National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water depths greater

  1. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM ...

  2. Fruition and greater struggle: water pollution in the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Examples of the elimination or reduction of pollution in lakes and rivers during recent years are given. A shift in emphasis from visible to nonvisible chemical pollution of surface waters was the result of release of the report on the EPA study on New Orleans drinking water in 1974. Passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act followed. Toxic chemicals in drinking water result from two primary sources: accidental or purposeful discharge and efforts to purify water through chlorination. Evidence is given as to the serious nature of the problem. (JGB)

  3. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved

  4. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  5. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  6. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus, while there is considerable geofluid loss at 2.7 gal/kWh, fresh water consumption during operations is similar to that of aircooled binary systems. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of water demand for future growth in deployment of utility-scale geothermal power generation. The approach combines the life cycle analysis of geothermal water consumption with a geothermal supply curve according to resource type, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and potential growth scenarios. A total of 17 growth scenarios were evaluated. In general, the scenarios that assumed lower costs for EGSs as a result of learning and technological improvements resulted in greater geothermal potential, but also significantly greater water demand due to the higher water consumption by EGSs. It was shown, however, that this effect could be largely mitigated if nonpotable water sources were used for belowground operational water demands. The geographical areas that showed the highest water demand for most growth scenarios were southern and northern California, as well as most of Nevada. In addition to water demand by geothermal power production, Chapter 5 includes data on water availability for geothermal development areas. A qualitative analysis is included that identifies some of the basins where the limited availability of water is most likely to affect the development of geothermal resources. The data indicate that water availability is fairly limited, especially under drought conditions, in most of the areas with significant near- and medium-term geothermal potential. Southern California was found to have the greatest potential for water-related challenges with its combination of high geothermal potential and limited water availability. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 6. Overall, this work highlights the importance of utilizing dry cooling systems for binary and EGS systems and

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

  8. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, E.V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

  9. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  10. Estimation of m.w.e (meter water equivalent) depth of the salt mine of Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.; Stoica, S.; Petcu, M.; Brancus, I. M.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.

    2010-11-24

    A new mobile detector was developed in IFIN-HH, Romania, for measuring muon flux at surface and in underground. The measurements have been performed in the salt mines of Slanic Prahova, Romania. The muon flux was determined for 2 different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at surface at different altitudes were performed. Based on the results, the depth of the 2 galleries was established at 610 and 790 m.w.e. respectively.

  11. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina Bueno, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are particles of uncertain origin and composition, with energies above 1 EeV (1018 eV or 0.16 J). The measured flux of UHECR is a steeply decreasing function of energy. The largest and most sensitive apparatus built to date to record and study cosmic ray Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory has produced the largest and finest amount of data ever collected for UHECR. A broad physics program is being carried out covering all relevant topics of the field. Among them, one of the most interesting is the problem related to the estimation of the mass composition of cosmic rays in this energy range. Currently the best measurements of mass are those obtained by studying the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic part of the EAS with the Fluorescence Detector. However, the collected statistics is small, specially at energies above several tens of EeV. Although less precise, the volume of data gathered with the Surface Detector is nearly a factor ten larger than the fluorescence data. So new ways to study composition with data collected at the ground are under investigation. The subject of this thesis follows one of those new lines of research. Using preferentially the time information associated with the muons that reach the ground, we try to build observables related to the composition of the primaries that initiated the EAS. A simple phenomenological model relates the arrival times with the depths in the atmosphere where muons are produced. The experimental confirmation that the distributions of muon production depths (MPD) correlate with the mass of the primary particle has opened the way to a variety of studies, of which this thesis is a continuation, with the aim of enlarging and improving its range of applicability. We revisit the phenomenological model which is at the root of the analysis and discuss a new way to improve some aspects of the model. We carry

  12. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

  13. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  14. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Snow depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Snow depth Snow depth measured at the surface Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  16. Texas: City of San Antonio Demonstrates Value of Greater Investments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Greater Investments in Clean Energy Texas: City of San Antonio Demonstrates Value ... in efficient and renewable energy and water conservation can create jobs and stimulate ...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harris, Austin P.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    We report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species.

  18. Depth Optimization Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kawase, Mitsuhiro

    2009-11-22

    The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.

  19. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  20. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  1. Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance- Residential Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance provides loans for single family residencies and owner occupied duplexes in Hamilton, Butler, Warren, and Clermont counties in Ohio and Boone, Kenton, and...

  2. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sky-Scanning, Sun Tracking Atmospheric Research SAM : Sun and Aureole Measurement UAV-GNAT : UAV-General Atomics GNAT Value-Added Products AOD : Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from ...

  4. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  5. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW

  6. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A.; Steeper, Timothy J.

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  7. Sustainable Development Strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Greater Mekong Subregion Jump to: navigation, search Name Sustainable Development Strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion AgencyCompany Organization AIT-UNEP Regional...

  8. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  9. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  10. Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R.; D`amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1993-10-01

    Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

  11. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  12. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geologic Integration Group; Di Sanza, F. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA`s 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE`s actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA`s requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health.

  13. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Greater...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  14. KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Jump to: navigation, search Name: KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Place: Missouri Phone Number: (660) 359-2208 Outage Hotline: (660) 359-2208...

  15. Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201), November 18, 2015.

  16. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

    2008-12-23

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the

  17. Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft...

  18. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  19. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects Citation Details ...

  20. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

    2008-12-22

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the

  1. Greater Sage-Grouse Populations and Energy Development in Wyoming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development affects greater sage-grouse populations in Wyoming. Authors Renee C. Taylor, Matthew R. Dzialak and Larry D. Hayden-Wing Published Taylor, Dzialak and...

  2. Dr. Bill Brinkman: Working Towards Greater Energy Security |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bill Brinkman: Working Towards Greater Energy Security September 7, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook International Innovation, September 2012 International ...

  3. Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 2009 Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for State Government Officials. November 2009 The National Council on Electricity Policy (National ...

  4. Greater Sun Center, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greater Sun Center, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 27.718086, -82.351759 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  5. Clean Cities: Greater Lansing Area Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calnin has worked with the Clean Cities initiative since 2007, having supported the Detroit Area coalition as well as the Greater Lansing Area coalition. With a background that...

  6. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  7. DOE prepared for Greater Sage-Grouse designation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 8, 2010 Media Contacts: DOE - Brad Bugger, 208-526-0833 or Tim Jackson, 208-526-8484 S.M. Stoller Corp. - Roger Blew, 208-525-9358 Note to news directors: Photographs of sage-grouse at INL Site are available on request. DOE prepared for Greater Sage-Grouse designation Greater Sage-Grouse male displaying on INL Site lek during early spring. Click on image to enlarge On March 5, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service released its findings on a multi-year study of greater

  8. ARM - Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Discovery Channel Earth Live Blog News & Press RACORO Backgrounder (PDF, 528K) ... will obtain representative statistics of cloud microphysical, aerosol, and ...

