National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wastewater treatment systems

  1. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Treatment Plants CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants There are important issues to consider when selecting a CHP technology, such as ...

  2. OAR 340-071 - On Site Wastewater Treatment Systems Definitions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 - On Site Wastewater Treatment Systems Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: OAR 340-071 - On Site...

  3. Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Benefits Wastewater Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants, Farms, and Landfills - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Benefits Wastewater Treatment Plants, Farms, and Landfills Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Argonne&rsquo;s Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System &mdash; Process Schematic.</p> Argonne's Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System - Process Schematic.

  4. Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated

  5. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  6. Sandusky Wastewater Treatment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Treatment Jump to: navigation, search Name Sandusky Wastewater Treatment Facility Sandusky Wastewater Treatment Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility...

  7. Novel wastewater treatment processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saber, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Few fermentation processes are as versatile as anaerobic digestion in terms of utility, application and capability to handle feeds of varied chemical complexity and physical characteristics. The anaerobic digestion process has served the pollution control industry in the US for over 100 years in stabilizing organic sludges and wastewaters; treatment of these high-moisture-content and high-strength aqueous wastes by alternative thermal or aerobic biological processes requires much higher energy inputs than that needed to conduct anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential application for energy and chemical production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial and rural settings. Using processes based upon the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes, the Institute of Gas Technology has developed technologies applicable for the treatment of a wide variety of organic wastes. Increased methane gas production and enhanced waste reduction can be achieved through the ACIMET, SOLCON and HIMET Processes, depending upon concentration and characteristics of the incoming organic waste stream. These proprietary IGT waste treatment systems are described.

  8. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  9. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants November 7, 2007 Denver, Colorado Paul Lemar Jr., President pll@rdcnet.com www.rdcnet.com www.distributed-generation.com Reciprocating Engines for ADG and LFG z Reciprocating engines are either Otto (spark ignition) or Diesel (compression ignition) cycle systems z Natural gas engines, as well as those powered by ADG or LFG, are typically spark ignition systems z Some dual fuel engines have been developed using ADG/LFG with a portion of diesel

  10. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  11. Field's Point Wastewater Treatment Facility (Narragansett Bay...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field's Point Wastewater Treatment Facility (Narragansett Bay Commission) Jump to: navigation, search Name Field's Point Wastewater Treatment Facility (Narragansett Bay Commission)...

  12. Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on 320 kW fuel cell and microturbine power plants at Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant in Portland, Oregon.

  13. K-1435 Wastewater Treatment System for the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Wastewater at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Ch.A.; Tiepel, E.W.; Swientoniewski, M.D.; Crow, K.R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design and performance of a wastewater treatment system installed to support the operation of a hazardous waste incinerator. The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator (TSCAI), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), is designed and permitted to treat Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes including characteristic and listed wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mixed waste. The incinerator process generates acidic gases and particulates which consist of salts, metals, and radionuclides. These off-gases from the incinerator are treated with a wet off-gas scrubber system. The recirculated water is continuously purged (blow down), resulting in a wastewater to be treated. Additional water sources are also collected on the site for treatment, including storm water that infiltrates into diked areas and fire water from the incinerator's suppression system. To meet regulatory requirements for discharge, a wastewater treatment system (WWTS) was designed, constructed, and operated to treat these water sources. The WWTS was designed to provide for periodic fluctuation of contaminant concentrations due to various feed streams to the incinerator. Blow down consists of total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), encompassing metals, radionuclide contamination and trace organics. The system design flow rate range is 7.95 to 17 cubic meters per hour (m3/hr) (35 to 75 gallons per minute; gpm). The system is designed with redundancy to minimize time off-line and to reduce impacts to the TSCAI operations. A novel treatment system uses several unit operations, including chemical feed systems, two-stage chemical reaction treatment, micro-filtration, sludge storage and dewatering, neutralization, granular activated carbon, effluent neutralization, and a complete programmable logic controller (PLC) and human-machine interface (HMI) control system. To meet the space requirements and to provide portability of the WWTS to other applications, the system was installed in three, over-the-road semi trailers, and interconnected with piping and power. Trailers were oriented on a small site footprint to facilitate ease of installation. A remote sump pump skid was provided to convey water from two holding sumps adjacent to the treatment process. An accumulation tank and pump were also provided to receive miscellaneous wastewaters for treatment if they meet the waste acceptance criteria. The paper will include details of the technology used in the design, the requirements for compliance, and the initial performance demonstration and jar testing results. The WWTS successfully allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment with compliant discharge to off-site surface water. (authors)

  14. K-1435 Wastewater Treatment System for the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Wastewater at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swientoniewski M.D.

