as operational priority. These technologies are deficient in… (more)

Igunnu, Ebenezer Temitope

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................... 193 Lesson 11 Water and Pollution........................................................................................................................ 195 Activity 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere...! ............................................................................. 205 Record Sheet 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere! ..................................................................... 207 Activity 11.2, Pollution at Its Source...

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

297

Water Privatisation   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zölls, Elisa

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

COMPILATION OF REGIONAL TO GLOBAL INVENTORIES OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mathematical modeling of the transport and transformation of trace species in the atmosphere is one of the scientific tools currently used to assess atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climatic conditions. From the scientific but also from the management perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal, and species resolution are required. There are two general methodologies used to estimate regional to global emissions: bottom-up and top-down (also known as inverse modeling). Bottom-up methodologies to estimate industrial emissions are based on activity data, emission factors (amount of emissions per unit activity), and for some inventories additional parameters (such as sulfur content of fuels). Generally these emissions estimates must be given finer sectoral, spatial (usually gridded), temporal, and for some inventories species resolution. Temporal and spatial resolution are obtained via the use of surrogate information, such as population, land use, traffic counts, etc. which already exists in or can directly be converted to gridded form. Speciation factors have been and are being developed to speciate inventories of NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. Top-down (inverse modeling) methodologies directly invert air quality measurements in terms of poorly known but critical parameters to constrain the emissions needed to explain these measurements; values of these parameters are usually computed using atmospheric transport models. Currently there are several strong limitations of inverse modeling, but the continued evolution of top-down estimates will be facilitated by the development of denser monitoring networks and by the massive amounts of data from satellite observations.

BENKOVITZ,C.M.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

Cohen, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

302

Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

303

Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation The power factor (PF) is defined as the ratio between the active power and the apparent power of a system. If the current and voltage are periodic with period , and [ ), then the active power is defined by ( ) ( ) (their inner product

Knobloch,JĂĽrgen

304

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On reductions in GHG, and b) use analytical tools/methods to assess the emissions reductions possible through and prioritized based on factors such as cost effectiveness, potential for emission reductions, and applicability

308

Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su Fan, Xueping Zhang, Qing Zhang, Jiping Chen *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su February 2009 Available online 21 March 2009 Keywords: MSWIs PCDD/Fs Congener patterns Emission factor a b s t r a c t Gas emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD

Columbia University

309

Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

310

Emission Inventories and Projections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

311

Generalized local emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Energy Conservation for Boiler Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This paper reviews methods to conserve energy in industrial boiler water systems. Both mechanical and chemical approaches for energy conservation are discussed. The important aspects of efficient combustion are covered as well as other mechanical factors...

Beardsley, M. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

315

An overview of airborne radioactive emissions at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strict control is essential over any emissions of radioactivity in the ventilation exhaust from facilities where radioactive materials may become airborne. At Los Alamos National Laboratory there are 87 stacks exhausting ventilation air to the environment from operations with a potential for radioactive emissions. These stacks cover the diverse operations at all Laboratory facilities where radioactive materials are handled and require continuous sampling/monitoring to detect levels of contamination. An overview is presented of the operations, associated ventilation exhaust cleanup systems, and analysis of the emissions. In keeping with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, emissions of radionuclides are reduced whenever practicable. A specific example describing the reduction of emissions from the linear accelerator beam stop area at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility during 1985 by a factor of 8 over previous emissions is presented.

Guevara, F.A.; Dvorak, R.F.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programs) · Audience: homeowners Outcome 4: Increase water reuse and recycling programs · Example program: Water harvesting ­ rain barrels and cisterns · Audience: home owners #12;: Water conservation. Conserve Florida's finite water resources by teaching rural, suburban and urban

Kane, Andrew S.

317

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

318

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimated to produce CO2 emission reductions ranging frombetween low CO2 emissions and the reductions in the auto usea 16 percent reduction in CO2 traffic emissions within the

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cementfor Fuel Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron andElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

324

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

325

Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-priced. Finally we estimates that the geospatial pattern of water demands could stress some parts of the world, e.g. China, India and other countries in south and east Asia, earlier and more intensely than in other parts of the world, e.g. North America.

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in water heater. Scale buildup in pipes and re duced water flow. Hard water due to calcium and magnesiumHousehold Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may

Liskiewicz, Maciej

328

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL EMSL produced this video for the annual congressional science expo organized by the National User...

329

Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

330

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

331

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a variety of photoexcitation sources including synchrotron emission, femtosecond laser pulses and conventional UV lamp emission. Each source has advantages, for example, fs...

335

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

336

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

337

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

338

International Emissions Trading: Design and Political Acceptability.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at… (more)

Boom, Jan Tjeerd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

340

Grabbing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

342

Anomalous Emission from HII regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

C. Dickinson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In September 2002, the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) issued an order requiring the state's regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers details on the fuel mix and emissions...

344

Mobile fiber optic emission spectrograph  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technical Assistance Request HLW/DWPF-TAR-970064 asked SRTC to evaluate the use of a fiber optic coupled emission spectrometer. The spectrometer would provide additional ICP analyses in the DWPF laboratory.

