National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water consumption intensity

  1. Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure C1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) commercial building floor space, 2) energy use based on source energy consumption, 3) energy intensity, and 4) the...

  2. Table C10. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per Square Foot (kWh)","per...

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure R1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) the number of U.S. households, 2) the average size of those housing units, 3) residential source energy consumption, 4...

  4. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet containing detailed data and graphics for specific transportation modes.

  5. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  6. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  7. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  8. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Building Size for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  9. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Electricity (million square...

  10. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  11. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Building Size for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  12. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 1" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total...

  13. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 2" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total...

  14. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  15. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Electricity...

  16. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  17. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  18. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  19. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using...

  20. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  1. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  2. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 3" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total...

  3. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  4. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Fuel Oil...

  5. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects Citation Details ...

  6. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption. ...

  7. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Building Size for Sum of Major Fuels for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  8. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS

  9. Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity...

  10. Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Best Management Practice 13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Many water-intensive processes beyond the Federal Energy Management Program's best ...

  11. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BENEFITS A Motor Challeng NEW WATER BOOSTER PUMP SYSTEM REDUCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY 80 ... General Motors (GM) needed to relocate the facility's city water booster pumping system. ...

  12. Estimating Methods for Determining End-Use Water Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Building Metering Guidance specifies buildings with water using processes and whole building water consumption that exceeds 1,000 gallons per day must have a water meter installed. Below are methods for estimating daily water use for typical end-uses that drive building-level, end-use water consumption.

  13. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 ... New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases ...

  14. Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption Colorado State University Contact ...

  15. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  16. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  17. ENERGY USE AND DOMESTIC HOT WATER CONSUMPTION Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    USE AND DOMESTIC HOT WATER CONSUMPTION Final Report Phase 1 Prepared for THE N E W YORK ... operating data on combined domestic hot water @HW) and heating systems to be used in ...

  18. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  19. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  20. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption March 2012 8.1.2 Average Energy Intensity of Public Water Supplies by Location (kWh per Million Gallons) Location United States (2) 627 437 1,363 United States (3) 65 (6) 1,649 Northern California Indoor 111 1,272 1,911 Northern California Outdoor 111 1,272 0 Southern California Indoor (5) 111 1,272 1,911 Southern California Outdoor 111 1,272 0 Iowa (6) 380 1,570 Massachusetts (6) (6) 1,750 Wisconsin Class AB (4) - - Wisconsin Class C (4) - - Wisconsin Class

  2. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"North- east","Mid- west","South","West","North- east","Mid-...

  3. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"West South Central","Moun- tain","Pacific","West South Central","Moun-...

  4. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West North...

  5. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"North- east","Mid- west","South","West","North- east","Mid-...

  6. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","New England","Middle...

  7. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West North...

  8. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"West South Central","Moun- tain","Pacific","West South Central","Moun-...

  9. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"North- east","Mid- west","South","West","North- east","Mid-...

  10. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 2003","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  11. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone 4","Zone 5","Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone...

  12. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 2003","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  13. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","Over 100,000...

  14. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","Over 100,000...

  15. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","New England","Middle...

  16. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","Over 100,000...

  17. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone 4","Zone 5","Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone...

  18. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 1999","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  19. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 1999","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  20. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping ... As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 ...

  1. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  2. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  3. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  4. Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  5. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  7. "PART 1: ENERGY/WATER CONSUMPTION AND COST DATA"

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adjustment Data Report for Fiscal Years Prior to 2008" ,,,"FY","20XX" "Agency:","Department of X",,,"Prepared by:" "Date:",,,,"Phone:" "PART 1: ENERGY/WATER CONSUMPTION AND COST DATA" "1-1. NECPA/E.O. 13423 Goal Subject Buildings" "Energy Type","Consumption Units","Annual Consumption","Annual Cost (Thou. $)","Unit Cost ($)",,"Site-Delivered Btu

  8. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  9. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. Future U.S. water consumption : The role of energy production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates how meeting domestic energy production targets for both fossil and renewable fuels may affect future water demand. It combines projections of energy production developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with estimates of water consumption on a per-unit basis (water-consumption coefficients) for coal, oil, gas, and biofuels production, to estimate and compare the domestic freshwater consumed. Although total domestic freshwater consumption is expected to increase by nearly 7% between 2005 and 2030, water consumed for energy production is expected to increase by nearly 70%, and water consumed for biofuels (biodiesel and ethanol) production is expected to increase by almost 250%. By 2030, water consumed in the production of biofuels is projected to account for nearly half of the total amount of water consumed in the production of all energy fuels. Most of this is for irrigation, and the West North Central Region is projected to consume most of this water in 2030. These findings identify an important potential future conflict between renewable energy production and water availability that warrants further investigation and action to ensure that future domestic energy demand can be met in an economically efficient and environmentally sustainable manner.