    2008-02-24

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a wastewater treatment system installed to support the operation of a hazardous waste incinerator. The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator (TSCAI), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), is designed and permitted to treat Resource ConservatioN and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes including characteristic and listed wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mixed waste. the incinerator process generates acidic gases and particulates which consist of salts, metals, and radionuclides. These off-gases from the incinerator are treated with a wet off-gas scrubber system. The recirculated water is continuously purged (below down), resulting in a wastewater to be treated. Additional water sources are also collected on the site for treatment, including storm water that infiltrates into diked areas and fire water from the incinerator's suppression system. To meet regulatory requirements for discharge, a wastewater treatment system (WWTS) was designed, constructed, and operated to treat these water sources. The WWTS was designed to provide for periodic fluctuation of contaminant concentrations due to various feed streams to the incinverator. Blow down consists of total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), encompassing metals, radionuclide contamination and trace organics. The system design flow rate range is 35 to 75 gallons per minute (gpm). The system is designed with redundancy to minimize time off-line and to reduce impacts to the TSCAI operations. A novel treatment system uses several unit operations, including chemical feed systems, two-stage chemical reaction treatment, microfiltration, sludge storage and dewatering, neutralization, granular activated carbon, effluent neutralization, and a complete programmable logic controller (PLC) and human-machine interface (HMI) control system. To meet the space requirements and to provide portability of the WWTS to other applications, the system was installed in three, over-the-road semi trailers, and interconnected with piping and power. Trailers were oriented on a small site footprint to facilitate ease of installation. A remote sump pump skid was provided to convey water from two holding sumps adjacent to the treatment process. An accumulation tank and pump were also provided to receive miscellaneous wastewaters for treatment if they meet the waste acceptance criteria. The paper includes details of the technology used in the design, the requirements for compliance, and the initial performance demonstration and jar testing results. The WWTS successfully allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment with compliant discharge to off-site surface water.

  15. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  16. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with less toxic ash pond water, and replanted due to low survival rates from the first planting the previous summer. The goals of the TVA-EPRI-DOE collaboration include building a better understanding of the chemical transformations that trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in a passive treatment system, and to evaluate the performance of a large-scale replicated passive treatment system to provide additional design criteria and economic factors.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially MWW_NF) better treatment alternatives from the environmental sustainability perspective since they exhibited minimal contribution to environmental damage from emissions.

  19. Opportunities for CHP at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field, U.S. EPA, October 2011 Opportunities for CHP at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis ...

  20. Patent: Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEpatents Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater Citation Details Title: Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

  1. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  2. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  3. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  4. Wastewater treatment by sand filtration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sand filtration in the treatment of wastewaters. Systems and filtration processes for municipal, domestic, and industrial wastewater treatment are discussed. Designs and performance evaluations of sand filters are included. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. EA-1190: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Amarillo, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed upgrade of the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Plant in Amarillo, Texas.

  6. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores opportunities for alternative CHP fuels. PDF icon CHP and Bioenergy for ...

  7. Saving Energy at 24/7 Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When the wastewater treatment plant uses more electricity than any other public building, it makes sense to look for improvements that reduce energy costs.

  8. Optimal design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galan, B.; Grossmann, I.E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the optimum design of a distributed wastewater network where multicomponent streams are considered that are to be processed by units for reducing the concentration of several contaminants. The proposed model gives rise to a nonconvex nonlinear problem which often exhibits local minima and causes convergence difficulties. A search procedure is proposed in this paper that is based on the successive solution of a relaxed linear model and the original nonconvex nonlinear problem. Several examples are presented to illustrate that the proposed method often yields global or near global optimum solutions. The model is also extended for selecting different treatment technologies and for handling membrane separation modules.

  9. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or moisture density gages may get into wastewater and be carried to a treatment plant. Other scenarios might include a terrorist deliberately putting a dispersible radioactive material into wastewater. Alternatively, a botched terrorism preparation of an RDD may result in radioactive material entering wastewater without anyone's knowledge. Drinking water supplies may also be contaminated, with the result that some or most of the radioactivity ends up in wastewater.

