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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

4

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

5

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Thermoelectrically cooled water trap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

A better cooling water system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To prepare their newly constructed reduced crude conversion (RCC) open recirculating cooling water system for the implementation of a corrosion and deposit control water treatment program, Ashland Petroleum, Catlettsburg, Ky., made plans for and carried out precleaning and passivation procedures. Here, the authors share the results, and some potential guidelines for one's own operations. Inspection of equipment after precleaning showed that the precleaning procedures was very effective in removing undesirable matter. After precleaning and passivation of the system, the recommended cooling water treatment program was started. Corrosion rates for mild steel specimens ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mils per year (mpy), with an average of 1.0 mpy. The corrosion rates for admiralty specimens ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mpy. Benefits of the precleaning and passivating programs greatly outweigh the costs, since the normal cooling water treatment program for corrosion and deposit control can then operate more effectively.

Gale, T.E.; Beecher, J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A and needs, and may vary from the examples cited here. Staff recommend that such a cooling water management

9

Passive containment cooling water distribution device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

11

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat... exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water...

Boffardi, B. P.

12

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

points for maximum cooling liquid supply temperatures thatLiquid cooling guidelines may include: Supply temperatureliquid supply temperature for liquid cooling guidelines. Due

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transitionone half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption isof time if desired by the datacenter owner. If the building

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

16

Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

Lips, H.P. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like from the Duke Energy South Bay and Morro Bay power plants and the PG&E Diablo Canyon Power Plant

20

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger was configured to use higher temperature water produced by a cooling tower alone. The other coilLBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger-temperature cooling water, so that it can support many more hours of free cooling compared to traditional systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

22

GROUND WATER USE FOR COOLING: ASSOCIATED AQUIFER TEMPERATURE CHANGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam-electric power plants, large voluMes of surface waters are used for cooling the planes condensers

Lippmann, Marcelo J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with automatic inspection, control the condense times and installing toroidal swirl type filtering water purifier. We have solved the water quality fundamentally of the circulation cooling water. This way will make the chem..with medicine more reliable...

Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be achieved. GPM 2 /GPM 1 = RPM 2 /RPM 1 Equation (1) (RPM 2 /RPM 1 ) 3 = HP 2 /HP 1 Equation (2) ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty-ninth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 2007. COOLING WATER PUMPING Pumping... Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Months Ri ver l eve l ( f t ) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 T e mp er at ur e ( F) Average River Level Average River Temperature ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty...

Mendez, T.

27

Candidate Materials Evaluation for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final technical report on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and radiation response of candidate materials for the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept.

T. R. Allen and G. S. Was

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Randy H. Wiles Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 10, 2010 Project ID: APE001 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

29

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Chillers Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency...

30

Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow...

Puckorius, P. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

Daily, W D

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

32

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Srensen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Sørensen Department of Energy Technology and product lifetime. The high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) belongs to the group of electronics

Berning, Torsten

33

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system...

34

Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines the 5.2 million gallon chilled water storage system installed at TI's Expressway manufacturing complex in Dallas, Texas. During the peak cooling season ending September 30, 1994, it provided 3,750 tons of additional peak cooling...

Fiorino, D. P.

37

Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption, from which you estimate cooling water usage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption) Water for power consumption I happen to know that total energy usage is roughly 10 kW per person energy usage by a lot. Now we assume that a power plant is 50% efficient. I assumed more than 20%, less

Nimmo, Francis

39

USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

40

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including water-cooled electric chillers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

42

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki [Course of Applied Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced water cooled Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water cooled Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advanced water cooled Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Proceedings of the 18th Annual North...

47

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT RECOVERY FROM ARC FURNACES USING WATER COOLED PANELS D. F. Darby Deere & Company Moline, Illinois ABSTRACT In 1980-81, the John Deere Foundry at East Moline underwent an expansion program that in creased its capacity by over 60...%. This expansion was centered around the melt department where the four existing 13MVA electric arc furnaces were augmented with two additional 13MVA arc furnaces. A waste heat recovery system was installed on all six of the arc furnaces which, with modifica...

Darby, D. F.

48

Water-cooled solid-breeder concept for ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions can be sacrificed to achieve a high tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and development, and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. Operating temperature limits are enforced for each material to insure a satisfactory blanket performance. In fact, the design was iterated to maximize the tritium breeding ratio and satisfy these temperature limits. The other design constraint is to permit a large increase in the neutron wall loading without exceeding the temperature limits for the different blanket materials. The blanket concept contains 1.8 cm of Li/sub 2/O and 22.5 cm of beryllium both with a 0.8 density factor. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which reduces the tritium buildup in the water by permeation, reduces the chance for water-breeder interaction, and permits the breeder to operate at high temperature with a low temperature coolant. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. The key features and design analysis of this blanket are summarized in this paper. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA and DOW Automotive) |andEnergy Water-Cooled

51

Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lunt, D.L.J. [Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)

1991-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

52

Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

Sciortino, Francesco

53

Water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept for ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. The main features are the following: (a) a multilayer concept which reduces fabrication cost; (b) a simple blanket configuration which results in reliability advantages; (c) a very small breeder volume is employed to reduce the tritium inventory and the blanket cost; (d) a high tritium breeding ratio eliminates the need for an outside tritium supply; (e) a low-pressure system decreases the required steel fraction for structural purposes; (f) a low-temperature operation reduces the swelling concerns for beryllium; and (g) the small fractions of structure and breeder materials used in the blanket reduce the decay heat source. The key features and design analyses of this blanket are summarized in this paper.

Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) are in general more energy efficient than air-cooled air-conditioning systems (AACS), especially in subtropical climates where the outdoor air is hot and humid. Related studies focused on evaluating...

Lee, W.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Room temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, reflecting greater occupancy of higher energy vibrational states. In pure water, hydrogen bonding state between 250K and 240K. (Tiny droplets of water have been shown to spontaneously freeze at aboutRoom temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel F

56

The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project: A tailored collaboration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program provides O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation,. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results to the participating utilities: cost effective optimization of cooling water treatment, production of a new Cooling Water Treatment Manual and updating of two (2) EPRI software products - SEQUIL and COOLADD. A review of the specific objectives, project timetable and results to date will be presented. 1 tab.

Zammitt, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Selby, K.A. [Puckorius & Associates, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Brice, T. [Entergy Operations - River Bend Station, St. Francisville, LA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Behavioral Factors Influencing Fish Entrapment at Offshore Cooling-Water Intake Structures in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behavioral Factors Influencing Fish Entrapment at Offshore Cooling-Water Intake Structures in Southern California MARK HELVEY Introduction Fish entrapment by offshore cooling-water intake structures. Based on con- comitant in-plant impingement monitoring, it was also learned that these same reef species

58

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

59

Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes Best Technology Available for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plants steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

Gary Vine

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

62

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our teams exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetlands ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of water cooling systems for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of water cooling systems for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Proposal to negotiate two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of cooling water pumps for the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal to negotiate two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of cooling water pumps for the LHC

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

67

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - applying water cooled Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: applying water cooled Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Proceedings of the 18th Annual North American...

69

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

73

TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER* G. Federici, A.R. Raffray, M breeder blanket for the InternationalThermonuclearExperimental Reac- tor (ITER) obtained from the tritium-cooled solid breeder blanket has been proposed for the ITER tritium-producing blanket [2]. The breeder is oper

Abdou, Mohamed

74

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

Fraas, A.P.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

source and cooling water overall (in comparison with normal system 15% of energy saving) -Adopt large-scale ice heat storage system and realize equalization of electricity load -Adopt turbo chiller and heat recovery facilities as high efficiency heat... screw heat pump - 838MJ/? 1 IHP/Water source screw heat pump (Ice storage and heat recovery) Cool water? 3,080MJ/h Ice Storage? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Questions About Your Cooling Water System That You Need To Ask  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TO BE TREATED? Yes, yes, yes. Two bad th ings happen to water in cooling systems. The impurities in the water concentrate due to evaporation, and the impurities in the air are scrubbed into the water. These impurities, without treatment, would foul... and corrode the system rapidly. HOW CAN I DETERMINE WHAT TREATMENT I NEED? First, you must have tests performed on the water. The chemical constituents must be identified. Your system must be defined in terms of its sca1 ing and foul ing tendencies by a...

Matson, J. V.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

eliminating the need for compressor cooling. The plant modelunique design (using compressor cooling only when needed by

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Use of caged fish for mariculture and environmental monitoring in a power-plant cooling-water system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-nydrocarbon pesticides in fishes cultured at various locations within the cooling system. 203 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Map of the research site ~g the location of the power plant, cooling-water system, and research facilities 17 Schematic representation... quality might conceivably be available considering the large number of power plants utilizing coastal waters for cooling. Other important benefits of thermal fish-culture include ample water supply, and reduced pumping costs as a result of the massive...

Chamberlain, George William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

Kim, Seokho H [ORNL] [ORNL; Berry, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method Gang Wang Research Associate University of Nebraska Lincoln Mingsheng Liu Professor University of Nebraska Lincoln David E. Claridge Professor Texas A... be decoupled using a constant sensible heat ratio (SHR) and the saturation humidity ratio vs. temperature curve can be treated as linear in a small area corresponding to a finite element of the coil. This paper presents the decoupled cooling coil model...

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-04-13 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume I, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 COOLING TOWER #3 FROM EAST FROM WEST TOWER TO TO EAST WES TOWER TOW8:R ELEC. #9 2000 TON MOOE, ?YAP. CHILLING LOAD SHAVING Sl...

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

91

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

IRWIN, J.J.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

94

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

Adler, J.

96

Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ULTRA-HIGH LIME WITH ALUMINUM PROCESS FOR REMOVING CHLORIDE FROM RECIRCULATING COOLING WATER A Dissertation by AHMED IBRAHEEM ALI ABDEL-WAHAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...-WAHAB Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Committee) Robin L. Autenrieth (Member...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

98

Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime.

Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation, search

100

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not necessarily be used to predict conditions at power plants in other areas (Bauereis 1975; Davies and Jensen 1975). Aquatic organisms drawn into the current of cooling water flowing towards the intake structure of a power plant are sus- ceptible... organisms are those that are located in the dilution water contributing to the turbulent mixing and cooling at the discharge from the power plant (Coutant 1974). Damage to intake-entrained organisms can be re- lated to the individual or synergistic...

