National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water emission factors

  1. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  3. IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emission Factor Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IPCC Emission Factor Database AgencyCompany Organization: World Meteorological Organization,...

  4. Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model is used to calculate emission rates from all motor vehicles, such as passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks, operating on highways, freeways...

  5. Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-emission-factors-defo Cost: Free Language: English Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module: Emission...

  6. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per ...

  7. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia AgencyCompany Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and...

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  10. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  11. The hydroxyl-water megamaser connection. I. Water emission toward OH megamaser hosts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wiggins, Brandon K.; Migenes, Victor; Smidt, Joseph M.

    2016-02-05

    Questions surround the connection of luminous extragalactic masers to galactic processes. The observation that water and hydroxyl megamasers rarely coexist in the same galaxy has given rise to a hypothesis that the two species appear in different phases of nuclear activity. The detection of simultaneous hydroxyl and water megamaser emission toward IC694 has called this hypothesis into question, but, because many megamasers have not been surveyed for emission in the other molecule, it remains unclear whether IC694 occupies a narrow phase of galaxy evolution or whether the relationship between megamaser species and galactic processes is more complicated than previously believed. In this paper, we present results of a systematic search for 22 GHz water maser emission among OH megamaser hosts to identify additional objects hosting both megamasers. Our work roughly doubles the number of galaxies searched for emission in both molecules, which host at least one confirmed maser. We confirm with a high degree of confidence (more » $$\\gt 8\\sigma $$) the detection of water emission toward IIZw96, firmly establishing it as the second object to cohost both water and hydroxyl megamasers after IC694. We find high luminosity, narrow features in the water feature in IIZw96. All dual megamaser candidates appear in merging galaxy systems suggestive that megamasers that coexistance may signal a brief phase along the merger sequence. In conclusion, a statistical analysis of the results of our observations provide possible evidence for an exclusion of H2O kilomasers among OH megamaser hosts.« less

  12. Emission factors for domestic use of L.P. gas in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, M.M.; Schifter, I.; Ontiveros, L.E.; Salinas, A.; Moreno, S.; Melgarejo, L.A.; Molina, R.; Krueger, B.

    1998-12-31

    One of the main problems found in air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is the presence of high concentrations of ozone at ground level in the atmosphere. The official Mexican standard for ozone concentration in the air (0.11 ppm, one hour, once every 3 years) has been exceeded more than 300 days per year. Ozone is formed due to the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons originated from either combustion processes or vapors emanating from fuel handling operations. The results of an evaluation of several domestic devices like stoves and water heaters with L.P. gas as fuel are presented. A method for the evaluation of hydrocarbon emission was developed. A prototype of domestic installation was constructed. The prototype includes L.P. gas tank, domestic stove, water heater, piping and instrumentation. Several combinations of stoves and water heaters were evaluated. The sampling and analysis of hydrocarbons were performed using laboratory equipment originally designed for the evaluation of combustion and evaporative emissions in automobiles: a SHED camera (sealed room equipped with an hydrocarbon analyzer) was used to measure leaks in the prototype of domestic installation and a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for the measurement of incomplete combustion emissions. Emission factors were developed for each domestic installation.

  13. CDPHE Construction Storm Water Forms R-Factor Waiver Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CDPHE Construction Storm Water Forms R-Factor Waiver Application Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit...

  14. Emission factors for leaks in refinery components in heavy liquid service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taback, H.; Godec, M.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this program was to provide sufficient screening data so that EPA can develop an official set of emission factors (expressed in lb/hr/component) for refinery components (valves, flanged connectors, non-flanged connectors, pumps, open-ended lines, and other) in heavy liquid (BL) service. To accomplish this, 211,000 existing HL screening values from Southern California refineries were compiled and compared with 2,500 new HL screening measurements taken at two refineries in the state of Washington. Since Southern California is an area in extreme non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and therefore has tight emission control regulations, it was felt that its screening data may not be representative of refineries without tight emission controls. Thus, the Southern California screening data were compared to screening measurements at refineries in an area that is in attainment of the NAAQS and without emissions control, which is the case for those refineries in Washington. It was found that statistically there was no significant difference in emission factors between the two areas and, therefore, there appears to be no difference in emissions from heavy liquid components in areas with and without leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. The new emission factors range from 1/7 to 1/3 times the current EPA emission factors. This program was sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and an API report will soon be released providing complete details.

  15. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  16. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

  17. Source Apportionment of Stack Emissions from Research and Development Facilities Using Positive Matrix Factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2014-08-19

    Emissions from research and development (R&D) facilities are difficult to characterize due to the wide variety of processes used, changing nature of research, and large number of chemicals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations measured in the main exhaust stacks of four different R&D buildings to identify the number and composition of major contributing sources. PMF identified from 9-11 source-related factors contributing to the stack emissions depending on the building. The factors that were similar between buildings were major contributors to trichloroethylene (TCE), acetone, and ethanol emissions. Several other factors had similar profiles for two or more buildings but not for all four. One factor for each building was a combination of p/m-xylene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. At least one factor for each building was identified that contained a broad mix of many species and constraints were used in PMF to modify the factors to resemble more closely the off-shift concentration profiles. PMF accepted the constraints with little decrease in model fit. Although the PMF model predicted the profiles of the off-shift samples, the percent of total emissions was under-predicted by the model versus the measured data.

  18. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  19. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  20. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  1. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  2. Electromagnetic vacuum of complex media: Dipole emission versus light propagation, vacuum energy, and local field factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaire, M.

    2011-02-15

    We offer a unified approach to several phenomena related to the electromagnetic vacuum of a complex medium made of point electric dipoles. To this aim, we apply the linear response theory to the computation of the polarization field propagator and study the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. The physical distinction among the local density of states which enter the spectra of light propagation, total dipole emission, coherent emission, total vacuum energy, and Schwinger-bulk energy is made clear. Analytical expressions for the spectrum of dipole emission and for the vacuum energy are derived. Their respective relations with the spectrum of external light and with the Schwinger-bulk energy are found. The light spectrum and the Schwinger-bulk energy are determined by the Dyson propagator. The emission spectrum and the total vacuum energy are determined by the polarization propagator. An exact relationship of proportionality between both propagators is found in terms of local field factors. A study of the nature of stimulated emission from a single dipole is carried out. Regarding coherent emission, it contains two components. A direct one which is transferred radiatively and directly from the emitter into the medium and whose spectrum is that of external light. And an indirect one which is radiated by induced dipoles. The induction is mediated by one (and only one) local field factor. Regarding the vacuum energy, we find that in addition to the Schwinger-bulk energy the vacuum energy of an effective medium contains local field contributions proportional to the resonant frequency and to the spectral line width.

  3. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

  4. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  5. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  6. Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... oil based on data in EIA's Petroleum Supply Annual and other surces (see App I), lt ... To compare the aggregate greenhouse effect of all emissions from all fuel cycles, the ...

  7. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors (Transportation Energy Futures Series)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEMAND Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 2013 Prepared by CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS Cambridge, MA 02140 under subcontract DGJ-1-11857-01 Technical monitoring performed by NATIONAL

  8. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  9. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  10. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  11. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  12. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  13. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

  14. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  15. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  16. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  17. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE CONTINUUM AND WATER MASER EMISSION IN THE IRAS 19217+1651 REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2012-12-20

    We report interferometric observations of the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 19217+1651. We observed the radio continuum (1.3 cm and 3.6 cm) and water maser emission using the Very Large Array (VLA-EVLA) in transition mode (configuration A). Two radio continuum sources were detected at both wavelengths, I19217-A and I19217-B. In addition, 17 maser spots were observed distributed mainly in two groups, M1 and M2, and one isolated maser. This latter could be indicating the relative position of another continuum source which we did not detect. The results indicate that I19217-A appears to be consistent with an ultracompact H II region associated with a zero-age main-sequence B0-type star. Furthermore, the 1.3 cm continuum emission of this source suggests a cometary morphology. In addition, I19217-B appears to be an H II region consisting of at least two stars, which may be contributing to its complex structure. It was also found that the H{sub 2}O masers of the group M1 are apparently associated with the continuum source I19217-A. These are tracing motions which are not gravitationally bound according to their spatial distribution and kinematics. They also seem to be describing outflows in the direction of the elongated cometary region. On the other hand, the second maser group, M2, could be tracing the base of a jet. Finally, infrared data from Spitzer, Midcourse Space Experiment, and IRIS show that IRAS 19217+1651 is embedded inside a large open bubble, like a broken ring, which possibly has affected the morphology of the cometary H II region observed at 1.3 cm.

  18. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. II. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING WATER MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Seojin Kim, Stella

    2011-12-15

    We present new maser emission from {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v{sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} and -57 km s{sup -1} and several more features extending to -46 km s{sup -1}. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -4 km s{sup -1}, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H{sub 2}O and, now, {sup 14}NH{sub 3} are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -51 km s{sup -1}. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search to date toward any source for emission from the CC{sup 32}S and CC{sup 34}S molecules, indicating an age greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} yr for IRS 1-3. We discuss these findings in the context of embedded stellar cores and recent models of the region.

  19. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  20. MOBILE4. 1: Highway-vehicle mobile-source emission-factor model (Apple MacIntosh version) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    MOBILE4.1 is the latest revision to EPA's highway vehicle mobile source emission factor model. Relative to MOBILE4, it contains numerous revisions and provides the user with additional options for modeling highway vehicle emission factors. it will calculate emission factors for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from highway motor vehicles. It calculates emission factors for eight individual vehicle types, in two regions of the country (low and high altitude). The emission factors depend on various conditions such as ambient temperature, fuel volatility, speed, and mileage accrual rates. It will estimate emission factors for any calendar year between 1960 and 2020 inclusive. The 25 most recent model years are considered in operation in each calendar year. EPA is requiring that states and others preparing emission inventories for nonattainment areas for CO and ozone to use MOBILE4.1 in the development of the base year 1990 emission inventories required under the Clean Air Act of 1990.

