National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water cooling water

  1. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  2. Water Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Water Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an...

  3. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  4. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  5. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  6. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  7. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Fanto, Susan V.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  8. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  9. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  10. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  11. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

  12. Water Panel Discussion: Federal Reduction Update & Cooling Water...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Houston, TX November 3, 2015 Francis Wheeler Water Savers, LLC (713) 504-6684 fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Don Hofmann Hofmann Water Technologies (800) 289-1833 hofmann@hwt.com...

  13. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Advanced Cooling Tower Controls |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Cooling Tower Controls Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Advanced Cooling Tower Controls The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified advanced cooling tower controls as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the federal sector, is commercially available, and offers significant water-savings potential. This overview provides agencies with key information to deploy innovative products and systems that may otherwise be overlooked. It also

  14. Candidate Materials Evaluation for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. R. Allen and G. S. Was

    2008-12-12

    Final technical report on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and radiation response of candidate materials for the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept.

  15. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  16. Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors, NERI Proposal No.99-0010. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pimblott, S.M.

    2000-04-01

    OAK B188 Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors, NERI Proposal No.99-0010. Technical progress report

  17. Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape001_wiles_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors

  18. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  19. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those plants that are using reclaimed water for cooling.

  20. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

  1. Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system...

  2. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Electric Chillers Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled electric chillers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Meeting Energy Efficiency Requirements for

  3. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  4. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  5. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  6. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. , Carlson; Bryan J. , Wingo; Robert M. , Robison; Thomas W.

    2012-08-07

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  7. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  8. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including water-cooled electric chillers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  9. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seliskar, Carl J.; Warner, David K.

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  10. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

    1984-02-16

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  11. WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS Gary C . V l i e t , Michael B . Lawson, and Rudolf0 A . Lithgow Center f o r Energy Studies The University of Texas a t Austin December 1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any

  12. Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  13. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  14. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash...

  15. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  16. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  17. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ice Machines Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Meeting Efficiency Requirements for Water-Cooled Ice Machines Federal agencies must purchase water-cooled ice machines

  18. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  19. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  20. Polymer performance in cooling water: The influence of process variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amjad, Z.; Pugh, J.; Zibrida, J.; Zuhl, B.

    1997-01-01

    The key to the efficacy of phosphate and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment (CWT) programs is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in CWT programs can be adversely impacted by the presence of iron, phosphonate, or cationic polymer and influenced by a variety of process variables including system pH and temperature. In this article, the performance of several polymeric additives is evaluated under a variety of stressed conditions.

  1. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  2. Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 2010 | Department of Energy Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010 Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010 Energy and water are both essential to sustainable development and economic productivity. Ample supplies of water are essential to energy production, and water management is dependent on ample supplies of energy for water treatment and transportation. The critical nexus between energy and

  3. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal ORC system | Department of Energy Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water/air cooled condenser with

  4. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lingTowerWaterUseWinterGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  5. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Source: Paul Johnston-Knight Introduction Federal laws and regulations require Federal agencies to reduce water use and improve water effciency. Namely, Executive Order 13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, requires an annual two percent reduction of water use intensity (water use per square foot of building space) for agency potable water consumption as well as a two percent reduction of water use for industrial, landscaping, and agricultural applica-

  6. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E.

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  7. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  8. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su’ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-16

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. The analysis showed that temperatures of fuel and claddings during accident are still below limitations which are in secure condition.

  9. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  10. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  11. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  12. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

  13. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  14. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  15. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  16. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (801 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryIncreased recycling of power plant cooling water calls for low-cost means of preventing the formation of calcium carbonate and silicate scale. Hardness (Ca and Mg) and silica are two of

  17. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five locations--Delaware River Basin (Philadelphia), Michigan/Great Lakes (Detroit), Ohio River Valley (Indianapolis), South (Atlanta), and Southwest (Yuma)--were modeled using an ASPEN simulator model. The model evaluated the performance and energy penalty for hypothetical 400-MW coal-fired plants that were retrofitted from using once-through cooling systems to wet- and dry-recirculating systems. The modeling was initially done to simulate the hottest time of the year using temperature input values that are exceeded only 1 percent of the time between June through September at each modeled location. These are the same temperature inputs commonly used by cooling tower designers to ensure that towers perform properly under most climatic conditions.

  18. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  19. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  20. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  1. Development of Modeling Capabilities for the Analysis of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Michael Z. Podowski

    2009-04-16

    Develop an experimental and theoretical data base for heat transfer in tubes and channels cooled by water and CO2 at supercritical pressures.

  2. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  3. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

  4. EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K– and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

  5. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  6. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  7. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  8. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  9. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  10. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  11. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  12. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  13. A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water Reactor Cooling System Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the United States currently there are approximately 104 operating light water reactors. Of these, 69 are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors (BWRs). In 2007, the...

  14. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  15. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water...

  16. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Paul R. (Tucson, AZ)

    1994-01-01

    A boiling water reactor having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit.

  17. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, P.R.

    1994-12-27

    A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

  18. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

  19. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  20. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment

  1. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  2. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  3. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?°C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  4. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the present fouling experiments for three different cases: no treatment, PWT coil only, and PWT coil plus self-cleaning filter. Fouling resistances decreased by 59-72% for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter compared with the values for no-treatment cases. SEM photographs showed much smaller particle sizes for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter as larger particles were continuously removed from circulating water by the filter. The x-ray diffraction data showed calcite crystal structures for all three cases.

  5. Strategic planning for and implementation of reclaimed municipal waste water as make-up to a refinery cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, W.R.; Mazur, J.J.; Rao, N.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses the successful use of treated municipal plant waste water effluent (Title 22) in a refinery cooling water system. Conversion from well water to this make-up water source was preceded by developing a carefully crafted transition plan. Steps were taken to identify key system performance indicators, establish desired performance goals, and implement stringent monitoring and control protocols. In addition, all possible contingencies were considered and solutions developed. Treating Title 22 waters is very challenging and entails risks not associated with normal makeup waters. Several novel on-line monitoring and control tools are available which help minimize these risks while enhancing tower operation. Performance monitoring of critical system parameters is essential in order to provide early warning of problems so that corrective measures can be implemented. In addition, a high level of system automation enhances reliable operation. Corrosion, scaling and microbiological performance of the system with Title 22 water is discussed in comparison to previous well water make-up.

  6. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  7. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  8. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  9. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  10. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  11. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  12. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin to dominate. Beyond this threshold, higher heat fluxes lead to the boiling crisis and eventual burnout. This predictive capability is essential in determining the critical heat flux margin for the design of complex 3d components.

  13. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially MWW_NF) better treatment alternatives from the environmental sustainability perspective since they exhibited minimal contribution to environmental damage from emissions.