Chase, Cathleen Louise

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Mass-density and Phonon-frequency Relaxation Dynamics of Water and Ice at Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coulomb repulsion between the bonding electron pair in the H-O covalent bond (denoted by "-") and the nonbonding electron pair of O (":") and the specific-heat disparity between the O:H and the H-O segments of the entire hydrogen bond (O:H-O) are shown to determine the O:H-O bond angle-length-stiffness relaxation dynamics and the density anomalies of water and ice. The bonding part with relatively lower specific-heat is more easily activated by cooling, which serves as the "master" and contracts, while forcing the "slave" with higher specific-heat to elongate (via Coulomb repulsion) by different amounts. In the liquid and solid phases, the O:H van der Waals bond serves as the master and becomes significantly shorter and stiffer while the H-O bond becomes slightly longer and softer (phonon frequency is a measure of bond stiffness), resulting in an O:H-O cooling contraction and the seemingly "regular" process of cooling densification. In the water-ice transition phase, the master and the slave swap roles, thus resulting in an O:H-O elongation and volume expansion during freezing. In ice, the O--O distance is longer than it is in water, resulting in a lower density, so that ice floats.

Chang Q. Sun

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

103

State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment with no field experience and lowers specific costs while providing higher reliability. This paper presents a brief description of the TCWS conceptual design and the application of RAMI tools to optimize the design at different stages during the project.

Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Reiersen, Wayne T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Optimization of Chilled Water Flow and Its Distribution in Central Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inefficiency included improper distribution of chilled water in the main branches, and bypassing return water through non-operation chillers....

Maheshwari, G. P.; Hajiah, A. E.; ElSherbini, A. I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulating water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity). After the tower...

Burger, R.

108

Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

Leung, V.T.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

Colborn, Robert

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

Yamada, K. [Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Aksan, S. N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFRs transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFRs fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

2003-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

General features of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors is developed. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. The power output can be maximized in the fast converter reactor. The gross thermal efficiency of the high temperature reactor adopting Inconel as fuel cladding is expected to be 44.8%. The plant system is similar to the supercritical-fossil-fired power plant which adopts once-through type coolant circulation system. The volume and height of the containment are approximately half of the BWR. The basic safety principles follows those of LWRs. The reactor will solve the economic problems of LWR and LMFBR.

Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this evaluation has confirmed that breeding condition and negative coefficient can be obtained simultaneously for water-cooled thorium reactor obtains based on the whole core fuel arrangement.

Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Ismail, [BAPETEN (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

115

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation, search Property Name

116

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation, search Property

117

Feasibility of Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor Based on LWR Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of Th-{sup 233}U fueled, homogenous breeder reactor based on matured conventional LWR technology was studied. The famous demonstration at Shipping-port showed that the Th-{sup 233}U fueled, heterogeneous PWR with four different lattice fuels was possible to breed fissile but its low averaged burn-up including blanket fuel and the complicated core configuration were not suitable for economically competitive reactor. The authors investigated the wide design range in terms of fuel cell design, power density, averaged discharge burn-up, etc. to determine the potential of water-cooled Th reactor as a competitive breeder. It is found that a low moderated (MFR=0.3) H{sub 2}O-cooled reactor with comparable burn-up with current LWR is feasible to breed fissile fuel but the core size is too large to be economical because of the low pellet power density. On the other hand, D{sub 2}O-cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible design window, therefore it is possible to design a core having better neutronic and economic performance than H{sub 2}O-cooled. Both coolant-type cores show negative void reactivity coefficient while achieving breeding capability which is a distinguished characteristics of thorium based fuel breeder reactor. (authors)

Takaki, Naoyuki; Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

Ken Mortensen

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

120

A Qualitative Assessment of Thorium-Based Fuels in Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements for the next generation of reactors include better economics and safety, waste minimization (particularly of the long-lived isotopes), and better proliferation resistance (both intrinsic and extrinsic). A supercritical pressure water cooled reactor has been chosen as one of the lead contenders as a Generation IV reactor due to the high thermal efficiency and compact/simplified plant design. In addition, interest in the use of thorium-based fuels for Generation IV reactors has increased based on the abundance of thorium, and the minimization of transuranics in a neutron flux; as plutonium (and thus the minor actinides) is not a by-product in the thorium chain. In order to better understand the possibility of the combination of these concepts to meet the Generation IV goals, the qualitative burnup potential and discharge isotopics of thorium and uranium fuel were studied using pin cell analyses in a supercritical pressure water cooled reactor environment. Each of these fertile materials were used in both nitride and metallic form, with light water reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides added. While the uranium-based fuels achieved burnups that were 1.3 to 2.7 times greater than their thorium-based counterparts, the thorium-based fuels destroyed 2 to 7 times more of the plutonium and minor actinides. The fission-to-capture ratio is much higher in this reactor as compared to PWRs and BWRs due to the harder neutron spectrum, thus allowing more efficient destruction of the transuranic elements. However, while the uranium-based fuels do achieve a net depletion of plutonium and minor actinides, the breeding of these isotopes limits this depletion; especially as compared to the thorium-based fuels.

Weaver, Kevan Dean; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the plant complies with current safety standards. This plant will also need to be adapted to treat wastes generated by WWER dismantling. The Baita-Bihor National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility consists of two galleries in an abandoned uranium mine located in the central-western part of the Bihor Mountains in Transylvania. The galleries lie at a depth of 840 m. The facility requires a considerable overhaul. Several steps recommended for the upgrade of the facility are explored. Environmental concerns have lately become a crucial part of the radioactive waste management strategy. As such, all decisions must be made with great regard for land utilization around nuclear objectives. (authors)

Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R. [Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activity (RAAN), Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Objectives (SITON), 111 Atomistilor St., Bucuresti-Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Sustaining Industrial Energy Efficiency in Process Cooling in a Potentially Water-Short Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Energy-Intensive Plants* Source: Anonymous US petrochemical company *Includes refineries and ethylene plants ESL-IE-14-05-18 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Estimated Water Use... Sources Strategy: Education on New(er) Technologies and Approaches Barriers to Use of Unconventional Water Sources (sea water, brackish water or brine water) High pipeline costs; Need to address upgrades to metallurgy as well as minimizing...

Ferland, K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica/silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed

Jasbir Gill

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

Hill, P.R.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

127

Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the system and its operation is followed by presentation of operating data taken during 1997. INTRODUCTION Chilled water thermal energy storage ('TES) in naturally stratified tanks has been shown to be a valuable central cooling plant load management... and humid environment and presents new data on the performance of a large stratified chilled water storage tank. Figure 1. Plant Schematic. SITE The case study site is the Dallas, TX world headquarters of a major semiconductor manufacturer. The 6...

Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of three backup water cooling stations for the LHC cryogenic plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of three backup water cooling stations for the LHC cryogenic plants

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply, commissioning and maintenance of water-and air-cooled chillers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply, commissioning and maintenance of water-and air-cooled chillers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Proposal to negotiate an amendment to a blanket purchase contract for the supply and installation of water-cooled bus bars and cables for the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal to negotiate an amendment to a blanket purchase contract for the supply and installation of water-cooled bus bars and cables for the LHC

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

A European proposal for a ITER water cooled solid breeder blanket  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Water Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket concept here proposed is based on a conservative approach, involving well proven technologies and-qualified materials. 316 L type stainless steel has been selected as the structural material. The nominal performances are: 1 MW/m{sup 2} as the average neutron wall load which corresponds to a fusion power of about 1.5 GW, and 1 MWy/m{sup 2} as the average neutron fluence. The power margins of the proposed concept have been estimated. The proposed blanket concept is based on a Breeder Inside Tube (BIT) type blanket with poloidal breeding elements, whose dimensions are compatible with space available in test fission reactor core channels, that makes easier in-pile testing required for the blanket development and qualification. Each breeding element consists of two concentric tubes. 1.2 mm lithium metazirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) pebbles are filled into the inner tube, the water coolant flows in the annular channel between the two tubes, and 2 mm Beryllium pebbles are poured into the blanket box outside the outer tube. Lithium metazirconate has been selected as the breeder material because it presents today the best tritium release properties at low temperature. A helium purge gas flows through the breeder pebble bed for tritium recovery. A Shielding Blanket can be derived from the proposed Blanket concept by removing the breeder pebbles from the inner tube. In-situ convertibility issues are addressed.

Lorenzetto, P. [NET, Garching (Germany); Gierszewski, P. [CFFTP, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Simbolotti, G. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerants pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

Hosni, Mohammad H.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Innovative Water Reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Variable Frequency Drive Air Cooled ? Geothermal ? Thermal absorption and desiccant systems Direct Expansion Air Cooling Hybrid Cooling Tower Old Chiller Replaced With Geothermal Loop Other Ways to Reduce Water Use ? Energy Conservation...Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H.W. (Bill)Hoffman & Associates, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net Cooling Towers The purpose of a cooling tower is to get rid of unwanted...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulatlng water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water temperature discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity... rather than a portion of it for water breakup and splash resulting in a net lower temperature. b. Water ~roughs or enclosed flumes in counterflow towers should be changed to a low-pressure spray piping system. c. Existing spray systems can...

Burger, R.

137

Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

Cawley, R.

140

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Microsoft Word - INL_EXT-10-20208 DOE-Cooling Water Issues &...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reliability matters, assisted by industry. Much of the work on water issues facing the electricity industry is being done by the private sector. In many cases, this should...

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - argentinean water cooled Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source: Iowa State University, Office of Biorenewables Programs Collection: Renewable Energy 82 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Summary:...

144

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electrical Power Production, 5th Quarterly Report, October - December 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of supercritical light water cooled reactors for electric power production. The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies for the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR that can also burn actinides. The project is organized into three tasks:

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; Cliff Davis; J. Stephen Herring; Kevan Weaver; Ron Latanision; Bryce Mitton; Gary Was; Luca Oriani; Mario Carelli; Dmitry Paramonov; Lawrence Conway

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh, E-mail: AChakraborty@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Considerations for understanding one`s cooling system prior to reuse water implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water reuse situations are growing due to the need or desire to minimize water discharge from an industrial facility. Most of these applications are retrofits or system redesigns. Many times information is required to make decisions about the reuse application. Real-time or diagnostic studies provide improved information about the water systems. Addition of very low concentrations of a chemical tracer can provide improved information about the system. Useful and unique functions of chemical tracers are that they can provide one with the following information: system volume, quantifying previously unaccounted blowdown, holding time index, water distribution, leakage, and flowrate. These are important parameters when considering water reuse and system redesign. The chemical tracers discussed in this paper represent a significant improvement over compounds previously used in reuse applications.