  11. Minimization of water consumption under uncertainty for PC process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is becoming increasingly important for the development of advanced power generation systems. As an emerging technology different process configurations have been heuristically proposed for IGCC processes. One of these schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion for the CO2 removal prior the fuel gas is fed to the gas turbine reducing its size (improving economic performance) and producing sequestration-ready CO2 (improving its cleanness potential). However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be used to obtain optimal flowsheets and designs. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). For the alternative designs, large differences in the performance parameters (for instance, the utility requirements) predictions from AEA and AP were observed, suggesting the necessity of solving the HENS problem within the AP simulation environment and avoiding the AEA simplifications. A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case.

  12. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  13. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  14. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Peng, J.

    2011-02-24

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sets, see below. Abstract The U.S. DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) is a 3-year feasibility investigation focused on accurately evaluating the water cycle components and using...

  16. Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

  17. A High Spatiotemporal Assessment of Consumptive Water Use and Water Scarcity in the Conterminous United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Coleman, André M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Skaggs, Richard L.; Venteris, Erik R.

    2015-08-15

    Increasing demands for energy production and national objectives for securing energy independence from domestic sources of energy, both renewable and non-renewable, are heavily dependent on available water resources. This explicit interdependency between energy production and required water resources is commonly referred to as the “water-energy nexus” The competition for available water resources can, in part, be understood by evaluating the quantity, timing and spatial distribution of water availability and use. The location and timing at which water is available and consumed dominantly affects the extent to which not only energy and water influence one another, but also the greater cross-sectormore » dependencies that for example, influence agriculture, industry, environment, economics, and social well-being. The understanding of water resources and its use, from a spatiotemporal perspective, is critical for shaping future water use policy and management, planning for change-based impacts at the local level, and resolving prevalent issues and priorities now and into the future. To this end, we present a systematic method for both spatial and temporal disaggregation of United States Geological Survey (USGS) annual, county-scale water use data to a consistent 1/8° spatial resolution at a monthly time-step. The utility of this approach and the resulting data are demonstrated by examining water scarcity at varying spatiotemporal resolutions in the context of food and energy security.« less

  18. A High Spatiotemporal Assessment of Consumptive Water Use and Water Scarcity in the Conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Coleman, André M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Skaggs, Richard L.; Venteris, Erik R.

    2015-08-15

    Increasing demands for energy production and national objectives for securing energy independence from domestic sources of energy, both renewable and non-renewable, are heavily dependent on available water resources. This explicit interdependency between energy production and required water resources is commonly referred to as the “water-energy nexus” The competition for available water resources can, in part, be understood by evaluating the quantity, timing and spatial distribution of water availability and use. The location and timing at which water is available and consumed dominantly affects the extent to which not only energy and water influence one another, but also the greater cross-sector dependencies that for example, influence agriculture, industry, environment, economics, and social well-being. The understanding of water resources and its use, from a spatiotemporal perspective, is critical for shaping future water use policy and management, planning for change-based impacts at the local level, and resolving prevalent issues and priorities now and into the future. To this end, we present a systematic method for both spatial and temporal disaggregation of United States Geological Survey (USGS) annual, county-scale water use data to a consistent 1/8° spatial resolution at a monthly time-step. The utility of this approach and the resulting data are demonstrated by examining water scarcity at varying spatiotemporal resolutions in the context of food and energy security.

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 1999 Single-Family Home Daily Water Consumption by End Use (Gallons per Capita) (1) Fixture/End Use Toilet 18.5 18.3% Clothes Washer 15 14.9% Shower 11.6 11.5% Faucet 10.9 10.8% Other Domestic 1.6 1.6% Bath 1.2 1.2% Dishwasher 1 1.0% Leaks 9.5 9.4% Outdoor Use (2) 31.7 31.4% Total (2) 101 100% Note(s): Source(s): Average gallons Total Use per capita per day Percent 1) Based analysis of 1,188 single-family homes at 12 study locations. 2) Total Water use derived from USGS. Outdoor use is the

  20. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  2. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  3. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Residential Water Use by Source (Million Gallons per Day) Year 1980 3,400 1985 3,320 1990 3,390 1995 3,390 2000 (3) (3) 3,590 2005 3,830 Note(s): Source(s): 29,430 25,600 1) Public supply water use: water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers that furnish water to at least 25 people or have a minimum of 15 connections. 2) Self-supply water use: Water withdrawn from a groundwater or surface-water source by a user rather than being obtained from a public supply. 3) USGS did not provide

  5. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Commercial Water Use by Source (Million Gallons per Day) Year 1980 - - - 1985 5,710 1,230 1990 5,900 2,390 1995 6,690 2,890 2000 (3) 7,202 3,111 2005 (3) 7,102 3,068 Note(s): Source(s): 10,314 10,171 1) Public supply water use: water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers that furnish water to at least 25 people or have a minimum of 15 connections. 2) Self-supply water use: Water withdrawn from a groundwater or surface-water source by a user rather than being obtained from a public

  7. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed could be adjusted to meet plant requirements. As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 kWh per year), saving an annual $11,255 in pumping costs. With a capital investment of $44,966 in the energy efficiency portion of their new system, GM projected a simple payback of 4 years.