Spencer, W.A.; Coleman, C.J.; McCarty, J.E.; Beck, R.S.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Trading quasi-emission permits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I study the design of environmental policies for a regulator that has incomplete information on firms' emissions and costs of production and abatement (e.g., air pollution in cities with numerous small polluting sources). ...

Montero, Juan-Pablo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Iowa adopted regulations in 2003 that generally require rate-regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers the fuel mix and estimated emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh), of...

347

The Value of Emissions Trading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here-to-fore neglected component: its value as a hedge against uncertainty. Much analysis has been done of the Kyoto Protocol and ...

Webster, Mort David.

348

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Michigan's Customer Choice and Electric Reliability Act of 2000 (P.A. 141) requires electric suppliers to disclose to customers details related to the fuel mix and emissions, in pounds per megawatt...

349

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2001, Nevada enacted legislation requiring the state’s electric utilities to provide details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation to their customers. Utilities must...

350

Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The water megamaser in the merger system Arp299  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present preliminary results of an interferometric study of the water megamaser in the merger system Arp299. This system is composed of two main sources: IC694 and NGC3690. There is clear evidence that most of the water maser emission is associated with the nucleus of the latter, confirming the presence of an optically obscured AGN as previously suggested by X-ray observations. Furthermore, emission arises from the inner regions of IC694, where an OH megamaser is also present. The velocity of the water maser line is blueshifted w.r.t. the optically determined systemic velocity and is consistent with that of the OH megamaser line. This finding might then indicate that both masers are associated with the same (expanding) structure and that, for the first time, strong 22 GHz water and 1.67 GHz OH maser emission has been found to coexist.

A. Tarchi; P. Castangia; C. Henkel; K. M. Menten

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

Imbibition flooding with CO?-enriched water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Imbibition of water into the pore space of the matrix is the dominant oil production factor in fractured reservoirs. Conventional water and gas injection methods fail to improve oil recovery in these reservoirs because of fluid channeling through... the fracture system. The largest fractured reservoirs in Texas are tight, dual porosity limestone reservoirs such as the Austin Chalk. Imbibition flooding is limited in tight fractured reservoirs because of low countercurrent water-oil imbibition flow rates...

Grape, Steven George

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Time dependent particle emission from fission products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a variety of aspects ranging from cooling requirements to shielding design. Calculations of decay heat, often assumed to be a simple product of activity and average decay product energy, are complicated by the so called 'pandemonium effect'. Elucidated in the 1970's this complication arises from beta-decays feeding high-energy nuclear levels; redistributing the available energy between betas and gammas. Increased interest in improving the theoretical predictions of decay probabilities has been, in part, motivated by the recent experimental effort utilizing the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) to determine individual beta-decay transition probabilities to individual nuclear levels. Accurate predictions of decay heating require a detailed understanding of these transition probabilities, accurate representation of particle decays as well as reliable predictions of temporal inventories from fissioning systems. We will discuss a recent LANL effort to provide a time dependent study of particle emission from fission products through a combination of Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) predictions of beta-decay probabilities, statistical Hauser-Feshbach techniques to obtain particle and gamma-ray emissions in statistical Hauser-Feshbach and the nuclear inventory code, CINDER.

Holloway, Shannon T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET{sub o}), rainfall deficit (rainfall - ET{sub o}) and relative crop yield reduction for a generic crop under climate change conditions for three locations in Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Mayaguez, and Lajas. Reference evapotranspiration is estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. Rainfall and temperature data were statistically downscaled and evaluated using the DOE/NCAR PCM global circulation model projections for the B1 (low), A2 (mid-high) and A1fi (high) emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Relative crop yield reductions were estimated from a function dependent water stress factor, which is a function of soil moisture content. Average soil moisture content for the three locations was determined by means of a simple water balance approach. Results from the analysis indicate that the rainy season will become wetter and the dry season will become drier. The 20-year mean 1990-2010 September rainfall excess (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} > 0) increased for all scenarios and locations from 149.8 to 356.4 mm for 2080-2100. Similarly, the 20-year average February rainfall deficit (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} < 0) decreased from a -26.1 mm for 1990-2010 to -72.1 mm for the year 2080-2100. The results suggest that additional water could be saved during the wet months to offset increased irrigation requirements during the dry months. Relative crop yield reduction did not change significantly under the B1 projected emissions scenario, but increased by approximately 20% during the summer months under the A1fi emissions scenario. Components of the annual water balance for the three climate change scenarios are rainfall, evapotranspiration (adjusted for soil moisture), surface runoff, aquifer recharge and change in soil moisture storage. Under the A1fi scenario, for all locations, annual evapotranspiration decreased owing to lower soil moisture, surface runoff decreased, and aquifer recharge increased. Aquifer recharge increased at all three locations because the majority of recharge occurs during the wet season and the wet season became wetter. This is good news from a groundwater production standpoint. Increasing aquifer recharge also suggests that groundwater levels may increase and this may help to minimize saltwater intrusion near the coasts as sea levels increase, provided that groundwater use is not over-subscribed.