  14. Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

  15. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  17. Foams and surfactants for improved underground storage of natural gas by blockage of water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Jikich, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    Foam blockage to alleviate water coning during the retrieval stage appears to be the simplest, least expensive, and most easily commercialized foam-based technology for improving the underground storage of natural gas. This paper describes effects of injection rate, surfactant concentration, NaCl salinity, and divalent ions on measured aqueous-phase and gaseous-phase relative permeabilities, as well as why these data are needed for modeling the process and designing single-well field tests.

  18. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optimization of hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011....

  19. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  20. Energy-Water Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and

  1. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza; Petrov, Andrei Y; Linkous, Randall Lee; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who...

  3. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  4. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security Home/Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, Energy-Water Nexus, Global, Global,

  5. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  6. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water Vapor Water vapor is the most effective, fastest changing, and least understood of the greenhouse gases. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas; as a matter of fact, it is the dominant greenhouse gas. But scientists don't

  7. Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Colgan, Evan George; Coteus, Paul W.; Hall, Shawn Anthony; Tian, Shurong

    2011-12-20

    A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

  8. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  9. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security Home/Tag:Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis,

  10. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL * Kate McMordie Stoughton - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * kate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water efficiency

  11. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  12. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse osmosis to "super purify" water allows the system to reuse water and cool down our powerful yet thirsty computers. January 30, 2014 Super recycled water: quenching computers LANL's Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, key to reducing the Lab's discharge of liquid. Millions of gallons of industrial

  13. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  14. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  15. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power - NearyFig1 Permalink Gallery University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Water Power University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Sandia Labs Water Power Technologies Department promotes open-source marine hydrokinetic research by disseminating information on MHK technology designs

  16. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Water Power - Water PowerTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-16T18:27:48+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower Optimization Developing tools for optimizing the U.S. hydropower fleet's performance with minimal environmental impact. Technology Development Improving the power performance and reliability of marine hydrokinetic technologies. Market Acceleration & Deployment Addressing barriers to development, deployment, and evaluation of

  17. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  18. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  19. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  20. Development of Mechanistic Modeling Capabilities for Local Neutronically-Coupled Flow-Induced Instabilities in Advanced Water-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Podowski

    2009-11-30

    The major research objectives of this project included the formulation of flow and heat transfer modeling framework for the analysis of flow-induced instabilities in advanced light water nuclear reactors such as boiling water reactors. General multifield model of two-phase flow, including the necessary closure laws. Development of neurton kinetics models compatible with the proposed models of heated channel dynamics. Formulation and encoding of complete coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics models for the analysis of spatially-dependent local core instabilities. Computer simulations aimed at testing and validating the new models of reactor dynamics.

  1. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system....

  2. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  4. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  5. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system

  6. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  7. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infrastructure - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  8. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savings - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  9. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scarcity - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  10. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

  11. An Investigation on an Ethylene Gylcol/Water Nanofluid for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Investigation on an Ethylene GylcolWater Nanofluid for Heavy Vehicle Cooling Applications An Investigation on an Ethylene GylcolWater Nanofluid for Heavy Vehicle Cooling...

  12. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill after heating and cooling. There are

  13. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  14. Water-Using Equipment: Commercial and Industrial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water is an important aspect of many facets in energy engineering. While the previous article detailed domestic related water-using equipment such as toilets and showerheads, this article focuses on various types of water-using equipment in commercial and industrial facilities, including commercial dishwashers and laundry, single-pass cooling equipment, boilers and steam generators, cooling towers, and landscape irrigation. Opportunities for water and energy conservation are explained, including both technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes. Water management planning and leak detection are also included as they are essential to a successful water management program.

  15. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  16. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore,

  17. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  18. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  19. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, choose a water heating system that will not only provide enough hot water but also that will do so energy efficiently, saving you money. This includes considering the different types of water heaters available and determining the

  20. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Reduction in energy and water use for the ethanol industry Ethanol is the leading biofuel in the U.S. with 13 Billion gallons produced in 2010. 1 Distillation is the industry standard for separating water from ethanol and is an energy intensive process, accounting for a signifcant portion of the total energy usage in an ethanol plant. Existing distillation systems also require high volumes of cooling water, resulting in about four gallons of water

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Moving Water and Waves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving Water and Waves Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Moving Water and Waves Objective The objective of this activity is to enable students to demonstrate how wind causes water to move and generate waves and how water pressure causes water to move from higher

  2. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  3. Energy Efficient Condensing Side-arm Gas Water Heater - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fan and the cold water at the bottom of the water tank for cooling. A basic electric water heating tank can be adapted to the Berkeley Lab design. This invention could be...

  4. Y-12 National Security Complex Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Shana E.; Bassett, P.; McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y 12 National Security Complex (Y 12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y 12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements that could be applied not only at Y-12 but at other Federal facilities as well. FEMP selected Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to coordinate and manage the water assessment. PNNL contracted Water Savers, LLC to lead the technical aspects of the water assessment. Water Savers provided key technical expertise in water auditing, metering, and cooling systems. This is the report of that effort, which concluded that the Y-12 facility could realize considerable water savings by implementing the recommended water efficiency opportunities.

  5. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  6. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  7. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  8. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  9. Sandia Energy » Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doe-eere-technologist-in-residence-pilotfeed 0 Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm http:energy.sandia.govsandia-team-attends-world-water-week-in-sto...

  10. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  11. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  12. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  13. Bioenergy Impacts Â… Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  14. Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleveland, J.R.

    1997-03-18

    An apparatus is described for treating water in a circulating water system that has a cooling water basin which includes a slip stream conduit in flow communication with the circulating water system, a source of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit, and a decarbonator in flow communication with the slip stream conduit and the cooling water basin. In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system into the slip stream conduit of the apparatus. The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin. 4 figs.

  15. Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleveland, Joe R.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus (10) for treating water in a circulating water system (12) t has a cooling water basin (14) includes a slip stream conduit (16) in flow communication with the circulating water system (12), a source (36) of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16), and a decarbonator (58) in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16) and the cooling water basin (14). In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system (12) into the slip stream conduit (16) of the apparatus (10). The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source (36) thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator (58) to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin (14).

  16. ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolved Gases in Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water Objective The objective of this activity is to prove that ocean water can absorb greenhouse gases and to demonstrate that what appears to be clear water is actually a complex

  17. Air Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a larger footprint than Water Cooling, but when water restrictions are great enough to prevent the...