  8. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  9. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4A. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for All Buildings, 2003 Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures per Building (thousand kWh) per Square Foot (kWh)...

  10. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  11. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  12. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4A. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for All Buildings, 2003 Fuel Oil Consumption Fuel Oil Expenditures per Building (gallons) per Square Foot (gallons) per...

  13. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5A. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons) Total Floorspace of Buildings Using...

  14. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of...

  15. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace of...

  16. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace of...

  17. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  18. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace of...

  19. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings (million square feet)...

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace...

  2. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  3. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  4. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  5. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 2010 Community Water Systems by Size and Type System Size (1) Less than 500 4.9 501 - 3,300 20.1 3,301 - 10,000 28.6 10,001 - 100,000 108.5 More than 100,000 138.1 Total 300.2 Note(s): Source(s): 3,801 416 52,873 1) Population served by each system. 2) Community water systems provide water to the same population year-round. EPA, Fiscal Year 2010 Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics, EPA 816-K-09-004, June 2011. Population Facilities Served (Millions) 29,711 14,031 4,914

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  8. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Part 1. Energy Consumption Data Tables Total Energy Intensity Intensity by Energy Source Background: Site and Primary Energy Trends in Energy Consumption and Energy Sources Part...

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Total Use of Water by Buildings (Million Gallons per Day) (1) Year 1985 1990 1995 2000 (2) 2005 (3) Note(s): Source(s): 1) Includes water from the public supply and self-supplied sources (e.g., wells) for residential and commercial sectors. 2) USGS did not estimate water use in the commercial and residential sectors for 2000. Estimates are based on available data and 1995 splits between domestic and commercial use. 3) USGS did not estimate commercial sector use for 2005. Estimated based on

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Residential Water Billing Rate Structures for Community Water Systems Rate Structure Uniform Rates Declining Block Rate Increasing Block Rate Peak Period or Seasonal Rate Separate Flat Fee Annual Connection Fee Combined Flat Fee Other Rate Structures Note(s): Source(s): 3.0% 9.0% 1) Systems serving more than 10,000 users provide service to 82% of the population served by community water systems. Columns do not sum to 100% because some systems use more than one rate structure. 2) Uniform rates

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Restaurants in Western United States (1) Fixture/End Use (2) Faucets Dishwashing Toilets/Urinals Ice Making Total Indoor Use (3) (4) (4) Building Size (SF) Seats: Meals: Benchmarking Values for Restaurants (6) N Gal./SF/year 90 Gal./meal 90 Gal./seat/day 90 Gal./employee/day 90 Note(s): Source(s): American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water, 2000. 25th Percentile of Users 130 - 331 6 - 9 20 -

  12. Selective breaking of bonds in water with intense, 2-cycle, infrared laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, D. Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dota, K.; Dey, D.; Tiwari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; De, S.; Vasa, P.

    2015-12-28

    One of the holy grails of contemporary science has been to establish the possibility of preferentially breaking one of several bonds in a molecule. For instance, the two O–H bonds in water are equivalent: given sufficient energy, either one of them is equally likely to break. We report bond-selective molecular fragmentation upon application of intense, 2-cycle pulses of 800 nm laser light: we demonstrate up to three-fold enhancement for preferential bond breaking in isotopically substituted water (HOD). Our experimental observations are rationalized by means of ab initio computations of the potential energy surfaces of HOD, HOD{sup +}, and HOD{sup 2+} and explorations of the dissociation limits resulting from either O–H or O–D bond rupture. The observations we report present a formidable theoretical challenge that need to be taken up in order to gain insights into molecular dynamics, strong field physics, chemical physics, non-adiabatic processes, mass spectrometry, and time-dependent quantum chemistry.

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Energy Use of Wastewater Treatment Plants by Capacity and Treatment Level (kWh per Million Gallons) 1 - 5 - 10 - 20 - 50 - 100 - Note(s): Source(s): 673 1,028 1,188 1,558 The level of treatment indicates the amount of processing involved before water is released from the treatment facility. Primary treatment removes solids and oils from wastewater. Secondary treatment uses biological processes to remove organic material from the water. Tertiary treatment includes additional processes to

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2004 Water Use in Multi-Family Housing Units, In-Rent and Submetered Billing (Gallons per Unit per Day) In-Rent Indoor Water Use 143 121 15.3% Note(s): Source(s): Based on a regression analysis on a sample of 7,942 properties at 13 sample locations. Results are significant at the 95th percentile. Aquacraft, Inc./East Bay Municipal Utility District W, National Multiple Family Submetering and Allocation Billing Program Study, 2004. Estimated Savings Estimated Potential Range of Submetering from