  9. Greater Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greater Ohio Ethanol, LLC (GO Ethanol) Place: Lima, Ohio Zip: OH 45804 Product: GO Ethanol is a pure play ethanol...

  10. Texas-Louisiana- Mississippi Salt Basin Greater Green River Basin

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas-Louisiana- Mississippi Salt Basin Greater Green River Basin W. Gulf Coast Basin ... Major Tight Gas Plays, Lower 48 States 0 200 400 100 300 Miles Source: Energy ...

  11. Thirteen States Receive Energy Department Awards to Drive Greater Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Save Money | Department of Energy Thirteen States Receive Energy Department Awards to Drive Greater Energy Efficiency, Save Money Thirteen States Receive Energy Department Awards to Drive Greater Energy Efficiency, Save Money November 26, 2013 - 2:44pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Building on the Obama Administration's efforts to double energy productivity by 2030 and help communities save on energy bills, the Energy Department today awarded nearly $4

  12. Thirteen States Receive Energy Department Awards to Drive Greater Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Save Money | Department of Energy Thirteen States Receive Energy Department Awards to Drive Greater Energy Efficiency, Save Money Thirteen States Receive Energy Department Awards to Drive Greater Energy Efficiency, Save Money November 26, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Building on the Obama Administration's efforts to double energy productivity by 2030 and help communities save on energy bills, the Energy Department today awarded nearly $4 million to 13 states to increase statewide

  13. Study: Environmental Benefits of LEDs Greater Than CFLs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Study: Environmental Benefits of LEDs Greater Than CFLs Study: Environmental Benefits of LEDs Greater Than CFLs December 9, 2013 - 4:13pm Addthis A three-part Energy Department-funded study indicates LEDs are more environmentally friendly than compact fluorescent and incandescent lights. | Energy Department graphic A three-part Energy Department-funded study indicates LEDs are more environmentally friendly than compact fluorescent and incandescent lights. | Energy Department graphic

  14. NREL: News - Hybrid Buses Operate With Lower Emissions, Greater Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Hybrid Buses Operate With Lower Emissions, Greater Fuel Efficiency Golden, Colo., August 1, 2002 A recently released study by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) concludes that hybrid buses operate with lower emissions and greater fuel efficiency than conventional diesel buses. The yearlong evaluation of 10 prototype diesel hybrid-electric buses in the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's New York City Transit (NYCT) fleet of

  15. Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy with Lower Integration Costs | Department of Energy Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable Energy with Lower Integration Costs Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable Energy with Lower Integration Costs May 1, 2012 - 3:10pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Since February 2010, the Variable Generation Subcommittee at the Western Electricity

  16. LLNL Predicts Wind Power with Greater Accuracy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LLNL Predicts Wind Power with Greater Accuracy LLNL Predicts Wind Power with Greater Accuracy May 18, 2015 - 5:05pm Addthis A multicolored scatter plot that curves from left to right, bottom to top to show the wind power capacity factor and wind speed meters per second. The colors relate atmospheric stability conditions to reported power-output observations with black, dark blue, and lighter blue representing stable conditions; light blue, green and light green representing neutral conditions;

  17. DOE Announces $17 Million to Promote Greater Automobile Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 7 Million to Promote Greater Automobile Efficiency DOE Announces $17 Million to Promote Greater Automobile Efficiency January 23, 2007 - 10:15am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Alexander Karsner today announced that DOE intends issue $17 million in solicitations to improve automobile efficiency and reduce the United States's dependence on foreign sources of oil. The funding will be

  18. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS

  19. Control of electrode depth in electroslag remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Damkroger, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace by driving the electrode at a nominal speed based upon melting rate and geometry while making minor proportional adjustments based on a measured metric of the electrode immersion depth. Electrode drive speed is increased if a measured metric of electrode immersion depth differs from a set point by a predetermined amount, indicating that the tip is too close to the surface of a slag pool. Impedance spikes are monitored to adjust the set point for the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon one or more properties of the impedance spikes.

  20. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  1. Using the depth-velocity-size diagram to interpret equilibrium bed configurations in river flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southard, J.B. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Data from flume studies that report equilibrium bed configuration as well as water temperature, flow depth, flow velocity, and sediment size were used to develop the best approximation to the relationships among the various bed phases (ripples, dunes, lower regime plane bed, upper regime plane bed, and antidunes) in a three-axis graph (depth-velocity-size diagram) with dimensionless measures of mean flow depth, mean flow velocity, and sediment size along the axis. Relationships are shown in a series of depth-velocity and velocity-size sections through the diagram. Boundaries between bed-phase stability fields are drawn as surfaces that minimize, misplacement of data points. A large subset of the data, for which reliable values of bed shear stress are reported, was also used to represent the stability relationships in a graph of dimensionless boundary shear stress against dimensionless sediment size, but with results less useful for fluvial flow interpretation. The diagram covers about one order of magnitude in flow depth. To be useful for river flows, the diagram must be extrapolated in flow depth by about one more order of magnitude, but this is not a serious problem for approximate work. The depth-velocity-size diagram permits prediction of equilibrium bed configuration in river flows when the approximate flow depth and mean flow velocity are known. Because the diagram is essentially dimensionless, the effect of water temperature (via the fluid viscosity) on the bed configuration is easily accounted for by use of the diagram.

  2. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  3. Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for State Government Officials Prepared by The National Council on Electricity Policy November 2009 NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ELECTRICITY POLICY MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS The National Council on Electricity Policy (National Council) is a unique venture between the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL),

  4. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  5. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Optical Depths ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of

  6. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  8. Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in ...

  9. Migration depths of adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to dissolved gas supersaturation in a regulated river system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Caudill, Christopher C.; keefer, matthew L.; Peery, Christopher A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-04-01

    Adult steelhead tagged with archival transmitters primarily migrated through a large river corridor at depths > 2 m, interspersed with frequent but short (< 5 min) periods closer to the surface. The recorded swimming depths and behaviours probably provided adequate hydrostatic compensation for the encountered supersaturated dissolved gas conditions and probably limited development of gas bubble disease (GBD). Results parallel those from a concurrent adult Chinook salmon study, except steelhead experienced greater seasonal variability and were more likely to have depth-uncompensated supersaturation exposure in some dam tailraces, perhaps explaining the higher incidence of GBD in this species.

  10. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  11. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  12. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  13. Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Carini, Gabriella

    2009-05-12

    A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

  14. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

  15. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and ...

  16. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with ...

  17. DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal DOE to Weigh Alternatives for Greater Than Class C Low-Level Waste Disposal July 20, 2007 - 2:55pm Addthis ...