Chmelovski, M.J. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

J. Daniel Arthur

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.20 MANGANESE N/D ALUMINUM N/D ZINC O. O. PARAMETERS PH 7.2 7.2 TEMPERATURE DEG F 130.0 N/D = VALUE NOT DETERMINED FOR RECIRCULATING WATER: THE RYZNAR INDEX IS 5.752 THE LANGELIER INDEX IS 0.724 THIS SYSTEM IS AT THESE SATURATION LEVELS: 1.95... Wastage, gpm 2065 Make-Up, gpm 5782 Recirculating Water Temperature, OF 120 pH 8.3 Calcium Carbonate Saturation Level 6.91 Langelier Index 2.44 Ryznar Index 3.45 TABLE IV East Coast Utility Daily Costs Basis: Low D.S. Water Cycles...

Schell, C. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

151

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Hydration-dependent dynamics of deeply cooled water under strong confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the hydration-level dependence of the single-particle dynamics of water confined in the ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41. The dynamic crossover observed at full hydration is absent at monolayer hydration. ...

Bertrand, C. E.

153

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

154

Activation analysis and characteristics of the European community water cooled ceramic breeder blanket design proposal for ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European Community (EC) Home Team has proposed various alternative blanket designs to the basic concept (essentially integrated first wall, cooled by liquid metal, with structures made by vanadium alloys). One of the EC proposal is the Water Cooled Ceramic Blanket developed on the basis of a common action between NET and ENEA. It is based on a more conservative approach, but involving well proven technologies and qualified materials: SS-316L as structural material, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as first breeder material choice (50% Li{sup 6} enrichment) and low temperature water coolant (160/200{degrees}C). Beryllium has been chosen as multiplying material. The nominal performance are: 1 MW/m{sup 2} as average neutron wall load, corresponding to 1.5 GW fusion power, 1 MW-y/m{sup 2} beneath it has been proved to withstand power excursion till 5 GW. The proposed blanket concept is based on a Breeder Inside Tube (BIT) type technology, with poloidal breeding elements, each one consisting of two concentric tubes. Breeder pebbles are filled into the inner tube, the water coolant flows in the annular channel between the two tubes. Beryllium pebbles fill the space of the blanket box outside the outer tube. A helium purge gas flows through the breeder pebbles bed for tritium recovery. Alternative operating water temperature and pressure are proposed, considering also batch tritium recovery.

Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V. [ENEA-ERG-FUS, Frascati (Italy); Cepraga, D.G. [ENEA-INN-FIS, Bologna (Italy)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Importance of Delayed Neutrons on the Coupled Neutronic-Thermohydraulic Stability of a Natural Circulation Heavy Water-Moderated Boiling Light Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coupled neutronic-thermohydraulic stability characteristics of a natural circulation heavy water-moderated boiling light water-cooled reactor was investigated analytically considering the effects of prompt and delayed neutrons. For this purpose, the reactor considered is the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. The analytical model considers a point kinetics model for the neutron dynamics, a homogeneous two-phase flow model for the coolant thermal hydraulics, and a lumped heat transfer model for the fuel thermal dynamics. A higher mode of oscillation having a frequency much greater than the density-wave oscillation frequency was observed if prompt neutrons alone were considered. The occurrence of a higher mode of oscillation was found to be dependent on the concentration of delayed neutrons, the void reactivity coefficient, and the fuel time constant. The core inlet subcooling is found to have different effects on the decay ratio of the fundamental and higher modes of oscillations. The influences of void reactivity coefficient and fuel time constant on the fundamental and higher modes of oscillations were also found to be opposite in nature.

Nayak, A.K. [Bhaha Atomic Research Centre (India); Aritomi, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Raj, V. Venkat [Bhaha Atomic Research Centre (India)

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Researching power plant water recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

NONE

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources of geothermal greater cooling which facilities isWater of geothermal with high cooling supplies appear waterof geothermal resources in this SUMMARY Cooling water for

Sathaye, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The Binary Cooling Tower Process: An Energy Conserving Water Reuse Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Binary Cooling Tower (BCT) harnesses cooling system waste heat to accomplish concentration of waste and process streams. The BCT can also be integrated to isolate and improve the efficiency of critical cooling loops. This paper describes the BCT...

Lancaster, R. L.; Sanderson, W. G.; Cooke, R. L., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Optimization of hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system DOE Geothermal...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced water-cooled reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor Concept", Nucl... Cooled, Fast, Subcritical Advanced Burner ... Source: MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Collection:...

163

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

166

Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

169

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

171

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. INTRODUCTION Approximately one third to one half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption is wasted

173

Cost reduction performance enhancements of multiple site cooling water systems, enabled by remote system monitoring/control and multifaceted data management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An outsourced cooling water treatment automated control and data acquisition package, has been designed, installed, and commissioned in over 70 sites in North America and offshore. The standard package consists of a controller, sensors, human-machine interface software, data acquisition and management software, communications, and reporting. Significant challenges to applying this standard package in multiple sites arose from variations in cooling system design and makeup water quality as well as operations, environmental considerations, metrics, and language. A standard approach has met these challenges and overcome effects of downsizing through significant reduction in non-value-added, manual activities. Overall system reliability has been improved by migration to best practice throughout the organizations involved and immediate proactive response to out-of-specification conditions. This paper documents the evolution of a standard cooling water automation and data management package from its inception to current practice.

Cook, B. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Young, D. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Tari, K. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, New York, NY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, kWh/Unit = 0.0039 85.1% February 5 12PM to 1PM Annual Values 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 G a l / U n i t P r o d u c e d D...1Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

3-D Numerical Study of Impinging Water Jets in Run Out Table Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product quality, and even to create new microstructures, in order to fulfill the increasing demands surface, which are generally obtained from plant measurements. The design of better cooling header systems, where complex boiling, steam-layer development, and Leidenfrost effects occur. Heat transfer depends

Thomas, Brian G.

178

A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block was mounted in a vacuum system and heated uniformly on the top surface using a swept electron beam. From the measured absorbed powers and resultant temperatures, an overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated. The maximum heat transfer coefficient calculated for the case of the drilled passage test block was 2534 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F. This corresponded to an absorbed power density of 320 w/cm/sup 2/ and resulted in a maximum recorded copper temperature of 346/sup 0/C. Corresponding figures for the cast test block were 363 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F, 91 w/cm/sup 2/, and 453/sup 0/C.

McKoon, R.H.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

EECBG Success Story: Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct,Final9: DraftPlant,Community'Into Savings |Energy Cool,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Nucleotide Base Clusters and Water Raphael N. Casaes, Joshua B. Paul, R. Patrick McLaughlin, and Richard J. Saykally*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Nucleotide Base Clusters and Water Complexes the first direct infrared absorption measurements of gas phase nucleotide base clusters and complexes. Introduction The five nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cy- tosine, and uracil) found in DNA and RNA

Cohen, Ronald C.

182

ArizonaArizona''s Electricity Future:s Electricity Future: The Demand for WaterThe Demand for Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Groundwater Management ActAct Assured Water Supply ProgramAssured Water Supply Program #12;Arizona water 20002000 Residential & Business 16% Self-supplied 4% Irrigation 80% #12;Year 2006 Water UseYear 2006 Water/crystallizer systems Dry cooling plantsDry cooling plants Hybrid cooling systemsHybrid cooling systems Renewable

Keller, Arturo A.

183

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

184

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereís an untapped market using resources right under our feet,î the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

185

Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Colgan, Evan George (Chestnut Ridge, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY); Tian, Shurong (Mount Kisco, NY)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

186

Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

187

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

188

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

189

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flue natural gas storage water heaters. Battelle developedthe water in a storage water heater is cooling off and

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

191

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

192

Development of an internally cooled annular fuel bundle for pressurized heavy water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of preliminary studies have been conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to explore the potential of using internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) in CANDU reactors including finite element thermo-mechanical modelling, reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, fabrication and mechanical design. The most compelling argument for this design compared to the conventional solid-rod design is the significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature for equivalent LERs (linear element ratings). This feature presents the potential for power up-rating or higher burnup and a decreased defect probability due to in-core power increases. The thermal-mechanical evaluation confirmed the significant reduction in maximum fuel temperatures for ICAF fuel compared to solid-rod fuel for equivalent LER. The maximum fuel temperature increase as a function of LER increase is also significantly less for ICAF fuel. As a result, the sheath stress induced by an equivalent power increase is approximately six times less for ICAF fuel than solid-rod fuel. This suggests that the power-increase thresholds to failure (due to stress-corrosion cracking) for ICAF fuel should be well above those for solid-rod fuel, providing improvement in operation flexibility and safety.

Hamilton, H.; Armstrong, J.; Kittmer, A.; Zhuchkova, A.; Xu, R.; Hyland, B.; King, M.; Nava-Dominguez, A.; Livingstone, S.; Bergeron, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Computerized Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

196

Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

197

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy sources of cooling supply water and an aggressiveas the primary source of cooling supply water. The analysisthermal mass to the cooling supply water source, nighttime

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric

California at Davis, University of

199

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/cm2 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 TFC [ K ] C O P COPEn at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.018 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.018 cm PFC = 3... + QFC s 7,ammonia = s ( 'Ammonia' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7,water = s ( 'Water' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7 = x7 ? s 7,ammonia + ( 1 ? x7 ) ? s 7,water h 19,ammonia = h ( 'Ammonia' , T =T19 , P = P19 ) h 19,water = h ( 'Water' , T =T19...

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on a thorough study of products and anticipated growth, the Turbine and Generator Division of Westinghouse Canada Inc. concluded that a component feeder plant for fabrication and machining of turbine components was required. This facility now...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Thermal-hydraulic performance of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target for a spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis is conducted to determine the feasibility and limitations of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target at powers of 1 MW and above. The target evaluated has a 10-cm x 10-cm cross section perpendicular to the beam axis, which is typical of an experimental spallation neutron source - both for a short-pulse spallation source and long-pulse spallation source. This report describes the T-H model and assumptions that are used to evaluate the target. A 1-MW baseline target is examined, and the results indicate that this target should easily handle the T-H requirements. The possibility of operating at powers >1 MW is also examined. The T-H design is limited by the condition that the coolant does not boil (actual limits are on surface subcooling and wall heat flux); material temperature limits are not approached. Three possible methods of enhancing the target power capability are presented: reducing peak power density, altering pin dimensions, and improving coolant conditions (pressure and temperature). Based on simple calculations, it appears that this target concept should have little trouble reaching the 2-MW range (from a purely T-H standpoint), and possibly much higher powers. However, one must keep in mind that these conclusions are based solely on thermal-hydraulics. It is possible, and perhaps likely, that target performance could be limited by structural issues at higher powers, particularly for a short-pulse spallation source because of thermal shock issues.