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Supermarkets in Western United States (1) Fixture/End Use Toilets/Urinals Other/Misc. Indoor (2) Cooling Total Building Size (SF) Benchmarking Values for Supermarkets (3) N Indoor Use with Cooling, gal./SF/year 38 Indoor Use with Cooling, gal./SF/daily transaction 38 Note(s): Source(s): 25th Percentile of Users 52 - 64 9 - 16 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Two California High Schools Fixture/End Use Toilet Urinal Faucet Shower Kitchen Misc. uses (2) Cooling Leaks Swimming Pool Total Use Benchmarking Values for Schools (3) N Indoor Use, Gal./sq. ft./year 142 Indoor Use, Gal./school day/student 141 Cooling Use, Gal./sq. ft./year 35 Note(s): Source(s): 8 - 20 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Hotels in Western United States (Gallons per Room per Year) (1) Fixture/End Use Bathtub (2) Faucets Showers Toilets Leaks Laundry Ice making (3) Other/misc. indoor Total Indoor Use Number of Rooms Logged average daily use, kgal: Peak instantaneous demand, gpm: Benchmarking Values for Hotels N Indoor Use, gal./day/occupied room 98 Cooling Use, gal./year/occupied room 97 Note(s): Source(s): 25th Percentile of Users 60 - 115 7,400 - 41,600 Based on

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities by Treatment Level and Population Served (Millions) (1) Pop. Pop. Pop. Pop. Pop. 1996 17.2 81.9 82.9 7.7 - 2000 6.4 88.2 100.9 12.3 - 2004 3.3 96.5 108.5 14.6 - 2008 3.8 92.7 112.9 16.9 - Note(s): Source(s): EPA, Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2008 Report to Congress, 2010; EPA, Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress, 2008. 30 7302 5071 2251 115 1) The level of treatment indicates the amount of processing involved before water is released

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Average Water Use of Commercial and Institutional Establishments (Gallons per Establishment per Day) Average Variation % Total % of CI % Seasonal Daily Use In Use (1) CI Use Customers Use (2) Hotels and Motels 7,113 5.41 5.8% 1.9% 23.1% Laundries/Laundromats 3,290 8.85 4.0% 1.4% 13.4% Car Washes 3,031 3.12 0.8% 0.4% 14.2% Urban Irrigation 2,596 8.73 28.5% 30.2% 86.9% Schools and Colleges 2,117 12.13 8.8% 4.8% 58.0% Hospitals/Medical Offices 1,236 78.5 3.9% 4.2% 23.2% Office Buildings 1,204

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Per Capita Use of Hot Water in Single Family Homes by End Use (Gallons per Capita per Day) (1) Fixture/End Use Toilet 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0% Clothes Washer 3.9 10.1 15.5% 27.8% Shower 6.3 16.4 25.1% 73.1% Faucet 8.6 22.4 34.2% 72.7% Other 0.0 0.0 0.0% 35.1% Bath 4.2 10.9 16.7% 78.2% Dishwasher 0.9 2.3 3.6% 100% Leaks 1.2 3.1 4.8% 26.8% Total 25.1 65.2 100% 39.6% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Based analysis of 10 single-family homes in Seattle, WA. Average number of residents per home: 2.6. Aquacraft, Inc.

  1. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  2. Survey Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    purchase diaries from a subset of respondents composing a Household Transportation Panel and is reported separately. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Consumption and...

  3. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as a function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.

  4. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as amore » function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.« less

  5. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Manufacturing Energy Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey (MECS) Steel Analysis Brief Chemical Industry Analysis Brief Change Topic: Steel | Chemical JUMP TO: Introduction | Energy Consumption | Energy Expenditures | Producer Prices and Production | Energy Intensity | Energy Management Activities | Fuel Switching Capacity Introduction The chemical industries are a cornerstone of the U.S. economy, converting raw materials such as oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals into thousands of various products. Chemicals are key materials

  6. Consistency in the Sum Frequency Generation Intensity and Phase Vibrational Spectra of the Air/Neat Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ranran; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

    2011-06-16

    Tremendous progresses have been made in quantitative understanding and interpretation of the hydrogen bonding and ordering structure at the air/water interface since the first sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) measurement on the neat air/water interface by Q. Du et al. in 1993 (PRL, 70, 2312-2316, 1993.). However, there are still disagreements and controversies on the consistency between the different experiment measurements and the theoretical computational results. One critical problem lies in the inconsistency between the SFG-VS intensity measurements and the recently developed SFG-VS phase spectra measurements of the neat air/water interface, which has inspired various theoretical efforts trying to understand them. In this report, the reliability of the SFG-VS intensity spectra of the neat air/water interface is to be quantitatively examined, and the sources of possible inaccuracies in the SFG-VS phase spectral measurement is to be discussed based on the non-resonant SHG phase measurement results. The conclusion is that the SFG-VS intensity spectra data from different laboratories are now quantitatively converging and in agreement with each other, and the possible inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the SFG-VS phase spectra measurements need to be carefully examined against the properly corrected phase standard.