  18. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  19. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  20. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of measuring water vapor, making it a prime location for research of this type. The first water vapor IOP, conducted in September 1996, focused on using instruments to measure water vapor and determining the accuracy and calibration of each instrument. The second water vapor IOP, held in September and October of 1997,

  1. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitable water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  2. Parametric study of a silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycle -- The influence of thermal capacitance and heat exchanger UA-values on cooling capacity, power density, and COP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelman, E.C.; Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao

    1997-12-31

    The influence of heat exchanger UA-values (adsorber/desorber, evaporator, and condenser) is investigated for an adsorption chiller, with consideration given to the thermal capacitance of the adsorber/desorber by means of a lumped-parameter cycle simulation model developed by the authors and co-workers for the single-stage silica gel-water adsorption chiller. The closed-cycle-type chiller, for use in air conditioning, is driven by low-grade waste heat (85 C [185 F]) and cooled by water at 31 C (88 F) and operates on relatively short cycle times (420 seconds adsorption/desorption; 30 second adsorber/desorber sensible cooling and heating). The results showed cycle performance to be considerably affected by the thermal capacitance and UA-value of the adsorber/desorber, which is attributed to the severe sensible cooling/heating requirements resulting from batched cycle operation. The model is also sensitive to the evaporator UA-value--but to a lesser extent. The condenser UA-value is the least sensitive parameter due to the working pair adsorption behavior in the temperature range defined for desorption and condensation.

  3. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  4. NDN Water Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NDN Water Summit is a two-day summit to build tribal executive capacity through a strategic series of forums, events, and sharing of documentation and experiences. Speakers will cover topics on water policy, climate change, and more.

  5. Indian Water 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Indian Water is a call to help plan a national water summit. This strategic session consist of a facilitated dialog with tribal leaders on important opportunities, challenges and tactics, which...

  6. Electrolysis of Water

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students observe the electrolysis of water using either photovoltaics or a battery as the electric energy source.

  7. Water | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States Significant opportunities are emerging in the public and private sector to tackle water stewardship: the U.S. Department of Energy has identified the energy-water nexus as an emerging activity that require substantial R&D investment in the coming years, and DOE's Water Energy Nexus report has identified reclaimed

  8. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  9. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  10. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  11. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  12. Water-Heating Dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Water-Heating Dehumidifier Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA small appliance developed at ORNL dehumidifies air and then recycles heat to warm water in a water heater. The device circulates cool, dry air in summer and warm air in winter. In addition, the invention can cut the energy required to run

  13. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rainfall and Water Table

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rainfall and Water Table Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Rainfall and Water Table Objective The objective is to show how an increase of rainfall under climate change can affect the water table and soil salinity underground. Materials Each student or group of

  14. ARM - Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Expansion of Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water Objective The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of thermal expansion of water when heated. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  15. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  16. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NAS Oceana decided to decentralize the heating and cooling system based on the calculated potential energy and water savings of the localized boilers and ground source heat pumps. ...

  17. California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water...

  18. Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Substitute Water Supply Plans Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

  19. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  20. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  1. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  2. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved process for producing gaseous hydrogen and oxygen from water. The process is conducted in a photolytic reactor which contains a water-suspension of a photoactive material containing a hydrogen-liberating catalyst. The reactor also includes a volume for receiving gaseous hydrogen and oxygen evolved from the liquid phase. To avoid oxygen-inactivation of the catalyst, the reactor is evacuated continuously by an external pump which circulates the evolved gases through means for selectively recovering hydrogen therefrom. The pump also cools the reactor by evaporating water from the liquid phase. Preferably, product recovery is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane, while maintaining across the membrane a magnetic field gradient which biases the oxygen away from the heated membrane. This promotes separation, minimizes the back-reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, and protects the membrane.

  3. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

  4. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse...

  5. Oasys Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oasys Water Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oasys Water Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Product: Cambridge-based developer of Engineered Osmosis, desalination and water treatment...

  6. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  7. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power (Redirected from Water) Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum...

  8. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs. Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn

  9. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  10. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  11. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Water Heating September 2, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo...

  12. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge. The science team will conduct a three- year Water Cycle Pilot Study within the ARM SGP CART site, primarily in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The host facility in the Walnut River Watershed is the Atmospheric

  13. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Contact...

  14. Sandia Energy - Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas...

  15. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  16. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, a backward--bent duct buoy (BBDB) oscillating water column wave energy converter design. The team from HMRC included Tom Walsh, Brian Holmes, Florent Thiebaut, Neil...

  17. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Water Power WEC-Sim Code Development Meeting at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  18. Water Success Stories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Water Success Stories en Catching a Wave: Innovative Wave Energy Device Surfs for Power in Hawaii http:energy.goveeresuccess-storiesarticlescatching-wave-innovative-wave-en...

  19. Water Power Program: Publications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Hydropower Market Report Details Bookmark & Share View Related Welcome to the Water Power Program Publication and Product Library. This library will allow you to find...

  20. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  1. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  2. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems:

  3. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  4. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  5. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  6. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater, Surface Water, and Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site December 2013 LMS/RVT/S00913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Riverton, Wyoming December 2013 RIN 13095603 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, Wyoming, Sample Location Map

  8. Apparatus and method to control atmospheric water vapor composition and concentration during dynamic cooling of biological tissues in conjunction with laser irradiations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, J. Stuart (Laguna Niguel, CA); Anvari, Bahman (Houston, TX); Tanenbaum, B. Samuel (Irvine, CA); Milner, Thomas E. (Austin, TX)

    1999-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling of skin surface with millisecond cryogen spurts is an effective method for establishing a controlled temperature distribution in tissue and protecting the epidermis from nonspecific thermal injury during laser mediated dermatological procedures. Control of humidity level, spraying distance and cryogen boiling point is material to the resulting surface temperature. Decreasing the ambient humidity level results in less ice formation on the skin surface without altering the surface temperature during the cryogen spurt. For a particular delivery nozzle, increasing the spraying distance to 85 millimeters lowers the surface temperature. The methodology comprises establishing a controlled humidity level in the theater of operation of the irradiation site of the biological tissues before and/or during the cryogenic spray cooling of the biological tissue. At cold temperatures calibration was achieved by mounting a thermistor on a thermoelectric cooler. The thermal electric cooler was cooled from from 20.degree. C. to about -20.degree. C. while measuring its infrared emission.

  9. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation! YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. 2 The energy in wind can make electricity. We can make energy with moving water. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! Energy Information Administration

  10. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 3.4.2 Power Plant: Construction ............................................................................. 12 3.5 Operations ................................................................................................................. 13 3.5.1 Makeup Water ............................................................................................... 14 3.5.2 Cooling Water ............................................................................................... 14 3.6 Water

  11. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  12. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  13. ARM - Lesson Plans: Sea Water and Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea Water and Agriculture Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Sea Water and Agriculture Objective The objectives of this activity are to help students to understand that even a small rise in sea level can lead to salinization of valuable agricultural land and to

  14. The clean water act -- (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), what it means to utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talt, L.A.