  1. The Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH,

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  5. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  6. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore-A multivariate approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirodkar, P.V. Mesquita, A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Verlekar, X.N.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    2009-04-15

    Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, suspended solids, nutrients, PHc, phenols, trace metals-Pb, Cd and Hg, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phaeopigments) and the sediment quality parameters (total phosphorous, total nitrogen, organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north), west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off Suratkal, high nitrite (NO{sub 2}-N) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) in the nearshore waters off Kulai and high nitrite (NO{sub 2}-N) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}-N) in the harbour area. Similarly, high petroleum hydrocarbon (PHc) values were observed near the harbour, while phenols remained high in the nearshore waters of Kulai and Suratkal. Significantly, high concentrations of cadmium and mercury with respect to the earlier studies were observed off Kulai and harbour regions, respectively. R-mode varimax factor analyses were applied separately to surface and bottom water data sets due to existing stratification in the water column caused by riverine inflow and to sediment data. This helped to understand the interrelationships between the variables and to identify probable source components for explaining the environmental status of the area. Six factors (each for surface and bottom waters) were found responsible for variance (86.9% in surface and 82.4% in bottom) in the coastal waters between Mangalore and Suratkal. In sediments, 4 factors explained 86.8% of the observed total variance. The variances indicated addition of nutrients and suspended solids to the coastal waters due to weathering and riverine transport and are categorized as natural sources. The observed contamination of coastal waters indicated anthropogenic inputs of Cd and phenol from industrial effluent sources at Kulai and Suratkal, ammonia from wastewater discharges off Kulai and harbour, PHc and Hg from boat traffic and harbour activities of New Mangalore harbour. However, the strong seasonal currents and the seasonal winds keep the coastal waters well mixed and aerated, which help to disperse the contaminants, without significantly affecting chlorophyll-a concentrations. The interrelationship between the stations as shown by cluster analyses and depicted in dendograms, categorize the contamination levels sector-wise.

  7. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  8. Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J.

    2008-10-06

    The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  9. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Gilman, Jessica; Warneke, Carsten; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Jung, H.; Weise, David

    2013-01-07

    Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for smoldering compounds emitted by burning the semi-arid SW fuels should likely be increased by about a factor of 2.7 to better represent field fires. Based on the lab/field comparison, we present a table with emission factors for 365 pyrogenic species (including unidentified species) for 4 broad fuel types: pine understory, semi-arid shrublands, evergreen canopy, and duff. To our knowledge this is the most complete measurement of biomass burning emissions to date and it should enable improved representation of smoke in atmospheric models. The results provide important insights into the nature of smoke. For example, ~35% (range from 16-71%) of the mass of gas-phase NMOC species was attributed to the species that we could not identify. These unidentified species are likely not represented in most models, but some provision should be made for the fact that they will react in the atmosphere. In addition, the total mass of gas-phase NMOC divided by the mass of co-emitted PM2.5 averaged ~2.6 for the main fire types with a range from ~1.8-8.8. About 36-63% of the NMOC were likely semivolatile or of intermediate volatility. Thus, the gas-phase NMOC represent a large reservoir of potential precursors for secondary formation of organic aerosol. For the one fire in organic soil (Alaskan duff) about 28% of the emitted carbon was present as gas-phase NMOC in contrast to the other fuels for which NMOC accounted for only ~1-3% of emitted carbon. 71% of the mass of NMOC emitted by the smoldering duff was un-identified. The duff results highlight the need to learn more about the emissions from smoldering organic soils. The ?NMOC/NOx-as-NO ratio was consistently about ten for the main fire types when accounting for all NMOC, indicating strongly NOx-limited O3 production conditions. Finally, the fuel consumption per unit area was measured on 6 of the 14 prescribed fires and averaged 7.08 2.09 (1?) Mg ha-1.

  10. Methane emissions from rice fields: The effects of climatic and agricultural factors. Final report, March 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The work reported was performed for the purpose of refining estimates of methane emissions from rice fields. Research performed included methane flux measurements, evaluation of variables affecting emissions, compilation of a data base, and continental background measurements in China. The key findings are briefly described in this report. Total methane emissions, seasonal patterns, and spatial variability were measured for a 7-year periods. Temperature was found to be the most important variable studies affecting methane emissions. The data archives for the research are included in the report. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  11. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Emission Factors Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Emission Factors and Global Warming Potentials The greenhouse gas emission factors and global warming potentials ...

  12. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  13. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  15. Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-07-29

    Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

  16. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  18. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

  19. Coping with urban water shortages during drought: the effects of legal and administrative factors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziegielewski, B.; Ferrell-Dillard, R.; Beck, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The study describes the results of a survey of 547 local water supply systems serving some 31 million residents of urban areas in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Wyoming. While examining the legal and administrative aspects of drought management, the survey also included the assessment of the current status of drought preparedness and long-term drought protection among the responding water supply systems. The rate of legal or administrative problems encountered during drought response was surprisingly low, affecting only twenty percent of all implementing systems. The low incidence of difficulties counters a widespread assumption that the legal environment frequently restrains or constricts drought response efforts.

  20. The Use of Positive Matrix Factorization with Conditional Probability Functions in Air Quality Studies: An Application to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2006-06-01

    As part of a study to identify groups of compounds (source categories) associated with different processing facilities, a multivariate receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at five Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) located near the Ship Channel in Houston, Texas. The observations were made between June and October, 2003, and limited to nighttime measurements (21:00 pm 6:00 am) in order to remove the complexity of photochemical processing and associated changes in the concentrations of primary and secondary VOCs. Six to eight volatile organic compounds source categories were identified for the five Ship Channel sites. The dominant source categories were found to be those associated with petrochemical, chemical industries and fuel evaporation. In contrast, source categories associated with on-road vehicles were found to be relatively insignificant. Although evidence of biogenic emissions was found at almost all the sites, this broad category was significant only at the Wallisville site, which was also the site furthest away from the Ship Channels area and closest to the northeast forest of Texas. Natural gas, accumulation and fuel evaporation sources were found to contribute most to the ambient VOCs, followed by the petrochemical emission of highly reactive ethene and propylene. Solvent / paint industry and fuel evaporation and emission from refineries were next in importance while the on-road vehicle exhaust generally contributed less than 10% of the total ambient VOCs. Specific geographic areas associated with each source category were identified through the use of a Conditional Probability Function (CPF) analysis that related elevated concentrations of key VOCs in each category to a network of grids superimposed on the source inventories of the VOCs.

  1. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  2. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  3. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  4. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.

  5. Fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor: Detection of volatile chlorinated compounds in air and water using ultra-thin membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.; Osantowski, R.E.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Prior work on the fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor called HaloSnif{trademark} has been extended to include an ultra-thin membrane which allows passage of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCl). The membrane has been demonstrated to exclude H{sub 2}O during VOCl monitoring. The system is capable of measuring VOCl in gas-phase samples or aqueous solutions over a wide linear dynamic range. The lower limit of detection for trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and other related compounds in the gas-phase is 1 to 5 ppm{sub v/v}, and in the aqueous-phase is 5 to 10 mg/L. Waste site characterization and remediation activities often require chemical analysis in the vadose zone and in groundwater. These analyses are typically performed in analytical laboratories using widely accepted standardized methods such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new developments with HaloSnif provide rapid field screening which can augment the standardized methods.

  6. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  7. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  8. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide

  9. CO2 is dominant greenhouse gas emitted from six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States during peak summer emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Stewart, Aurthur J.; Fortner, Allison M.; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Mosher, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-06

    During August-September 2012, we sampled six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States. for CO2 and CH4 emissions via three pathways: diffusive emissions from water surface; ebullition in the water column; and losses from dam tailwaters during power generation. Average total emission rates of CO2 for the six reservoirs ranged from 1,127 to 2,051 mg m-2 d-1, which is low to moderate compared to CO2 emissions rates reported for tropical hydropower reservoirs and boreal ponds and lakes, and similar to rates reported for other temperate reservoirs. Similar average rates for CH4 were also relatively low, ranging from 5 to 83 mgmore » m-2 d-1. On a whole-reservoir basis, total emissions of CO2 ranged nearly 10-fold, from ~51,000 kg per day for Fontana to ~486,000 kg per day for Guntersville, and total emissions of CH4 ranged nearly 20-fold, from ~5 kg per day for Fontana to ~83 kg per day for Allatoona. Emissions through the tailwater pathway varied among reservoirs, comprising from 20 to 50% of total CO2 emissions and 0 to 90% of CH4 emissions, depending on the reservoir. Furthermore, several explanatory factors related to reservoir morphology and water quality were considered for observed differences among reservoirs.« less

  10. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

  11. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Data Tables 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors, 1990-2009 3 Distribution of ...

  13. The effects of chemical factors on stress corrosion of Alloy 600 exposed to the cooling medium in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berge, Ph.; Keroulas, F. de; Menet, O.; Rocher, A.; Pitner, P.; Gelpi, A.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1992-12-31

    The effects of chemical factors in reducing stress corrosion of Alloy 600 in a primary coolant medium were investigated in France as part of a test program undertaken by three laboratories (EDF, FRAMATOME and CEA) on tubes with differing sensitivity to corrosion. Studied parameters were type of Alloy 600 material, temperature, lithium concentration and pH. The effect of each parameter was first estimated separately by qualitative analysis and the parameter groups which best describe the corrosion phenomenon were then defined. The preponderant effect of increasing the temperature (by 40{degrees}C) and the type of material were confirmed, as was that of the boron and lithium concentrations. The risk of cracking increases with lithium content but the phenomenon reverses at high concentrations. The effect of pH variations is mainly reflected in variations in the lithium content. A quantitative study was then carried out to assess the effect of each parameter in terms of risk and time to cracking in a given reference medium. A model of the chemical effects is proposed, based on the mechanism involving dissolution-repassivation of the metal after failure of the passive film during the phase when cracks propagate slowly. This allows a quantitative approach to the effects of hydrogen and the other chemical parameters involved and the results are compared with those of the statistical model.

  14. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gaseous Emissions - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles that use internal combustion engines. These vehicles can run on gasoline, diesel, biofuels, natural gas, or propane. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  16. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  17. Water Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    emissions-free, and cost-effective water power open new possibilities for this reliable, renewable resource. Explore EERE's water power success stories below. July 29, 2015 The...

  18. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  19. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  20. Energy-Water Overview

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Overview of Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping *

  1. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Methane Emissions 3.1. Total emissions The major sources of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9 percent higher than the 2008 total of 724 MMTCO2e (Table 17). Methane emissions declined steadily from 1990 to 2001, as emissions from coal mining and landfills fell, then rose from 2002 to 2009 as a result of moderate increases in emissions related to energy,

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  4. Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    A fuel-based methodology for calculating motor vehicle emission inventories is presented. In the fuel-based method, emission factors are normalized to fuel consumption and expressed as grams of pollutant emitted per gallon of gasoline burned. Fleet-average emission factors are calculated from the measured on-road emissions of a large, random sample of vehicles. Using this method, a fuel-based motor vehicle CO inventory was calculated for the South Coast Air Basin in California for summer 1991. Emission factors were calculated from remote sensing measurements of more than 70,000 in-use vehicles. Results of the study are presented and a conclusion is provided. 40 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Commercial sector emissions declined by 6.5 percent in 2009. Lighting accounts for a ... The transportation sector has led all U.S. end-use sectors in emissions of carbon dioxide ...

  7. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  8. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  9. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  10. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews vehicle emission control highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  12. Active Diesel Emission Control Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conferencen Presentation: RYPOS Active Diesel Emission Control Systems

  13. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  14. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 610% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  15. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  16. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  17. Seasonal Production and Emission of Methane from Rice Fields, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Rasmussen,Reinhold A.