  18. Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW) A transuranic (TRU) waste shipment makes its way to the ...

  19. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Hoenicke, Dirk

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  20. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Wilson, Cathy; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-03-24

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  1. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  2. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling Advanced Technology ...

  3. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in ... strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a ...

  4. Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature in the Humboldt House geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  5. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and radiosonde thermodynamic profiles. The optical depth retrieval is derived following Comstock et al. (2001),...

  7. A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  8. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  9. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal

  10. Draft Greater Than Class C EIS Public Hearings to Come to Pasco...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for disposal of Greater-Than-Class C...

  11. State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications State of IndianaGreater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan State of IndianaGICC Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan North ...

  12. Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobility? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater Mobility? AgencyCompany Organization:...

  13. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins ... Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: National Energy Technology Laboratory, ...

  14. State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications State of IndianaGreater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan State of IndianaGICC Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan Utah Clean ...

  15. Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Abstract Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface...

  16. Confocal volume in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2011-11-15

    To clarify the degradation of confocality in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling (optical sectioning) and the influence of pinhole filtering on it, we investigate the confocal volume in detail based on Gaussian beam optics and scalar wave optics. Theoretical depth profiles of a homogeneous transparent sample for four different pinhole sizes, which are computed using the measured incident beam waist radius w{sub 0} and only a few optical system specific parameters such as a numerical aperture (NA) and a focal length, show a good agreement with the corresponding measured depth profiles. The computed confocal volume demonstrates that the pinhole size affects the actual probe depth as well as the axial resolution and the total intensity loss.

  17. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  18. Depth-resolved magnetic and structural analysis of relaxing epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Depth-resolved magnetic and structural analysis of relaxing epitaxial Sr 2 CrReO 6 <...

  19. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

    1. Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., τ = 3.8).

    2. Origin And Characterization Of Geothermal Waters At Desert Queen...

      Open Energy Info (EERE)

      energy potential. Further investigation by drilling is necessary to determine the true nature of the waters at depth. Authors Laura Garchar and Greg Arehart Published GRC, 2008 DOI...

    3. NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling...

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      The model represents the initial capital investment of offshore projects, considering project size, water depth, distance from shore, and turbine technology. NREL also develops ...

    4. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste | Department of Energy Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste February 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C

    5. Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Sage-Grouse | Department of Energy Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater Sage-Grouse Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater Sage-Grouse March 31, 2014 - 11:34am Addthis Photo of a sage grouse. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory developed a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater

    6. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

      1988-12-01

      Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

    7. Increasing Reliability of the Nation’s Power Grid through Greater Visibility

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      DOE’s Deputy Under Secretary for Science and Energy Adam Cohen today announced new funding that will build on recent progress in giving system operators greater visibility into the health of the...

    8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (Draft...

    9. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive...

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste Summary This EIS evaluates the reasonably foreseeable environmental ...

    10. Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW)

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      In February 2016, DOE publicly issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE/EIS-0375)(Final...

    11. Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for State

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Government Officials. November 2009 | Department of Energy Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for State Government Officials. November 2009 Eight Approaches to Enable Greater Energy Efficiency: A Guide for State Government Officials. November 2009 The National Council on Electricity Policy (National Council) is a unique venture between the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO),

    12. Greater Cincinnati Regional High School Science Bowl | U.S. DOE Office of

      Office of Science (SC) Website

      Science (SC) Greater Cincinnati Regional High School Science Bowl National Science Bowl® (NSB) NSB Home About Regional Competitions Rules, Forms, and Resources High School Regionals Middle School Regionals National Finals Volunteers Key Dates Frequently Asked Questions News Media Contact Us WDTS Home Contact Information National Science Bowl® U.S. Department of Energy SC-27/ Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 E: Email Us High School Regionals Greater

    13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Steinke, W.F.

      1994-09-01

      Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

    14. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

      2014-11-06

      Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

    15. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

      Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

    16. Final Report: Depth-specific Hydraulic Testing of Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat Environmental Restoration Wells, FY 2003

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Oberlander, Phil; Russell, Charles

      2004-03-09

      Borehole flow logging contributes a greater understanding of subsurface conditions than measuring well discharge only at land surface. Combining the results of up to nine borehole flow logs to estimate hydraulic conductivity with depth includes data averaging over vertical intervals and averaging of calculated hydraulic conductivities among the various flow logs. Data filtering is also necessary to aid in differentiating between changes in borehole flow rate due to flow turbulence (and other causes) and those associated with groundwater inflow. Borehole flow logging during well pumping has provided the quantity of groundwater iniflow and hydraulic conductivity at depth for three wells. The results provided are believed to be an appropriate balance between predictive accuracy and preserving spatial resolution.

    17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

      1994-09-01

      This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ``unpackaged`` volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste.

    18. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; et al

      2015-03-24

      Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) formore » analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.« less

    19. LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      LLC and Eberline Services, Inc. April 12, 2011 LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and sample ports at various depths. LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and...

    20. 2011-05 "LANL Not Be Selected for Disposal of Greater Then Class C

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Low-Level Radioactive Waste" | Department of Energy 5 "LANL Not Be Selected for Disposal of Greater Then Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste" 2011-05 "LANL Not Be Selected for Disposal of Greater Then Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste" The intent of this NNMCAB recommendation is to see that the required cleanup at LANL is completed in the safest way, specifically relative to movement of waste. Rec 2011-05 - May 12, 2011 (147.9

    1. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sandercock, Brett K.

      2013-05-22

      This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

    2. High power water load for microwave and millimeter-wave radio frequency sources

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.; Schumacher, Richard V.; Pendleton, Rand P.

      1999-01-01

      A high power water load for microwave and millimeter wave radio frequency sources has a front wall including an input port for the application of RF power, a cylindrical dissipation cavity lined with a dissipating material having a thickness which varies with depth, and a rear wall including a rotating reflector for the reflection of wave energy inside the cylindrical cavity. The dissipation cavity includes a water jacket for removal of heat generated by the absorptive material coating the dissipation cavity, and this absorptive material has a thickness which is greater near the front wall than near the rear wall. Waves entering the cavity reflect from the rotating reflector, impinging and reflecting multiple times on the absorptive coating of the dissipation cavity, dissipating equal amounts of power on each internal reflection.