Harmsen, E.W.; Miller, N.L.; Schlegel, N.J.; Gonzalez, J.E.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Diagnosing GRB Prompt Emission Site with Spectral Cut-Off Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The site and mechanism of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission is still unknown. Although internal shocks have been widely discussed as the emission site of GRBs, evidence supporting other emission sites have been also suggested recently, including the closer-in photosphere where the fireball becomes transparent and further-out radii near the fireball deceleration radius where magnetic dissipation may be important. With the successful operation of the GLAST experiment, prompt high energy emission spectra from many GRBs would be detected in the near future. We suggest that the cut-off energy of the prompt emission spectrum from a GRB depends on both the fireball bulk Lorentz factor and the unknown emission radius from the central engine. If the bulk Lorentz factor could be independently measured (e.g. from early afterglow observations), the observed spectral cutoff energy can be used to diagnose the emission site of gamma-rays. This would provide valuable information to understand the physical origin of the GRB promp emission.

Nayantara Gupta; Bing Zhang

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

ISO observations of spirals: modelling the FIR emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISO observations at 200 micron have modified our view of the dust component in spiral galaxies. For a sample of seven resolved spirals we have retrieved a mean temperature of 20K, about 10K lower than previous estimates based on IRAS data at shorter wavelengths. Because of the steep dependence of far-infrared emission on the dust temperature, the dust masses inferred from ISO fluxes are a factor of 10 higher than those derived from IRAS data only, leading to gas-to-dust ratios close to the value observed in the Galaxy. The scale-length of the 200 micron emission is larger than for the IRAS 100 micron emission, with colder dust at larger distances from the galactic centre, as expected if the interstellar radiation field is the main source of dust heating. The 200 micron scale-length is also larger than the optical, for all the galaxies in the sample. This suggests that the dust distribution is more extended than that of the stars.A model of the dust heating is needed to derive the parameters of the dust distribution from the FIR emission. Therefore, we have adapted an existing radiative transfer code to deal with dust emission. Simulated maps of the temperature distribution within the dust disk and of the dust emission at any wavelength can be produced. The stellar spectral energy distribution is derived from observations in the ultraviolet, optical and near infrared. The parameters of the dust distribution (scale-lengths and optical depth) are chosen to reproduce the observed characteristics of the FIR emission, i.e. the shape of the spectrum, the flux and the spatial distribution. We describe the application of the model to one of the galaxies in the sample, NGC 6946.

Simone Bianchi; Paul B. Alton; Jonathan I. Davies

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

7, 68436902, 2007 An Asian emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Atmospheric Mercury: Emissions, Transport/Fate,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, global...) Is "emissions trading" workable and ethical? Is the recently promulgated Clean Air Mercury

360

Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC Vivian Hoffman, J Chisholm I. Introduction The GVRD environmental objectives are achieved. Emissions reduction credit trading (or emissions trading) is an example Valley (LFV). Section III describes the market-based instruments of emissions trading and facility

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

362

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

363

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

364

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

M. J. Holmes

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

368

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

369

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from stationary combustion sources: Numerical modeling capabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A collaborative research program initiated to study the emissions of a wide variety of chemical species from stationary combustion systems. These product species have been included in the Clean Air act legislation and their emissions must be rigidly controlled, but there is a need for much better understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that produce and consume them. We are using numerical modeling study the chemical reactions and fluid mechanical factors that occur in industrial processes: we are examining systems including premixed and diffusion flames, stirred reactors and plug flow reactors in these modeling studies to establish the major factors leading to emissions of these chemicals. In addition, we are applying advanced laser diagnostic techniques to validate the model predictions and to study the possibilities of developing sophisticated sensors to detect emissions of undesirable species in real time. This paper will discuss the organization of this collaborative effort and its results to date.

Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kee, R.J.; Lutz, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, S.K.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

S. K. Zohner

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Rev. 4/1/2009 Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:00 Decision Support for Integrated Water-Energy Planning (V. Tidwell et al.) 16:30 Decision Support System Choices (R. Newmark et al.) 13:30 Reducing Greenhouse Gas Impacts in the Urban Water Cycle Through: Modeling Energy & Water Systems 15:30 Integrated System Dynamics Model to Assess Options for Emissions

Keller, Arturo A.

375

The MWIR and LWIR Spectral Signatures of Water and Associated Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produce a spectrum that did not look like water. Essentially all of the materials measured in this forest environment produced a water-dominated emissivity spectrum. As some materials appeared to contain only smallThe MWIR and LWIR Spectral Signatures of Water and Associated Materials Herbert J. Mitchella

Salvaggio, Carl

376

Anisotropic Heat and Water Transport in a PEFC Cathode Gas Diffusion Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEFCs , owing to their high en- ergy efficiency, low emission, and low noise, are widely considered. In addition, the latent heat effects due to condensation/evaporation of water on the temperature and water ohmic losses. Along with water man- agement, thermal management is also a key to high performance

377

Water Management Act (Massachusetts)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

378

Protected Water Sources (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter designates protected water sources, which are subject to additional special conditions regarding water use. Permit applications for water withdrawals from these sources may still be...

379

Storm Water Analytical Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL...

380

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2013 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

382

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

383

Efficient Water Use & Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL....

384

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition InformationInteractionsWater

385

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout Printable VersionProtectiveWaste to beswim WatchingWaterW

386

ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

Steven B. Hawthorne

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Power Factor Improvement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power factor control is a necessary ingredient in any successful Energy Management Program. Many companies are operating with power factors of 70% or less and are being penalized through the electrical utility bill. This paper starts by describing...