    2002-12-03

    B 139 - Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas regarded second only to carbon dioxide in its ability to cause global warming. Methane is important because of its relatively fast increase, and also because it is, per molecule, some 60 times more effective than carbon dioxide in causing global warming. The largest present anthropogenic sources of methane are rice fields, cattle and biomass burning. The global emissions from these sources are still not well known. In the middle 1980s there were few available data on methane emissions from rice fields leading to estimates of a global source between 100-280 Tg/yr. Extensive worldwide research during the last decade has shown that the global emissions from rice fields are more likely to be in the range of 30-80Tg/yr. While this work has led to a substantial reduction in the estimated emissions, the uncertainty is still quite large, and seriously affects our ability to include methane in integrated assessments for future climate change and environmental management.China dominated estimates of methane emissions from rice fields because it was, and is, the largest producer of rice, and major increases in rice production had taken place in the country over the last several decades. This report summarizes the work in Sichuan Province, China, in each of the following areas: the design of the experiment; the main results on methane emissions from rice fields, delineating the factors controlling emissions; production of methane in the soil; a survey of water management practices in sample of counties in Sichuan province; and results of ambient measurements including data from the background continental site. B139

  18. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  19. Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting In photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors called photoelectrochemical materials, which use light energy to directly dissociate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. This is a long-term technology pathway, with the potential for low or no greenhouse gas emissions. How Does it Work? The PEC water splitting

  20. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and general technology approaches for heavy- and light-duty vehicle emissions control - filter technology, new catalysts, NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters

  1. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  2. Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994...

  3. Secondary Emission Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, David Roberts

    2015-03-24

    This report describes R&D on a new type of calorimeter using secondary emission to measure the energy of radiation, particularly high energy particles.

  4. National Emission Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999 June 2000 June 2000 U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office ...

  5. Antenna factorization in strongly ordered limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosower, David A.

    2005-02-15

    When energies or angles of gluons emitted in a gauge-theory process are small and strongly ordered, the emission factorizes in a simple way to all orders in perturbation theory. I show how to unify the various strongly ordered soft, mixed soft-collinear, and collinear limits using antenna factorization amplitudes, which are generalizations of the Catani-Seymour dipole factorization function.

  6. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  7. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  8. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  9. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  10. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  11. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 1824 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  12. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  13. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  14. MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.epa.govomsm6.htm Cost: Free References: http:www.epa.govomsm6.htm MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for...

  15. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  16. Water Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Success Stories Water Success Stories RSS The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE) successes in developing sustainable, emissions-free, and cost-effective water power open new possibilities for this reliable, renewable resource. Explore EERE's water power success stories below. April 20, 2016 Water Success Stories EERE Success Story- Hydropower Fellowship Program Leading Students to Industry Careers The Hydro Research Foundation's (HRF) Hydro Fellowship Program allowed

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  18. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Lifecycle Land: http:www.iea.org... CSP Geothermal Wind Nuclear Natural Gas Coal GHG Emissions ... Bioenergy Water Requirements Bioenergy adds more ...

  19. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  20. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... formation during cofiring of coal and biomass (Figure 3). Particulate-and-Gaseous-Emissions3-300x134 Figure 2. Important reaction pathways for conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to ...

  1. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  2. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  3. Combustion and Emissions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Emissions Modeling This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background Modern transportation engines are designed to use the available fuel resources efficiently and minimize harmful emissions. Optimization of these designs is based on a wealth of practical design, construction and operating experiences, and use of modern testing facilities and sophisticated analyses of the combustion

  4. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  5. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; et al

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations.more » Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.« less

  6. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  7. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  8. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  9. Research Challenge 5: Enhanced Spontaneous Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5: Enhanced Spontaneous Emission - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  10. Research Challenge 6: Beyond Spontaneous Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6: Beyond Spontaneous Emission - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  11. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

    2014-10-07

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

  12. Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

    2009-08-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  14. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The WSO found in produced water samples was primarily polar in nature and distributed between the low and midrange carbon ranges. Typical levels of total extractable material (TEM) was about 20 mg/L; that associated with the aromatic fraction was present at 0.2 mg/L and that in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction was present at less than 0.02 mg/L. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids were also found in the produced water, occurring at a total concentration of 30 mg/L. It was estimated that the presence of 30 mg/L organic acids would artificially overstate TEM content by 2 mg/L. Of the five tested parameters, the factor that most controlled the total WSO in produced water was that of aqueous phase pH. Beyond a value of pH7 significant quantities of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range material become markedly soluble as they deprotonate in a basic aqueous phase. Both the absolute and relative volumes of GOM brine and crude additionally affected total WSO. Produced water appeared to reach a saturation level of WSO at a.50% water/oil ratio. Pressure slightly enhanced WSO by increasing the relative quantity of C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} range material. Temperature primarily altered the relative ratio of carbon ranges within the WSO without significantly elevating the total WSO in the GOM brine. Salinity had the least affect on the chemical character or the carbon size of WSO in produced water.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  16. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Topics GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis...

  17. "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... composition for 2006 reported in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006 MSW Characterization Data Tables, http:www.epa.govepaoswernon-hwmuncplpubs06data.pdf. " "8 ...

  18. Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho,...

  19. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  20. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  1. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  2. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security HomeTag:Water Security Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) ...

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a

  4. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  5. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  6. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  7. Water Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  8. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  9. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

  10. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Automated Mobility District Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions Impact of Automated Mobility District January 21, 2016 With emerging technologies, travel behavior may shift from personal vehicles to automated transit systems. An NREL study shows that a campus-sized -- ranging from four to 10 square miles -- automated mobility district (AMD) has the potential to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 4% to 14% depending on various operating and ridership factors.

  11. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  12. CURVATURE-DRIFT INSTABILITY FAILS TO GENERATE PULSAR RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaganovich, Alexander; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2010-10-01

    The curvature-drift instability has long been considered as a viable mechanism for pulsar radio emission. We reconsidered this mechanism by finding an explicit solution describing the propagation of short electromagnetic waves in a plasma flow along curved magnetic field lines. We show that even though the waves could be amplified, the amplification factor remains very close to unity; therefore, this mechanism is unable to generate high brightness temperature emission from initial weak fluctuations.

  13. Time dependent particle emission from fission products (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Time dependent particle emission from fission products Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time dependent particle emission from fission products Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a variety of aspects ranging from cooling requirements to shielding design. Calculations of decay heat, often assumed to be a simple product of activity and average decay product energy, are complicated by the so

  14. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  15. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  16. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  17. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  18. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  19. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel...

  20. Douglas Factors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as “Douglas Factors” and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  2. Water Summit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advisory: White House to host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the Administration will host a White House Water Summit to raise awareness of the national importance of water and to highlight new commitments and announcements that the Administration and non-Federal institutions are making to build a sustainable water future. A project from Los Alamos National Laboratory

  3. Cold fusion observed with ordinary water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes a cold fusion electrolysis experiment using ordinary water. A Ge(Li) detector is used to observe signals up to {approx}130 keV; these signals show the occurrence of fusion reactions in ordinary water. The mechanism for the emission of radiation is discussed by the Nattoh model.

  4. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  5. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands. 

  6. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-04-06

    A method is disclosed for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage. 3 figs.

  7. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    A method for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  9. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  10. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions EERE Presentation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions/Resource Potential PDF icon gbtl_workshop_ghg_emissions.pdf More Documents & Publications GBTL Opening Presentation_Tech Barriers February GBTL Webinar BETO Conversion Program

  11. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  12. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  13. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Events Water Power Events Below is an industry calendar with meetings, conferences, and webinars of interest to the conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technology communities.

    Water Power Information Resources Water Power Information Resources How Hydropower Works How Hydropower Works See a detailed view of the inside of a hydropower energy generation system. Read more Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database on OpenEI Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database

  14. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

  15. MODELING TRITIUM TRANSPORT, DEPOSITION AND RE-EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, B.

    2012-04-03

    The atmospheric release of tritium oxide (HTO) potentially impacts human health, typically through inhalation or absorption. Due to HTO's similarity to water, vegetation will absorb HTO by solution in the leaf water and then re-emit it, creating a number of secondary sources of HTO. Currently, models used for emergency response at Savannah River Site incorporate the transport and deposition of HTO but do not provide estimates for its potential re-emission from vegetation or soil surface though re-emission could result in prolonged exposure and greater than predicted dose for an individual downwind. A simple model of HTO transport, deposition and re-emission has been developed to examine the potential increase in exposure and dose. The model simulates an initial release of HTO that moves with a mean wind and expands through diffusion as a Gaussian puff. Deposition is modeled using previous estimates of deposition velocity for HTO and re-emission is modeled using a time constant that describes how quickly HTO is transferred between the surface and atmosphere. Additional puffs are created to simulate re-emission of HTO as well as horizontal diffusion across model grid cells. An evaluation of field data indicates that the use of a re-emission module tends to improve model predictions through improved prediction of peak concentration magnitude and location. When considering dose, nearly all of the released material is included in the dose calculation when re-emission is included. Although exposure to HTO through re-emission occurs over a few hours, the incremental increase in dose is relatively small because the atmospheric concentration of re-emitted HTO is much lower than the initial release.

  16. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  17. Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2009-04-15

    Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

  18. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electricity suppliers and electricity companies must also provide a fuel mix report to customers twice annually, within the June and December billing cycles. Emissions information must be disclos...

  19. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel Disclosure: Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding...

  20. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  1. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  2. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  3. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on

  5. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  6. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Water Power Water PowerTara Camacho-Lopez2016-04-18T19:53:50+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower Optimization Developing tools for optimizing the U.S. hydropower fleet's performance with minimal environmental impact. Technology Development Improving the power performance and reliability of marine hydrokinetic technologies. Market Acceleration & Deployment Addressing barriers to development, deployment, and evaluation of

  7. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower. The introduction of some quantity of deuterium into the gaseous flow before the hot tower lowers the tritium separation factor in that column. One possible variant of deuterium introduction to the hot tower of the first stage was modelled. The decontamination capacity increases by a 2.5 factor.

  8. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment

  9. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  10. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  11. Microsoft Word - Final Instructions_20110124.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    171 Appendix N. Emission Factors for Steam and ChilledHot Water Emission Factors for Steam and ChilledHot Water for Emissions Inventories Use the emission factors in the ...