    3. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

      2010-07-20

      A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

    4. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

      2014-11-01

      Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known inscattering effect, whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the inout balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the inout balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time

    5. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Stationary Fuel Cell Units Greater

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Than 100 kW Achieve 2015 Target for Electrical Efficiency Stationary Fuel Cell Units Greater Than 100 kW Achieve 2015 Target for Electrical Efficiency Project Technology Validation: Stationary Fuel Cell Evaluation Contact Genevieve Saur Related Publications Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities In a newly released composite data product (CDP), NREL's National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC)

    6. NREL: Climate Neutral Research Campuses - Campus-Wide Measures Have Greater

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Potential Campus-Wide Measures Have Greater Potential Pursuing climate neutrality on research campuses fits into the bigger picture of addressing the impacts of climate change and fossil-fuel depletion. International scientific bodies addressing climate change are calling for reductions of carbon emissions of 80% by 2050. Because of their size and complexity, research campuses are well positioned to take advantage of campus-wide efficient energy systems. For example, many campuses have

    7. State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation

      Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

      Plan | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt050_ti_flynn_2011_p.pdf (474.29 KB) More Documents & Publications State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan State of Indiana/GICC Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program

    8. Identification Of Rippability And Bedrock Depth Using Seismic Refraction

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ismail, Nur Azwin; Saad, Rosli; Nawawi, M. N. M; Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer; Mohamad, Edy Tonizam

      2010-12-23

      Spatial variability of the bedrock with reference to the ground surface is vital for many applications in geotechnical engineering to decide the type of foundation of a structure. A study was done within the development area of Mutiara Damansara utilising the seismic refraction method using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph. The geological features of the subsurface were investigated and velocities, depth to the underlying layers were determined. The seismic velocities were correlated with rippability characteristics and borehole records. Seismic sections generally show a three layer case. The first layer with velocity 400-600 m/s predominantly consists of soil mix with gravel. The second layer with velocity 1600-2000 m/s is suggested to be saturated and weathered area. Both layers forms an overburden and generally rippable. The third layer represents granite bedrock with average depth and velocity 10-30 m and >3000 m/s respectively and it is non-rippable. Steep slope on the bedrock are probably the results of shear zones.

    9. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Prommapan, Plegchart

      2011-08-15

      A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and

    10. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

      2004-09-14

      Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

    11. CHIMNEY FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Petrick, M.

      1961-08-01

      A boiling-water reactor is described which has vertical fuel-containing channels for forming steam from water. Risers above the channels increase the head of water radially outward, whereby water is moved upward through the channels with greater force. The risers are concentric and the radial width of the space between them is somewhat small. There is a relatively low rate of flow of water up through the radially outer fuel-containing channels, with which the space between the risers is in communication. (AE C)

    12. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

      Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

      other refrigerants), CO2 also has greater potential for use in residentialcommercial demand response units, as well as for high-temperature commercial water heating applications. ...

    13. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

      2010-10-01

      As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

    14. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

      2011-11-01

      At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

    15. Laser Acoustic Molten Metal Depth Sensing in Titanium

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      J. B. Walter; K. L. Telschow; R. E. Haun

      1999-09-22

      A noncontacting ultrasonic method has been investigated for probing the solidification front in molten titanium for the purposes of profiling the channel depth in a plasma hearth re-melter. The method, known as Laser Ultrasonics, utilized a pulsed laser for generation of ultrasonic waves at the surface of a molten metal pool. The ultrasonic waves propagated into the liquid titanium reflected from the solidification front and the boundaries of the solid plug. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, driven by a second laser, demodulated the small displacements caused by the ultrasonic wave motion at the liquid surface. The method and results of measurements taken within a small research plasma melting furnace will be described. Successful results were obtained even directly beneath the plasma arc using this all-optical approach.

    16. Laser Acoustic Molten Metal Depth Sensing in Titanium

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Walter, John Bradley; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Haun, R.E.

      1999-08-01

      A noncontacting ultrasonic method has been investigated for probing the solidification front in molten titanium for the purposes of profiling the channel depth in plasma hearth re-melter. The method, known as Laser Ultrasonics, utilized a pulsed laser for generation of ultrasonic waves at the surface of a molten metal pool. The ultrasonic waves propagated into the liquid titanium reflected from the solidification front and the boundaries of the solid plug. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, driven by a second laser, demodulated the small displacements caused by the ultrasonic wave motion at the liquid surface. The method and results of measurements taken within a small research plasma melting furnace will be described. Successful results were obtained even directly beneath the plasma arc using this all optical approach.

    17. Water Quality

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

    18. Water Quality

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface ...

    19. Metal affinity enrichment increases the range and depth of proteome identification for extracellular microbial proteins

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wheeler, Korin; Erickson, Brian K; Mueller, Ryan; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hwang, Mona; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

      2012-01-01

      Many key proteins, such as those involved in cellular signaling or transcription, are difficult to measure in microbial proteomic experiments due to the interfering presence of more abundant, dominant proteins. In an effort to enhance the identification of previously undetected proteins, as well as provide a methodology for selective enrichment, we evaluated and optimized immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) coupled with mass spectrometric characterization of extracellular proteins from an extremophilic microbial community. Seven different metals were tested for IMAC enrichment. The combined results added 20% greater proteomic depth to the extracellular proteome. Although this IMAC enrichment could not be conducted at the physiological pH of the environmental system, this approach did yield a reproducible and specific enrichment of groups of proteins with functions potentially vital to the community, thereby providing a more extensive biochemical characterization. Notably, 40 unknown proteins previously annotated as hypothetical were enriched and identified for the first time. Examples of identified proteins includes a predicted TonB signal sensing protein homologous to other known TonB proteins and a protein with a COXG domain previously identified in many chemolithoautotrophic microbes as having a function in the oxidation of CO.

    20. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Morrell, D.K.; Fischer, D.K.

      1995-01-01

      This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW.

    1. Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan Geothermal system, Philippines and its implications to field exploitation

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Seastres, J.S. Jr.; Salonga, N.D.; Saw, V.S.

      1996-12-31

      The Greater Tongonan Geothermal Field will be operating a total of 694 MWe by July 1997. The field has produced steam for the 112.5 MWe Tongonan I power plant since June 1983. With massive fluid withdrawal starting July 1996, a pre-commissioning hydrology was constructed to assess its implications to field exploitation. Pressure drawdown centered at well 106 in Mahiao was induced by fluid withdrawal at Tongonan-I production field. This drawdown will be accelerated by major steam withdrawal (734 kg/s) upon commissioning of power plants at Mahiao, Sambaloran and Malitbog sectors. To resolve this concern, fluid injection will be conducted at the periphery of Mahiao to provide recharge of reheated reinjection fluids in the reservoir. At Mahanagdong, the acidic fluid breakthrough will unlikely occur since the acidic zone north of this sector is not hydrologically well-connected to the main neutral-pH reservoir as indicated by pressure profiles.

    2. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.

      2011-01-01

      of the non-carbonated surfaces of the underlying rock was reason why the hornblende and diorite exhibited a minimum depth of carbonation. Under exposure to the scCO{sub 2}/water at 200 C and 10.34 MPa pressure for up to 42 days, the ranking of the magnitude of erosion caused by wet carbonation was in the following order; granite > albite > hornblende > diorite > quartz. The eroding-caused weight loss of granite (0.88 %) was {approx}2.4, {approx}5.2, {approx}9.8, and {approx}17.6 times greater than that of albite, hornblends, diorite, and quartz, respectively.