  7. Influence of stress intensity and loading mode on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in primary waters of pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z. . Fontana Corrosion Center)

    1994-05-01

    The steam generator in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of a nuclear power plant consists mainly of a shell made of carbon (C) steel and tubes made of alloy 600 (UNS N06600). However, alloy 600 suffers environmentally induced cracking with exposure to high-temperature primary water. The susceptibility of alloy 600 to integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was investigated as a function of the level of applied stresses and mode of loading. Constant load tests were conducted with specimens prepared from thin wall tubes, and constant deformation tests were conducted using specimens prepared from plates. With tubes exposed to primary water at 330 C, the crack propagation rate (CPR) was found to increase from 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]11] m/s at a stress intensity (K[sub i]) of 10 MPa[radical]m to 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]9] at K[sub i] = 60 MPa[radical]m. CPR obtained using compact specimens prepared from plates were 1 order of magnitude lower than values measured in tubes at the same temperature and in the same solution at each stress intensity. The corollary was that values of crack propagation and threshold stress intensities obtained using compact specimens could not be extrapolated to the behavior of thin wall tubes.

  8. US ENC MI Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin All data from EIA's 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey www.eia.govconsumptionresidential Space heating Water ...

  9. US ENC WI Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin All data from EIA's 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey www.eia.govconsumptionresidential Space heating Water ...

  10. US ENC IL Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin All data from EIA's 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey www.eia.govconsumptionresidential Space heating Water ...

  11. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Region for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  12. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption Natural Gas Expenditures per Building (thousand cubic feet) per Square Foot (cubic feet) Distribution of Building-Level Intensities (cubic feetsquare foot) 25th...

  13. Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The industrial sector comprises manufacturing and other nonmanufacturing industries not included in transportation or services. Manufacturing includes 18 industry sectors, generally defined at the...

  14. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source:...

  15. Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Water Conservation Mission The team facilitates the reduction of water consumption intensity at LM sites, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved by LM, as defined in: Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability The team advocates natural resource sustainability by continually improving water use efficiencies. Scope LM and the contractor evaluate, make recommendations, and

  16. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  17. 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Detailed Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption and Expenditures Tables Table C1. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel ............................................... 124 Table C2. Total Energy Expenditures by Major Fuel................................................ 130 Table C3. Consumption for Sum of Major Fuels ...................................................... 135 Table C4. Expenditures for Sum of Major Fuels....................................................... 140 Table C5. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by

  18. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1991--Combined Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    call 202-586-8800 for help. Return to Energy Information Administration Home Page. Home > Energy Users > Manufacturing > Consumption and Fuel Switching Manufacturing Consumption of...

  19. US SoAtl GA Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia All data from EIA's 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey www.eia.govconsumptionresidential Space heating Water ...

  20. US Mnt(S) AZ Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Mnt(S)) STATES INCLUDED: Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico All data from EIA's 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey www.eia.govconsumptionresidential Space heating Water ...

  1. Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-07-29

    Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

  2. Table 2b. Relative Standard Errors for Electricity Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Relative Standard Errors for Electricity Table 2b. Relative Standard Errors for Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square Foot, Specific to Occupied and...

  3. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (MECS) > MECS 1994 Combined Consumption and Fuel Switching Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey 1994 (Combined Consumption and Fuel Switching) Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

  4. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance » Better Plants » Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the program's reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time. Most of the calculation steps described

  5. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  6. Effects of pH and stress intensity on crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in lithiated + borated water at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; McIlree, A.R.

    1992-12-31

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking studies were performed on Alloy 600. Constant load tests were conducted at 330 and 350{degrees}C in solutions containing dissolved hydrogen, boric acid (0 < B < 1200 ppm) and lithium hydroxide (0 < Li < 10 ppm). In the PWR working conditions range, that is, 6.9 < pH < 7.4 (or 0.5 ppm < Li < 3.5), there is little effect of the solution pH on the intergranular crack growth rate (IGSCC). However, there is a strong influence of the stress intensity on the IGSCC. K{sub ISCC} {approx} 5-10 MPa{radical}m. Dissolution plays an important role in the IGSCC process.

  7. Time series monitoring of water quality and microalgal diversity in a tropical bay under intense anthropogenic interference (SW coast of the Bay of Bengal, India)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaik, Aziz ur Rahman; Biswas, Haimanti; Reddy, N.P.C.; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.

    2015-11-15

    In recent decades, material fluxes to coastal waters from various land based anthropogenic activities have significantly been enhanced around the globe which can considerably impact the coastal water quality and ecosystem health. Hence, there is a critical need to understand the links between anthropogenic activities in watersheds and its health. Kakinada Bay is situated at the SW part of the Bay of Bengal, near to the second largest mangrove cover in India with several fertilizer industries along its bank and could be highly vulnerable to different types of pollutants. However, virtually, no data is available so far reporting its physicochemical status and microalgal diversity at this bay. In order to fill this gap, we conducted three time series observations at a fixed station during January, December and June 2012, at this bay measuring more than 15 physical, chemical and biological parameters in every 3 h over a period of 36 h in both surface (0 m) and subsurface (4.5 m) waters. Our results clearly depict a strong seasonality between three sampling months; however, any abnormal values of nutrients, biological oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen level was not observed. A Skeletonema costatum bloom was observed in December which was probably influenced by low saline, high turbid and high Si input through the river discharge. Otherwise, smaller diatoms like Thalassiosira decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Thalassionema nitzschioides dominated the bay. It is likely that the material loading can be high at the point sources due to intense anthropogenic activities, however, gets diluted with biological, chemical and physical processes in the offshore waters. - Highlights: • No signature of enormous nutrient loading was observed over the diel cycle • Dissolved oxygen and BOD concentrations did not show any exceptional trend • Diatoms dominated more than 90% of the total phytoplankton communities • A Skeletonema Costatum (a centric diatom) bloom was

  8. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Full Report Tables National estimates and analysis of energy consumption by fuel (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district...