  12. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  13. Metal tritides helium emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    Over the past several years, we have been measuring the release of helium from metal tritides (primarily erbium tritide). We find that qualitatively all tritides of interest to us behave the same. When they are first formed, the helium is released at a low rate that appears to be related to the amount of surface area which has access to the outside of the material (either film or bulk). For example, erbium tritide films initially release about 0.3% of the helium generated. Most tritide films emit helium at about this rate initially. At some later time, which depends upon the amount of helium generated, the parent occluding element and the degree of tritium saturation of the dihydride phase the helium emission changes to a new mode in which it is released at approximately the rate at which it is generated (for example, we measure this value to be approx. = .31 He/Er for ErT/sub 1/./sub 9/ films). If erbium ditritide is saturated beyond 1.9 T/Er, the critical helium/metal ratio decreases. For example, in bulk powders ErT/sub 2/./sub 15/ reaches critical release concentration at approx. = 0.03. Moderate elevation of temperature above room temperature has little impact on the helium release rate. It appears that the process may have approx. = 2 kcal/mol activation energy. The first helium formed is well bound. As the tritide ages, the helium is found in higher energy sites. Similar but less extensive measurements on scandium, titanium, and zirconium tritides are also described. Finally, the thermal desorption of erbium tritides of various ages from 50 days to 3154 days is discussed. Significant helium is desorbed along with the tritium in all but the youngest samples during thermodesorption.

  14. COMPILATION OF REGIONAL TO GLOBAL INVENTORIES OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    2002-11-01

    The mathematical modeling of the transport and transformation of trace species in the atmosphere is one of the scientific tools currently used to assess atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climatic conditions. From the scientific but also from the management perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal, and species resolution are required. There are two general methodologies used to estimate regional to global emissions: bottom-up and top-down (also known as inverse modeling). Bottom-up methodologies to estimate industrial emissions are based on activity data, emission factors (amount of emissions per unit activity), and for some inventories additional parameters (such as sulfur content of fuels). Generally these emissions estimates must be given finer sectoral, spatial (usually gridded), temporal, and for some inventories species resolution. Temporal and spatial resolution are obtained via the use of surrogate information, such as population, land use, traffic counts, etc. which already exists in or can directly be converted to gridded form. Speciation factors have been and are being developed to speciate inventories of NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. Top-down (inverse modeling) methodologies directly invert air quality measurements in terms of poorly known but critical parameters to constrain the emissions needed to explain these measurements; values of these parameters are usually computed using atmospheric transport models. Currently there are several strong limitations of inverse modeling, but the continued evolution of top-down estimates will be facilitated by the development of denser monitoring networks and by the massive amounts of data from satellite observations.

  15. Trading Emissions PLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trading Emissions PLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trading Emissions PLC Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2N 4AW Product: Trading Emissions PLC is an investment fund...

  16. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  17. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  18. Test methods for determining short and long term VOC emissions from latex paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, K.; Lao, H.C.; Fortmann, R.; Tichenor, B.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses an evaluation of latex paint (interior, water based) as a source of indoor pollution. A major objective of the research is the development of methods for predicting emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over time. Test specimens of painted gypsumboard are placed in dynamic flow-through test chambers. Samples of the outlet air are collected on Tenax sorbents and thermally desorbed for analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. These tests produce short- and long-term data for latex paint emissions of Texanol, 2-2(-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol, and glycols. Evaluation of the data shows that most of the Texanol emissions occur within the first few days, and emissions of the glycols occur over several months. This behavior may be described by an evaporative mass transfer process that dominates the short-term emissions, while long-term emissions are limited by diffusion processes within the dry paint-gypsumboard.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  20. QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

  1. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  2. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  3. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ACES is a cooperative multi-party effort to characterize emissions and possible health effects of new, advanced heavy duty engine and control systems and fuels in the market 2007 - 2010.

  4. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  5. emissions | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller...

  6. Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission ... Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission ...

  7. High-brightness water-window electron-impact liquid-jet microfocus source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoglund, P.; Lundstroem, U.; Vogt, U.; Hertz, H. M.

    2010-02-22

    We demonstrate stable high-brightness operation of an electron-impact water-jet-anode soft x-ray source. A 30 kV, 7.8 W electron beam is focused onto a 20 mum diameter jet resulting in water-window oxygen line emission at 525 eV/2.36 nm with a brightness of 3.0x10{sup 9} ph/(sxmum{sup 2}xsrxline). Monte Carlo-based modeling shows good quantitative agreement with the experiments. The source has potential to increase the x-ray power and brightness by another 1-2 orders of magnitude and fluid-dynamical jet instabilities is determined to be the most important limiting factor. The source properties make it an attractive alternative for table-top x-ray microscopy.

  8. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization ...

  9. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  10. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.iges.or.jpencdmreportkyoto.html References: IGES GHG Emissions Data1 Summary "IGES GHG Emissions Data is aimed at...

  11. Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from...

  12. Zero Emissions Leasing LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zero Emissions Leasing LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zero Emissions Leasing LLC Place: Honolulu, Hawaii Zip: 96822 Sector: Solar Product: Honolulu-based developer of solar...

  13. How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels...

  14. Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Jump to: navigation, search Name: Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Place: Augsburg, Bavaria,...

  15. ZERO EMISSION COAL POWER, A NEW CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. -J. ZIOCK; K. S. LACKNER; D. P. HARRISON

    2001-04-01

    The Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA) is developing an integrated zero emission process that generates clean energy carriers (electricity or hydrogen) from coal. The process exothermically gasifies coal using hydrogen to produce a methane rich intermediate state. The methane is subsequently reformed using water and a CaO based sorbent. The sorbent supplies the energy needed to drive the reforming reaction and simultaneously removes the generated CO{sub 2} by producing CaCO{sub 3}. The resulting hydrogen product stream is split, approximately 1/2 going to gasify the next unit of coal, and the other half being the product. This product stream could then be split a second time, part being cleaned up with a high temperature hydrogen separation membrane to produce pure hydrogen, and the remainder used to generate electricity via a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The inevitable high temperature waste heat produced by the SOFC would in turn be used to regenerate the CaO by calcining the CaCO{sub 3} product of the reforming stage thereby generating a pure stream of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} will be dealt with a mineral sequestration process discussed in other papers presented at this conference. The SOFC has the added advantage of doubling as an oxygen separation membrane, thereby keeping its exhaust stream, which is predominantly steam, free of any air. This exhaust stream is largely recycled back to the reforming stage to generate more hydrogen, with a slipstream being extracted and condensed. The slipstream carries with it the other initial contaminants present in the starting coal. Overall the process is effectively closed loop with zero gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. The process also achieves very high conversion efficiency from coal energy to electrical energy ({approximately} 70%) and naturally generates a pure stream of CO{sub 2} ready for disposal via the mineral sequestration process.

  16. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power DOE Wind & Waterpower Technologies Office Director, Jose Zayas, addresses crowd at Waterpower Week [photo courtesy of the National Hydro Association] Permalink Gallery Sandia Labs participates in DOE's annual Waterpower Week News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Uncategorized, Water Power Sandia Labs participates in DOE's annual Waterpower Week During the last week of April, Sandia National Laboratories participated in the National Hydropower Association Waterpower Week in

  17. Characterization of calculation of in-situ retardation factors of contaminant transport using naturally-radionuclides and rock/water interaction occurring U-Series disequilibria timescales. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roback, R.; Murrel, M.; Goldstein, S.; Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.

    1997-01-01

    'The research is directed toward a quantitative assessment of contaminant transport rates in fracture-rock systems using uranium-series radionuclides. Naturally occurring uranium-and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria will provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved characterization of preferential flow and contaminant transport at the Idaho Environmental and Engineering Lab. (INEEL) site. To a lesser extent, the study will include rocks in the unsaturated zone. The authors will produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration under unsaturated and saturated field conditions at the INEEL site, taking into account the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in rock minerals. sorbed phases on the rocks, and in fluids from both saturated and unsaturated zones at the site, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis-based model for the Geologic heterogeneity plays an important role in transporting contaminants in fractured rocks. Preferential flow paths in the fractured rocks act as a major pathway for transport of radioactive contaminants in groundwaters. The weathering/dissolution of rock by groundwater also influences contaminant mobility. Thus, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. In this regard, quantification of the rock weathering/dissolution rate and fluid residence time from the observed decay-series disequilibria will be valuable. By mapping the spatial distribution of the residence time of groundwater in fractured rocks, the subsurface preferential flow paths (with high rock permeability and short fluid residence time) can be determined.'

  18. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  19. Kimberlina: a zero-emissions demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pronske, K.

    2007-06-15

    FutureGen may be getting the headlines, but it is not the only superclean demonstration plant in town. In fact, you could argue that other technologies are further down the evolutionary timeline. Case in point: Clean Energy Systems' adaptation of rocket engine technology to radically change the way fuel is burned. The result is a true zero-emissions power plant. Its most distinctive element is an oxy-combustor, similar to one used in rocket engines, that generates steam by burning clean, gaseous fuel in the presence of gaseous oxygen and water. The clean fuel is prepared by processing a conventional fossil fuel such as coal-derived syngas, refinery residues, biomass or biodigester gas, or natural or landfill gas. Combustion takes place at near-stoichiometric conditions to produce a mixture of steam and CO{sub 2} at high temperature and pressure. The steam conditions are suitable for driving a conventional or advanced steam turbine-generator, or a gas turbine modified to be driven by high-temperature steam or to do work as an expansion unit at intermediate pressure. After pressure through the turbine(s), the steam/CO{sub 2} mixture is condensed, cooled, and separated into water and CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} can be sequestered and/or purified and sold for commercial use. Durability and performance tests carried out between March 2005 and March 2006 produced excellent results. CO and NOx emissions are considerably low than those of combined-cycle power plants fuelled by natural gas and using selective catalytic reduction for NOx control. Work is continuing under an NETL grant. Progress and plans are reported in the article. 7 figs.

  20. Search for neutron emission from deuterium-loaded palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashy, E.; Bauer, W.; Chen, Y.; Galonsky, A.; Gaudiello, J.; Maier, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pelak, R. A.; Tsang, M. B.; Yurkon, J.; and others

    1989-07-01

    The recent reports of neutron emission due to nuclear fusion of deuteriumduring the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode areinvestigated. The results for an electrode with a deuterium-to-palladium atomratio of 0.6 show that, at the two-sigma level, fewer than 0.002 neutrons/gsec are emitted. A search for very high neutron-multiplicity events causedby multiple muon catalysis in the palladium cathode showed no such events.

  1. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, L.C.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Harley, R.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Miguel, A.H.; Hering, S.V.

    1999-09-15

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH in both fuels, with concentrations of up to 2,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in gasoline and 1,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in diesel fuel. Particle-phase PAH size distributions and exhaust emission factors were measured in two bores of a roadway tunnel. Emission factors were determined separately for light-duty vehicles and for heavy-duty diesel trucks, based on measurements of PAHs, CO, and CO{sub 2}. Particle-phase emission factors, expressed per unit mass of fuel burned, ranged up to 21 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for benzo[ghi]perylene for light-duty vehicles and up to {approximately} 1,000 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for pyrene for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Light-duty vehicles were found to be a significant source of heavier (four- and five-ring) PAHs, whereas heavy-duty diesel engines were the dominant source of three-ring PAHs, such as fluoranthene and pyrene. While no correlation between heavy-duty diesel truck PAH emission factors and PAH concentrations in diesel fuel was found, light-duty vehicle PAH emission factors were found to be correlated with PAH concentrations in gasoline, suggesting that gasoline reformulation may be effective in reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles.