    3. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument ...

    4. Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths | GE Global Research

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Oliver Astley 2014.11.12 The challenges of ...

    5. Technical survey of DOE programs and facilities applicable to the co-storage of commercial greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and DOE special Case Waste

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Allred, W.E.

      1995-01-01

      This report presents information on those US Department of Energy (DOE) management programs and facilities, existing and planned, that are potentially capable of storing DOE Special Case Waste (SCW) until a disposal capability is available. Major emphasis is given to the possibility of storing commercial greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) together with DOE SCW, as well as with other waste types. In addition to this primary issue, the report gives an in-depth background on SCW and GTCC LLW, and discusses their similarities. Institutional issues concerning these waste types are not addressed in this report.

    6. The hydrological model of the Mahanagdong sector, Greater Tongonan Geothermal Field, Philippines

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Herras, E.B.; Licup, A.C. Jr.; Vicedo, R.O.

      1996-12-31

      The Mahanagdong sector of the Greater Tongonan Geothermal Field is committed to supply 180 MWe of steam by mid-1997. An updated hydrological model was constructed based on available geoscientific and reservoir engineering data from a total of 34 wells drilled in the area. The Mahanagdong; resource is derived from a fracture-controlled and volcano hosted geothermal system characterized by neutral to slightly alkali-chloride fluids with reservoir temperatures exceeding 295{degrees}C. A major upflow region was identified in the vicinity of MG-3D, MG-14D and MG-5D. Isochemical contours indicate outflowing fluids with temperatures of 270-275{degrees}C to the south and west. Its southwesterly flow is restricted by the intersection of the impermeable Mahanagdong Claystone near MG-10D, which delimits the southern part of the resource. Low temperature (<200{degrees}C), shallow inflows are evident at the west near MG-4D and MG-17D wells which act as a cold recharge in this sector.

    7. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Peter Pescatore

      2006-01-11

      This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

    8. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

      2015-08-28

      The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 ?m) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the sources of OA are distinctly different. The concentration ofmoresolid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC, measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for less

    9. Water Security

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security HomeTag:Water Security Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) ...

    10. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

    11. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

      2015-09-04

      Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

    12. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

      2015-09-04

      Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing ofmore » ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.« less

    13. water scarcity

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    14. water savings

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    15. water infrastructure

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    16. Water Demand

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    17. drinking water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

    18. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

    19. Water Efficiency

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

    20. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    1. Water Security

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

    2. Clinal morphological variation along a depth gradient in the living scleractinian reef coral Favia pallida: Effects on perceived evolutionary tempos in the fossil record

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Cuffey, R.J. ); Pachut, J.F. )

      1990-12-01

      The Holocene reef-building coral Favia pallida was sampled at 4.5 m depth increments (to 40 m) from two reefs on Enewetak Atoll to examine intraspecific environmental effects. An exposed outer reef was massive and wall-like, whereas a sheltered lagoonal reef grew as a slender pinnacle. Corallite diameter and growth rate, two attributes retrievable in fossil corals, were measured with data partitioned into shallow (<20 m), intermediate (20 to 29 m), and deep-water (>29 m) subsets. Highly significant differences between depth zone populations were found for both corallite diameters and growth rates in analyses of individual and combined reef data sets. Canonical variates analyses (CVA) separated populations from depth zones along single, highly significant, functions. Centroids and 95% confidence intervals, calculated from CVA scores of colonies in each population, are widely separated for the lagoon reef and combined data sets. Conversely, populations from shallow and intermediate depths on the outer reef display overlapping confidence bars indicative of more gradational morphologic changes. When CV's were used to classify specimens to groups, misassignments of intermediate depth specimens to shallow or deep-water populations underscored the gradational nature of the environment. Completely intergrading populations of Favia pallida collected from different depths can be morphologically separated into statistically distinct groupings. A stratigraphic succession of such morphotypes might be interpreted as abruptly appearing separate species if sampling were not as uniform, systematic, and detailed as was possible on modern reefs. Analyses of evolutionary patterns must carefully assess potential effects of clinal variation if past evolutionary patterns are to be interpreted correctly.

    3. Focus Series: The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (GCEA) Equipment Lease Program Breaks Down Barriers for Cincinnati Contractors

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Focus Series: The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (GCEA) Equipment Lease Program Breaks Down Barriers for Cincinnati Contractors, a publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

    4. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

      2016-02-02

      The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites.more » The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

    5. PoroTomo Subtask 6.8 - Brady Well Coordinates and Observation Sensor Depths

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      (Dataset) | SciTech Connect 8 - Brady Well Coordinates and Observation Sensor Depths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PoroTomo Subtask 6.8 - Brady Well Coordinates and Observation Sensor Depths Contains metadata associated with the wells used in the 2016 Spring Campaign led partially by UW - Madison, LBNL, and LLNL scientists. Included with the well coordinates are the depths to the pressure sensors used in observation and pumping wells. Read me files are included for each .csv

    6. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

      2004-09-30

      FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

    7. LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work The two companies selected are TerranearPMC, LLC and Eberline Services, Inc. April 12, 2011 LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and sample ports at various depths. LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and sample ports at various depths. Contact Fred deSousa Communications Office (505) 665-3430 Email Subcontract worth up to $80 million over five years LOS ALAMOS,

    8. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sandercock, Brett K.

      2013-05-22

      Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

    9. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hinkle, Ross; Benscoter, Brian; Comas, Xavier; Sumner, David; DeAngelis, Donald

      2015-04-07

      Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

    10. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      White, J.R.

      1985-04-01

      This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

    11. Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

      1984-06-27

      The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

    12. Two weight system for measuring depth and sediment in slurry-supported excavations

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Deming, P.; Good, D.

      1999-07-01

      This paper describes a two weight system using bar and flat shaped weights for measuring depth and detecting sediment at the bottom of slurry-supported excavations. Currently there are no standard depth measurement weights or methods for reliably identifying bottom sediment. Two weights and a procedural system for using the weights is described. Details suitable for manufacture are provided.

    13. Reusing Water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

    14. Reusing Water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into ...

    15. Water Summit

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the ...

    16. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Griffith, P.

      1997-09-01

      A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

    17. Water Cooled Mirror Design

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

      2015-03-30

      This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

    18. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

      1991-03-30

      Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

    19. Biogeochemistry of Metalliferous Peats: Sulfur Speciation and Depth Distributions of dsrAB Genes and Cd, Fe, Mn, S, and Zn in Soil Cores

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Martinez,C.; Yanez, C.; Yoon, S.; Bruns, M.