  10. Parris Island Wastewater Treatment Plant SCADA Upgrades Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-03-18

    Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC, home of the Easter Recruiting Region Marine Corp Boot Camp, found itself in a situation common to Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. It had to deal with several different types of installed energy-related control systems that could not talk to each other. This situation was being exacerbated by the installation of a new and/or unique type of control system for every new building being constructed or older facility that was being upgraded. The Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and lift station controls were badly in need of a thorough inspection and a new Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system upgrade to meet environmental, safety, manpower, and maintenance concerns. A project was recently completed to implement such a wastewater treatment SCADA upgrade, which is compatible with other upgrades to the energy monitoring and control systems for Parris Island buildings and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) system installed at the Central Energy Plant (CEP). This project included design, specification, procurement, installation, and testing an upgraded SCADA alarm, process monitoring, and display system; and training WWTF operators in its operation. The ultimate goal of this and the other PNNL projects at Parris Island is to allow monitoring and control of energy and environmental components from a central location.

  11. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of market opportunities for CHP and bioenergy for landfills and wastewater treatment plants

  12. Optimiziing the laboratory monitoring of biological wastewater-purification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.V. Gerasimov

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the laboratory monitoring of biochemical wastewater-treatment systems at coke plants is considered, for the example of OAO Koks. By adopting a methodological approach to determine the necessary data from chemical analysis, it is possible to reduce the time, labor, and materials required for monitoring, without impairing the purification process or compromising the plant's environmental policies.

  13. Wastewater treatment: Ozonation processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for wastewater disinfection. The citations cover system descriptions and evaluations, comparisons with the chlorination disinfection process, reaction kinetics, and the combination of ozonation with other wastewater treatment methods. The treatment of organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater and municipal water supplies is also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Wastewater treatment: Ozonation processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for wastewater disinfection. The citations cover system descriptions and evaluations, comparisons with the chlorination disinfection process, reaction kinetics, and the combination of ozonation with other wastewater treatment methods. The treatment of organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater and municipal water supplies is also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Wastewater treatment: Dye and pigment industry. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of wastewater containing dyes and pigments. The citations discuss the of dyes and pigments in wastewater treatment systems, biodegradation of dyes, absorption and adsorption processes to remove dyes from wastewater, environmental effects from the disposal of dye-containing wastes, and methods of analysis for dyes in waste streams. Treatment methods such as ozonation, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal filtration, activated sludge, electrochemical treatments, thermal treatments, simple filtration, and absorption media are included. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2006-12-12

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  17. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A. (N. Augusta, SC); Sappington, Frank C. (Dahlonega, GA); Millings, Margaret R. (N. Augusta, SC); Turick, Charles E. (Aiken, SC); McKinsey, Pamela C. (Aiken, SC)

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  18. Wastewater treatment by sand filtration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sand filtration in the treatment of wastewaters. Treatment systems for both domestic and industrial effluents are discussed. Designs, processes, and performance evaluations of sand filters, columns, and mounds used as primary filtering mechanisms are included. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Demonstration of membrane aeration panels: City of Geneva Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of membrane aeration panels at the Marsh Creek wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Geneva, NY. The operators at the Geneva plant have undertaken a long-term program to upgrade wastewater treatment processes and lower operating costs. The aging mechanical surface aerators at the Marsh Creek treatment plant were replaced by a state-of-the-art membrane panel system. This fine-bubble diffused air system offers higher oxygen transfer efficiency than surface aerators or other types of fine-bubble diffused-air systems. The project had four objectives: to decrease the amount of electricity used at the plant for aeration; to enable the plant`s existing aeration basins to accommodate higher organic loads and/or nitrify the wastewater should the need arise; to provide an even distribution of dissolved oxygen within the aeration basins to enhance biological wastewater treatment activity; and to provide technical data to assess the performance of the membrane panel system versus other forms of wastewater aeration.

  20. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed wetland treatment system are repositories for As, Hg, and Se and the bioavailability of these elements decreased after deposition, the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system contributed significantly to mitigation of risks to aquatic life from these elements.

  1. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  2. EECBG Success Story: Saving Energy at 24/7 Wastewater Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at 247 Wastewater Treatment Plant EECBG Success Story: Saving Energy at 247 Wastewater Treatment Plant July 29, 2010 - 4:11pm Addthis In the city of Longview, Texas, the...

  3. EIS-0224: Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This EIS analyzes the Lake County Sanitation District joint venture with the geothermal industry, specifically the Northern California Power Agency, Calpine Corporation (Calpine), and Pacific Gas and Electric Company, to develop a plan for disposal of secondary-treated effluent from the Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant near the City of Clearlake, California, in the Southeast Geysers Geothermal Steam Field."