  2. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-05-25

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  3. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-04-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. Based on a previous study 1, 2, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using natural log of percentage relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as predictor variables, and natural log of emission factors as the target variable. The coefficients of both inverse temperature and log relative humidity with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. This study should assist to retrospectively estimate indoor formaldehyde exposures of occupants of temporary housing units (THUs).

  4. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF),

  5. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  6. Diesel Emission Control Review | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications PDF icon deer10_tjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Average water consumers can save thousands of gallons of water per year by being aware of ... program on the water distribution systems to include water saving replacement parts. ...

  12. Software solutions for emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeFriez, H.; Schillinger, S.; Seraji, H.

    1996-12-31

    Industry and state and federal environmental regulatory agencies are becoming ever more conciliatory due to the high cost of implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) for the operation of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS). In many cases the modifications do nothing to reduce emissions or even to measure the pollution, but simply let the source owner or operator and the permitting authority agree on a monitoring method and/or program. The EPA methods and standards developed under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) have proven to be extremely costly and burdensome. Now, the USEPA and state agencies are making efforts to assure that emissions data has a strong technical basis to demonstrate compliance with regulations such as Title V.

  13. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  14. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  15. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  16. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  18. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  19. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  20. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  1. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-priced. Finally we estimates that the geospatial pattern of water demands could stress some parts of the world, e.g. China, India and other countries in south and east Asia, earlier and more intensely than in other parts of the world, e.g. North America.

  2. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  3. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  4. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-02-04

    A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

  5. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  6. Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of residential natural gas water heating has plateaued at a primary energy factor (EF) of under 1.0, since best-in-class condensing water heaters cannot exceed this value. ...

  7. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  8. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  10. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  11. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; McLean, II, William; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  12. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  13. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that neither of these conditions have been met.

  14. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system’s capacity.

  15. Evaluation of emission-control devices at waferboard plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaught, C.C.

    1989-10-01

    The document discusses emissions from wood-chip dryers and the candidate control devices that should be considered in a best available control technology analysis. Specifically, the document characterizes wood-chip dryer effluents and presents a general description, pollutant removal efficiencies, factors affecting performance, and cost for the wet electrostatic precipitator and the electrified filter bed. The document also presents information on controlling formaldehyde emissions from the press vents.

  16. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  17. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  18. Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2008-09-15

    Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

  19. Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Even thc)ugh the number of VMT by HDVs is small, most alternative fuels fare so much worse in heavy-duty applications that inclusion of even the small amount of HDV VMT ...

  20. Anisotropic Lyman-alpha emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zheng; Wallace, Joshua

    2014-10-20

    As a result of resonant scatterings off hydrogen atoms, Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies provides a probe of the (hardly isotropic) neutral gas environment around them. We study the effect of the environmental anisotropy on the observed Lyα emission by performing radiative transfer calculations for models of neutral hydrogen clouds with prescriptions of spatial and kinematic anisotropies. The environmental anisotropy leads to corresponding anisotropy in the Lyα flux and spectral properties and induces correlations among them. The Lyα flux (or observed luminosity) depends on the viewing angle and shows an approximate correlation with the initial Lyα optical depth in the viewing direction relative to those in all other directions. The distribution of Lyα flux from a set of randomly oriented clouds is skewed to high values, providing a natural contribution to the Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution seen in observation. A narrower EW distribution is found at a larger peak offset of the Lyα line, similar to the trend suggested in observation. The peak offset appears to correlate with the line shape (full width at half-maximum and asymmetry), pointing to a possibility of using Lyα line features alone to determine the systemic redshifts of galaxies. The study suggests that anisotropies in the spatial and kinematic distributions of neutral hydrogen can be an important ingredient in shaping the observed properties of Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies. We discuss the implications of using Lyα emission to probe the circumgalactic and intergalactic environments of galaxies.

  1. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  2. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  3. Biological Air Emissions Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Air Emissions Control Biological Air Emissions Control Innovative Technology Enables Low-Cost, Energy-Efficient Treatment of Industrial Exhaust Streams Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol, formaldehyde, acetylaldehyde, and acrolein) during production of wood products must be tightly controlled. Conventional VOCs and HAPs emission

  4. FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SRP radioactive waste releases. Startup through 1959 Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS;...

  5. Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL File Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL More Documents & Publications Attachment C

  6. Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL File Attachment-C-Summary-GHG-Emissions-Data-FINAL.xlsx More Documents & Publications Attachment C -

  7. Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission ...

  8. PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cold Start Emissions Management PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management Coordination of engine and powertrain supervisory control strategies to minimize cold start emissions ...

  9. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  10. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  11. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  12. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  13. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear Security ... Home NNSA Blog Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection Reducing emissions ...

  14. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million...

  15. Catalyzing Cooperative Action for Low Emissions Development Agenda...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emissions Development Agenda Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission development around the...

  16. 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon ...

  17. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  18. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

  19. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heaters | Department of Energy Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy

  20. QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

    2004-06-30

    Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

  1. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  2. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  3. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  4. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  5. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (San Francisco, CA: Aspen Environmental Group) Aspen Environmental Group 2011b Topaz Solar Farm Conditional Use Permit: Final Environmental Impact Report (DRC2008-00009) (San...

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 18: Cherenkov Emission By High-Energy Radiation Therapy Beams: A Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zlateva, Y.; El Naqa, I.; Quitoriano, N.

    2014-08-15

    We investigate Cherenkov emission (CE) by radiotherapy beams via radiation dose-versus-CE correlation analyses, CE detection optimization by means of a spectral shift towards the near-infrared (NIR) window of biological tissue, and comparison of CE to on-board MV imaging. Dose-CE correlation was investigated via simulation and experiment. A Monte Carlo (MC) CE simulator was designed using Geant4. Experimental phantoms include: water; tissue-simulating phantom composed of water, Intralipid®, and beef blood; plastic phantom with solid water insert. The detector system comprises an optical fiber and diffraction-grating spectrometer incorporating a front/back-illuminated CCD. The NIR shift was carried out with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), emitting at (650±10) nm. CE and MV images were acquired with a CMOS camera and electronic portal imaging device. MC and experimental studies indicate a strong linear dose-CE correlation (Pearson coefficient > 0.99). CE by an 18-MeV beam was effectively NIR-shifted in water and a tissue-simulating phantom, exhibiting a significant increase at 650 nm for QD depths up to 10 mm. CE images exhibited relative contrast superior to MV images by a factor of 30. Our work supports the potential for application of CE in radiotherapy online imaging for patient setup and treatment verification, since CE is intrinsic to the beam and non-ionizing and QDs can be used to improve CE detectability, potentially yielding image quality superior to MV imaging for the case of low-density-variability, low-optical-attenuation materials (ex: breast/oropharynx). Ongoing work involves microenvironment functionalization of QDs and application of multi-channel spectrometry for simultaneous acquisition of dosimetric and tumor oxygenation signals.

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  8. High-emission cold cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mancebo, L.

    1974-01-29

    A field-emission cathode having a multitude of field emission points for emitting a copious stream of electrons when subjected to a high field is described. The cathode is constructed by compressing a multitude of tungsten strips alternately arranged with molybdenum strips and copper ribbons or compressing alternately arranged copper plated tungsten and molybdenum strips, heating the arrangement to braze the tungsten and molybdenum strips together with the copper, machining and grinding the exposed strip edges of one side of the brazed arrangement to obtain a precisely planar surface, etching a portion of the molybdenum and copper to leave the edges of the tungsten strips protruding for electron emission, and subjecting the protruding edges of the tungsten strips to a high electric field to degas and roughen the surface to pnovide a large number of emitting points. The resulting structure is particularly useful as a cathode in a transversely excited gaseous laser where the cathode is mounted in a vacuum chamber for emitting electrons under the influence of a high electric field between the cathode and an extractor grid. The electrons pass through the extractor grid, a thin window in the wall of the laser chamber and into the laser chamber which is filled with a gaseous mixture of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. A second grid is mounted on the gaseous side of the window. The electrons pass into the laser chamber under the influence of a second electric field between the second grid and an anode in the laser chamber to raise selected gas atoms of the gaseous mixture to appropriately excited states so that a subsequent coherent light beam passing through the mixture transversely to the electron stream through windows in opposite ends of the laser chamber stimulates the excited atoms to amplify the beam. (Official Gazette)

  9. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  10. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  11. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  12. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  13. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  14. COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories. The resulting global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N yr{sup -1} for NO{sub x} and 173 Gg NMVOC yr{sup -1}. Emissions of NO{sub x} are highest in the populated and industrialized areas of eastern North America and across Europe, and in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. Emissions of NMVOCs are highest in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 1990 NO{sub x} emissions were gridded to 1{sup o} resolution using surrogate data, and were given seasonal, two-vertical-level resolution and speciated into NO and NO{sub 2} based on proportions derived from the 1985 GEIA Version 1B inventory. Global NMVOC emissions were given additional species resolution by allocating the 23 chemical categories to individual chemical species based on factors derived from the speciated emissions of NMVOCs in the U.S. from the U.S. EPA's 1990 Interim Inventory. Ongoing research activities for this project continue to address emissions of both NO{sub x} and NMVOCs. Future tasks include: (a) evaluation of more detailed regional emissions estimates and update of the default 1990 inventories with the appropriate estimates, (b) derivation of quantitative uncertainty estimates for the emission values, and (c) development of emissions estimates for 1995.

  15. Emissions Technology Gives Company Clean Win as Energy Innovator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Umpqua Energy produced an emission control system that can potentially reduce the emissions from vehicles by 90 percent.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions from Hybrid and Plug...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Batteries Deployment Maintenance & Safety Laws & Incentives Emissions from Hybrid ...