      2007-01-01

      Spatial relationships between concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, S, and Zn and bacterial genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction were studied in soils of the Manning peatland region in western New York. Peat cores were collected within a field exhibiting areas of Zn phytotoxicity, and pH and elemental concentrations were determined with depth. The oxidation states of S were estimated using S-XANES spectroscopy. Soil microbial community DNA was extracted from peat soils for ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of diversity profiles with depth. To assess the presence of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM), DNA extracts were also used as templates for PCR detection of dsrAB genes coding for dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase. Elemental distributions, S redox speciation, and detection of dsrAB genes varied with depth and water content. The pH of peat soils increased with depth. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cd, and S occurred at intermediate depths, whereas Mn concentrations were highest in the topmost peat layers. Iron showed a relatively uniform distribution with depth. Concentrations of redox sensitive elements, S and Mn, but not Fe, seemed to respond to variations in water content and indicated vertical redox stratification in peat cores where topmost peats were typically acidic and oxidizing and deeper peats were typically circumneutral and reducing. Even then, S-XANES analyses showed that surface peats contained >50% of the total S in reduced forms while deep peats contained generally <5% of the total S in oxidized forms. While bacterial RISA profiles of the peats were diverse, dsrAB gene detection followed redox stratification chemistry closely. For the most part, dsrAB genes were detected in deeper peats, where S accumulation was evident, while they were not detected in topmost peat layers where Mn accumulation indicated oxic conditions. Combined chemical, spectroscopic, and microbiological analyses indicated that prolonged exposure to dry

    20. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a

    1. Water pollution

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Not Available

      1990-06-01

      Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

    2. Method of varying a physical property of a material through its depth

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Daniel, Claus

      2015-04-21

      A method is disclosed for varying a mechanical property of a material at two depths. The method involves the application of at least two laser pulses of different durations. The method involves a determination of the density of the material from the surface to each depth, a determination of the heat capacity of the material from the surface to each depth, and a determination of the thermal conductivity of the material from the surface to each depth. Each laser pulse may affect the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the material, so it may be necessary to re-evaluate those parameters after each laser pulse and prior to the next pulse. The method may be applied to implantation materials to improve osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

    3. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level ...

    4. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      (OAS) was used for establishing the opacity (and therefore the probing depth) of the damaged layer to the 632.8 nm wavelength of the He-Ne laser used for CMR throughout this study. ...

    5. Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      a skin layer with defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin ...

    6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking- Level 2 (in-depth)

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about level 2 (in-depth...

    7. Ground-water data for 1990--91 and ground-water withdrawals for 1951--91, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wood, D.B.; Reiner, S.R.

      1996-12-31

      This report presents selected ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were made at 74 sites at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during water years 1990--91. Measured depths to water ranged from 301 to 2,215 feet below land surface and measured altitudes of the ground-water surface at the Nevada Test Site ranged from 2,091 to 6,083 feet above sea level. Depth-to-water measurements were obtained by a combination of wire-line, electric-tape, iron-horse, and steel-tape methods. Available historic withdrawal and depth-to-water data for ground-water supply wells have been included to show changes through time. Water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium concentrations at 15 sites during water years 1990--91. Tritium concentrations in bailed water samples ranged from below detection limits to 5,550,000 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations in samples from three wells exceeded drinking water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. All three wells are separate piezometers contained within a single test hole near an area of extensive underground nuclear testing.

    8. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    9. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    10. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    11. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    12. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    13. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Wednesday, 25 January 2006 00:00 The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used

    14. Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals,

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Gianelli, Scott Columbia University - NASA/GISS Lacis, Andrew NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Carlson, Barbara NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Category: Aerosols Bimodal aerosol retrievals, and high-resolution retrevals of nitrogen dioxide, are performed on the Langley optical depth data from the RSS 103 device

    15. Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP,

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      MISR, and MODIS Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, MISR, and MODIS Marchand, Roger Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ackerman, Thomas Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Joint histograms of Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Optical Depth (OD) derived by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are being widely used by the climate modeling community in evaluating global climate models. Similar joint histograms

    16. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

      2009-06-04

      We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

    17. Non-destructive in-situ method and apparatus for determining radionuclide depth in media

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Xu, X. George; Naessens, Edward P.

      2003-01-01

      A non-destructive method and apparatus which is based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the depth of radiological contamination in media such as concrete. An algorithm, Gamma Penetration Depth Unfolding Algorithm (GPDUA), uses point kernel techniques to predict the depth of contamination based on the results of uncollided peak information from the in-situ gamma spectroscopy. The invention is better, faster, safer, and/cheaper than the current practice in decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are slow, rough and unsafe. The invention uses a priori knowledge of the contaminant source distribution. The applicable radiological contaminants of interest are any isotopes that emit two or more gamma rays per disintegration or isotopes that emit a single gamma ray but have gamma-emitting progeny in secular equilibrium with its parent (e.g., .sup.60 Co, .sup.235 U, and .sup.137 Cs to name a few). The predicted depths from the GPDUA algorithm using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) simulations and laboratory experiments using .sup.60 Co have consistently produced predicted depths within 20% of the actual or known depth.

    18. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C.; Mostofi, Arash A.

      2014-10-28

      We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 , highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup ?4}?e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

    19. WATER TREATMENT

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

      1962-12-01

      An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

    20. Water Wars

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      2012-09-11

      Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

    1. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

      2015-08-03

      Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

    2. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

      2010-12-15

      The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes

    3. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

      1998-03-01

      10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

    4. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

      10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

    5. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

      2015-10-01

      The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

    6. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Allison, L.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.

      1997-02-01

      This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

    7. Method of treating waste water

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

      1991-01-01

      A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

    8. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

    9. Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development - An Application on Alternative Fuels in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Region

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.

      2000-12-30

      The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.

    10. Potential co-disposal of greater-than-class C low-level radioactive waste with Department of Energy special case waste - greater-than-class C low-level waste management program

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Allred, W.E.

      1994-09-01

      This document evaluates the feasibility of co-disposing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) special case waste (SCW). This document: (1) Discusses and evaluates key issues concerning co-disposal of GTCC LLW with SCW. This includes examining these issues in terms of regulatory concerns, technical feasibility, and economics; (2) Examines advantages and disadvantages of such co-disposal; and (3) Makes recommendations. Research and analysis of the issues presented in this report indicate that it would be technically and economically feasible to co-dispose of GTCC LLW with DOE SCW. However, a dilemma will likely arise in the current division of regulatory responsibilities between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and DOE (i.e., current requirement for disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). DOE SCW is currently not subject to this licensing requirement.