  4. Energy Department Charting New Future for Wastewater Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It will cost about $600 billion over the next 20 years to continue reliably transporting and treating wastewater, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Find out how the Department of Energy collaborated with the National Science Foundation and EPA to explore a smarter future for water treatment.

  5. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. FGD wastewater treatment still has a way to go

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, T.; Givens, S.; Sandy, T.

    2008-01-15

    The power industry should jointly address questions about FGD water treatment and share the lessons it has learned so far. The article describes a scheme developed by CH2M Hill to treat FGD wastewater and remove heavy metals. The process desaturates the waste water of sulfates and removes the bulk of the insoluble suspended solids prior to tertiary treatment of heavy metals using a chemical/physical treatment process. Additional treatment could be provided (for example, anoxic biological treatment) for selenium, nitrates and organics. 2 figs.

  7. Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, J.B.

    2002-02-28

    The A-01 effluent outfall, which collects both normal daily process flow and stormwater runoff from a industrial park area, did not meet the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for metals, toxicity, and total residual chlorine at the outfall sampling point. Copper was the constituent of primary concern and the effluent consistently failed to meet that NPDES limit. Installation of a constructed wetland system including a basin to manage stormwater surges was required to reduce the problematic constituent concentrations to below the NPDES permit limits before the effluent reaches the sampling point. Both bench-scale and on-site pilot scale physical models were constructed to refine and optimize the preliminary design as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach prior to construction, which was completed in October 2000. The constructed treatment wetlands system has prov en its ability to treat industrial wastewaters containing metals with low O and M costs since there are no mechanical parts. With an anticipated life of over 50 years, this system is exceptionally cost effective.

  8. Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, B.J.; Arndt, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

  9. Method of measurement of VOCs in the off-gas and wastewater of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Wang; Keener, T.C.; Orton, T.L.; Zhu, H.; Bishop, P.; Pekonen, S.; Siddiqui, K.

    1997-12-31

    VOCs need to be controlled according to Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), so an accurate estimation of the total VOC emissions must be attained. This paper reports on a study where EPA method 624 was revised so that this method could be used for VOC analysis both in the water and off-gas of wastewater treatment plants. The revised method uses the same approach and equipment as water and soil analyses, thereby providing a great time and cost advantage for anyone needing to perform this type of analysis. Without using a cryogenic preconcentration step, gas samples from Tedlar bags are easily analyzed to concentrations of approximately 20 ppb using scan mode in a GC-MS unit. For the wastewater, scan mode was still used for the identification, but Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis because of lower VOC concentration in the water. The results show that this method`s detection limit (MDL) was lowered 2--3 orders of magnitude when compared with scan mode. The modified method has been successfully applied to the identification and quantitative analysis of wastewater and off-gas VOCs from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) aeration basin (120 MGD).

  10. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  11. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  12. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Sites Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Site description Facility and system description Permit required monitoring data and loading rates Status of compliance conditions and activities Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  13. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  14. Treatment of wastewater from a paint industry using polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kori, M.M.; Gupta, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    Eleven polyelectrolytes were tried separately to treat the wastewater from a paint manufacturing industry. Among these, Zetag 66, a cationic polyelectrolyte was found to be most effective. A dosage of 5 mg/L of this polyelectrolyte was found to be adequate to achieve 65% COD removal, 97% suspended solids removal, and 90% heavy metals removal. The use of this polyelectrolyte assumes significant importance as it eliminates the use of alum completely. This elimination of alum consumption results in considerable reduction of effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge, which is a hazardous waste. The savings that results in the primary treatment is an added advantage.

  15. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Vikas; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Viswanath, Gunda; Roy, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450{sub SCC}, cytochrome P450{sub C17}, 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health.

  16. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  17. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable of functioning from 10 microrems per hour (background) up to 1000 rems per hour. Software supporting fixed spectroscopic detectors is needed to provide prompt, reliable, and simple interpretations of spectroscopic outputs that are of use to operators and decision-makers. Software to provide scientists and homeland security personnel with sufficient technical detail for identification, quantification, waste management decisions, and for the inevitable forensic and attribution needs must be developed. Computational modeling using MCNP software has demonstrated that useful detection capabilities can be deployed. In particular, any of the isotopes examined can be detected at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 ?Ci per gallon. General purpose instruments that can be used to determine the nature and extent of radioactive contamination and measure radiation levels for purposes of protecting personnel and members of the public should be available. One or more portable radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) should be available to WTD personnel. Small, portable battery-powered personal radiation monitors should be widely available WTD personnel. The personal monitors can be used for personal and group radiation protection decisions, and to alert management to the need to get expert backup. All considerations of radiological instrumentation require considerations of training and periodic retraining of personnel, as well as periodic calibration and maintenance of instruments. Routine innocent alarms will occur due to medical radionuclides that are legally discharged into sanitary sewers on a daily basis.