  17. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  18. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  19. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  20. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  1. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  2. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned

  4. Diffuse γ-ray emission from galactic pulsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F. E-mail: mattia.dimauro@to.infn.it

    2014-11-20

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old fast-spinning neutron stars that represent the second most abundant source population discovered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). As guaranteed γ-ray emitters, they might contribute non-negligibly to the diffuse emission measured at high latitudes by Fermi-LAT (i.e., the Isotropic Diffuse γ-Ray Background (IDGRB)), which is believed to arise from the superposition of several components of galactic and extragalactic origin. Additionally, γ-ray sources also contribute to the anisotropy of the IDGRB measured on small scales by Fermi-LAT. In this manuscript we aim to assess the contribution of the unresolved counterpart of the detected MSPs population to the IDGRB and the maximal fraction of the measured anisotropy produced by this source class. To this end, we model the MSPs' spatial distribution in the Galaxy and the γ-ray emission parameters by considering observational constraints coming from the Australia Telescope National Facility pulsar catalog and the Second Fermi-LAT Catalog of γ-ray pulsars. By simulating a large number of MSP populations through a Monte Carlo simulation, we compute the average diffuse emission and the anisotropy 1σ upper limit. We find that the emission from unresolved MSPs at 2 GeV, where the peak of the spectrum is located, is at most 0.9% of the measured IDGRB above 10° in latitude. The 1σ upper limit on the angular power for unresolved MSP sources turns out to be about a factor of 60 smaller than Fermi-LAT measurements above 30°. Our results indicate that this galactic source class represents a negligible contributor to the high-latitude γ-ray sky and confirm that most of the intensity and geometrical properties of the measured diffuse emission are imputable to other extragalactic source classes (e.g., blazars, misaligned active galactic nuclei, or star-forming galaxies). Nevertheless, because MSPs are more concentrated toward the galactic center, we expect them to contribute significantly to the γ-ray diffuse emission at low latitudes. Because, along the galactic disk, the population of young pulsars overcomes in number that of MSPs, we compute the γ-ray emission from the whole population of unresolved pulsars, both young and millisecond, in two low-latitude regions: the inner Galaxy and the galactic center.

  5. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  6. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

  7. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  8. Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization By Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam; Byron L. Rapp; Donald W. Lyons; Michael S. Graboski; Robert L. McCormick; Teresa L. Alleman; Paul Norton

    1999-05-03

    Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFHAER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more. The driving styles may be characterized as aggressive and non-aggressive, but both styles followed the CBD speed command acceptably. PM emissions were far higher for the aggressive driving style. For the NG fueled vehicles driving style had a similar, although smaller, effect on NO{sub x}. It is evident that driver habits may cause substantial deviation in emissions for the CBD cycle. When the CO emissions are used as a surrogate for driver aggression, a regression analysis shows that NO{sub x} and PM emissions from the two laboratories agree closely for equivalent driving style. Implications of driver habit for emissions inventories and regulations are briefly considered.

  9. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  10. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  11. Nuclear Emissions During Self-Nucleated Acoustic Cavitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Xu, Y.; West, C.D.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Block, R.C.; Nigmatulin, R.I.

    2006-01-27

    A unique, new stand-alone acoustic inertial confinement nuclear fusion test device was successfully tested. Experiments using four different liquid types were conducted in which bubbles were self-nucleated without the use of external neutrons. Four independent detection systems were used (i.e., a neutron track plastic detector to provide unambiguous visible records for fast neutrons, a BF{sub 3} detector, a NE-113-type liquid scintillation detector, and a NaI {gamma} ray detector). Statistically significant nuclear emissions were observed for deuterated benzene and acetone mixtures but not for heavy water. The measured neutron energy was {<=}2.45 MeV, which is indicative of deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion. Neutron emission rates were in the range {approx}5x10{sup 3} n/s to {approx}10{sup 4} n/s and followed the inverse law dependence with distance. Control experiments did not result in statistically significant neutron or {gamma} ray emissions.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1993-12-31

    Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning Resources with Additional Information Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 'Positron Emission Tomography ... [is a medical imaging technique that] can track chemical reactions in living tissues and merges chemistry with biological imaging. Its strength has been in studies of the brain where there has been significant progress in investigations of drug addiction, aging, mental illness,

  14. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  15. Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology | Department of Energy Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power

  16. Positron emission tomography wrist detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlyer, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois

    2006-08-15

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal representing a time-of-occurrence of an annihilation event, generating an address signal representing a channel detecting the annihilation event, and generating a channel signal including the time and address signals. The method also includes generating a composite signal including the channel signal and another similarly generated channel signal concerning another annihilation event. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information includes a time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator. The time signal is asynchronous and the address signal is synchronous to a clock signal. A PET scanner includes a scintillation array, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoders include the time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator.

  17. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  18. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed ...

  19. Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  20. High Effeiciency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 75% and has 25% lower energy consumption. ... high efficiency systems in use in Europe and Canada * Encourage market ...

  1. PLASMA EMISSION BY WEAK TURBULENCE PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br

    2014-11-10

    The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.

  2. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluation of in-use DPFs shows levels of reduction within in-use testing objectives: PM emission reductions >90%, elementalblack carbon reduction of 99%, and retrofit ...

  3. PNNL: About: Air Emissions (Radioactive) Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from unacceptable risks resulting from its operations. These reports document PNNL Campus and Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) radionuclide air emissions that result in the...

  4. School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conference Presentation: international Truck and Engine Corporation PDF icon ... Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses Diesel Health Impacts & ...

  5. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap ...

  6. Preliminary Results of Investigating Precompound Emission of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions, Summer 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary Results of Investigating Precompound Emission of Light ...

  7. Urban Transportation Emission Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calculator (UTEC) is a user-friendly tool for estimating annual emissions from personal, commercial, and public transit vehicles. It estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) and...

  8. Preliminary Results of Investigating Precompound Emission of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Preliminary Results of Investigating Precompound Emission of Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions, Summer 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  9. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Other greenhouse gases, such as methane released from wood that is burned ... usually is assessed by considering all the upstream and downstream emissions of greenhouse gases. ...

  10. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By ... and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. ...

  11. Planetary Emissions Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Management Jump to: navigation, search Name: Planetary Emissions Management Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Sector: Carbon Product: US-based, company offering measurements of...

  12. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Chassis Dynamometer and On-road Testing of Heavy-duty Vehicles Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer ...

  13. Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Topics: Low emission development planning Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.oecd.orgdataoecd325846553489.pdf Low...

  14. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maritime Administration PDF icon 2002deergore1.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime Administration Energy ...

  15. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maritime Administration PDF icon 2002deergore2.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime Administration Energy ...

  16. Reducing Emissions from Uranium Dissolving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. The trays are steam coil heated. The process has operated satisfactorily, with few difficulties, for decades. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. Because NO{sub x} is hazardous, fumes should be suppressed whenever the electric blower system is inoperable. Because the tray dissolving process has worked well for decades, as much of the current capital equipment and operating procedures as possible were preserved. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2}, which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  17. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  18. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  19. Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... with a national CO2 storage program utilizing geologic saline formations. Users can run power-plant specific scenarios to capture and store CO2 emissions while ...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na; Zhang Hua; Chen Miao; Shao Liming; He Pinjing

    2012-12-15

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  1. Field emission properties of ZnO nanosheet arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, Kusha Kumar; Rout, Chandra Sekhar E-mail: dj.late@ncl.res.in E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Khare, Ruchita; More, Mahendra A.; Chakravarty, Disha; Late, Dattatray J. E-mail: dj.late@ncl.res.in E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Thapa, Ranjit E-mail: dj.late@ncl.res.in E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in

    2014-12-08

    Electron emission properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanosheet arrays grown on Indium tin oxide coated glass substrates have been studied. Influence of oxygen vacancies on electronic structures and field emission properties of ZnO nanosheets are investigated using density functional theory. The oxygen vacancies produce unshared d electrons which form an impurity energy state; this causes shifting of Fermi level towards the vacuum, and so the barrier energy for electron extraction reduces. The ZnO nanosheet arrays exhibit a low turn-on field of 2.4 V/μm at 0.1 μA/cm{sup 2} and current density of 50.1 μA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 6.4 V/μm with field enhancement factor, β = 5812 and good field emission current stability. The nanosheet arrays grown by a facile electrodeposition process have great potential as robust high performance vertical structure electron emitters for future flat panel displays and vacuum electronic device applications.

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  3. The Greenhouse’s Effect: NETL and Phipps Join Forces to Study Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phipps and NETL recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding for collaborative research involving water-management systems installed at Phipps. NETL researchers have now begun collecting and analyzing water, sediment, and plant samples to determine the effectiveness of Phipps’ water-treatment systems over time. These researchers will apply what they learn to NETL’s larger investigation into greenhouse gas storage, emissions controls, and reduction of water use in power plants.

  4. Method and means for measuring acoustic emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, Jr., Claus J.

    1976-01-06

    The detection of acoustic emissions emanating from an object is achieved with a capacitive transducer coupled to the object. The capacitive transducer is charged and then allowed to discharge with the rate of discharge being monitored. Oscillations in the rate of discharge about the normally exponential discharge curve for the capacitive transducer indicate the presence of acoustic emissions.

  5. The Water Maser in II Zw 96: Scientific Justification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry

    2015-08-06

    We propose a VLBI search to image and locate the water emission in II Zw 96. We propose 3 sites within II Zw 96 for VLBI followup (see the proposed target listing below). We request 2.5 hours of on-source integration time with the VLBA per source. The array will achieve ~ 65µJy sensitivity in K band in this time which will be sufficient to detect luminous water maser features.

  6. Scintillating Cocktail Mixtures and the Role of Water on the Optophysical Properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Feng, Patrick L.; Mengesha, Wondwosen; Murtagh, Dustin; Anstey, Mitchell

    2015-10-01

    Two types of water - containing liquid scinti llation mixtures were prepared in the present work. In the first, m ixtures of 2 - phenylethanol, water, diphenyl phosphate, sodium phenyl phosphate dibasic dihydrate, and the dye 2,5 - diphenyloxazole (PPO) have been investigated as liquid scintillators. In th e second system, nonionic and mixed surfactant systems were investigated in conjunction with water and small amounts of toluene. In both cases, increasing amounts of water led to reductions in the scintillation light yield. Understanding what factors contr ibute to this phenomenon is the focus of this report. Changes in the solution microphase structure, diminishing aromatic content of the cocktail mixtures, and inefficient energy transfer to the dye a ppear to be responsible for the decreased light yield as more water is added . In the 2 - phenylethanol system, the observed experimental results are consistent with the formation of a bicontinuous microemulsion at higher water concentrations, which incorporates PPO and shields it from the quenching effects of the increasing polar matrix. Evidence for this proposed phase chan ge c ome s from light scattering data, photo - and x - ray luminescence measurements, and optical transparency measurements . In the surfactant - based system, the quenching effect of water was found to be less than both commercially - available dioxane - naphthalene mixtures used for scintillation counting as well as the 2 - phenylethanol mixtures described above. The effect of different surfactant mixtures and concentrations were studied, revealing a benefic ial effect upon the scintillation light yield for mixed surfactant mixtures. These results are interpreted in the context of r eactive radical species formation following water ionization , which leads to light - yield quenching in aqueous systems . The presenc e of surfactant(s) in these mixtures enables the formation of organic - rich regions that are spatially separated from the reactive radicals. This hypothesis is consistent with subsequent experiments that showed reduced light - yield quenching in the presence of radical - trapping additives. A notable result from these surfactant studies was the preparation of an aqueous scintillator that was transparent and showed neutron/gamma pulse - shape discrimination. Section II below provides background information on the s ignificance of this finding. The combined work described herein has implications on other efforts to make water - based solution scintillators -- without aromatic content an efficient mechanism for ionizing radiation to sensitize emission from a dye is limited.