Poston, D.I.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................... 193 Lesson 11 Water and Pollution........................................................................................................................ 195 Activity 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere...! ............................................................................. 205 Record Sheet 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere! ..................................................................... 207 Activity 11.2, Pollution at Its Source...

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

203

Water Privatisation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zlls, Elisa

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

Modification and Validation of a Universal Thermodynamic Chiller Model Used to Evaluate the Performance of Water-Cooled Centrifugal Chillers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents modifications made to the procedure used to develop a universal thermodynamic model of chillers (Gordon and Ng, 1995). The modifications were necessary to capture physical phenomena involved when water is the coolant fluid...

Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this fresh water for cooling Supply-Demand Relationships now1806) represent cooling supply water statewide freshwatersupply, it is unclear if 560,000 would be required for cooling

Sathaye, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess Californias Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

210

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programs) · Audience: homeowners Outcome 4: Increase water reuse and recycling programs · Example program: Water harvesting ­ rain barrels and cisterns · Audience: home owners #12;: Water conservation. Conserve Florida's finite water resources by teaching rural, suburban and urban

Kane, Andrew S.

211

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

212

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in water heater. Scale buildup in pipes and re duced water flow. Hard water due to calcium and magnesiumHousehold Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may

Liskiewicz, Maciej

214

The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... used to detect ice formation in plant tissues by exotherm detection. An electronic device is used to measure the heat released (exotherm) when water freezes. From this information, the freezing and supercooling temperatures of plant tissues can...

Hagar, Christopher Flint

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

216

Grabbing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Author(s), Liping Wang, Philip Haves and Fred Buhl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption for support of both design and operations. It is frequently and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption to support both design and operation. Simulation of transient. INTRODUCTION Coils in HVAC systems couple air and water (or refrigerant) loops. The accurate prediction

218

The Nexus of Energy & Water APS, Berkeley, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Freshwater Is A Small Part of the Total Supply Liquid Assets, Jill Boberg, RAND #12;Michael E. Webber, Ph There Are Two Main Cooling Approaches Open-Loop Cooling Closed-Loop Cooling Most water that is withdrawn and Water 16 March 5, 2011 The Thermoelectric Power Sector Uses Water for Cooling Withdrawals [gal

Kammen, Daniel M.

219

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

Philip E. MacDonald

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

222

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

223

Geography 347: Water as a Resource Lecture Schedule -Fall, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Use; types, patterns & trends; Agricultural; Thermoelectric cooling and industry Ch.17 Th Water Tu Guest Lecture or film: TBA -------- Th Thanksgiving Break, Nov. 22 -------- 15 Tu Environmental

James, L. Allan

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric water cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cycle power plant's water demand is to meet... cooling water makeup requirements. Cooling towers reject heat from a power ... Source: California Energy Commission Collection:...

225

Water Management Act (Massachusetts)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

226

Protected Water Sources (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter designates protected water sources, which are subject to additional special conditions regarding water use. Permit applications for water withdrawals from these sources may still be...

227

Storm Water Analytical Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL...

228

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

229

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2013 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

230

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

231

Efficient Water Use & Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL....

232

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition InformationInteractionsWater

233

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout Printable VersionProtectiveWaste to beswim WatchingWaterW

234

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

235

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Cadeddu, Maria

237

Water watch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

Buehrer, R. Michael

239

Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Drought, Climate Change · Growth and the need for additional supplies · Water and Energy · Water the Southwest, nation, semi-arid and arid regions, and the world. · Today's program provides just a glimpse to and utilization of renewable supplies · Transboundary water issues · The surface water/groundwater interface

Cushing, Jim. M.

240

Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

E-Print Network 3.0 - argonne heavy water modified reactor Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WATER REFORMER SHIFTER CO CLEAN-UP BURNER COMPRESSED EXHAUST EXPANDED EXHAUST WASTE HEAT REJECTION WATER... TANK HEAT & AIR COOL & HUMIDIFY HEAT REJECTION AND WATER RECOVERY...

242

A domain-specific analysis system for examining nuclear reactor simulation data for light-water and sodium-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building a new generation of fission reactors in the United States presents many technical and regulatory challenges. One important challenge is the need to share and present results from new high-fidelity, high-performance simulations in an easily usable way. Since modern multiscale, multi-physics simulations can generate petabytes of data, they will require the development of new techniques and methods to reduce the data to familiar quantities of interest (e.g., pin powers, temperatures) with a more reasonable resolution and size. Furthermore, some of the results from these simulations may be new quantities for which visualization and analysis techniques are not immediately available in the community and need to be developed. This paper describes a new system for managing high-performance simulation results in a domain-specific way that naturally exposes quantities of interest for light water and sodium-cooled fast reactors. It describes requirements to build such a system and the technical challenges faced...

Billings, Jay Jay; Hull, S Forest; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Wojtowicz, Anna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Wash your hands. water and soap.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ute. Cool completely before mixing with the formula. If your water comes from a well, get it tested not give your baby honey until after the baby is 1 year old. Do not give any unpasteurized juice or milk of powdered formula in a cool dry place. Do not freeze Concentrated formula that is mixed with water Store

244

Water value in power generation: Experts distinguish water use and consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Winter 2013 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek In Grimes County, the sun sets over Gibbons Creek Reservoir, the cooling water supply for an adjacent power plant. Photo by Leslie Lee. WATER VALUE IN POWER GENERATION Experts distinguish... water use and consumption Having enough water available for municipal and agricultural needs is o#23;en discussed; however, having the water needed to generate electric power and the electricity needed to treat and transport water is a struggle all...

Kalisek, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

246

Y-12 National Security Complex Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y 12 National Security Complex (Y 12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y 12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements that could be applied not only at Y-12 but at other Federal facilities as well. FEMP selected Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to coordinate and manage the water assessment. PNNL contracted Water Savers, LLC to lead the technical aspects of the water assessment. Water Savers provided key technical expertise in water auditing, metering, and cooling systems. This is the report of that effort, which concluded that the Y-12 facility could realize considerable water savings by implementing the recommended water efficiency opportunities.

Elam, Shana E.; Bassett, P.; McMordie Stoughton, Kate

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan Department of Computer University of Virginia whitehouse@virginia.edu Abstract After space heating and cooling, water heating consumption. Current water heating systems waste up to 20% of their energy due to poor insulation in pipes

Whitehouse, Kamin

248

Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

Gluntz, D.M.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

249

Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Soerens, Thomas

251

Water Basins Civil Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

Provancher, William

252

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

253

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

255

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

256

Water Rights (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

257

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power plants, water withdrawals for electricity generationelectricity generation in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric power plantsplant with CCS technologies requires roughly 1,000 gallons of water for every megawatt-hour of electricity generation (

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water...

259

Lawn Water Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

260

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of Californias Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the PlanetsAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planets140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

263

Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

types of water management organizations, environmental NGOs,environmental policy and integrated water management hasenvironmental and water infrastructure stakeholders involved in Bay Area water management.

Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental policy and integrated water management hastypes of water management organizations, environmental NGOs,environmental and water infrastructure stakeholders involved in Bay Area water management.

Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction in Your Building Portfolio Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction in Your Building Portfolio...

266

What's your water footprint?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower... water footprint is the amount of water you directly or indirectly consume. This includes ?virtual water??the amount of water needed to produce everyday things such as food, clothing, and energy. ] What?s your water footprint? tx H2O | pg. 22...

Jordan, Leslie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Water Efficiency Goal Guidance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

268

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for treating water in a circulating water system that has a cooling water basin which includes a slip stream conduit in flow communication with the circulating water system, a source of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit, and a decarbonator in flow communication with the slip stream conduit and the cooling water basin. In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system into the slip stream conduit of the apparatus. The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin. 4 figs.

Cleveland, J.R.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

270

Abstract. Harvesting condensed atmospheric vapour as dew water can be an alternative or complementary potable water resource in specific arid or insular areas. Such radiation-cooled condensing devices use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUILDING - A USTAR INNOVATION CENTER Estimated New Space: USTAR - 200,000 NSF Estimated Completion Date, and coordination of site design with North Chilled Water Plant design. The 5,940 NSF Chilled Water Plant processes across all of campus. The existing distribution system is over 30 years old. Corrosion from ground

271

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, effectiveness of best management practices and trends in water quality. SCOPE This report is for continued water Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station with auto- sampler and data sonde. The Portland site. Garret Bridge site. 2 #12;Figure 2 Portland site. METHODS The Garrett Bridge site is a full storm-water

Soerens, Thomas

272

Water Waves Roger Grimshaw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,2) provide a kinematic description of water waves, which to this point means that the conditionsWater Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves

273

Vadose zone water fluxmeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

Faybishenko, Boris A.

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kmpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thorium-fueled water-cooled reactor core design approach that features a radially uniform composition of fuel rods in stationary fuel assembly and is fuel-self-sustaining is described. This core design concept is similar ...

Ganda, Francesco

276

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING.m~ Mondays, 206 Agricultural Engihee~1n~Build1ng January 2~ January 31' Februar;"'7 February 14 " February 21 Irrigation Development and Implications Recreational Potential Economic Importance of the Sandhills Film

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

278

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Control of Chilled Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supply temperatures may improve the efficiency while meeting cooling requirements for cleanroom for cleanrooms and their adjacent spaces. Chillers 39% Cooling Towers 7% Pumps 17% MUAH + RCU Fans 9% Hot Water;chilled water pumps, secondary loop chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and cooling towers

279

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders ofthe heat capacity and transfer efficiency of liquids is

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place: Salt LakeWashtenaw County, Michigan: Energy ResourcesNCcooling

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

THE MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A CONVECTIVELY COOLED ION ACCELERATOR FOR CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING NEUTRAL BEAM SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over the grid rails. cooling water supply piping is not areliability. The cooling water supply pres- sure and flowwill sound if the cooling water supply temperature rises. A.