    1996-10-01

    Departing from previous policy, in August 1993 the USEPA`s Water Office recommended that the agency regulate a proposed electric power plant`s cooling pond as a water of the US. At issue was a proposal by Florida Power corp. to build a new electric power plant in Polk County, Florida. A 2,600 acre cooling pond to collect heated and discharged water was included in the proposal. Region 4 USEPA staff asked USEPA Headquarters in Washington, DC to decide whether the pond was exempt from the CWA or a water of the US. The pond could be a habitat for migratory birds according to a memo prepared by Region 4 staff. The USEPA Water Office used the presence of migratory birds to claim a nexus to interstate commerce and therefore concluded that the pond should be regulated under the CWA. Electric power industry proponents have argued that an overly expansive definition of waters of the US may result in any new power plant being required to construct cooling towers. Cooling towers are said to be a more expensive and wasteful method to cool heated water. Region 4 ultimately recanted its earlier position after considerable discussions with various other Environmental Protection Agency offices and, no doubt industry pressure. Florida Power Corp. was not required to obtain an NPDES permit for the cooling pond. The lesson of Florida Power Corp. is that the regulatory environment for utilities can be uncertain under the Clean Water Act even in the face of a relatively straightforward exemption from regulation.

  15. Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-02-19

    A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (nonborated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two water volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

  16. California State Water Resources Control Board Storm Water Homepage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Water Resources Control Board Storm Water Homepage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board...

  17. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  18. Energy and Water Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Letter 2004-02 - FY 2004 Le2islation Provisions (dated March 1.2004) Energy and Water Act AL-2004-02 provides guidance regarding the implementation of Section 30 I. 304....

  19. Water Power News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    858936+791+7+343Water Power News en Energy Department Awards 10.5 Million for Next-Generation Marine Energy Systems http:energy.goveerearticlesenergy-department-awards-105-...

  20. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  1. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  2. Storm Water Individual Permit.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit. Wednesday, January 22, 2014 5:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center 10 Cities of Gold Road, Pojoaque, NM The Individual Permit authorizes...

  3. Electrolysis of Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis of Water Grades: 5-8 Topic: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Solar Owner: Florida Solar Energy Center This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of...

  4. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  5. energy-water interdependency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water interdependency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. Purifying contaminated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  7. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility began on October 27 and ended on November 16, 2003. Researchers David Whiteman and Francis Schmidlin of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Holger Voemel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Larry Miloshevich of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and Barry Lesht

  8. Energy-Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-Water Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  9. Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Water EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation cost-competitive with traditional sources of energy. EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make

  10. Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Water This map demonstrates the potential capacity to generate clean hydroelectric energy at existing non-powered dams across the U.S. Learn more. America has vast wave, tidal and hydropower resources - but much of this energy remains untapped. The Energy Department is committed to driving critical research and development efforts to expand electricity generation from these clean energy resources. This includes investments in existing hydropower facilities to equip them with the necessary

  11. Guide to Colorado Well Permits, Water Rights, and Water Administration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Well Permits, Water Rights, and Water Administration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook:...

  12. Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  13. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  14. Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors called photoelectrochemical materials, which use light energy to directly dissociate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.

  15. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  16. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Water Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Efficiency A photo of water spilling out of a downspout from the roof of a multi-story office building. NREL conserves water in a number of innovative ways. A photo of water passing through a landscaped area. Rain water from NREL's Research Support Facility passes through landscaped areas before discharging into Lena Gulch. To remain resilient in the arid climate of the southwest, NREL is committed to the efficient use of water throughout the laboratory. Best Practices All new buildings on

  17. Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1987-01-01

    A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (non-borated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

  18. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  19. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum Provides the community...

  20. Water and Energy (18 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces students to the properties of water and using water as an energy source with the following activities

  1. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water ...

  2. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Water heating accounts for about 18% of your home's energy use. Reducing your hot water use, employing energy-saving strategies, and choosing an energy efficient

  3. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  4. Service water system failures and degradations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components that are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core-cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units.

  5. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 2_lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Water Transport Exploratory Studies Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda

  6. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater measuring device mounted on the outside of a building wall. As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads, the water heating load continues to grow in importance. This Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing by IBACOS that shed light on

  7. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Industrial Water Use Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Document describes a systematic approach to estimate industrial water use in evaporative cooling systems, steam boiler systems, and facility wash applications. It assists Federal agencies in the baseline development by providing a methodology to calculate unmetered sources of industrial water use utilizing engineering estimates. PDF icon est_unmetered_industrial_wtr.pdf More Documents & Publications

  8. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  9. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  10. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Technology Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Technology Development Conventional Water Power: Technology...

  11. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  12. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower. The introduction of some quantity of deuterium into the gaseous flow before the hot tower lowers the tritium separation factor in that column. One possible variant of deuterium introduction to the hot tower of the first stage was modelled. The decontamination capacity increases by a 2.5 factor.

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2014 Groundwater, Surface Water, Produced Water, and Natural Gas Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site October 2014 LMS/GSB/S00614 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to

  14. Water_Treatment.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Since dewatering at the Weldon Spring site began in 1992, more than 290 million gallons of contaminated water have been treated and released into the Missouri River from two similar water treatment facilities at the site and the nearby Quarry. On September 30, 1999, dewatering efforts at the Chemical Plant site were completed, meeting one of the most substantial milestones of the project and bringing to an end a part of history that was started nearly 5 decades ago. From 1955 to 1966, uranium

  15. Sandia Energy - Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Water Monitoring & Treatment Technologycwdd2015-05-0...

  16. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  17. Alternative Water Sources Map | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Efficiency Alternative Water Sources Map Alternative Water Sources Map The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created the Alternative Water Map to...

  18. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  19. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    2015-04-13

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  20. Federal Incentives for Water Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-05

    This factsheet lists the major federal incentives for water power technologies available as of April 2013.