  18. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  19. The Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Sept. 11, 2013, covers the energy water nexus for state and local water and wastewater treatment plants.

  20. Idaho On-Site Wastewater Systems Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho On-Site Wastewater Systems Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an...

  1. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  2. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  3. Bioreactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References to stirred tank, photobio, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors are presented. Applications in municipal, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil-refining wastewater treatment are reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F. . E-mail: fromero@ehu.es

    2005-07-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work.

  5. Opportunities for CHP at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field, U.S. EPA, October 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field

  6. wastewater

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wastewater - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  7. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  8. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    The results of the feasibility study for utilizing low temperature geothermal heat in the City of San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant are summarized. The study is presented in terms of preliminary engineering design, economic analysis, institutional issues, environmental impacts, resource development, and system implementation.

  9. Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Wastewater treatment lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of wastewaters in lagoons. The design, operation, and equipment for treatment and storage techniques, and associated pretreatment processes are discussed. Included in the references are treatment of wastewaters from industrial operations. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  13. Humic acids: Characterization and interactions in natural and wastewater systems. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the absorptive and complexation properties of humic and fulvic acids. Characterization and the occurrence of these acids in wastewater systems and natural systems are studied. The interaction of humic substances with metallic pollutants and chlorinated hydrocarbons, and removal of humic acids by precipitation are among the topics discussed. Wastewater treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Humic acids: Characterization and interactions in natural and wastewater systems. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the absorptive and complexation properties of humic and fulvic acids. Characterization and the occurrence of these acids in wastewater systems and natural systems are studied. The interaction of humic substances with metallic pollutants and chlorinated hydrocarbons, and removal of humic acids by precipitation are among the topics discussed. Wastewater treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Humic acids: Characterization and interactions in natural and wastewater systems. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the absorptive and complexation properties of humic and fulvic acids. Characterization and the occurrence of these acids in wastewater systems and natural systems are studied. The interaction of humic substances with metallic pollutants and chlorinated hydrocarbons, and removal of humic acids by precipitation are among the topics discussed. Wastewater treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  17. EPA ENERGY STAR Webcast: Benchmarking Water/Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Portfolio Manager

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how to track the progress of energy efficiency efforts and compare the energy use of wastewater treatment plants to other peer facilities across the country. Attendees will learn how to...

  18. The Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on the Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

  19. H.A.R. 11-62 - Wastewater Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: H.A.R. 11-62 - Wastewater SystemsLegal Abstract The Department of Health regulates wastewater...

  20. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  1. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  2. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  6. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Rotating biological contactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment using rotating biological contactors (RBC). Citations focus on reaction kinetics, operational modeling, and removal efficiencies. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrogen removal are discussed. Citations examine performance of RBCs in industrial and municipal applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. EECBG Success Story: Saving Energy at 24/7 Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the city of Longview, Texas, the wastewater treatment facility uses more electricity than any other public building. City officials were able to fund a new co-generation power plant and energy efficiency upgrades at the facility through a $781,900 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG). Learn more.

  11. FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

    2006-05-19

    The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

  12. Denitrification in wastewater treatment (excluding biological methods). (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemical and physical methods for the removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Filtration, absorption, air-lift loop reactors, and fluidized bed processes are among the techniques presented. The citations cover process design, evaluation, economic analysis, and applications in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. Special attention is given to the use of computers for process automation and mathematical simulation of denitrification processes. Biological denitrification methods are referenced in a related bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Denitrification in wastewater treatment (excluding biological methods). (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemical and physical methods for the removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Filtration, absorption, air-lift loop reactors, and fluidized bed processes are among the techniques presented. The citations cover process design, evaluation, economic analysis, and applications in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. Special attention is given to the use of computers for process automation and mathematical simulation of denitrification processes. Biological denitrification methods are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Biological denitrification in wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Activated sludge processes for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment are discussed. The citations examine processes to identify the most effective microorganisms for biological degradation and the factors which can accelerate or inhibit decomposition. The results of pilot-plant studies, and the experiences derived from full-scale industrial installations are presented.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-05-27