Paterson, J.A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Federal Water Use Indices  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

283

Drinking Water Problems: Benzene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drinking water in Texas sometimes contains potentially harmful chemicals, including benzene. Well owners can learn how to treat their well water to remove these chemicals. 4 pages, 3 images...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

284

General Water Quality (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of this water quality rule is to protect, maintain and improve the quality of waters of the State. Any applicant for a federal license, permit or project to conduct any activity...

285

Water Pollution Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Water Pollution Control Board are tasked with the prevention of pollution in the waters of the state. The Board may adopt rules and...

286

Outdoor Water Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

287

A gathering of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perchlorate is a potential contaminate of well water that can have harmful effects on human health. Methods of removing perchlorate from water are described and illustrated. There is information to help well owners select and maintain treatment...

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

State Water Quality (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Virginia to: (1) protect existing high quality state waters and restore the quality of all other state waters to permit all reasonable public uses and...

290

Water Quality (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Quality Act establishes cumulative remedies to prevent, abate and control the pollution of the waters of the state.The act establishes responsibilities of the Oklahoma Department of...

291

California's Water Energy Relationship  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.........................................................................................................................7 THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE WATER USE CYCLE.........................................................................................9 ENERGY INTENSITY IN NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support

292

Walking on water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

Bush, John W. M.

293

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinach Beets Bush, Pole Beans Carrots Cucumbers Eggplant Peas Peppers Summer Squash Pumpkins Tomatoes Watermelon Winter Squash Water

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Be Water Smart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of native or non-invasive adapted trees, shrubs, grasses and flowers that can tolerate temporary wet conditions. A layer of mulch prevents weed growth and aids in filtration. These low spots fill with water during periods of heavy rain, helping...W aterSmart, a water conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain...

Swyden, Courtney

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

birds, the overall water requirements are minimal and exist only for washing the blades of wind turbines

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Innovative Water Reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management 1.Rain gardens 2.Porous pavement 3.Green roofs Hydrologic Cycle ISSUES ? Water Conservation ? Is there enough? ? Can conservation make a difference? ? Water Quality ? Contamination/pollution due to runoff Eagle...-drought conditions ? A breakdown of energy use by department shows that the Austin Water Utility uses 60% of the total amount of energy used by the City of Austin. What Can We Do? ? Water Conservation ? Indoors ? Bathrooms ? Kitchen ? Showers ? Laundry...

Jaber, F. H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydroelectricity for agriculture and hydroelectricity. Large volumes of waterElectricity Production Hydroelectricity The most common type

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Water Management Best Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Energy Star Programs ? www.epa.gov/watersense www.energystar.gov ? Conserve Florida Water Clearinghouse ? http://www.conservefloridawater.org/ ? Arizona Department of Water Resources ? www.azwater.gov/conservation The True Cost of Water... Future Demands Municipal Manufacturing Mining Steam Electric Agriculture New Codes & Standards Green Certification& Labeling Programs ? Green Restaurants, Hotels, etc. ? Green Guide for Health Care ? LEED ? GBI ? EPA Water Sense ? EPA...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE...

300

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a caselosses to 5% of total drinking water supply for threeResearch Council. Drinking Water Distribution Systems:

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy-Water Nexus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

Horak, W.

2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

303

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of best management practices and trends in water quality. SCOPE This project is a cooperative effort Bridge, AR and near Portland, AR. The Garret Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station with auto;METHODS The Garret Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station. It uses an automatic sampler

Soerens, Thomas

304

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

PROCEEDINGS Stockholm Water Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-0127 The Joint Conference 7th Stockholm Water Symposium1 3rd InternationalConference a11 tlie Enviro~~mnent;~l Ma.A.G.M, a Systematic Approach to Lake Water Pollution Assessment, - Eindhoven: University of Technology, Eindhoven Assessment, Water Pollution in the Catchment of Lake Victoria, Dares Salaam, Tanzania, August, 1994

Boynton, Walter R.

306

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-photosynthesis, energy transfer in animals, and so on. Life as we know it is water-centric (and organic carbon 20, 2012 6 / 17 #12;Water availability Total renewable (defined using the water cycle) per-capita, per year. Country cu. m. Congo 275,000 Canada 94,000 Brazil 48,000 Mongolia, Indonesia 13,000 Japan

Sohoni, Milind

307

STORM WATER Residential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE UCSC Residential Car Washing http THAT MAY CAUSE ENVIRONMENTAL HARM TO THE STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE: (831) 459-2553. LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AT UCSC STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM! DID YOU KNOW? PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS > USE A COMMERCIAL CAR WASH

California at Santa Cruz, University of

308

Introduction Increasing demands on limited water resources have made  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(reclamation or reuse) an attractive option for extending water supplies. Treatment technologies have evolved has increasingly been used for municipal irrigation, toilet flushing, industrial cooling, and other varyconsiderablybetweensystems.Theuseofrecycledwater is particularly beneficial to extending water supplies in arid climates

Sanderson, Mike

309

Water for goethermal development in Imperial County. A summarizing report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information on water issues related to geothermal development is reviewed, including research on local water resources and quality, cooling water requirements for geothermal power plants, and water for geothermal development. Topics of on-going research are noted and questions for future research are posed.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Making Drinking Water Safer from Bacterial Contamination in Emergency Situations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Avoid water having a dark color, an odor or containing floating materials since such things may indicate or floating matter. 2. Boil the water vigorously for at least 10 minutes. 3. After it cools, the waterMaking Drinking Water Safer from Bacterial Contamination in Emergency Situations Monty C. Dozier

311

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

312

Thermal Waters Along The Konocti Bay Fault Zone, Lake County...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

thermal waters along the KBFZ contain >100 mgl Mg. High concentrations of dissolved magnesium are usually indicative of relatively cool hydrothermal systems. Dissolution of...

313

New age water chillers with water as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacuum-process technology producing chilled water needs no refrigerant of the conventional kind, but water from the process itself is used to generate cooling. This eye-catching novelty incorporates many of the considerations about the future of refrigerants: "ozone friendly", no extra demands for safety measures or for skilful operators, no special requirements concerning the installation's components, lower maintenance costs since leakages can be accommodated from the system. Vacuum-process technology may be used not only for production of chilled water but also for Binary Ice - pumpable suspension of minute ice crystals in an aqueous solution. This means that all the advantages related to a latent heat system may become available.

Khnl-Kinel, J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

315

Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 7). Nitrate ions are drawn through the membrane pores with elec- trical currents. The nitrate is pulled from the water into a brine waste stream. Ni trate-contaminated water Treated water Nitrate Chloride or hydroxide Exchange resin Figure 6. Ion... and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University System B-6184 3-08 ' the safe levels of chemicals for U.S. drinking water. The EPA conducts research to determine the level of a contaminant in drinking water...

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

316

Water Quality Control Act (Tennessee)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) establishes the water pollution control program. The WQCA identifies the responsibilities and extent of authority for the Commissioner of the Water Quality...

317

Ground Water Management Act (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Under the Ground Water Management Act of 1992, Virginia manages ground water through a program regulating the withdrawals in certain areas called Ground Water Management Areas (GWMA). Currently,...

318

Planning Water Use in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the University of Maryland Water Policy Collaborative, 2006.FURTH ER READ ING California Department of Water Resources.California Water Plan Update 2005: A Framework for Action.

Eisenstein, William; Kondolf, G. Mathias

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems, private water well screening, and soil nutrient management. Water conservation programs of Agri, efficient use, sustainable practices, watershed management and environmental stewardship. Through 660 and utilizing water-conservation practices will be essential to sustain the state's water supply

320

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 5: Public supply water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000.

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

Li, Jiuyong "John"

322

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

Li, Jiuyong "John"

323

WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

103 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;105 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 106­580, Dec. 29, 2000 planning of water and related land resources, through the establishment of a water resources council

US Army Corps of Engineers

324

Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

325

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tankthe house. Supply pipe this is the water heater inlet pipewith refills the water heater with cold water Note: The TANK

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

327

Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system for harvesting and returning clean water to Lakeharvesting for landscape and species health, and surface water and

Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Arsenic removal from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

329

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Mystery of Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

Nilsson, Anders

2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This compound belongs to a chemical family of fuel oxygenates that enhance gaso- line combustion by increasing oxygen available for the process. Added to gasoline, MTBE has reduced carbon monoxide and ozone emissions by promoting more complete burning.... Texas follows the EPA drinking water advisory of 20 to 40 micrograms per liter. How can MTBE be Removed from Well Water? MTBE requires a specific treatment process for removal from water. Well owners can use granular activated carbon or charcoal...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

332

Water purification in Borexino  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy)] [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States)] [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universit di Milano e Infn (Italy)] [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universit di Milano e Infn (Italy)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

333

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy intensive of the four typesconsume 2,951 kWh of electricity per million gallons (3.8 million liters) of treated water

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water Conservation Best Practices  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal sites across the country are incorporating water efficiency measures as part of their overall comprehensive UESC projects. As it becomes more difficult to secure internal funding for...

335

Water Pollution Fee (Michigan)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Groundwater Program regulates discharge to groundwater under Part 31, Water Resources Protection, of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act, 1994 PA 451 and Part 22 Rules....

336

Water Pollution (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states regulations for water quality standards, effluent standards, monitoring and reporting methods, sewer discharge criteria and information about permits. It is the purpose of...

337

What's In My Water?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.The salts in conductivity levels are conductivity levels. allow for too much water to evaporate water are not just table high, evaluate other from the surface, or where soils are salt, but are often a individual characteristics naturally high in salts...- tive safety margin. You can have your water analyzed by a government agency or a private company. 13 Salt: an organic or inorganic com- pound that is subject to dissociation when water is added, resulting in a dis- tinct increase in specific anions...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar thermal production facilities are those with power towers,tower where water or molten salt is flowing to absorb the solar

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Involved in the Selection of Alternatives.. 7 Gasification/liquefaction with Subsequent Transportation. 7 of the Slurry Waste- water as a Function of Residence T

Soerens, Thomas

340

Well Owner's Guide To Water Supply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's groundwater and guidelines, including national drinking water standards, to test well water to insure safe drinking water in private wells. National drinking water standards and common methods of home water .....................22 Contaminants in Water........................................23 Drinking Water Guidelines

Fay, Noah

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

officials on the new Phase II Storm Water NPDES regulations and Best Management Practices available requirements. In addition, they are typically unaware of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that are availableArkansas Water Resources Center STORMWATER POLLUTION PREVENTION BMP WORKSHOP, DEMONSTRATION

Soerens, Thomas

343

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Water Waves and Integrability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

Rossen I. Ivanov

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

states. Recycling of nutrients and organic matter is essential in reducing the need for fertilization closely with colleges, universities and other organizations in Arkansas to address the states water Descriptors: animal waste, feed additive, water quality, land application, non-point source pollution

Soerens, Thomas

347

Watering the Sun Corridor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Watering the Sun Corridor Managing Choices in Arizona's Megapolitan Area #12;#12;Managing ChoicesSored by Printing generously provided by SRP. Watering the Sun Corridor Tom Buschatzke, City of Phoenix Peter Culp i C y | 5 Introduction............................................7 I. The Sun Corridor

Hall, Sharon J.