  1. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    February 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 LMS/GJO/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 RIN 15026795 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Grand Junction, Colorado, Site Sample Location Map

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site September 2014 LMS/GUP/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April and June 2014, Gunnison, Colorado September 2014 RIN 14046058 and 14066262 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site Planned Sampling Map

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado Processing Site October 2013 LMS/NAP/S00713 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-July 2013, Naturita, Colorado October 2013 RIN 13075483 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Naturita, Colorado, Sample Location Map ......................................................................................3

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites December 2014 LMS/SRW/SRE/S00914 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2014, Slick Rock, Colorado December 2014 RIN 14096456 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2016 LMS/SRE/SRW/S00915 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2015, Slick Rock, Colorado January 2016 RINs 15087319 and 15107424 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites November 2013 LMS/SRE/SRW/S0913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Slick Rock, Colorado November 2013 RIN 13095593 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site February 2015 LMS/AMB/S01114 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-November 2014, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico February 2015 RIN 14116607 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Ambrosia Lake, NM, Disposal Site Planned Sampling Map...........................................................3 Data

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2013 LMS/GRN/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2013, Green River, Utah August 2013 RIN 13065402 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Data Assessment Summary ..............................................................................................................7 Water Sampling Field Activities

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2014 LMS/GRN/S00614 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2014, Green River, Utah August 2014 RIN 14066228 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Green River, Utah, Disposal Site Sample Location Map ................................................................5 Data Assessment

  11. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2014 LMS/MON/S01213 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2013, Monument Valley, Arizona March 2014 RIN 13125794 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site, Sample Location Map

  12. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site February 2015 LMS/MON/S01214 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2014, Monument Valley, Arizona February 2015 RIN 14126645 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monument Valley, Arizona, Disposal Site Sample Location Map ..................................................5

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2014 LMS/MNT/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April 2014, Monticello, Utah July 2014 RIN 14046077 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map, April 2014, Monticello, Utah, Processing Site .........................................5 Data Assessment Summary

  14. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2015 LMS/MNT/S00415 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April 2015, Monticello, Utah July 2015 RIN 15046927 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monticello, Utah, Processing Site Sample Location Map ...............................................................5 Data Assessment

  15. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2014 LMS/MNT/S01013 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-October 2013, Monticello, Utah January 2014 RIN 13105661 and 13105711 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map, Monticello, Utah, Processing and Disposal Site, October 2013 ..............5 Data Assessment Summary

  16. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site May 2014 LMS/RVT/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2014, Riverton, Wyoming May 2014 RIN 14035986 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, WY, Processing Site, Sample Location Map ...................................................................3 Data

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and May 2014 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2014 LMS/SHP/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March and May 2014, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2014 RIN 14036011, 14036013, and 14056142 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/SHP/S00315 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2015, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2015 RIN 15036862 and 15036863 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/TUB/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Tuba City, Arizona June 2015 RIN 15026775 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Tuba City, AZ, Disposal Site February 2015 ............................................5 Data

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2013 LMS/TUB/S00813 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-August 2013, Tuba City, Arizona November 2013 RIN 13085553 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map ..............................................................7 Data

  1. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that the Limerick plant could withdraw a larger volume of river water. The report also included a description of several other proposed facilities that were planning to use mine pool water. In early 2006, NETL directed Argonne to revisit the sites that had previously been using mine pool water and update the information offered in the previous report. This report describes the status of mine pool water use as of summer 2006. Information was collected by telephone interviews, electronic mail, literature review, and site visits.

  2. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  3. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  4. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  5. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  6. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  7. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  8. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  9. Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  10. water for energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  11. water service provider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service provider - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  12. Energy/Water History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  13. Energy/Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  14. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and September 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Durango, Colorado, Disposal and Processing Sites March 2014 LMS/DUD/DUP/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June and September 2013, Durango, Colorado March 2014 RIN 13055370 and 13085577 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Sample Location Map-June

  15. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air

  16. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    i WATER CONSERVATION PLAN TONOPAH TEST RANGE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY January 10, 2011 Prepared for: Tonopah Test Range Post Office Box 871 Tonopah, Nevada 89049 (702) 295-8109 Prepared by: Sandia National Laboratories / New Mexico Post Office Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0729 (505) 284-1831 On behalf of: Sandia Site Office Post Office Box 5400 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0184 (505) 845-6036 ii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  17. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Improve Water Efficiency | Department of Energy Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Fact sheet covers the key components of cooling towers and how to improve water efficiency. PDF icon waterfs_coolingtowers.pdf More Documents & Publications Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Side Stream Filtration for

  18. Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

  19. Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water Quality March 27-29, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability WBS:4.2.1.10 May Wu Argonne National Laboratory This ...

  20. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even...

  1. QER- Comment of American Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear QER Team; Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments to the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force to discuss the water and energy nexus, advances in water innovative technologies, and the impact of climate change on water issues. On behalf of American Water, I wish to submit the following White Papers which we have prepared on these critical issues: Innovations in Energy Use Sustainability and Resiliency Planning for Water Utilities One Water Water/Energy Correlation The Value of Water Challenges in the Water Industry: Climate Change Challenges in the Water Industry: Meeting Demand in the West Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Desalination Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Going Green Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Water Reuse Bridging the Water Innovation Gap. Founded in 1886, American Water is the largest publicly traded U.S. water and wastewater utility company. With headquarters in Voorhees, NJ, the company employs approximately 6,600 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to an estimated 14 million people in more than 40 states. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if there is any way American Water can be helpful to your mission. Respectfully Yours, Martin (See attached file: White Papers.pdf) Martin D. Kerckhoff Vice President and Divisional General Counsel Central Division American Water CONFIDENTIAL & PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION This email and any attachments hereto constitute a legally confidential communication from the Legal Department of American Water. The information contained herein is subject to attorney-client privilege and is for the sole use of the intended original addressee. If you are not the intended original addressee, you are hereby notified that any reading, disclosure, copying, distribution, use, or taking of any action in reliance on the contents contained herein is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify us at 314.966.2241 and delete this message from your system. WARNING: Although American Water has taken reasonable precautions to ensure that no viruses are present in this email, it is the responsibility of the recipient to ensure that it is virus free. No responsibility is accepted by American Water for any loss or damage arising in any way from the receipt and/or use of this email.

  2. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  3. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will...

  4. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  5. NREL: Water Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects NREL's water power R&D projects support industry efforts to develop and deploy cost-effective water power technologies and to better understand the value and potential of...

  6. Hydrogen Production: Thermochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermochemical water splitting uses high temperatures—from concentrated solar power or from the waste heat of nuclear power reactions—and chemical reactions to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water.

  7. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries Print Friday, 01 February 2013 00:00 In experiments at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a superthin coating of water-no deeper than a few molecules-to the surface of a barium fluoride crystal.

  8. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  9. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  10. Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Water Conservation Mission The team facilitates the reduction of water consumption intensity at LM sites, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved by LM, as defined in: Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability The team advocates natural resource sustainability by continually improving water use efficiencies. Scope LM and the contractor evaluate, make recommendations, and

  11. Water-Efficiency Program Prioritization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation outlines water-efficiency program requirements and priorities as presented to Federal agencies by the Federal Energy Management Program.

  12. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility: Using reverse

  13. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  14. Hydrogen isotope separation from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

  15. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  16. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  17. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  18. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  19. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  20. Submerged water wheel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisz, J. O.

    1985-11-05

    A water wheel for operating fully submerged in an ocean current has a rotating frame member supported on the ocean floor for rotation about a vertical axis. The frame member supports a plurality of vertically extending vanes, each vane being rotatably supported on the frame for limited rotation about a vertical axis. It has a hydrofoil shape in cross-section with the axis of rotation parallel to the leading and trailing edges. Rotation of the vanes is limited relative to the frame by a hydraulic piston control system and shock absorbers.