  9. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption and Expenditures Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Consumption Wood and Solar Energy Consumption Fuel Oil and District Heat Consumption Energy Consumption in...

  10. National Lighting Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Energy National Lighting Energy Consumption Consumption 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all commercial buildings in commercial buildings in 2001 2001 LED (<.1% ) Incandescent 40% HID 22% Fluorescent 38% Lighting Energy Consumption by Lighting Energy Consumption by Breakdown of Lighting Energy Breakdown of Lighting Energy Major Sector and Light Source Type Major Sector and Light Source Type Source: Navigant Consulting, Inc., U.S. Lighting

  11. Residential Energy Consumption Survey:

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... ...*...,,.<,<,...,,.,,.,,. 97 Table 6. Residential Fuel Oil and Kerosene Consumption and Expenditures April 1979 Through March 1980 Northeast...

  12. All Consumption Tables.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4) June 2007 State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2004 2004 Consumption Summary Tables Table S1. Energy Consumption Estimates by Source and End-Use Sector, 2004...

  13. Table 2.11 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End Use, 2003 (Trillion Btu) End Use Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office ...

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  16. Office Buildings - Energy Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Office buildings consumed more than 17 percent of the total energy used by the commercial buildings sector (Table 4). At least half of total energy, electricity,...

  17. Energy Information Agency's 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Tables

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy use intensities in commercial buildings vary widely and depend on activity and climate, as shown in this data table, which was derived from the Energy Information Agency's 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey.

  18. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) - Analysis & Projections -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Data Show Large Reductions in Both Manufacturing Energy Use and the Energy Intensity of Manufacturing Activity between 2002 and 2010 MECS 2010 - Release date: March 19, 2013 Total energy consumption in the manufacturing sector decreased by 17 percent from 2002 to 2010 (Figure 1), according to data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). line chart:air

  19. Delivered Energy Consumption Projections by Industry in the Annual Energy Outlook 2002

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents delivered energy consumption and intensity projections for the industries included in the industrial sector of the National Energy Modeling System.

  20. dist_hot_water.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    District Hot Water Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) ... District Hot Water Usage Was district hot water delivered to the building during the ...

  1. DOE/EIA-0321/HRIf Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    purchase diaries from a subset of respondents composing a Household Transportation Panel and is reported separately. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Consumption and...

  2. Water or Mineral FINAL.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    understanding of the various definitions of geothermal resources and water resources. ... and Corrie E Clark. 2014. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water ...

  3. US WNC MO Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to historically lower residential electricity prices in the state. * Missouri ... CONSUMPTION BY END USE Consumption of energy for the four major end uses in Missouri homes is ...

  4. US ESC TN Site Consumption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption for Tennessee households is 33% ... CONSUMPTION BY END USE Compared to other areas of the United States, the warmer ...

  5. EIA Energy Efficiency-Iron and Steel Energy Intensity, 1998-2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Intensity Table 5a. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes per Value of Production html table 5a. excel table 5a. pdf table 5. Table 5b. Consumption of Energy for All...

  6. Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Appendix C - Summary of Water Consumption for Electricity Generation Technologies ... are on the low end of the water consumption spectrum, as illustrated here. ...

  7. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Manufacturing Energy Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey (MECS) Steel Analysis Brief Steel Industry Analysis Brief Change Topic: Steel | Chemical JUMP TO: Introduction | Energy Consumption | Energy Expenditures | Producer Prices and Production | Energy Intensity | Energy Management Activities Introduction The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of construction, transportation, manufacturing, and a variety of consumer products. It is the backbone of bridges, skyscrapers,

  8. International Energy Outlook 2016-Industrial sector energy consumption -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration 7. Industrial sector energy consumption print version Overview The industrial sector uses more delivered energy [294] than any other end-use sector, consuming about 54% of the world's total delivered energy. The industrial sector can be categorized by three distinct industry types: energy-intensive manufacturing, nonenergy-intensive manufacturing, and nonmanufacturing (Table 7-1). The mix and intensity of fuels consumed in the industrial sector vary across

  9. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  10. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D.

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  11. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  12. water-management | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Water Withdrawal Coal Fired Units - County Level U.S Water Consumption Coal Fired Units ... Thermoelectric power plant water consumption is slated to increase from 3 percent (1995 ...

  13. Health Care Buildings: Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption Tables Sum of Major Fuel Consumption by Size and Type of Health Care Building Total (trillion Btu) per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) Dollars per...