348

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O) William R. Gormana)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O) William R. Gormana) and James D by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25°C to 0°C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration

Suzuki, Masatsugu

349

Hardness of water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project is helpful to those people who live in the coastal based and they are suffering every year with problem of safe drinking water and not available throughout the year. It has given ideas, technology and economical way of solution for water crisis and its also solving problem of scare by use of different methods to development evelopment new water source in water scare area of Saurashtra and Kutch in Gujarat. Saurashtra land is containing of different types of minerals specially bauxite, calcite, fluoride so many mineral based industries are developed here and those who continuous nuous need this as raw materials and they used many mines and processes units. These minerals are creating problem to polluted ground water some are melting and increasing TDS more than 6000 mg/l and

Rahul Oza

350

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEELs drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Surveys Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agencys Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEELs Source Water Assessment. Of the INEELs 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEELs public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING OF THE DIRECTOR . . . April 1973 NEBRASKA AND THE NATIONAL WATER COMMISSION REPORT The National Water Commission grew out of con t r-ovc rey over water resource deve lopment in the Colorado River Basin. Rp

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

352

Achievements and Outlook 2012 SA Water Centre for Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achievements and Outlook 2012 SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;Contents Our Breaking News 35 SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse University of South Australia Mawson Lakes Campus Mawson Lakes SA 5095 Telephone: +61 (08) 8302 3338 Fax: +61 (08) 8302 3386 Web: unisa.edu.au/water

Mayer, Wolfgang

353

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING . . . July 1973 The final report of the National Water Commission entitled Water Policies for the Future has been issued. Because its con- cluslons -a-rid -re-commend-atlOnsmay have far-reaching effects on water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

354

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor its water management performance and func- tion as indicators of the degradation of GDL material

Kandlikar, Satish

355

Radiant cooling research scoping study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6165 F (1618C) cooling supply air temperatures requiredprovide appropriate cooling with supply water no cooler thancirculation of the cooling/heating supply water through the

Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

DESIGNER WATER Dr. Torleiv Bilstad  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGNER WATER Dr. Torleiv Bilstad Professor of Environmental Engineering, University of Stavanger #12;Pictures #12;OIL ­ GAS - WATER - SOLIDS MANAGEMENT #12;Job done All produced water discharge Reservoir wettability determines the flow of oil and water in the reservoir #12;DESIGNER WATER Designer

358

WATER SUPPLY A Handbook on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER SUPPLY HANDBOOK A Handbook on Water Supply Planning and Resource Management Institute for Water Resources Water Resources Support Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 7701 Telegraph Road Studies Division December 1998 Revised IWR Report 96-PS-4 #12;U.S. Army Institute for Water Resources

US Army Corps of Engineers

359

Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for consumption, for producing food, and for manufacturing; we also are attracted to water for its esthetic value pets and livestock--all depend on water. Competition for water among humans and between humans

360

Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

·Water heaters: Turn off the power that heats the tank and let the tank cool. Place a contain- er underER-002 6-06 Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist Courtney such as a hurricane or flood, your water supplies may have become contaminated or been temporarily cut off. To make

362

Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document provides a methodology to estimate unmetered industrial water use for evaporative cooling systems, steam generating boiler systems, batch process applications, and wash systems. For each category standard mathematical relationships are summarized and provided in a single resource to assist Federal agencies in developing an initial estimate of their industrial water use. The approach incorporates industry norms, general rules of thumb, and industry survey information to provide methodologies for each section.

Boyd, Brian K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Champions of Texas Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reuse, she is a firm believer in the market system. ?I think the market is the solution. I think the state forcing rural people to give under- priced water to urban areas is not right.? Solving these water issues needs to be sooner rather than later..., a South Texas lawyer for 40 years, has worked with Combs and White on several water issues. ?They both have real high quality of moral courage; they stand for and support what they believe in as opposed to what people might want them to stand...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Plugging Abandoned Water Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is recommended that before you begin the process of plugging an aban- doned well that you seek advice from your local groundwater conservation district, a licensed water well driller in your area, or the Water Well Drillers Program with the Texas Department... hire a licensed water well driller or pump installer to seal and plug an abandoned well. Well contractors have the equipment and an understanding of soil condi- tions to determine how a well should be properly plugged. How can you take care...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (nonborated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two water volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

Forsberg, C.W.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

366

Stable thermal oscillations in columns of partially supercool water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

theoretical and experimental studies of the phenomenon described by Veronis, heat was supplied from below. Here we cool from below and used either heavy water (D2O) and or sugar as the solute. We show several of cooling or during cooling. However, the effects are quite different. The oscillations often (but

Suzuki, Masatsugu

367

California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality Certification Website Abstract This website...

368

Non-storm water discharges technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

Mathews, S.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

Robert A. Liske

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

371

Water Quality Control (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state of Texas is to promote the quality of the state's water by regulating existing industries, taking into consideration the economic development of the state, and by...

372

Water Rules (Alabama)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These rules and regulations shall apply to all water systems subject to the jurisdiction of the Alabama Public Service Commission. They are intended to promote good utility practices, to assure...

373

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil Production .quality water (2, 32). Oil Production In 2009, oil supplied90% of U.S. onshore oil production uses between 2.1 and 5.4

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Water Resource Management (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Water may be used in reasonable amounts for beneficial purposes, which are defined by the state of Indiana to include power generation and energy conversion. This section describes other...

375

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

376

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced water from production of crude oil, natural gas,the production and processing of each gallon of crude oil (production and processing of 1 gallon (3.8 liters) of crude oil

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Storm Water Individual Permit.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

information meeting to discuss the biannual update on the NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit. Wednesday, January 22, 2014 5:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center 10 Cities of...

378

Water Sample Concentrator  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

Idaho National Laboratory

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

379

Report on Produced Water  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

of the pond, as well as the quality of the produced water. In semiarid regions, hot, dry air moving from a land surface will result in high evaporation rates for smaller ponds. As...

380

Contaminating Fresh Waters (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is illegal to discharge any dyestuff, coal tar, oil, sawdust, poison, or deleterious substances into any fresh running waters in Florida in quantities sufficient to injure, stupefy, or kill fish...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water Resources (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The state policy of Montana requires that water resources of the state be put to optimum beneficial use and not wasted. The state must promote the conservation, development, and beneficial use of...

382

Dehumidifying water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

383

Electrophoretic Clarification of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purification by electrochemical means overcame this problem and was successful both operationally and economically. As a result of the experimental testing, an example design of a small semiautomated electrochemical water system is offered which incorporates...

Hiler, E. A.; Lyle, W. M.

384

Legal Definition of "Traditional Navigable Waters" Waters that Qualify as Waters of the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and United States Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) "Clean Water Act Jurisdiction Following the U.S. Supreme.F.R. § 230.3(s)(1). The guidance also states that, for purposes of the guidance, these "(a)(1) waters" are the "traditional navigable waters." These (a)(1) waters include all of the "navigable waters of the United States

US Army Corps of Engineers

385

Water Quality and Water Law Headline UNL's Fifth Annual Water Law, Policy and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Quality and Water Law Headline UNL's Fifth Annual Water Law, Policy and Science Conference "Water Quality Challenges in the Great Plains" is the theme of this year's University of Nebraska-Lincoln Water, Law, Policy and Science conference. The fifth annual UNL conference is April 22 and 23 at Lincoln

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

386

Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

387

Water Resources Act (Ontario, Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Ontario Water Resources Act is designed to conserve, protect and manage Ontario's water resources for efficient and sustainable use. The act focuses on both groundwater and surface water...

388

Water Quality Criteria Introduction ....................................................................................................................................798  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPENDIX G Water Quality Criteria CONTENTS Introduction ....................................................................................................................................798 EPA's Water Quality Criteria and Standards Plan -- Priorities for the Future............................798 Compilation of Recommended Water Quality Criteria and EPA's Process for Deriving New

Pitt, Robert E.

389

Water Resource Districts (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Water Resource Districts are created throughout the state of North Dakota to manage, conserve, protect, develop, and control water resources. Each District will be governed by a Water Resource...

390

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential gas-fired storage water heater was modeled underin a typical residential storage water heater that meets thereplace a gas-fired storage water heater with a conventional

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Purifying contaminated water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Factors affecting water coning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(December 1977) Randy Keith Parker, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. Richard A. Morse The production of oil that is underlain by water, through a partially penetrating well at a production rate greater than a certain... of well, reservoir, and fluid parameters, it was found that equivalent systems could be determined that had the same water and oil production characteristics. Most of the we' ll, reservoir, and fluid relationships are based on two equations which were...

Parker, Randy Keith

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Surface Water Quality Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recreational uses. ?The Commission will seek substantial additional public comment on any proposed changes to the standards before adopting them into the state admin- istrative code,? Davenport said. ?Because of the com- plexity and regulatory importance... Conservation Board?s state watershed coordinator, said the standards for contact recreation, with only a few exceptions, are uniformly applied regardless of water body type or the actual level of recreation use. ?Because a minimum of 10 water samples over a...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Molded polymer solar water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Chilled Water and Hot Water Building Differential Pressure Setpoint Calculation - Chilled Water and Hot Water Pump Speed Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A&M University College Station, TX ABSTRACT More and more variable frequency devices (VFD) are being installed on the chilled water and hot water pumps on the TAMU campus. Those pump speeds are varied to maintain chilled water... and the rest 46 buildings are located on the west campus. More and more variable frequency devices (VFD) are installed on chilled water and hot water pumps. The variable speed pump has reduced the over-pressuring of water systems and reduced pump...

Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.; Claridge, D.; Liu, C.; Deng, S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Surface Water Quality Standards (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain surface water quality standards, stream classifications, discussion of lakes and impounded basins, and water...

397

Scientists ignite aluminum water mix  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an atom of one of the reactants (water) is substituted with its isotope (deuterium, or "heavy water") and the two reactions are compared for differences. This effect is...