  7. Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000 - article no. GB2018

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, T.C.; Bhardwaj, E.; Dong, R.; Jogani, R.; Jung, S.K.; Roden, C.; Streets, D.G.; Trautmann, N.M.

    2007-05-15

    We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of black carbon increase almost linearly, totaling about 1000 Gg in 1850, 2200 Gg in 1900, 3000 Gg in 1950, and 4400 Gg in 2000. Primary organic carbon shows a similar pattern, with emissions of 4100 Gg, 5800 Gg, 6700 Gg, and 8700 Gg in 1850, 1900, 1950, and 2000, respectively. Biofuel is responsible for over half of BC emission until about 1890, and dominates energy-related primary OC emission throughout the entire period. Coal contributes the greatest fraction of BC emission between 1880 and 1975, and is overtaken by emissions from biofuel around 1975, and by diesel engines around 1990. Previous work suggests a rapid rise in BC emissions between 1950 and 2000. This work supports a more gradual increase between 1950 and 2000, similar to the increase between 1850 and 1925; implementation of clean technology is a primary reason.

  8. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  9. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  10. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emerging pollutants of concern to cause health or environmental problems. Mitigating solutions range from proactive communications with the local communities (which can be implemented by the power plants) to technical solutions, such as developing means to reduce the concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants in cooling water to maintain plant efficiency and while meeting discharge limits. These kinds of solutions may be appropriate for DOE research and development (R&D) funding.

  11. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  12. A simulation approach of ozone season emissions to optimize a fossil utility's options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, M.D.; Masoniello, R.; DeNavas, J.; Fasca, T.; Jones, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes PREACT--an approach to choose a mix of pollution control that optimizes economic and environmental alternatives for NOx compliance. The Predictive Real (Time) Emission and Allowance Compliance Tool (PREACT) is a computer program that allows the user to predict key emission parameters and optimize the maximization of net profits while managing emissions compliance. The program allows simulations of various compliance scenarios for NOx emission reductions in order to maintain both State and Federal NOx allocation of allowances on the fossil fired generating units in the Pepco system. The program uses real time data that is interfaced through a Local Area Network system to update forecasts of emissions. It also provides the user with an understanding of the production energy net profits that results from the simulation. The BTU used and fuel quantities are also outputs of the simulation. This paper describes the principle of the tool, which is to learn from past history and modify emissions forecasts considering up-to-date information on a unit profile. NOx emissions, operating options, fuel changes, technology retrofits, and any other opportunities for reducing emissions; considering feedback from real time information are used to modify the forecast. Other factors such as the market price of energy and the production costs of energy will also allow the user to modify the forecast through simulation. The last activity, which requires redefinition, is how to make decisions in real time considering the many opportunities to minimize the incremental cost to maintain emission compliance. The necessary management processes have been installed to maintain the risk management levels that the company wishes to maintain.

  13. Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement October 2, 2015 This enforcement policy statement explains DOE's policy with respect to the enforcement of certification requirements and compliance with standards with respect to consumer water heaters and residential-duty commercial water heating equipment during the interim period between July 13, 2015, and the publication of a conversion factor final rule. PDF icon Enforcement Policy Statement - WH.pdf More

  14. Bioenergy Impacts … Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  15. water for energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  16. water service provider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  17. energy-water interdependency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water interdependency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  18. "smart water" infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    smart water" infrastructure - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  19. Sandia Energy Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doe-eere-technologist-in-residence-pilotfeed 0 Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm http:energy.sandia.govsandia-team-attends-world-water-week-in-sto...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  1. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  2. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  3. Wind & Water Power Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Water Power Newsletter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  4. Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  5. The MX Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The MX Factor National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit The MX Factor Data from atmospheric test films persuaded Department of Defense planners not to deploy the MX missile system in the Great Basin Desert. July 1, 2015 The MX Factor A Peacekeeper test missile re-entering the atmosphere at the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. This long-exposure photo shows the paths of the multiple re-entry vehicles deployed by the missile. (Photo: U.S. Army)

  6. SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 File SUMMARY_GREENHOUSE_GAS_EMISSIONS_DATA_WORKSHEET_JANUARY_2015.xlsx More Documents & Publications Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Full Service Leased Space Data Report

  7. Assessment of Health Hazards of Repeated Inhalation of Diesel Emissions,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Comparisons to Other Source Emissions | Department of Energy National Environmental Respiratory Center PDF icon 2004_deer_mauderly.pdf More Documents & Publications Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions

  8. Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Review of light- and heavy-duty diesel emission regulations and state-of-the-art emission control technologies and strategies to meet them. PDF icon deer08_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Review Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Diesel Emission Control in Review

  9. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  10. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Low Voltage Power Factor Capacitors. 1985. Turner, W.C. Energy Management Handbook. John Wiley and Sons, pp. 337-345. 1982. U. S. Department of Energy. Motor Challenge Sourcebook. ...

  11. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer)

  12. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  13. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  14. WATER FRACTIONS IN EXTRASOLAR PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jura, M.; Xu, S., E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    With the goal of using externally polluted white dwarfs to investigate the water fractions of extrasolar planetesimals, we assemble from the literature a sample that we estimate to be more than 60% complete of DB white dwarfs warmer than 13,000 K, more luminous than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} L{sub Sun }, and within 80 pc of the Sun. When considering all the stars together, we find that the summed mass accretion rate of heavy atoms exceeds that of hydrogen by over a factor of 1000. If so, this sub-population of extrasolar asteroids treated as an ensemble has little water and is at least a factor of 20 drier than CI chondrites, the most primitive meteorites. Furthermore, while an apparent 'excess' of oxygen in a single DB can be interpreted as evidence that the accreted material originated in a water-rich parent body, we show that at least in some cases, there can be sufficient uncertainties in the time history of the accretion rate that such an argument may be ambiguous. Regardless of the difficulty associated with interpreting the results from an individual object, our analysis of the population of polluted DBs provides indirect observational support for the theoretical view that a snow line is important in disks where rocky planetesimals form.

  15. Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

  16. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  18. Methane sources and emissions in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, G.R.; Castagnola, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Methane emissions in Italy were assessed in the framework of the measures taken to follow out the commitments undertaken at the 1992 U.N. Conference for Environment and Development. Methane emissions of anthropic origin were estimated to be in the range of 1.6 to 2.3 million ton of methane per year. Some of these methane sources (natural gas production, transmission and distribution; rice paddies; managed livestock enteric fermentation and waste; solid waste landfills) are given here particular care as they mainly contribute to the total methane emission budget.

  19. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  20. OTC NOx baseline emission inventory, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this effort was to compile and quality assure a data base of NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired boilers and indirect heat exchanges greater than or equal to 250 million British thermal units per hour (MMBtu/hr) capacity and electric generating units greater than or equal to 15 megawatts (MW) in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (OTR). Emissions for the period May 1 through September 30, 1990 (referred to as the 5-month summer season) were compiled and will be used as a basis for emission reduction targeting and trading.

  1. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2014-09-12

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4more » emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  2. An Internet-based interactive module for air emissions from fossil fuel based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, D.; O`Leary, K.; O`Reilly, S.

    1997-12-31

    The proliferation of the Internet, Web pages and associated software tools available for developing multimedia material provides significant opportunities in training, education and information transfer. This paper will describe the development, testing and evaluation of an interactive teaching module aimed at college and university students that have previous education in thermodynamics and basic chemistry. The module is currently in development at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University with support from Environment Canada. Preliminary testing of this module is expected to begin late January. The module contains options to look at CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions associated with electric power generation in thermal stations that use coal, natural gas, crude and distillate oil. Factors governing the thermal efficiency of typical boiler systems and the thermodynamic limitations for converting heat into work are discussed. Supporting background information such as emission trends and emission factors used in calculations are also included as part of this module. A simple Rankine cycle without reheat or regeneration is considered to compare the emissions per unit energy delivered from each of the fuels considered. For natural gas and distillate oil, combined cycle operation is considered with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator combination replacing the boiler in the simple Rankine cycle. For all fuels, the cogeneration option is investigated by expanding the steam to an intermediate pressure in the turbine and utilizing the remaining heat by condensing the steam in a heat recovery application. Emission factors and basic information on CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies are utilized to calculate and report the emissions per unit energy delivered under the various scenarios investigated.

  3. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLean, B.J.; Rico, R.

    1995-12-31

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions).

  4. The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-15

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

  5. Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions The Lab measures air emissions through a comprehensive system of ...

  6. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  7. Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems

  8. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis Photo of a man hooking up test instruments to an engine mounted on an engine dynamometer. An NREL engineer maintains an engine fuel economy and emissions test stand at the ReFUEL Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's emissions and fuel economy testing and analysis projects help address greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions by advancing the development of new fuels and engines that deliver both high efficiency and reduced emissions. Emissions that

  10. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from employees' commutes, also known as Scope 3 emissions, is a top priority for many organizations interested in minimizing their carbon footprint. Scope 3 emissions are indirect GHG emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by the organization but are related to their activities,

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  13. Origin of the bright prompt optical emission in the naked eye burst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hascoeet, R.; Daigne, F.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2010-10-15

    The huge optical brightness of GRB 080319B (the 'Naked Eye Burst') makes this event really challenging for models of the prompt GRB emission. In the framework of the internal shock model, we investigate a scenario where the dominant radiative process is synchrotron emission and the high optical flux is due to the dynamical properties of the relativistic outflow : if the initial Lorentz factor distribution in the jet is highly variable, many internal shocks will form within the outflow at various radii. The most violent shocks will produce the main gamma-ray component while the less violent ones will contribute at lower energy, including the optical range.

  14. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines. PDF icon deer09_cooper.pdf More Documents & Publications Ricardo's ACTION Strategy: An Enabling Light Duty Diesel Technology for the US Market Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Concept Further improvement of conventional

  15. MicroEmissive Displays | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edinburgh, United Kingdom Zip: EH9 3JF Product: MicroEmissive Displays makes P-OLED (polymer light emitting diode) displays. Specific interests are head mounted displays and...

  16. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  17. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Joanna Fowler

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  18. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  19. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) - Cooperative multi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synopsis of results in rats and mice through 3 months of exposure to 2007 compliant diesel emissions PDF icon deer11mcdonald.pdf More Documents & Publications ACES: Evaluation of ...

  20. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  1. Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

    2011-03-01

    Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

  2. Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; J. N. Moore

    1999-10-01

    Emission of �greenhouse gases� into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize �green power.� Geothermal power is classed as �green power� and has lower emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.

  3. Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, Kevin Kit; Moore, J. N.

    1999-10-01

    Emission of “greenhouse gases” into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize “green power.” Geothermal power is classed as “green power” and has power emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.