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site December 2013 LMS/GSB/S00613 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2014 LMS/RBL/S00514 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RBL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site May 2015 LMS/RUL/S00115 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper,

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RUL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site November 2014 LMS/RUL/S00714 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site March 2014 Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited LMS/SAL/S00413 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S.

  8. Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968...

  9. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What waters does LANL protect? What waters does LANL protect? Rainfall in the Jemez Mountains flows to the Valles Caldera and eastward onto Laboratory lands. August 1, 2013 Reflection in the Valles Caldera RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7252/7599998130_b7aef738b9_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8421/7600000986_ebf8889fc7_t.jpg Enlarge Clean the Past: Water Protection What waters does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters

  10. CHIMNEY FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, M.

    1961-08-01

    A boiling-water reactor is described which has vertical fuel-containing channels for forming steam from water. Risers above the channels increase the head of water radially outward, whereby water is moved upward through the channels with greater force. The risers are concentric and the radial width of the space between them is somewhat small. There is a relatively low rate of flow of water up through the radially outer fuel-containing channels, with which the space between the risers is in communication. (AE C)

  11. USGS Annual Water Data Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by the National Water Information System (NWIS). Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. Data provided include extreme and mean discharge rates.

  12. Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternative water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water.

  13. Water Energy Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Energy Tech Team Water Energy Tech Team Featured Publication Featured Publication Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Report June 2014 Read more Water &amp; Energy Water & Energy Explore an info graphic about the water-energy nexus and the trends that affect it Read more ABOUT THE WATER-ENERGY NEXUS Present day water and energy systems are interdependent. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation. Energy is required to extract, treat

  14. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Application ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Application required for Section 401 water quality certification under the Clean Water Act. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Section 401 Water Quality...

  15. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies ...

  16. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy...

  17. Trees Water People | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trees Water People Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trees, Water & People Place: Fort Collins, Colorado Zip: 80524 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Trees, Water & People develops...

  18. Sandusky Water Filtration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Filtration Jump to: navigation, search Name Sandusky Water Filtration Facility Sandusky Water Filtration Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In...

  19. Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tahoe Water Systems Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

  20. Westlands Water District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Westlands Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Westlands Water District Place: California Sector: Solar Product: Water district in central California which administers...

  1. Category:Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Water Sampling page? For detailed information on Water Sampling as...

  2. Flat Water Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Flat Water Wind Farm Facility Flat Water Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  3. Vidler Water Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vidler Water Company Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vidler Water Company Inc Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89703 Sector: Solar Product: Nevada-based water and land...

  4. Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation This presentation outlines the goals of the Water Heating Standing...

  5. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Acceleration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration Conventional Water Power: Market AccelerationTara...

  6. Water Power Program At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES FY 2017 BUDGET AT-A-GLANCE The Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies ...

  7. Water Efficiency Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Efficiency Case Studies Water Efficiency Case Studies These case studies offer examples of water efficiency projects implemented by federal agencies. They are organized by ...

  8. Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Ground Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Ground Water Commission Place: Colorado Website: water.state.co.usgroundwater References: Colorado...

  9. NREL: Energy Analysis: Energy-Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Analysis of Project Finance Electric Sector Integration Energy-Water Nexus Energy-Water Modeling and Analysis Technology Development and Deployment Energy-Water System Solutions ...

  10. Sunlight + Water = Tomorrow's Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Anne Katherine

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production (BISfuel), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of BISfuel is to construct a complete system for solar-powered production of hydrogen fuel via water splitting; design principles are drawn from the fundamental concepts that underlie photosynthetic energy conversion.

  11. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  12. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  13. Water Resources Data Nevada Water Year 2002 Water-Data Report NV-02-1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Data Nevada Water Year 2002 By Steven N. Berris, E. James Crompton, Joseph D. Joyner, and Roslyn Ryan Water-Data Report NV-02-1 Prepared in cooperation with the State of Nevada and with other agencies UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GALE A. NORTON, Secretary U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Charles G. Groat, Director For information regarding water-resources investigations in Nevada, write to: District Chief, Water Resources Division U.S.

  14. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

    2008-02-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

  15. Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PetrusTakaki, N.

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  16. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  17. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  18. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water Data Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water Data Portal Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects...

  19. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Water power Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post...

  20. Landscaping Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Landscaping Water Conservation April 27, 2015 - 6:39pm Addthis This colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn...

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Q.

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  2. Water Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Energy Water Energy Below are resources for Tribes on water energy technologies. Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydropower Plant This guide aims to give potential developers of small hydropower plants comprehensive information and advice on all necessary procedures for developing a site and includes the key steps to be followed to run a plant. Source: The European Small Hydropower Association. The Law of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy: A Guide to Business and Legal Issues Contains

  3. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  4. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a...

  5. Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Sampling Details Activities (63) Areas (51) Regions (5) NEPA(2) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling...

  6. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  7. Water Quantity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quantity Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQuantity&oldid612364" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  8. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, Nancy E.; Fritz, James S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

  10. Wonders of Water (14 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces scientific concepts of electricity, water, and hydropower to elementary students with the following activities

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  12. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters Watersheds The Rio Grande Buckman Direct Diversion Project Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer...

  13. NREL: Water Power Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Access NREL publications on water power research. Snowberg, D., and Weber, J. 2015. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework. NREL...

  14. Individual Permit for Storm Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    discharges. The Permit establishes target action levels (TALs) that are equivalent to New Mexico State water-quality criteria. These TALs are used as benchmarks to determine the...

  15. Water Energy Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Featured Publication Featured Publication Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Report June 2014 Read more Water &amp; Energy Water & Energy Explore an info graphic about the water-energy nexus and the trends that affect it Read more ABOUT THE WATER-ENERGY NEXUS Present day water and energy systems are interdependent. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation. Energy is required to extract, treat and deliver water for human uses. These

  16. Safe Drinking Water Act and Regulations (EPA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Safe Drinking Water Act is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water.

  17. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Table of ... Assumptions of the RERH Solar Water Heating Specification ...

  18. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management ...

  19. Coordinating Energy Efficiency With Water Conservation Services...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinating Energy Efficiency With Water Conservation Services Coordinating Energy Efficiency With Water Conservation Services Better Buildings Residential Network Program ...

  20. Landscaping Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Landscaping Water Conservation This colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn would use. | Photo courtesy of Jim Knopf. This colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn would use. | Photo courtesy of Jim Knopf. You can design a landscape that conserves water as well as energy. For tips on how to incorporate energy- and water-saving techniques into your landscaping, explore the Energy

  1. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the

  2. Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos reduces water use Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014 The Lab decreased its water usage by 26 percent, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. March 16, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and

  3. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  4. Study of a water-to-water heat pump using hydrocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon zeotropic mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, W.V.; Domanski, P.A.; Muller, J.