  14. US ENC WI Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    electricity consumption in the state low relative to other parts of the U.S. * Wisconsin homes are typically larger and older than homes in other states. CONSUMPTION BY END USE ...

  15. US WSC TX Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption per Texas home is 26% higher than ... CONSUMPTION BY END USE Compared to other areas of the United States, the warmer ...

  16. US ENC MI Site Consumption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    site electricity consumption in the state low relative to other parts of the U.S. * Michigan homes are typically older than homes in other states. CONSUMPTION BY END USE Since ...

  17. US ENC IL Site Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    electricity consumption in the state low relative to other parts of the U.S. * Over 80% of Illinois households use natural gas as their main space heating fuel. CONSUMPTION BY END ...

  18. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  19. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    loads account for an increasingly large portion of commercial electricity consumption. ... This includes analysis of their unit energy consumption and annual electricity consumption ...

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.1 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    0 2003 Commercial Primary Energy Consumption Intensities, by Principal Building Type Consumption Percent of Total | Consumption Percent of Total Building Type (thousand Btu/SF) Consumption | Building Type (thousand Btu/SF) Consumption Health Care 345.9 8% | Education 159.0 11% Inpatient 438.8 6% | Service 151.6 4% Outpatient 205.9 2% | Food Service 522.4 6% Food Sales 535.5 5% | Religious Worship 77.0 2% Lodging 193.1 7% | Public Order and Safety 221.1 2% Office 211.7 19% | Warehouse and Storage

  1. Quality problems in waters used for drinking purposes in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funari, E.; Bastone, A.; Bottoni, P.; De Donno, D.; Donati, L. )

    1991-12-01

    With a grant from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) promoted and coordinated some activities aimed at determining the extent and the intensity of contamination of waters used for human consumption by some chemical agents, and describing causes and modalities of contamination and human health implications. The chemical agents examined were herbicides, nitrates, trihalomethanes, asbestos, manganese and fluoride. In this paper a first nationwide picture of these problems is reported.

  2. DOETEIAO32l/2 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    purchase diaries from a subset of respondents comprising a Household Transportation Panel and is reported separately. * Wood used for heating. Although wood consumption data...

  3. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  4. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administrations second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  5. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or commercial trucks (See Table 1). Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 5 The 1991 RTECS count includes vehicles that were owned or used...

  6. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of vehicles in the residential sector. Data are from the 1991 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey. The "Glossary" contains the definitions of terms used in the...

  7. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas to Residual Fuel Oil, by Industry Group and Selected Industries, 1994 369 Energy Information AdministrationManufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 SIC Residual...

  8. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 December 1993 Release Next Update: August 1997. Based on the 1991...

  9. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Detailed Tables 28 Energy Information AdministrationManufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 1. In previous MECS, the term "primary energy" was used to denote the "first use" of...

  10. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility ...

  11. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) - U.S. Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration (EIA) Estimation of Energy End-use Consumption CBECS 2012 - Release date: March 18, 2016 2012 CBECS The energy end-use consumption tables for the 2012 CBECS (Detailed Tables E1-E 11) provide estimates of the amount of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat used for ten end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, water heating, lighting, cooking, refrigeration, computing (including servers), office equipment, and other uses. Although details vary

  12. US WNC MO Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    WNC MO Site Consumption million Btu 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 US WNC MO ... 9,000 12,000 15,000 US WNC MO Site Consumption kilowatthours 0 300 600 900 1,200 ...

  13. US WSC TX Site Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    WSC TX Site Consumption million Btu 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 US WSC TX ... 8,000 12,000 16,000 US WSC TX Site Consumption kilowatthours 0 500 1,000 1,500 ...

  14. US NE MA Site Consumption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NE MA Site Consumption million Btu 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 US NE MA ... 8,000 10,000 12,000 US NE MA Site Consumption kilowatthours 0 250 500 750 1,000 ...

  15. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    lighting intensities per lighted square foot-hour (Figure 23). * Food service and health care buildings had the highest water-heating intensities per square foot--more than...

  16. Measuring Arithmetic Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Arithmetic intensity is a measure of floating-point operations (FLOPs) performed by a given code (or code section) relative to the amount of memory accesses (Bytes) that are required to support those operations. It is most often defined as a FLOP per Byte ratio (F/B). This application note provides a methodology for determining arithmetic intensity using Intel's Software Development Emulator Toolkit (SDE) and VTune Amplifier (VTune)

  17. US ESC TN Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ESC TN Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US ESC TN Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 4,000 8,000 12,000 16,000 US ESC TN Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $400 $800 $1,200 $1,600 US ESC TN Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household * Tennessee households consume an average of 79 million Btu per year, about 12% less than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption for Tennessee households is 33%

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.1 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 2003 Commercial Delivered Energy Consumption Intensities, by Ownership of Unit (1) Ownership Nongovernment Owned 85.1 72% Owner-Occupied 87.3 35% Nonowner-Occupied 88.4 36% Government Owned 105.3 28% 100% Note(s): Source(s): Consumption (thousand Btu/SF) 1) Mall buildings are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures: Consumption and Expenditures Tables, June 2006,

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.1 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    8 Commercial Delivered Energy Consumption Intensities, by Vintage Consumption per Year Constructed Square Foot (thousand Btu/SF) Prior to 1960 84.4 23% 1960 to 1969 91.5 12% 1970 to 1979 97.0 18% 1980 to 1989 100.0 19% 1990 to 1999 90.3 19% 2000 to 2003 81.6 8% Average 91.0 Source(s): EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures: Consumption and Expenditures Tables, Oct. 2006, Table C1a

  20. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for 1994, will continue the 3-year cycle. The RTECS, a subsample of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), is an integral part of a series of surveys designed by...