Viljoen, T. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Evaluation of emission-control devices at waferboard plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document discusses emissions from wood-chip dryers and the candidate control devices that should be considered in a best available control technology analysis. Specifically, the document characterizes wood-chip dryer effluents and presents a general description, pollutant removal efficiencies, factors affecting performance, and cost for the wet electrostatic precipitator and the electrified filter bed. The document also presents information on controlling formaldehyde emissions from the press vents.

Vaught, C.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Locomotive emission study. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work for the report involved the estimation of the air pollution emissions arising from the operation of railroad locomotives in six non-attainment air management basins within California. The six air basins are the Bay Area, the Central Coast (which includes the North Central Coast and the South Central Coast basins), the South Coast, San Diego, San Joaquin, and the Sacramento Valley basins. In addition, the effort involved the development of information about the efficacy and cost of feasible control strategies for locomotive-generated air pollution emissions, for both long and short term implementation.

NONE

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Sequential water stress in cotton: yield response to stress in early and peak flowering stages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PL4), where S = (P1, 4 + 600)/-2400. Table 44. Treatment summary of stress factors (S) based on dawn leaf water potentials (~), where S = (Pl, d + 600)/-2400 . . Table 45. Stress factors (S) based on noon leaf water potentials (~), where S = (Pt, o... + 600)/-2400. . . . . 174 . . . . . 176 . . . . . 178 . . . . . 179 Table 46. Treatment summary of stress factors (S) based on noon leaf water potentials (Pt, o), where S = (~ + 600)/- 2400. Table 47. SD factors using 2*(0. 5-AVWCON...

Prochaska, James Frank

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

E-Print Network 3.0 - abiotic environmental factors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Spatially explicit simulation of abiotic conditions not rototilled Summary: avail. water disturbance frequ. Environmental factors, e.g. Habitat models communitiestypes...

393

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

Climate and Hydrological Factors Affecting Variation in Chlorophyll  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the region, accompanied by scant wastewater treatment. In contrast, water clarity increased significantlyClimate and Hydrological Factors Affecting Variation in Chlorophyll Concentration and Water Clarity organisms. In the Caribbean, changes in nutrient loading that result from rapid development are thought

Collin, Rachel

397

Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

398

Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inversely proportional to the square of frequency and to temperature to the power 1.5. It is therefore discusses incoher­ ent emission from thermal plasma in the non­flaring so­ lar atmosphere; other relevant. The opacity of this mecha­ nism is proportional to the product of the electron and ion charge densities

White, Stephen

399

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atomic absorption is the capability for simultaneous multielement analysis. It can be used colleges had acquired atomic absorption instruments by the year 1990.[2] In contrast, atomic emission with the acetylene-air flame source taken from an existing atomic absorption instrument. Two spectrometer units

Nazarenko, Alexander

400

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Cadeddu, Maria

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Water watch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

Buehrer, R. Michael

403

Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Drought, Climate Change · Growth and the need for additional supplies · Water and Energy · Water the Southwest, nation, semi-arid and arid regions, and the world. · Today's program provides just a glimpse to and utilization of renewable supplies · Transboundary water issues · The surface water/groundwater interface

Cushing, Jim. M.

404

Cementation factor and water saturation exponent in low porosity sandstones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 64 1. 69 1. 75 1. 60 1. 73 1. 72 1. 71 1. 71 1. 70 1. 67 1. 69 1. 68 1. 67 1. 68 1. 75 1. 72 1. 73 1. 81 1. 92 1. 93 1. 83 1. 77 1. 70 1. 73 1. 64 1. 69 1. 75 1. 60 1. 73 1. 68 1. 72 1. 68 1. 68 1. 68 1. 68 1. 62 1.... 64 63. 56 75. 51 71. 32 73. 20 54. 01 82. 27 44. 02 54. 92 3. 103 2. 242 3. 359 2. 927 1. 114 9, 486 5. 084 2. 206 5. 025 3. 899 5. 021 6. 269 1. 075 3. 782 4. 464 4. 888 2. 946 3. 795 2. 423 9. 046 4. 624 2. 008 9. 481...

Owen, Stephen Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in batchCometabolic degradation of MTBE by a cyclohexane-oxidizingof 49 Biological Treatment of MTBE Fortin, N. Y. , and M. A.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

407

Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Wet electrostatic precipitator eliminates over 90% of previous emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After ten years of searching for an effective air pollution control device, engineers at Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) found that zirconium was the best metal in withstanding the gases generated in the manufacturing process of zirconium and hafnium. The best equipment was a two-stage, modular wet electrostatic precipitator to collect the submicron-size particulates in the form of metal oxides, ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite. All nonmetal components of the precipitator were fabricated entirely from industrial grade reinforced thermoset plastics. All metal components, including process water spray components, pipe fittings, and emitting electrodes - to be charged at 45,000 V - were fabricated from zirconium. Stack emission tests indicate the precipitator has eliminated over 90% of previous particulate emissions. Operation has been virtually maintenance free. The zirconium components show no signs of corrosion to date. (DP)

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Abdel-Aziz, A. and H.C. Frey, "Quantification of Hourly Variability in Hourly Activity and NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions for Baseload Coal- Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management emission factors from coal-fired power plants vary over time due to variation in coal composition fed or to evaluate the variability of NOx emission rates for coal-fired power plants of the 100 largest electric

Frey, H. Christopher

412

Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

Lefohn, A.S. [A.S.L. and Associates, Helena, MT (United States); Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis; Brimblecombe, P. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

413

Photon emission within the linear sigma model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft-photon emission rates are calculated within the linear sigma model. The investigation is aimed at answering the question to which extent the emissivities map out the phase structure of this particular effective model of strongly interacting matter.