  4. Device for collecting emissions from kerosene heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilloti, N.J.

    1984-09-04

    An apparatus for both improving the heat distribution throughout a room from a portable kerosene heater and for collecting undesirable emissions resulting from the burning of the kerosene, includes a base adapted to be mounted on the top of the heater, the base supporting a vertically extending shaft on which is mounted a heat-driven fan formed of either paper or metal, and a disposable disk mounted a spaced distance above the fan on the same shaft, the disk serving as a collector for the undesirable emissions. When the device is placed on an operating kerosene heater, the rising hot air and gases from the heater cause the fan to rotate, which in turn causes emissions from the burning fuel to move upwardly in a more or less cylindrical path. As the products of combustion move upwardly, certain emissions therein such as soot, oily vapors, etc. deposit or condense onto the surface of the spinner and disposable disk.

  5. Multi-factor authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  6. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  7. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However, the strength of the secondary flow is found nearly the same behind the first and the second vortex generator pair as well as far from the second vortex generator pair in the case of Duct2. Both ducts are able to create a counter-rotating and a second set of twin foci. Duct2 is able to create the second set of twin foci in an earlier streamwise location than Duct1, as these foci are well-known to their heat transfer augmentation. A larger vortex formation area and a greater induced vorticity field between vortex pairs are observed for Duct2 compared with Duct1. As the induced flow field between the vortex pairs increases the heat transfer, and as the flow field between the vortex cores is found larger in the case of Duct2, therefore, it is expected to obtain better heat transfer characteristics for Duct2 compared with Duct1. (author)

  8. Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ... with the IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) ...

  9. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Lung Toxicity and ...

  10. Air Quality/Emissions Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air QualityEmissions Resources Air QualityEmissions Resources Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the ...

  11. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamateri...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Absorption and emission properties of ...

  12. Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from Experiences in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liechtenstein, Poland and Turkey provided updated information on emission projections and national programmes in 2009." References "Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and...

  14. EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages...

  15. Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, ...

  16. Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). ...

  17. Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). ...

  18. Phase 1 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES): Highlights of Project Finding Phase 1 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES): Highlights of Project Finding ...

  19. Gateway:Low Emission Development Strategies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gateway Edit History Gateway:Low Emission Development Strategies (Redirected from LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Leds-Graphics 03.PNG Low Emission Development Strategies...

  20. Gateway:Low Emission Development Strategies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edit History Gateway:Low Emission Development Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Leds-Graphics 03.PNG Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) Gateway Hello why do you...

  1. US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap The ACEC focuses on advanced engine and ...

  2. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment 2003 DEER Conference ...

  3. Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City, Philippines Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of...

  4. UNDP-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capacity Building Programme Jump to: navigation, search Logo: UNDP-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme Name UNDP-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme AgencyCompany...

  5. Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon 2006deernelson.pdf More Documents & Publications High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Exhaust ...

  6. Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Fuel Efficiency of New European HD Vehicles HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND ...

  7. High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Technology Development for High ...

  8. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS ...

  9. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance Fuel Efficiency of New European ...

  10. The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005deergreenbaum.pdf More Documents & Publications The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study ...

  11. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus ... Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus Robb ...

  12. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First ...

  13. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US ...

  14. MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of low-emission development strategies (LEDS). Key Outputs Greenhouse gas and air toxic emissions. How to Use This Tool Training Available Training available at http:...

  15. Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) Activity Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) Activity 2003 DEER Conference ...

  16. Advanced LD Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LD Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis Advanced LD Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and ...

  17. Advanced PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis Advanced PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, ...

  18. China-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies AgencyCompany...

  19. Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Overview of a ...

  20. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating global and North American methane emissions ...

  1. Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Presentation given at DEER 2006, ...

  2. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  3. Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Corning, Inc. PDF icon deer2003johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Diesel Emission ...

  4. Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Technology and Regulations Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: ...

  5. Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emission Control Technology Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Corning Inc. PDF icon 2002deerjohnson.pdf More Documents & ...

  6. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the ...

  7. Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime Administration Energy Technologies Program Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime ...

  8. Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology 2005 Diesel ...

  9. Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Criteria pollutant regulatory efforts are focused on Euro VI HD PN limits, and California LEV3 ...

  10. 12TH DIESEL ENGINE-EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2TH DIESEL ENGINE-EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE (DEER 2006) PRESENTATIONS 12TH DIESEL ENGINE-EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE (DEER 2006) PRESENTATIONS ...

  11. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) 2011 DOE ... More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE ...

  12. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for allocation of GHG emissions from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to determine the GHG emissions attributable to the...

  13. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate ...

  14. Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey ...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Emissions Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis Presentation given by Argonne National ...

  16. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements EAS ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Emissions Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis Presentation given by Argonne National ...

  18. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  19. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    customers the fuel mix of its electricity production and the associated sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions emissions, expressed in pounds per 1000...

  20. Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines using Model-Based Transient Calibration Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines using ...

  1. Directionally-Tailored Infrared Emission. AFRL STTR Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Resnick, Paul J.; Clem, Paul G.; Ginn, James; Figueiredo, Pedro; Shelton, David

    2015-10-30

    The purpose of this program is to investigate emissive metamaterials (EMM) as a path to realizing surfaces with directional absorption/emission.

  2. Low Emission Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Emission Asian Development (LEAD) Program Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from "http:...

  3. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  4. COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing...

  5. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes Title: Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure ...

  6. Development and Deployment of Advanced Emission Controls for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Emission Controls for the Retrofit Market Development and Deployment of Advanced Emission Controls for the Retrofit Market 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Cleaire ...

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Vehicle Technologies ...

  8. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents ...

  9. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for ...

  10. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by ...

  11. Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 600 034 Sector:...

  12. Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon...

  13. Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon...

  14. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  15. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Emission Development Planning: CLEAN Inventory of Activities and Tools-Preliminary Trends Jump to: navigation, search International Assistance for Low-Emission Development...

  16. Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance ...

  17. Updated Spitzer emission spectroscopy of bright transiting hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Updated Spitzer emission spectroscopy of bright transiting hot Jupiter HD 189733b Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Updated Spitzer emission spectroscopy of bright...

  18. Ultrabroad stimulated emission from quantum well laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huolei; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Mi, Junping; Wang, Jiaqi; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing; Ding, Ying; Chen, Weixi

    2014-06-23

    Observation of ultrabroad stimulated emission from a simplex quantum well based laser at the center wavelength of 1.06??m is reported. With increased injection current, spectrum as broad as 38?nm and a pulsed output power of ?50?mW have been measured. The experiments show evidence of an unexplored broad emission regime in the InGaAs/GaAs quantum well material system, which still needs theoretical modeling and further analysis.

  19. Emissions trading - time to get serious

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitelli, A.

    2007-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol's five year compliance period begins in 2008. Industrialized nations around the world have pledged to cut carbon emissions, but the job seems to get harder, not easier, as 2008 approaches. Can market mechanisms make the crucial difference? The article discloses recent initiatives and developments worldwide. It concludes that it is clear that the market is maintaining its central role in fighting climate change and that bringing emissions trading to developing countries and to the US can only reinforce that role.

  20. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Benefits of low-emission vehicles uncertain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhart, L.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has given preliminary approval to an Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) plan that would allow 12 northeastern states and the District of Columbia to adopt the California low-emission vehicle (LEV) program. That program calls for tighter auto emission controls than required by federal law, but permits individual states to decade whether to mandate sales of electric vehicles. (The EPA has no authority to require such sales).

  2. EPA proposes to control automotive VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a vehicle control system for reducing gasoline vapors that can escape into the environment during refueling of motor vehicles. It has also has been proposed that gasoline refiners lower the volatility of commercial fuels in summer to reduce vehicle evaporative emissions. EPA said nationwide emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a major contributor to the formation of urban ozone, could be reduced as much as 10% under the proposed pollution-control measures.

  3. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  4. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  5. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  7. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  8. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  9. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2015-06-02

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lakemore » CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  10. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  11. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  12. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 2010 Commercial Buildings Energy End-Use Carbon Dioxide Emissions Splits, by Fuel Type (Million Metric Tons) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity (3) Total Percent Lighting 211.9 211.9 20.4% Space Heating 87.4 10.2 6.7 0.3 17.3 5.6 50.5 160.7 15.5% Space Cooling 2.3 149.1 151.3 14.6% Ventilation 95.2 95.2 9.2% Refrigeration 69.1 69.1 6.7% Electronics 46.4 46.4 4.5% Water Heating 23.2 2.0 2.0 16.2 41.4 4.0% Computers 37.7 37.7 3.6% Cooking 9.5 4.1 13.6 1.3%

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2015 Commercial Buildings Energy End-Use Carbon Dioxide Emissions Splits, by Fuel Type (Million Metric Tons) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity (3) Total Percent Lighting 160.0 160.0 16.6% Space Heating 89.9 9.0 6.2 0.3 15.5 5.5 26.4 137.3 14.2% Space Cooling 1.9 80.0 81.9 8.5% Ventilation 85.0 85.0 8.8% Refrigeration 55.8 55.8 5.8% Electronics 49.9 49.9 5.2% Water Heating 25.5 2.0 2.0 14.3 41.8 4.3% Computers 30.0 30.0 3.1% Cooking 10.2 3.6 13.8 1.4%

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 2025 Commercial Buildings Energy End-Use Carbon Dioxide Emissions Splits, by Fuel Type (Million Metric Tons) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity (3) Total Percent Lighting 171.2 171.2 16.1% Space Heating 89.4 7.7 6.3 0.4 14.3 5.5 25.7 135.0 12.7% Ventilation 94.4 94.4 8.9% Space Cooling 1.8 81.5 83.3 7.8% Electronics 63.8 63.8 6.0% Refrigeration 53.7 53.7 5.1% Computers 31.2 31.2 2.9% Water Heating 27.5 2.3 2.3 14.0 43.7 4.1% Cooking 11.0 3.5 14.5 1.4%

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 2035 Commercial Buildings Energy End-Use Carbon Dioxide Emissions Splits, by Fuel Type (Million Metric Tons) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity (3) Total Percent Lighting 179.6 179.6 15.5% Space Heating 87.3 6.7 6.6 0.4 13.7 5.5 25.5 132.0 11.4% Ventilation 100.7 100.7 8.7% Space Cooling 1.7 84.1 85.8 7.4% Electronics 72.3 72.3 6.2% Refrigeration 55.6 55.6 4.8% Water Heating 28.8 2.5 2.5 13.3 44.7 3.9% Computers 33.6 33.6 2.9% Cooking 11.9 3.4 15.2 1.3%

  17. LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

    2004-08-01

    In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

  18. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE ZECA (ZERO EMISSION COAL ALLIANCE) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. ZIOCK; K. LACKNER

    2000-12-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Although we focus on coal, the basic approach is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without the need for the combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells, which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end-products of the sequestration process are stable, naturally-occurring minerals. Sufficient high quality ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  20. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.