    11. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

      2008-02-28

      WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

    12. LINKING Lyα AND LOW-IONIZATION TRANSITIONS AT LOW OPTICAL DEPTH

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

      2014-08-20

      We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Lyα emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z > 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Lyα emission, the Lyα line profiles show reduced signs of resonant scattering. Instead, the Lyα profiles resemble the Hα line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Lyα emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Lyα emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Lyα profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, however, indicating different inclinations of the outflows to our line of sight. With these four GPs as examples, we explain the observed trends linking Lyα, C II, and C II* in stacked LAE spectra, in the context of optical depth and geometric effects. Specifically, in some galaxies with strong Lyα emission, a low LyC optical depth may allow Lyα to escape with reduced scattering. Furthermore, C II absorption, C II* emission, and Lyα profile shape can reveal the optical depth, constrain the orientation of neutral outflows in LAEs, and identify candidate LyC emitters.

    13. ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wang, Zhaoying; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

      2014-11-01

      Dual beam depth profiling strategy has been widely adopted in ToF-SIMS depth profiling, in which two basic operation modes, interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode, are commonly used. Generally, interlaced mode is recommended for conductive or semi-conductive samples, whereas non-interlaced mode is recommended for insulating samples, where charge compensation can be an issue. Recent publications, however, show that the interlaced mode can be used effectively for glass depth profiling, despite the fact that glass is an insulator. In this study, we provide a simple guide for choosing between interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode for insulator depth profiling. Two representative cases are presented: (1) depth profiling of a leached glass sample, and (2) depth profiling of a single crystal MgO sample. In brief, the interlaced mode should be attempted first, because (1) it may provide reasonable-quality data, and (2) it is time-saving for most cases, and (3) it introduces low H/C/O background. If data quality is the top priority and measurement time is flexible, non-interlaced mode is recommended because interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity and poor mass resolution. A big challenge is tracking trace H/C/O in a highly insulating sample (e.g., MgO), because non-interlaced mode may introduce strong H/C/O background but interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity. Meanwhile, a C or Au coating is found to be very effective to improve the signal intensity. Surprisingly, the best analyzing location is not on the C or Au coating, but at the edge (outside) of the coating.

    14. Status of greater than or equal to 1 ampere H/sup -/ ion source development at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lietzke, A.F.; Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

      1983-11-01

      This paper summarizes the effort to improve the operation of the approx. 1 A surface-production H/sup -/ ion source developed by K.W. Ehlers and K.N. Leung. The plasma chamber consists of a large magnetic bucket of oval cross section. A concave cylindrical converter surface is suspended in the plasma chamber to direct any surface-produced negative ions through the exit aperture. The ion source has been mated to a tetrode accelerator for the proof-of-principle tests. Most of the problems discovered in the tests were associated with difficulties in controlling the production process. This paper describes the plasma chamber in greater detail and illustrates the quality of the presnet ion production. The acceleration difficulties have been deferred until a better test-stand is completed.

    15. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Thorhaug, A.

      1980-01-01

      This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

    16. Catalog of documents produced by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste Management Program

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Winberg, M.R.

      1995-03-01

      This catalog provides a ready reference for documents prepared by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) Management Program. The GTCC LLW Management Program is part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The NLLWMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is responsible for assisting the DOE in meeting its obligations under Public Law 99-240, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. This law assigns DOE the responsibility of ensuring the safe disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NLLWMP is managed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

    17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

      1994-09-01

      Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m{sup 3} to 187 m{sup 3}, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes.

    18. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

      2012-03-27

      This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

    19. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Static Water Level Data ...

    20. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

      2012-04-09

      As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

    1. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

      2006-06-01

      In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

    2. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      ... Average water consumers can save thousands of gallons of water per year by being aware of ... program on the water distribution systems to include water saving replacement parts. ...

    3. UIC permitting process for class IID and Class III wells: Protection of drinking water in New York State

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hillenbrand, C.J.

      1995-09-01

      The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region II, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program regulates injection wells in the State of New York to protect drinking water; UIC regulations can be found under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Parts 124, 144, 146 and 147. Operators of solution mining injection wells (UIC Class IIIG) and produced fluid disposal wells (UIC Class IID) are required to obtain an UIC permit for authorization to inject. The permitting process requires submittal of drinking water, geologic and proposed operational data in order to assure that pressure build-up within the injection zone will not compromise confining layers and allow vertical migration of fluid into Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW). Additional data is required within an Area of Review (AOR), defined as an area determined by the intersection of the adjusted potentiometric surface produced by injection and a depth 50 feet below the base of the lowermost USDW, or a radius of 1/4 mile around the injection well, whichever is greater. Locations of all wells in the AOR must be identified, and completion reports and plugging reports must be submitted. Requirements are set for maximum injection pressure and flow rates, monitoring of brine properties of the injection well and monitoring of water supply wells in the AOR for possible contamination. Any noncompliance with permit requirements constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds for enforcement action, including possible revocation of permit. Presently four Class IID wells are authorized under permit in New York State. The Queenston sandstone, Medina sandstone, Salina B, Akron dolomite and Oriskany sandstone have been used for brine disposal; the lower Ordovician-Cambrian section is currently being considered as an injection zone. Over one hundred Class IIIG wells are authorized under permit in New York State and all have been utilized for solution mining of the Syracuse salt.

    4. Apparatus and process for water treatment

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Phifer, Mark A.; Nichols, Ralph L.

      2001-01-01

      An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

    5. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 1, Sealed sources held by specific licensees

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Harris, G.

      1994-09-01

      Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. To better understand the scope of the GTCC LLW situation regarding sealed sources and to provide data to a model that projects future quantities of GTCC material, data from a comprehensive 1991 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) survey and a related 1992 survey of Agreement States were analyzed to estimate the number, volume, and activity of Potential GTCC sealed sources currently available from specific licensees. Potential GTCC sealed sources are sources that exceed the limits stated in 10 CFR 61 when isotope concentrations are averaged over the volume of the capsule. Based on the surveys, the estimated number of existing Potential GTCC sealed sources held by specific licensees is 89,000, with an unpackaged volume of 0.93 m{sup 3} and an activity of 2,300,000 Ci. However, current disposal practices allow concentration averaging over the disposal container, substantially reducing the number of sealed sources which will actually be classified as GTCC LLW.

    6. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

      1994-11-01

      The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE`s investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4).

    7. Preliminary identification of potentially disruptive scenarios at the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility, Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Guzowski, R.V.; Newman, G.

      1993-12-01

      The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence.

    8. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hulse, R.A.

      1991-08-01

      Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

    9. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

      2013-02-01

      Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

    10. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      Salmon, Mississippi, Site, Water Sampling Location Map .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    11. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data ...

    12. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........1 Water Sampling Locations at the Rulison, .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    13. Gulf of Mexico pipelines heading into deeper waters

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      True, W.R.