  1. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.8 17.4 18.6 18.9 1.7 2.2 0.6 1.5 Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 15 Vehicle Miles Traveled per Vehicle (Thousand) . . . . . . . . ....

  2. US NE MA Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the U.S. However, spending on electricity is closer to the national average due to higher prices in New England. CONSUMPTION BY END USE Since the weather in Massachusetts and New ...

  3. 2014 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U S C E N S U S B U R E A U 2014 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey Sponsored by the Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Administered and Compiled by ...

  4. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2(94) Distribution Category UC-950 Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 December 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of...

  5. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  6. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION residential; Residential Buildings; ARBI; Building America; TRNSYS; multifamily; domestic hot water; solar water ...

  7. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key ...

  8. Community Energy Consumption Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-21

    The TDIST3 program performs an analysis of large integrated community total energy systems (TES) supplying thermal and electrical energy from one or more power stations. The program models the time-dependent energy demands of a group of representative building types, distributes the thermal demands within a thermal utility system (TUS), simulates the dynamic response of a group of power stations in meeting the TUS demands, and designs an optimal base-loaded (electrically) power plant and thermal energymore » storage reservoir combination. The capital cost of the TES is evaluated. The program was developed primarily to analyze thermal utility systems supplied with high temperature water (HTW) from more than one power plant. The TUS consists of a transmission loop and secondary loops with a heat exchanger linking each secondary loop to the transmission loop. The power stations electrical output supplies all community buildings and the HTW supplies the thermal demand of the buildings connected through the TUS, a piping network. Basic components of the TES model are one or more power stations connected to the transmission loop. These may be dual-purpose, producing electricity and HTW, or just heating plants producing HTW. A thermal storage reservoir is located at one power station. The secondary loops may have heating plants connected to them. The transmission loop delivers HTW to local districts; the secondary loops deliver the energy to the individual buildings in a district.« less

  9. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End ... 11:05:14 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  10. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 12:00:19 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  11. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 7:09:38 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  12. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 1:24:58 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  13. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003 All Buildings Using Electricity Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures Number of Buildings...

  14. Energy Information Administration - Transportation Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Transportation Energy Consumption Surveys energy used by vehicles EIA conducts numerous energy-related surveys and other information programs. In general, the...

  15. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1992 Consumption and Expenditures 1992 Consumption & Expenditures Overview Full Report Tables National estimates of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat...

  16. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of...

  17. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  18. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures by Census Division, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number...

  19. US SoAtl VA Site Consumption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption and costs are higher for Virginia ... CONSUMPTION BY END USE While Virginia's weather is similar to the national average, ...

  20. ,"California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Consumption by End ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  1. ,"Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End ... 6:36:11 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  2. ,"Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 7:09:53 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  3. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003 All Buildings Using Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Consumption Fuel Oil Expenditures Number of Buildings (thousand)...

  4. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By ... full advantage of op- portunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. ...

  5. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) - Analysis...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) project cycle spans at least ... Data collection for the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) took ...

  6. Vehicle Energy Consumption and Performance Analysis | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consumption and Performance Analysis Vehicle Energy Consumption and Performance Analysis Argonne researchers have applied their expertise in modeling, simulation and control to ...

  7. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 12:00:27 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  8. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3010WV2" "Date","West Virginia Natural Gas Residential Consumption ...

  9. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End ... 11:05:20 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  10. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3035WV2" "Date","West Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Consumption ...

  11. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  12. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  13. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption ... 9:10:34 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption ...

  14. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption ... 9:10:33 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption ...

  15. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 7:09:42 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  16. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Patel, Pralit L.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-05-01

    Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal-consumption

  17. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 4.4 Legislation Affecting Energy Consumption of Federal Buildings and Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Provisions Affecting Energy Consumption in Federal Buildings Source(s): Standard Relating to Solar Hot Water - Requires new Federal buildings, or Federal buildings undergoing major renovations, to meet at least 30 percent of hot water demand through the use of solar hot water heaters, if cost-effective. [Section 523] Federally-Procured Appliances with Standby Power - Requires all Federal agencies to procure appliances with standby power consumption

  19. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  20. West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  1. Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  2. West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption ...

  3. Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  4. New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption New York Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  5. New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  6. New Jersey Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New Jersey Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  7. New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  8. New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  9. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption North Dakota Natural Gas Consumption ...