    1999-05-01

    This investigation compared the performance of R22 to the performance of propane (R290) and zeotropic mixtures of HFC's and hydrocarbons in a water-to-water heat pump. Baseline testing began with R22 and proceeded to R290, R32/290, R32/152a, and R290/600a. The use of brazed plate heat exchangers arranged in counterflow for both heating and cooling allowed glide matching using the zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. The performance of the system was characterized by air-side capacity, air-side Coefficient of Performance (COP), compressor RPM, and refrigerant conditions.

  5. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  6. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facilityÂ’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  7. Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential Water Heaters Webinar Residential Water Heaters Webinar PDF icon 20110224_residential_water_heater_webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

  8. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C.; Mostofi, Arash A.

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Ĺ, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup ?4}?e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  9. Norm removal from frac water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, James Manio; Matis, Hope; Kostedt, IV, William Leonard

    2014-11-18

    A method for treating low barium frac water includes contacting a frac water stream with a radium selective complexing resin to produce a low radium stream, passing the low radium stream through a thermal brine concentrator to produce a concentrated brine; and passing the concentrated brine through a thermal crystallizer to yield road salt.

  10. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  11. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  12. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

  13. Developing a Water Management Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Efficiency Developing a Water Management Plan Developing a Water Management Plan Developing a Water Management Plan A successful water management program ...

  14. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  15. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

    1994-01-01

    A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

  16. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-07-05

    A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

  17. An Investigation on an Ethylene Gylcol/Water Nanofluid for Heavy Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Applications | Department of Energy An Investigation on an Ethylene Gylcol/Water Nanofluid for Heavy Vehicle Cooling Applications An Investigation on an Ethylene Gylcol/Water Nanofluid for Heavy Vehicle Cooling Applications Use of nanofluids can help reduce radiator frontal area for heavy-duty vehicles and improves fuel efficiency. PDF icon deer08_singh.pdf More Documents & Publications Erosion of Radiator Materials by Nanofluids Overview of Thermal Management Nanofluids for

  18. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  19. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use --

  20. Explore Water Power Careers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Power Careers Explore Water Power Careers America's oldest and largest source of renewable power is water. To this end, the Water Power Program, part of the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office, researches, tests, evaluates, and deploys a portfolio of innovative technologies for clean, domestic power generation from resources such as hydropower, waves, and tides. America's oldest and largest source of renewable power is water. To this end, the Water Power Program, part of the Wind and

  1. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  2. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Patel, Pralit L.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-05-01

    Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal-consumption trade-off in the context of current national policies and regulations that favor decreasing withdrawals (increasing consumptive use), and the role of water saving technologies. The highly-resolved nature of this study both geographically and technologically provides a useful platform to address scientific and policy relevant and emerging issues at the heart of the water-energy nexus in the U.S.

  3. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air conditioners, or other process equipment to the ambient air. Heat is rejected to the environment from cooling towers through the process of evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers use significant amounts of water.

  4. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  5. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  6. Promising Technology: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A heat pump water heater uses electricity to transfer heat from the ambient air to stored water, as opposed to an electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to generate the heat directly. This enables the heat pump water heater to be 2 to 3 times as efficient as an electric resistance water heater.

  7. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  8. NREL: Water Power Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hydrokinetic technologies and hydropower R&D through the U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program. Our activities span a wide spectrum of disciplines, including fluid...

  9. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1995. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    Water resources data for the 1995 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 65 gaging stations; stage only for 40 gaging stations and 6 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 23 gage stations) and 76 wells; and water levels for 217 observation wells. Also included are data for 113 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  10. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1994. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for Louisiana consists of records for stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage only for 45 gaging stations and 6 lakes; water quality for 51 surface-water stations (including 24 gage stations) and 84 wells; and water levels for 209 observations wells. Also included are data for 115 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  11. electricity use to convey water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    convey water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  12. electricity use to lift water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lift water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  13. electricity use to treat water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treat water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  14. Wind & Water Power Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Water Power Newsletter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  15. GrndWaterFlow.book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 THERMAL SENSITIVITY AND VERIFICATION 8.1 Introduction The flow model calibration described in earlier sections utilizes a thermal field based upon calibration of the heat flux at the base of the model domain (Appendix C). In calibrating the heat fluxes with a conduction-only model to minimize residuals between observed and simulated temperatures in boreholes, certain anomalies were identified indicating convective flow. These anomalies indicate that cooler water from near the water table is

  16. ARM - Measurement - Ice water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (mass/vol) of ice water particles in a cloud. Categories Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  17. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water content The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded

  18. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  19. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes vs. Water Distillation for Water Detritiation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC COMPARISON OF WATER-HYDROGEN CATALYTIC EXCHANGE PROCESSES VERSUS WATER DISTILLATION FOR WATER DETRITIATION A. Busigin, Ph.D., P.Eng. April 22, 2014 NITEK USA, Inc. 8439 Leeward Air Ranch CIR Ocala, FL 34472-9261 U.S.A. Tel: (352) 537-0864 Email: abusigin@nitek.com Presentation Objectives Presented at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC 2 * Principles of operation - Elementary separation factors * Historical

  20. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient...

  2. Solar Water Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Water Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarWaterHeat&oldid26719...

  3. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep your energy bills out...

  4. Landscaping Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn would use. | Photo courtesy of Jim Knopf. This colorful water-conserving landscape requires...

  5. Safe Drinking Water Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drinking Water Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Safe Drinking Water ActLegal Abstract The Safe Drinking Water...

  6. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: marine energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last...

  7. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Wave Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  8. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: ocean energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last...

  9. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: current energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last...

  10. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: DOE Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  11. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: CBS Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  12. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Current Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post...

  13. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: community Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post...

  14. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: LCOE Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  15. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Cost Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  16. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: gateway Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post...

  17. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: levelized cost of energy Type Term Title Author...

  18. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: forum Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  19. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Tidal Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  20. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: numerical modeling Type Term Title Author Replies...

  1. POTENTIAL DIMETHYLMERCURY CONCENTRATION IN WATER & ORGANIC CONDENSATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2004-12-28

    This document bounds potential dimethylmercury concentration in water or organic condensate that might form in ventilation systems or cooler tank regions. Dimethylmercury concentrations were extremely low and would be below drinking water standards in the water condensate.

  2. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  3. Marietta Power & Water- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marietta Power & Water provides rebates for electric water heaters ($250) and electric and dual-fuel heat pumps ($150). If both a water heater and heat pump are installed simultaneously, a...

  4. Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for ways to save money on water heating? Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic lays out evergything you need to know about water heating and shares ways to save energy and money.