      1987-06-08

      Pipeline construction for Gulf of Mexico federal waters is following drilling and production operations into deeper waters, according to U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) Minerals Management Service (MMS) records. Review of MMS 5-year data for three water depth categories (0-300 ft, 300-600 ft, and deeper than 600 ft) reveals this trend in Gulf of Mexico pipeline construction. Comparisons are shown between pipeline construction applications that were approved by the MMS during this period and projects that have been reported to the MMS as completed. This article is the first of annual updates of MMS gulf pipeline data. Future installments will track construction patterns in water depths, diameter classifications, and mileage. These figures will also be evaluated in terms of pipeline-construction cost data.

    14. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

      2015-12-08

      Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

    15. Effect of Ion Skin Depth on Relaxation of Merging Spheromaks to a Field-Reversed Configuration

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kawamori, Eiichirou; Ono, Yasushi

      2005-08-19

      The effect of ion skin depth on the relaxation of merging spheromaks to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is studied experimentally for a wide range of size parameter S* (ratio of minor radius to ion skin depth) from 1 to 7. The two merging spheromaks are observed to relax to an FRC or a new spheromak depending on whether the initial poloidal eigenvalue is smaller or larger than a threshold value. The bifurcation value is found to increase with decreasing size parameter S{sup *}, indicating that the low-S* condition provides a wide bifurcated range of relaxation to an FRC. The FRC-style relaxation under the low-S* conditions was accompanied by the suppression of the low-n modes (n is the toroidal mode number) activity. The fast rotations of the modes were followed by suppression of the low-n modes.

    16. Surface hardening of titanium alloys with melting depth controlled by heat sink

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.

      1995-01-01

      A process for forming a hard surface coating on titanium alloys includes providing a piece of material containing titanium having at least a portion of one surface to be hardened. The piece having a portion of a surface to be hardened is contacted on the backside by a suitable heat sink such that the melting depth of said surface to be hardened may be controlled. A hardening material is then deposited as a slurry. Alternate methods of deposition include flame, arc, or plasma spraying, electrodeposition, vapor deposition, or any other deposition method known by those skilled in the art. The surface to be hardened is then selectively melted to the desired depth, dependent on the desired coating thickness, such that a molten pool is formed of the piece surface and the deposited hardening material. Upon cooling a hardened surface is formed.

    17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Not Available

      1994-09-01

      The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

    18. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-129 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      9 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product A Koontz C Flynn G Hodges J Michalsky J Barnard March 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use

    19. NREL Takes First In-Depth Look at Solar Project Completion Timelines - News

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Releases | NREL Takes First In-Depth Look at Solar Project Completion Timelines Report examines new data to show how long the PV interconnection process takes in the U.S. February 11, 2015 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has gathered and analyzed data for more than 30,000 solar photovoltaic (PV) installations across the United States to better understand how interconnection regulations align with actual project completion timelines. The findings indicate

    20. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401

    1. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

      2011-04-01

      A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

    2. STARSPOTS-TRANSIT DEPTH RELATION OF THE EVAPORATING PLANET CANDIDATE KIC 12557548b

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kawahara, Hajime; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ito, Yuichi; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hirano, Teruyuki

      2013-10-10

      Violent variation of transit depths and an ingress-egress asymmetry of the transit light curve discovered in KIC 12557548 have been interpreted as evidence of a catastrophic evaporation of atmosphere with dust ( M-dot {sub p}?>1 M{sub ?} Gyr{sup 1}) from a close-in small planet. To explore what drives the anomalous atmospheric escape, we perform time-series analysis of the transit depth variation of Kepler archival data for ?3.5 yr. We find a ?30% periodic variation of the transit depth with P {sub 1} = 22.83 0.21 days, which is within the error of the rotation period of the host star estimated using the light curve modulation, P {sub rot} = 22.91 0.24 days. We interpret the results as evidence that the atmospheric escape of KIC 12557548b correlates with stellar activity. We consider possible scenarios that account for both the mass loss rate and the correlation with stellar activity. X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV)-driven evaporation is possible if one accepts a relatively high XUV flux and a high efficiency for converting the input energy to the kinetic energy of the atmosphere. Star-planet magnetic interaction is another possible scenario, though huge uncertainty remains for the mass loss rate.

    3. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

      2005-12-31

      Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

    4. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on steelhead survival in air-supersaturated water

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Knittel, M.D.; Chapman, G.A.; Garton, R.R.

      1980-11-01

      Juvenile steelheads (Salmo gairdneri) were placed in cages and suspended at various depths in water supersaturated with air at levels from 120 to 140% of normal atmospheric gas pressure. Survival times of fish held at 10, 50, and 100 cm depth increased with increasing depth at a given level of supersaturation. When the hydrostatic pressure (7.4 mm Hg per 10 cm of water depth) was subtracted from the excess gas pressure (relative to surface barometric pressure) mortality curves (times to 50% mortality versus excess gas pressure) for fish at all three depths essentially coincided. The significant measure of supersaturation appears to be the pressure of dissolved gases in excess of the sum of barometric and hydrostatic pressures. Steelheads held near the surface in supersaturated water for a near-lethal period and then lowered to a depth providing total hydrostatic compensation appeared to recover completely in about 2 hours. The longer fish remained at depth, the longer their survival time when they subsequently were reexposed to surface conditions.

    5. Efficient Water Use & Management

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

    6. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

      Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

      Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

    7. Efficient Water Use & Management

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy ...

    8. Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water ...

    9. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

      2002-04-30

      The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

    10. A High Spatiotemporal Assessment of Consumptive Water Use and Water Scarcity in the Conterminous United States

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Moore, Brandon C.; Coleman, André M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Skaggs, Richard L.; Venteris, Erik R.

      2015-08-15

      Increasing demands for energy production and national objectives for securing energy independence from domestic sources of energy, both renewable and non-renewable, are heavily dependent on available water resources. This explicit interdependency between energy production and required water resources is commonly referred to as the “water-energy nexus” The competition for available water resources can, in part, be understood by evaluating the quantity, timing and spatial distribution of water availability and use. The location and timing at which water is available and consumed dominantly affects the extent to which not only energy and water influence one another, but also the greater cross-sectormore » dependencies that for example, influence agriculture, industry, environment, economics, and social well-being. The understanding of water resources and its use, from a spatiotemporal perspective, is critical for shaping future water use policy and management, planning for change-based impacts at the local level, and resolving prevalent issues and priorities now and into the future. To this end, we present a systematic method for both spatial and temporal disaggregation of United States Geological Survey (USGS) annual, county-scale water use data to a consistent 1/8° spatial resolution at a monthly time-step. The utility of this approach and the resulting data are demonstrated by examining water scarcity at varying spatiotemporal resolutions in the context of food and energy security.« less