F. Wunderlich; B. Kampfer

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

414

Dust Emission from the Perseus Molecular Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using far-infrared emission maps taken by IRAS and Spitzer and a near-infrared extinction map derived from 2MASS data, we have made dust temperature and column density maps of the Perseus molecular cloud. We show that the emission from transiently heated very small grains and the big grain dust emissivity vary as a function of extinction and dust temperature, with higher dust emissivities for colder grains. This variable emissivity can not be explained by temperature gradients along the line of sight or by noise in the emission maps, but is consistent with grain growth in the higher density and lower temperature regions. By accounting for the variations in the dust emissivity and VSG emission, we are able to map the temperature and column density of a nearby molecular cloud with better accuracy than has previously been possible.

S. Schnee; J. Li; A. A. Goodman; A. I. Sargent

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

415

ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even though the Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies (CC & ST) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated carbon emission research in late 1990s (CSI, 2013), carbon emissions has only become a hot topic in the last decade...

Kwok, George

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Quantifying avoided emissions from renewable generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the reduced emissions due to renewable power integration and providing increasingly accurate emissions analysis has become more important for policy makers in the age of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and ...

Gomez, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Rodriguez)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Global Mortality Attributable to Aircraft Cruise Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft ...

Britter, Rex E.

418

Smoke and Visible Emissions (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule establishes controls on smoke and visible emissions from certain sources.  This rule is not intended to preempt any more stringent controls on smoke and visible emissions provided in any...

419

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium

420

Uncertainty in emissions projections for climate models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Future global climate projections are subject to large uncertainties. Major sources of this uncertainty are projections of anthropogenic emissions. We evaluate the uncertainty in future anthropogenic emissions using a ...

Webster, Mort David.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika.; Reilly, John M.; Harnisch, Jochen.; Hyman, Robert C.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Wang, Chien.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

422

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

423

Multiple metrics for quantifying the intensity of water consumption of energy production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) emissions on global climate. At the regional scale, however, water resource ...

Spang, E S

424

The high energy emission from black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The origin of the high energy emission (X-rays and gamma-rays) from black holes is still a matter of debate. We present new evidence that hard X-ray emission in the low/hard state may not be dominated by thermal Comptonization. We present an alternative scenario for the origin of the high energy emission that is well suited to explain the high energy emission from GRO J1655-40.

M. D. Caballero-Garcia; J. M. Miller; E. Kuulkers

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on...

426

Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

McCormick, R.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

TEMPORAL VARIATION OF LFG EMISSION FROM DIFFERENT TYPES OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This reduction of the landfill gas (LFG) emissions requires the ability to measure low methane emissions methane emissions were observed only near the landfill gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

429

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

430

Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

431

Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

432

Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

433

Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

434

The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Moving Forward with Assessing the Emissions and Health Effects of New Diesel Technology The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with Assessing the Emissions and...

435

Design of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Center Design of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Center Both simulated and actual diesel emissions...

436

An Automobile/Transit Emissions Evaluation of Southern California's Metrolink  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

percentile) Finn| Report: An Automobile~Transit EmissionsAn Automobile/Transit Emissions Evaluation of Southernregulation. or An Automobile/Transit Emissions Evaluation of

Barth, Matthew J.; Tadi, Ramakrishna R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, and Investment in Pollution Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foss, B . "Carbon Emissions Trading is New Weapon to BattleBehavior and the Emission Trading Market, Resources andof Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading." The Journal of

Fowlie, Meredith

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission...

439

Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

440

Impact of Real-World Driving Characteristics on Vehicular Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. and Mohan, M. , Emission Estimates and Trends (1990-Evo]ving Motor Nehicle Emission Modeling, Tlransportation P]Testing Automotive Exhaust Emission, Society of Automobile

NESAMANI, K.S.; SUBRAMANIAN, K.P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in trade (EET) and therefore equals emissions embodied inexports (EEE) less emissions embodied in imports (EEI).re?ects the net export of emissions and a negative value

Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reciprocation internal combustion engines - Exhaust emissionReciprocating internal combustion engines - Exhaust emissionOn the emissions from internal-combustion engines: A review.

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

445

Meson electromagnetic form factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electromagnetic structure of the pseudoscalar meson nonet is completely described by the sophisticated Unitary&Analytic model, respecting all known theoretical properties of the corresponding form factors.