398

Water Pollution Control Act (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act gives the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency broad responsibility to establish pollution standards for state waters; monitor water conditions and sources of pollution; review construction,...

399

Appropriation of Water (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section describes procedures for applications to appropriate water for beneficial uses, including irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. Once granted, water users must continue to seek...

400

Soil and Water Conservation (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts is an association of the 92 soil and water conservation districts, each representing one of the 92 Indiana counties.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Water Network Design by MINLP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a solution method for a water-network optimization problem using a ... The optimal design of a WDN (Water Distribution Network) consists, in its...

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin,...

403

Water Quality Trading Program (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Water quality trading is a tool for achieving water quality improvements. Under the right circumstances, trading has the potential to yield both environmental and economic benefits, while...

404

Water for future Mars astronauts?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water for future Mars astronauts? Water for future Mars astronauts? Within its first three months on Mars, NASA's Curiosity Rover saw a surprising diversity of soils and sediments...

405

Water Network Design by MINLP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 13, 2008 ... We propose a solution method for a water-network optimization problem ... The optimal design of a WDN (Water Distribution Network) consists,...

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

406

Disinfecting Water after a Disaster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains how to disinfect water after a flood, as well as where to find water in an emergency when supplies are limited....

Dozier, Monty; Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Water and Waste Water Tariffs for New Residential Construction in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water and Waste Water Tariffs for New ResidentialApril 2006 Water and Waste Water Tariffs for New Residentialwater and waste water tariffs in California cities and

Fisher, Diane; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Environmental Protection, Water Resource Managementof Environmental Protection, Water Resource Management,of Environmental Protection, Water Resources Management:

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency...

410

Eau Canada: The Future of Canada's Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, and especially drinking water, in Canada. The editor,near Quebec City, where drinking water was contaminated over

Laberge, Yves

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Storage Water Heater .point for modeling storage water heaters. The algorithmsfired, natural draft storage water heater. Figure 1 shows a

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (non-borated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Kingston, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Water Use Registration and Allocation (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule states regulations for water withdrawals, permits required for withdrawals and water use during water droughts and emergencies. Self-supplied business and industrial water users subject...

414

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Protection, Water Resource ManagementDrinking WaterEnvironmental Protection, Water Resource ManagementDrinking Waterof Environmental Protection, Water Resource Management,

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Integrated Planning for Water and Energy Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy 2. Energy Intensity of Water 3. Water Intensity of Energy 1. Integrated Energy and Water Policy 2. Energy Intensity of Water 3. Water Intensity of Energy #12;Total Water Withdrawals, 2000Total Water at Edmonston #12;Energy Intensity of WaterEnergy Intensity of Water Energy intensity, or embedded energy

Keller, Arturo A.

416

Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Under Contract with the United States Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 #12;BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells December 27, 2000

417

Water Current University of Nebraska Water Center/Environmental Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, nonpoint source issues, recycling, composting, remediation, hazardous waste and many other waste- and water pages of many Nebraska newspapers featured stories on the report "Tap Water Blues" produced by the EnvWater Current University of Nebraska Water Center/Environmental Programs wASTEmanagement problem

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

418

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUILDING THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA LINCOLN, NEBRASKA 68503 Volume 5 Number 6 FROM THE DESK OF THE DIRECTOR of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships; (5) Maintenance of Environmental Quality; and (6) Conjunctive Management of Ground and Surface Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

419

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Corporation Polyethylene Polyvinyl chloride Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Water Distribution System

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

Houston, Paul L.

422

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW Department of Agronomy, Purdue University. Agric. Exp. Stn., West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. SUMMARY The swelling of clay-water systems and the thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and spectroscopic properties of water in these systems are discussed. The swelling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

Barthelat, Francois

424

Fuel cell water transport  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Water-related planning and design at energy firms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water related planning and design at energy firms are examined. By identifying production alternatives and specifying the cost of these alternatives under a variety of conditions, one gains insight into the future pattern of water use in the energy industry and the response of industry to water-related regulation. In Part II, the three principal decisions of industry that affect water allocation are reviewed: where to build plants, where to get water, and how much water to use. The cost of water use alternatives is reviewed. Part III presents empirical data to substantiate the inferences derived from engineering/economic analysis. The source of water, type of cooling system, and pattern of discharge for electric plants constructed during the 1970s or projected to come on line in this decade are reported. In the 1970s in the US, there was a trend away from once-through cooling toward use of evaporative cooling. Freshwater, as a source of supply, and discharge of effluent were standard practice. In the 1980s, almost all new capacity in the states and basins surveyed will use evaporative cooling. It is pointed out that a thorough understanding of industrial water use economics and water markets is a precursor to successful regulation.

Abbey, D; Lucero, F

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Bishop's Bottled Water Free Campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water on Earth #12;Environmental Impacts Recycling...or lack there of! In Toronto alone, as few as 50Bishop's Bottled Water Free Campaign #12;What's the point? Bottled water is deeply embedded not agree with bottled water free campaign, it is important to keep in mind that Bishop's University

428

Texas Surface Water Quality Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Texas Surface Water Quality Standards 30 TAC Chapter 307 Lori Hamilton Water Quality Standards of the water quality standards for a water body will be conducted Types of UAAs Aquatic Life Use (ALU) UAAs 2 procedures in conjunction with Standards revision Before Conducting a UAA Coordinate with your TCEQ project

429

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar panels not enough Generates heat energy Captures heat from generator and transfers it to water Stores Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

430

Water, law, science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

Narasimhan, T.N.

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

431

National Smart Water Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

Beaulieu, R A

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

432

Technology in water conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be accomplished with instruments a#22;ached to pipelines at manholes. #27;ese devices ?listen? to the water #16;ow in the pipe; when they detect the characteristic sound of a leak, they report by radio to permanent or mobile collection points. Even a small... leak can be detected. Rainwater catchment may be a good way to replace water from other potable sources. In some situations, this involves using the simple technology of capturing rainfall runo#21; from a roof or another surface. In a hot, dry...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Cooperating for Cleaner Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to date. TCEQ contracted with James Miertschin & Associates to develop the Leon River TMDL. The company is using a water quality model to mimic the hydrologic conditions on the impaired segment of the river. The Leon River Bacteria TMDL Advisory Group... water quality data during run-off events. Niemann said the TMDL report should be finalized by August 2006. After the TMDL is reviewed internal- ly and a public meeting held, then the TCEQ com- missioners and EPA will examine it for approval. Once...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Fresh Water Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water for Future Generations ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 The demand for water in Texas will soon outstrip our supply. ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Worst yearlong drought... in Texas history. ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Record-breaking wildfires across the state. ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 We must plan for the future. ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas...

Huffman, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Water Success Stories  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradleyBudget Water Power Program1 Water Success

436

Water, Sun, Energy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor ExperimentIrrigatingWater,

437

Apparatus and method to control atmospheric water vapor composition and concentration during dynamic cooling of biological tissues in conjunction with laser irradiations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cryogen spray cooling of skin surface with millisecond cryogen spurts is an effective method for establishing a controlled temperature distribution in tissue and protecting the epidermis from nonspecific thermal injury during laser mediated dermatological procedures. Control of humidity level, spraying distance and cryogen boiling point is material to the resulting surface temperature. Decreasing the ambient humidity level results in less ice formation on the skin surface without altering the surface temperature during the cryogen spurt. For a particular delivery nozzle, increasing the spraying distance to 85 millimeters lowers the surface temperature. The methodology comprises establishing a controlled humidity level in the theater of operation of the irradiation site of the biological tissues before and/or during the cryogenic spray cooling of the biological tissue. At cold temperatures calibration was achieved by mounting a thermistor on a thermoelectric cooler. The thermal electric cooler was cooled from from 20.degree. C. to about -20.degree. C. while measuring its infrared emission.

Nelson, J. Stuart (Laguna Niguel, CA); Anvari, Bahman (Houston, TX); Tanenbaum, B. Samuel (Irvine, CA); Milner, Thomas E. (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that the Limerick plant could withdraw a larger volume of river water. The report also included a description of several other proposed facilities that were planning to use mine pool water. In early 2006, NETL directed Argonne to revisit the sites that had previously been using mine pool water and update the information offered in the previous report. This report describes the status of mine pool water use as of summer 2006. Information was collected by telephone interviews, electronic mail, literature review, and site visits.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

439

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff and fail. Corrosion can cause three types of damage: · The entire metal surface gradually thins and red (Fig. 1). · Deep pits appear that can penetrate pipe or tank walls. This type of corrosion may not add

442

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nutrient loading of surface streams and reservoirs in northwest Arkansas, identifying and evaluating the viability of alternate water supplies using abandoned, flooded coal mines for the City of Greenwood Phosphorus Flux in Streams and Reservoirs: Effect of Chemical Amendments Basic Information Title: Phosphorus

Soerens, Thomas

443

Seminar 4 Water shader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Water shader Na8ve OpenGL project ­ no RenderChimp! · Star8ng point 50x50 Shallow & deep color Waves Fresnel reflec%on Fresnel refrac%on Animated bump mapping · Na8ve OpenGL project #12;Waves · Sum of sines · Form sharper

444

Total Precipitable Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords --Algal Assay/Nutrients/Heavy Metals/Toxicity #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract. i ListArkansas Water Resources Center ALGAL GROWTH POTENTIALS AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS) demonstrated the probable inhibition of algal growth potential by heavy metals in upper Beaver Lake. Upper

Soerens, Thomas

446

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:L\\faps 1.1Siteswhere fish (largemouth bass)tissueHg concentrationwere detetned(from 194 i riversArkansas Water Resources Center SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSE OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION OF FISH have beenconcernsabout mercury (Hg) contaminationin fish in Arkansas sincethe discovFryof the problem

Soerens, Thomas

447

Better Plants Water Pilot- Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy (DOE) is expanding the Better Buildings Challenge to help partners demonstrate successful approaches to saving water and decrease their utility bills. The commercial and industrial sectors account for more than 25 percent of the withdrawals from public water supplies and many organizations in these sectors may have savings opportunities of 20 to 40%. The efficient use of water resources results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. Additionally, because energy is required to transport and treat water, saving water also saves energy. Through this pilot, DOE will work with a small, diverse group of Better Buildings Challenge Partners to expand their resource management strategies to include water in addition to energy, set water savings goals, track progress and showcase solutions.