  5. Placer County Water Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Placer County Water Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: Placer County Water Agency Place: California Phone Number: (530) 823-4850 Website: www.pcwa.net Twitter: @PlacerWater...

  6. Clean Water Act and Regulations (EPA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clean Water Act (CWA; 33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq.) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters.

  7. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  8. Water Impacts of the Electricity Sector (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation discusses the water impacts of the electricity sector. Nationally, the electricity sector is a major end-user of water. Water issues affect power plants throughout the nation.

  9. WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries,...

  10. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  11. Water and Energy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Energy Agricultural irrigation system Agricultural irrigation system The world's water systems are undergoing significant stress. Extreme events and changing weather patterns are overwhelming an already inadequate water infrastructure. At the same time, urbanization, population growth and economic development are increasing demand for energy. Water and energy are tightly intertwined: energy is required to produce clean water and water is required for energy production, for example to

  12. Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, Appliances R&D » Water Heating Projects Water Heating Projects Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Lead Performer: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Stony Brook University - Stony Brook, NY Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Xergy

  13. NETL Research: Energy and Water Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Energy Interface Water and energy are inextricably linked. Because thermoelectric generation and fossil fuel extraction can impact water resources, it is critically important to protect U.S. water supplies while providing the energy needed to power the nation in the 21st century. Through integrated water and energy-related activities, the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Water-Energy Interface program has attempted to address this challenge

  14. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart; Newmark, Robin; Martinez, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick; Tidwell, Vince

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  15. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers electric residential and commercial customers low-interest loans for photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters.

  16. California Water Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for California Water Forms Citation California Water Forms(2009). Retrieved from...

  17. The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ERcomments@hq.doe.gov Comments on the Department of Energy's Quadrennial Energy Review: Water-Energy Nexus The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (Metropolitan) is...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  19. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology ...

  20. Best Management Practice #1: Water Management Planning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful water management program starts with developing a comprehensive water management plan. This plan should be included within existing facility operating plans.

  1. Water-Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Sampling (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Downhole Fluid Sampling Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  6. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)1...

  7. Texas Water Development Board | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Texas Water Development Board Name: Texas Water Development Board Abbreviation: TWDB Address: 1700 North Congress Avenue Place:...

  8. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of...

  9. Oregon Water Resources Department | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Department Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Oregon Water Resources Department Name: Oregon Water Resources Department Address: 725 Summer Street NE, Suite A Place:...

  10. Vermont Water Quality Certification Application for Hydroelectric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Certification Application for Hydroelectric Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Vermont Water Quality Certification...

  11. Geothermal/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Use < Geothermal(Redirected from Water Use) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Grid...

  12. Vermont Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Vermont Water Quality Standards Abstract Vermont 401 Water Quality Certification Policy Guidance for...

  13. Alaska Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Alaska Water Quality...

  14. Geothermal/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Use < Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Grid Connection Environment Water...

  15. Future Bottlenecks for Industrial Water Recycling. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Future Bottlenecks for Industrial Water Recycling. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Future Bottlenecks for Industrial Water Recycling. Authors: Brady, Patrick V....

  16. Water Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    emissions-free, and cost-effective water power open new possibilities for this reliable, renewable resource. Explore EERE's water power success stories below. July 29, 2015 The...

  17. Water Power Events | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Power Events Water Power Events Below is an industry calendar with meetings, conferences, and webinars of interest to the conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic...

  18. Achieving Water-Sustainable Bioenergy Production | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Breakout Session 3-A: Growing a Water-Smart Bioeconomy Achieving Water-Sustainable Bioenergy Production May Wu, Principal Environmental System Analyst in the...

  19. Carderock Circulating Water Channel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Features The Circulating Water Channel is a vertical plane, open to the atmosphere test section with a free surface in a closed recirculating water circuit, variable speed,...

  20. Waterloo Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Waterloo Light & Water Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 478-2260 Website: waterlooutilities.com Facebook: https:...

  1. Wonewoc Electric & Water Util | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wonewoc Electric & Water Util Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wonewoc Electric & Water Util Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (608) 464-3114 Website: www.wonewocwisc.compublicwor...

  2. Cedarburg Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (262) 375-7650 Website: www.cedarburglightandwater.com...

  3. Paragould Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paragould Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paragould Light & Water Comm Place: Arkansas Phone Number: (870) 239-7700 Website: www.paragould.com Facebook:...

  4. Clarksville Light & Water Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clarksville Light & Water Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clarksville Light & Water Co Place: Arkansas Phone Number: 479-754-3148 Website: www.clarksvillelightwater.com...

  5. Modern Electric Water Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modern Electric Water Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Modern Electric Water Company Address: 904 North Pines Road Place: Spokane Valley, WA Zip: 99206 Phone Number: (509)...

  6. Two Rivers Water & Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water & Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Two Rivers Water & Light Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 793-5550 Website: trwaterandlight.com Facebook: https:...

  7. Parkland Light & Water Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Parkland Light & Water Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Parkland Light & Water Company Place: Washington Phone Number: (253) 531-5666 Website: www.plw.coop Outage...

  8. Lockwood Water & Light Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lockwood Water & Light Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lockwood Water & Light Company Place: Missouri Phone Number: 417-232-4221 Outage Hotline: 417-232-4221 References:...

  9. Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 608-897-2505 Website: www.cityofbrodheadwi.usdepart...

  10. Beijing Haohua Rivers International Water Engineering Consulting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haohua Rivers International Water Engineering Consulting Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Haohua Rivers International Water Engineering Consulting Co.Ltd. Place:...

  11. Oregon General Industrial Water Pollution Control Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Industrial Water Pollution Control Facilities Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon General Industrial Water Pollution...

  12. California Environmental Protection Agency Water Resources Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Resources Control Board Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Environmental Protection Agency Water Resources Control Board Place: Sacramento, California Coordinates:...

  13. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Prepared for U.S. Department of ... PNNL would like to thank the Federal Water Working Group of the Interagency Energy ...

  14. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landscaping Water Use July 2010 i Summary Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to develop a baseline for industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water use in fiscal ...

  15. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  16. Microsoft Word - Water Savings Pilot - 20140206.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview WATER SAVINGS PILOT Learn more at energy.govbetterbuildingschallenge The ... demonstrate successful approaches to saving water and decrease their utility bills. ...

  17. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  18. A new approach to water desalination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uses membranes to filter the salt from the water. But these systems require extremely high pressure - and hence, energy use - to force water through the thick membranes, which...

  19. Redlands Water & Power Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Redlands Water & Power Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Redlands Water & Power Company Place: Colorado Website: www.redlandswaterandpower.com Outage Hotline: 970-243-2173...

  20. Testimony Before Senate Energy & Water Development Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reports Testimony Testimony Before Senate Energy & Water Development Committee Testimony Before Senate Energy & Water Development Committee March 21, 2012 Fiscal Year 2013 ...