Stanislav Dubnicka; Anna Z. Dubnickova

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Spectral Emission of Moving Atom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A renewed analysis of the H.E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell's experiment on moving hydrogen canal rays (J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1938, v.28, 215) concludes that the spectral emission of a moving atom exhibits always a redshift which informs not the direction of the atom's motion. The conclusion is also evident from a simple energy relation: atomic spectral radiation is emitted as an orbiting electron consumes a portion of its internal energy on transiting to a lower-energy state which however has in a moving atom an additional energy gain; this results in a redshift in the emission frequency. Based on auxiliary experimental information and a scheme for de Broglie particle formation, we give a vigorous elucidation of the mechanism for deceleration radiation of atomic electron; the corresponding prediction of the redshift is in complete agreement with the Ives and Stilwell's experimental formula.

J. X. Zheng-Johansson

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

447

Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

448

Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals Peter Lodahl1 , A. Floris van Driel2 , Ivan S emission can be manipulated10,11 . Photonic crystals provide such an environment: they strongly modify study spontaneous emission from semiconductor quantum dots embedded in inverse opal photonic crystals16

Vos, Willem L.

449

CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION Stephen M. White This article reviews the use of gyroresonance emission at radio wavelengths to measure coronal magnetic fields. Keywords: Sun, solar corona, solar magnetic fields, solar radio emission Introduction Since the realization

White, Stephen

450

8, 34053430, 2008 Climate and emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 3405­3430, 2008 Climate and emission changes over Canada and Mexico E. Tagaris et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions The role of climate and emission changes in future air quality over.russell@ce.gatech.edu) 3405 #12;ACPD 8, 3405­3430, 2008 Climate and emission changes over Canada and Mexico E. Tagaris et al

Boyer, Edmond

451

4, 66916718, 2004 VOC emissions of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 4, 6691­6718, 2004 VOC emissions of Scots pine V. Tarvainen et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Temperature and light dependence of the VOC emissions of Scots pine V. Tarvainen 1 , H. Hakola 1.tarvainen@fmi.fi) 6691 #12;ACPD 4, 6691­6718, 2004 VOC emissions of Scots pine V. Tarvainen et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

5, 90979126, 2005 VOC emissions from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 9097­9126, 2005 VOC emissions from vegetation pyrolysis J. P. Greenberg et al. Title Page Discussions Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation J. P. Greenberg, H is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 9097 #12;ACPD 5, 9097­9126, 2005 VOC emissions from vegetation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Reading for Thursday Emissions scenario summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, for year 2000 #12;USA ­ CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion (2005) US EPA #12;#12;#12;Decreasing 13C strongly suggests that the source of atmospheric CO2 is fossil carbon #12;Line of evidence #1Reading for Thursday · Emissions scenario summary: ­ Read pages 3-6 · IPCC Chapter 11 (Regional

Schweik, Charles M.

454

Motorcycle Emissions System Multireflection Optics for non-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motorcycle Emissions System Multireflection Optics for non- contact measurement of small emissions-2580 FAX 2587 · e-mail dstedman @ DU.edu · www.feat.biochem.du.edu #12;End view of six-pass optical system #12;#12;#12;#12;Side view of ramp and optics #12;#12;#12;Motorcycle Emissions · Measurement of 90cc

Denver, University of

455

Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inventories of emissions of the trace species included in the study at the appropriate sectoral, spatial inventories calculated global emissions by large geographic areas (Vfkhelyi, 1985), with very little spatial to compile regional to global inventories of anthropogenic emissions. This discussion is by no means

456

A Plasma Instability Theory of Gamma-Ray Burst Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new theory for gamma-ray burst radiation is presented. In this theory, magnetic fields and relativistic electrons are created through plasma processes arising as a relativistic shell passes through the interstellar medium. The gamma-rays are produced through synchrotron self-Compton emission. It is found that shocks do not arise in this theory, and that efficient gamma-ray emission only occurs for a high Lorentz factor and a high-density interstellar medium. The former explains the absence of gamma-ray bursts with thermal spectra. The latter provides the Compton attenuation theory with an explanation of why the interstellar medium density is always high. The theory predicts the existence of a class of extragalactic optical transient that emit no gamma-rays.

J. J. Brainerd

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

457

Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fluidized bed controls refinery emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 1983, two fluidized bed, waste heat boilers entered into service at the Ashland Petroleum Company refinery site in Ashland, Kentucky. These fluidized bed units are coupled to the regeneration end of a newly developed reduced crude conversion (RCC) process and served the purpose of reducing CO, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions while recuperating waste heat from the regenerator process off gases.

Abdulally, I.F.; Kersey, B.R.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

p. 1 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT OF RENEWABLES October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Do TCEQ: Vince Meiller, Bob Gifford ERCOT: Warren Lasher USEPA: Art Diem, Julie Rosenberg ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS p. 3 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 RENEWABLES Solar PV Solar Thermal Hydro Biomass Landfill Gas Geothermal p. 4...

Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

Haak, Hein

462

XX--ray Emission from O Starsray Emission from O Stars David CohenDavid Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

XX--ray Emission from O Starsray Emission from O Stars David CohenDavid Cohen Swarthmore College windstheir magnetically channeled winds 2.2. After ~1After ~1 MyrMyr XX--ray emission is weaker andray emission is weaker and softer: embedded wind shocks in early Osofter: embedded wind shocks in early O

Cohen, David

463

Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic eects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission the remainder. Over 80% of aquatic anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the Northern Hemisphere mid

Seitzinger, Sybil

464

Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Mobile Source Emissions 2 1.2 Emission Regulations 2 1.3 Emissions Contributions of "Non Estimates 70 6.3 Fuel Economy Data for School Buses Observed at the Rock Quarry Road Site 75 6.4 Diesel

Frey, H. Christopher

465

High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption 1 Motivation and the jet. #12;High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 2/114 HST optical image of 3C273 Note: Emission and Absorption 3/114 Set of 3 images of the jet of 3C273. Left: HST Middle: Chandra X-ray Right

Bicknell, Geoff

466

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

467

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

Toohey, Darin W.