448

Communication: The length and time scales of water's glass transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled water, I derive the average length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of water's relaxation time is shown to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of water's glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying the change in temperature dependence is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and 10s of nanometers. Elucidating this protocol dependence on the properties of amorphous ice clarifies a number of previous experimental observations.

Limmer, David T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Columbia Water and Light- Residential HVAC Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light (CWL) provides an HVAC incentive for residential customers that are replacing an older heating and cooling system. Customers should submit the mechanical permit from a...

450

Light-Water Breeder Reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

Beaudoin, B. R.; Cohen, J. D.; Jones, D. H.; Marier, Jr, L. J.; Raab, H. F.

1972-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

451

The Energy-Water Nexus: Implications for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ENERGY-WATER NEXUS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY Michael R. Muller Center for Advanced Energy Systems, Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ John F. Gardner Director, CAES Energy Efficiency Research Institute Boise State University... cooling towers!!!! High cost of treatment added to water costs Result = dry cooling towers Reduction in energy efficiency accepted ESL-IE-14-05-21 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...

Muller, M. R.; Gardiner, J.; Muller, M. B.; Shrestha, D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an effort to conserve water, drought-proof operating plants and control costs, the critical relationship of water and energy is clearly exposed. Five years of effort has transpired into countless studies, more than 100 projects and a clear...

Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the campus loops and the building loops. Some optimization of the plant chiller 1 boiler operation is also necessary and beneficial. In general, through Continuous Commissioning, chilled water and hot water loop temperature differences will be improved...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Water Works! Water Resources Engineering and Turbine Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Works! Water Resources Engineering and Turbine Energy Facilitators: Dr. Jairo Hernandez. This energy can be used to generate electricity (dams and turbines), produce mechanical work (wells), as well

Barrash, Warren

456

AGENDA ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit Bi-Annual Update Public Meeting January 22, 2014 5:30-7:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center...

457

Water Quality Criteria for Intrastate, Interstate, and Coastal Water (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Quality Criteria for Intrastate, Interstate, and Coastal Water were created to embody both state and federal law. State law mandates the protection of public health and welfare and the...

458

Santa Clara Water and Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

459

Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. I. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa Univ. of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O.Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Water Scarcity, Climate Change, and Water Quality: Three Economic Essays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

percent being used for municipal purposes, 54 percent for irrigation, 10 percent for industry, and the rest for steam electric and livestock (see Figure 2-1). Ground water accounts for approximately 60 percent of water used, and 79 percent of ground............................................................................................. 125 3.3.4 Regression results ......................................................................... 125 3.3.5 Climate change impacts on water supply...................................... 129 3.4 Climate change impact on municipal water demand...

Cai, Yongxia

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Regulated water production to control water coning in oil wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REGULATED WATER PRODUCTION TO CONTROL WATER CONING IN OIL WELLS A Thesis by ISHWAR SINGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major... Subject: Petroleum Engineering REGULATED WATER PRODUCTION TO CONTROL WATER CONING IN OIL WELLS A Thesis by ISHWAR SINGH Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Committee) (Membe ) (Head of Departmen lVlemb ) May 1975 ( I ABST RACT...

Sim?ha, I?s?vara

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

464

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

Unknown

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can accumulate to harmful levels in drinking water. As radionuclides decay, they emit radioactive parti- cles such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Each type of particle produces different effects on humans. Alpha particles... penetrating, alpha particles cause more damage per unit volume than do beta particles or gamma rays. Beta particles and gamma rays deposit their ener- gy over longer distances. Beta particles can be stopped by a piece of wood or a thin sheet of metal...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

466

ARM - Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmr DocumentationProductsaodsasheniraodAlaskaVisiting theWater Vapor

467

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water

468

Cultural Waters: Values of Water Resources in Hidalgo, Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and meanings. These values and meanings, in turn, have a strong influence on how people use water and how they relate to sources and suppliers of water. My study examined the complex and global challenge of managing water by focusing on cultural values...

Hurst, Kristin

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

469

Taming water waves Case study: Surface Water Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Taming water waves Case study: Surface Water Waves Few things in nature are as dramatic, and potentially dangerous, as ocean waves. The impact they have on our daily lives extends from shipping to the role they play in driving the global climate. From a theoretical viewpoint water waves pose rich

470

II. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Capacity 4. Solvent Properties 5. Dissociation: Acids & Bases / pH II. Organic Chemistry A transport in plants #12;Water has a high specific heat capacity specific heat capacity = amount of energyII. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure 2. Cohesion / Surface Tension 3. High

Frey, Terry

471

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling. . 19 4.4 Electricity from Wind and Solar Photovoltaics 19 4.5 Electricity from Geothermal .

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Impoundment of Surface Waters (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Many water withdrawal projects involve planning and engineering long before any permits are obtained. DEQ's Office of Water Supply is responsible for assisting the public with such planning and is...

473

Water Quality Regulations (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of these regulations is to establish water quality standards for the state's surface waters. These standards are intended to restore, preserve and enhance the physical, chemical and...

474

Water Pollution Control (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the public policy of the state of South Dakota to conserve the waters of the state and to protect, maintain, and improve their quality for water supplies, for the propagation of wildlife,...

475

Waters; General Provisions (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The waters of North Dakota are understood as belonging to the public and may be appropriated for beneficial uses. However, the right to use water in large quantities must be acquired. Entities...

476

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

477

Soil and Water Conservation (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Floridas 62 Soil and Water Conservation Districts were established in 1937 under Chapter 582 Florida Statutes. The law was based on federal model legislation to establish Soil and Water...

478

Spatial Water Balance in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water availability is critical to the economy in the state of Texas. Numerous reservoirs and conveyance structures have been constructed across the State to meet the water supply needs of farmers, municipalities, industries, and power generating...

Reed, Seann; Maidment, David; Patoux, Jerome

479

Community Water Demand in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solutions to Texas water policy and planning problems will be easier to identify once the impact of price upon community water demand is better understood. Several important questions cannot be addressed in the absence of such information...

Griffin, Ronald C.; Chang, Chan

480

Water Development Districts (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The South Dakota Conservancy District is a governmental agency administered by the Board of Water and Natural Resources, but its duties are predominantly carried out by local Water Development...

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Clean Water Partnership Law (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The main purpose of the Clean Water Partnership Law is to provide financial and technical assistance to local governments for the protection, enhancement, and restoration of surface waters. However...

482

Missouri Clean Water Law (Missouri)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The public policy of the state of Missouri is to conserve the waters of the state and to protect, maintain, and improve their quality for public water supplies and for domestic, agricultural,...

483

Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, brackish groundwater, produced water, etc.produced water, etc. Advanced treatmentAdvanced treatment Water© Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on EnergyEnergy--Water LinkagesWater Linkages (The Water Utility Perspective)(The Water

Keller, Arturo A.

484

Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water project was inspired by three historic Chicago engineering feats: the reversal of the Chicago River, the Deep

Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Water-Efficiency Program Prioritization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation outlines water-efficiency program requirements and priorities as presented to Federal agencies by the Federal Energy Management Program.

486

Individual Permit for Storm Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compliance Miscellaneous EPA Submittals Public Meetings Renewal Application Construction Certifications Corrective Action Storm Water Analytical Period Get updates on LANL...

487

Corrections for Water Resources Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrections for Water Resources Engineering (Fourth printing) By Larry W. Mays Corrections as of 4 subcritical flow ..." Chapter

Mays, Larry W.

488

Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a result of free trade, atmospheric transport of trace pollutants, and urbanization. Available waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee Photos courtesy of Dr. Frederick Bloetscher, PE W e are a diverse community of water profes- sionals. We

Central Florida, University of

489

Water Resources Working Group Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Working Group Report This report provided content for the Wisconsin Initiative in February 2011. #12;Water Resources Working Group Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts October 2010 #12;Water Resources Working Group Members ­ WICCI Tim Asplund (Co-Chair) - Wisconsin Department

Sheridan, Jennifer

490

Water Resources Competitive Grants Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Competitive Grants Program Fiscal Year 2012 Request for Proposals Pursuant to Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as Amended Closing Date 4:00 PM, Eastern Time, August 15, 2012 (Institutes) Institute for Water Resources National Institutes for U.S. Army Corps

Virginia Tech

491

Water Resources Competitive Grants Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Competitive Grants Program Fiscal Year 2014 Request for Proposals Pursuant to Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as Amended Closing Date 4:00 PM, Eastern Time, August 15, 2014 (Institutes) Institute for Water Resources National Institutes for U.S. Army Corps

492

Optimization of a Chilled Water Plant Using a Forward Plant Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of some energy conservation measures. This model is based on a Wire-to-Water efficiency concept to simulate the plant power for producing cooling. The fluctuation of the chilled water loop supply and return temperature difference is also considered...

Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Modeling Water Withdrawal and Consumption for Electricity Generation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water withdrawals for thermoelectric cooling account for a significant portion of total water use in the United States. Any change in electrical energy generation policy and technologies has the potential to have a major ...

Strzepek, Kenneth M.

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Illinois Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include: evaluation of water treatment technology, source water protection planning, mitigation of nitrateIllinois Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction The Illinois Water of Illinois water resources. In 2004, IWRC hosted Illinois Water, a biennial conference on water issues

495

Chapter 13 Water Resources Hoover Dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management Water shortage linked to food supply Learning Objectives #12; The global water cycleChapter 13 Water Resources #12;Hoover Dam #12;The Colorado River Basin Population growth Urbanization Climate change #12; Water cycle Water use Surface water and groundwater processes Water

Pan, Feifei

496

Best Management Practice #14: Alternate Water Sources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Many federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternate water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water.

497

State of ISRAEL Water Resources Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supply System #12;State of ISRAEL Complexity of the water distribution system · Different Sources to the main system: ground water, surface water, desalinated water · Utilization of the different sources. Water wells purification and aquifers water quality improvement. Increasing capacity of waste water

Einat, Aharonov

498

Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Many federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternative water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water.

499

2 15.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's Optimisation of Air-Water Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Water Heat Pumps Ziehl-Abegg SE System boundary Improve Air Flow of Fan Improve System Joachim Dietle.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's System boundary Air Flow in Heat Pumps V q d p st p P P L fan )( 1 Relevant for cooling or heating! Optimise heat pump: reduce pressure drop increase

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

500

Painter Greenhouse Guidelines Contact: All emails regarding facilities, facilities equipment, supplies at facilities, or watering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, supplies at facilities, or watering concerns to both the greenhouse manager, Shane Merrell Greenhouses is supplemented by heating and cooling from the main Painter Building. The smaller Painter