468

FLUORESCENCE CHANGES IN PORPHYRIDIUM EXPOSED TO GREEN LIGHT OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY: A NEW EMISSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUORESCENCE CHANGES IN PORPHYRIDIUM EXPOSED TO GREEN LIGHT OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY: A NEW EMISSION supposed to require two light reactions for the transfer of one hydrogen atom from water to carbon dioxide the existence of this second trap. With increase in intensity of green light, I,, the differential fluorescence

Govindjee

469

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the La Brea Area: Year 3,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can of CO, HC, and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected

Denver, University of

470

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can, HC, and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected

Denver, University of

471

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 5,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can of CO, HC, and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected

Denver, University of

472

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Denver Area: Year 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is capable of measuring the ratios of CO, HC and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected for water and excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass

Denver, University of

473

A Search for GeV-TeV Emission from GRBs Using the Milagro Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with known redshift is reported. Keywords: -ray, -ray bursts, -ray telescope PACS: 95.85.Pw 98.70.Rz 95.55.Ka INTRODUCTION Milagro is ground-based gamma-ray observatory located in the Jemez mountains (2630 m a to search for >1 GeV emission from these bursts. Milagro is a water Cerenkov detector designed primarily

California at Santa Cruz, University of

474

Search for VHE emission from GRB with P. M. Saz Parkinson for the Milagro Collaboration1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is uniquely capable of searching for very high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRB) during the prompt 95064 Abstract. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory employs a water Cherenkov detector to observe GRB models. INTRODUCTION Some of the most important contributions to our understanding of gamma-ray

California at Santa Cruz, University of

475

Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009. Stephen P Holland. Emissions taxes versus intensityindustry’s greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research2008. John CV Pezzey. Emission taxes and tradeable permits a

Rajagopal, Deepak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASEEmissions of Greenhouse

477

Emission  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles asSecond stage of theEMI SIGTrends in USEmily

478

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Some of the more important uncertainties are related to (a) thermal and adsorptive response of the oceans; (b) feedback effect on climate of changes in precipitation,...

479

Fully relativistic form factor for Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive a fully relativistic form factor for Thomson scattering in unmagnetized plasmas valid to all orders in the normalized electron velocity, beta->=v->/c. The form factor is compared to a previously derived expression where the lowest order electron velocity, beta->, corrections are included [J. Sheffield, Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic Press, New York, 1975)]. The beta-> expansion approach is sufficient for electrostatic waves with small phase velocities such as ion-acoustic waves, but for electron-plasma waves the phase velocities can be near luminal. At high phase velocities, the electron motion acquires relativistic corrections including effective electron mass, relative motion of the electrons and electromagnetic wave, and polarization rotation. These relativistic corrections alter the scattered emission of thermal plasma waves, which manifest as changes in both the peak power and width of the observed Thomson-scattered spectra.

Palastro, J. P.; Ross, J. S.; Pollock, B.; Divol, L.; Froula, D. H.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

Navarro, Thomas; Forget, François; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water emission factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Laser-induced ultrafast electron emission from a field emission tip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that a field emission tip electron source that is triggered with a femtosecond laser pulse can generate electron pulses shorter than the laser pulse duration (~100 fs). The emission process is sensitive to a power law of the laser intensity, which supports an emission mechanism based on multiphoton absorption followed by over-the-barrier emission. Observed continuous transitions between power laws of different orders are indicative of field emission processes. We show that the source can also be operated so that thermionic emission processes become significant. Understanding these different emission processes is relevant for the production of sub-cycle electron pulses.

Brett Barwick; Chris Corder; James Strohaber; Nate Chandler-Smith; Cornelis Uiterwaal; Herman Batelaan

2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

482

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

A Survey of Near Infrared Emission in Visual Reflection Nebulae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a survey for extended 2.2 $\\mu$m emission in 20 new visual reflection nebulae, illuminated by stars with temperatures of 3,600 --- 33,000 K. We detect extended 2.2 $\\mu$m emission in 13 new nebulae, illuminated by stars with temperatures of 6,800 -- 33,000 K. For most of these 13 nebulae we have measured $J-K$, $H-K$, and $K-L'$, as well as obtaining surface brightness measurements at the wavelength of the 3.3 $\\mu$m emission feature. All of the reflection nebulae with extended near infrared emission in excess over scattered starlight have very similar near infrared colors and show the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature in emission with similar feature-to-continuum ratios. The 3.3 $\\mu$m feature-to-continuum ratio ranges from $\\sim$3 to $\\sim$9, both within individual nebulae and from nebula to nebula, which suggests that the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature and its underlying continuum arise from different materials, or from different ranges of sizes within a size distribution of particles. No dependence on the temperature of the illuminating star is seen in the near infrared colors or 3.3 $\\mu$m feature-to-continuum ratio, over a factor of two in stellar temperature. This is similar to our previous IRAS results, in which we found no dependence of the ratio of 12 $\\mu$m to 100 $\\mu$m surface brightnesses in reflection nebulae illuminated by stars with temperatures of 5,000--33,000 K.

K. Sellgren; M. W. Werner; L. J. Allamandola

1995-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

484

Ice emission and the redshifts of submillimeter sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations at submillimeter wavelengths have revealed a population of sources thought to be at relatively large redshifts. The position of the 850 $\\mu$m passband on the Rayleigh-Jeans portion of the Planck function leads to a maximum redshift estimate of $z\\sim$4.5 since sources will not retain their redshift independent brightness close to the peak of the Planck function and thus drop out of surveys. Here we review evidence that ice absorption is present in the spectra of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies which are often taken as analogs for the 850 $\\mu$m source population. We consider the implication of this absorption for ice induced spectral structure at far infrared wavelengths and present marginal astronomical evidence that amorphous ice may have a feature similar to crystalline ice near 150 $\\mu$m. Recent corroborative laboratory evidence is supportive of this conclusion. It is argued that early metal enrichment by pair instability SN may lead to a high ice content relative to refractory dust at high redshift and a fairly robust detection of ice emission in a $z=6.42$ quasar is presented. It is further shown that ice emission is needed to understand the 450 $\\mu$m sources observed in the GOODS-N field. We are thus encouraged to apply far infrared ice emission models to the available observations of HDF 850.1, the brightest submillimeter source in the {\\it Hubble Deep Field}. We suggest that a redshift as large as 13 may need to be considered for this source, nearly a factor of three above the usual top estimate. Inclusion of the possibility of far infrared ice emission in the spectral energy distributions of model sources generally broadens the range of redshifts to be considered for submillimeter sources compared to models without ice emission.

C. C. Dudley; M. Imanishi; P. R. Maloney

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

485

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Soerens, Thomas

486

Water Basins Civil Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

Provancher, William

487

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

488

Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

492

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Johnson Matthey Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT EGRT (tm) (tm) Emission Control System Emission Control System for for NOx NOx and PM Emission and PM Emission Reduction in...

493

Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The indicator is a combination of pollutant emission, dispersion, exposition factor, and substance specific toxicity factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applications are global (e.g. comparison of vehicle technologies) or local (e.g. comparison of populations or areas).

Lepicier, Veronique [IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Transport et Environnement, 25, av. F. Mitterrand, 69675 Bron Cedex (France); Chiron, Mireille [IFSTTAR, UMRESTTE, 25, av. F. Mitterrand, 69675 Bron Cedex (France); Joumard, Robert, E-mail: robert.joumard@laposte.net [IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Transport et Environnement, 25, av. F. Mitterrand, 69675 Bron Cedex (France)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Effect of Background Emissivity on Gas Detection in Thermal Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temper- ature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on net chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume’s physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on the background emissivity. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity have inhibiting effects on the net chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the Adaptive Matched Filter using four chemicals and three distinct background emissivities. Two chemicals (Carbontetrachloride and Tetraflourosilane) in the analysis had a very strong relationship with the background emissivities: they exhibited absorbance over a small range of wavenumbers and the background emissivities showed a consistent ordering at these wavenumbers. Analysis of simulated hyperspectral images containing these chemicals showed complete agreement with the analysis of the physics-based model that described when the background emissivities would have inhibiting effects on gas detection. The other chemicals considered (Ammonia and Tributylphosphate) exhibited very complex absorbance structure across the longwave infrared spectrum. Analysis of images containing these chemicals revealed that the the analysis of the physics-based model did not hold completely for these complex chemicals but did suggest that gas detection was dominated by their dominant absorbance features. These results provide some explanation of the effect of the background emissivity on gas detection and a more general exploration of gas absorbance/background emissivity variability and their effects on gas detection is warranted. i

Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence K.; Metoyer, Candace N.

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

495

Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

497

Parameters of the prompt gamma-ray burst emission estimated with the opening angle of jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present in this paper an approach to estimate the initial Lorentz factor of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) without referring to the delayed emission of the early afterglow. Under the assumption that the afterglow of the bursts concerned occurs well before the prompt emission dies away, the Lorentz factor measured at the time when the duration of the prompt emission is ended could be estimated by applying the well-known relations of GRB jets. With the concept of the efficiency for converting the explosion energy to radiation, this Lorentz factor can be related to the initial Lorentz factor of the source. The corresponding rest frame peak energy can accordingly be calculated. Applying this method, we estimate the initial Lorentz factor of the bulk motion and the corresponding rest frame spectral peak energy of GRBs for a new sample where the redshift and the break time in the afterglow are known. Our analysis shows that, in the circumstances, the initial Lorentz factor of the sample would peak at 200 and would be distributed mainly within $(100,400)$, and the peak of the distribution of the corresponding rest frame peak energy would be $0.8keV$ and its main region would be $(0.3keV,3keV)$.

B. -B. Zhang; Y. -P. Qin

2006-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

498

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Samples Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute...

499

Water Rights (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

500

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

Adler, J.