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

  16. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  17. Bioreactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References are made to stirred tank, photobio, hollow, nonfluidized bed, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors employing chemical, microbiological, and physical technologies. Applications in municipal treatment, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil refining industries are reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 204 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  2. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  3. Investigation and field testing of anaerobic biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    A study has been conducted that investigated and demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceuticals industry. This report presents the results of the multi-phase program and the conclusions and recommendations which have been derived from an analysis of the experimental data. The program was initiated in October 1985 and was conducted over a period of 26 months, at which point the experimental portions of the study were completed in December 1987. These can be divided to essentially three major tasks: screening assays to assess anaerobic treatability; bench-scale treatability investigations of the Merck Stonewall Plant wastewaters; and, pilot scale demonstration of anaerobic treatment. Each major element is discussed separately, addressing the design of the program (facilities), the experimental procedures, and finally the results of each task. The final section discusses the application of the technology to the pharmaceutical industry and the economic components associated with it. 2 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Treatment of Fuel Process Wastewater Using Fuel Cells - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by-products and metal salts. This cost efficient method can be used on-site, so that water does not need to be transported to a treatment facility. It also permits fuel...

  5. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-12-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  6. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  7. Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Pulping wastewater treatment: Aeration processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning plant operations and methods, pilot plant and laboratory tests and results of pulping mill wastewater treatment by aeration. Composition of effluent components including condensates, bleaching effluents, and spent liquor are discussed. Foreign and domestic plant efficiency, performance reports, and cost data are considered. Aerator design, lagoon treatment system upgrading considerations, and environmental aspects are included. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Jiquan; Cao Yongge; Deng Zhonghua; Tong Hao

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater. -- Graphical abstract: The morphologies of the titanates depend deeply on the concentration of NaOH. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. The application of these titanate nanostructures in the wastewater treatment was studied. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Effect of NaOH concentration on the structures of various titanates was reported. {yields} Three different formation mechanisms were presented with increasing NaOH concentration. {yields} Various titanates were used as adsorbents/photocatalysts in wastewater treatment.

  11. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  13. Oregon Land Use Compatibility Statement for Onsite Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Land Use Compatibility Statement for Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Permits Abstract...

  14. Oregon Construction/Installation Permit for Onsite Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ConstructionInstallation Permit for Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Construction...

  15. XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples: An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eveborn, D.; Gustafsson, J; Hesterberg, D; Hillier, S

    2009-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is a useful technique for characterization of chemical species of phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To develop and evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selection of promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples. Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory- and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60% of total P in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35% of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed.

  16. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-08-07

    Photochemical and ultrasonic treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), derived from PVA fabric material, with hydrogen peroxide was evaluated as a primary method for PVA mineralization into simpler organic molecules. PVA-based waste streams have been found to be compatible with nuclear process wastewater treatment facilities only when solubilized PVA is more than 90 percent mineralized with hydrogen peroxide. No undesirable solid particles are formed with other nuclear process liquid waste when they are mixed, pH adjusted, evaporated and blended with this type of oxidized PVA waste streams. The presence of oxidized PVA in a typical nuclear process wastewater has been found to have no detrimental effect on the efficiency of ion exchange resins, inorganic, and precipitation agents used for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. The disappearance of PVA solution in hydrogen peroxide with ultrasonic/ ultraviolet irradiation treatment was characterized by pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Radioactive waste contaminated PVA fabric can be solubilized and mineralized to produce processible liquid waste, hence, no bulky solid waste disposal cost can be incurred and the radionuclides can be effectively recovered. Therefore, PVA fabric materials can be considered as an effective substitute for cellulose fabrics that are currently used in radioactive waste decontamination processes.

  17. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the atmosphere, and (4) use of barriers to minimize the transport of tritium in groundwater. Continuing development efforts for tritium separations processes are primarily to support the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the nuclear power industry, and the production of radiochemicals. While these applications are significantly different than the Hanford application, the technology could potentially be adapted for Hanford wastewater treatment. Separations based processes to reduce tritium levels below the drinking water MCL have not been demonstrated for the scale and conditions required for treating Hanford wastewater. In addition, available cost information indicates treatment costs for such processes will be substantially higher than for discharge to SALDS or other typical pump and treat projects at Hanford. Actual mitigation projects for groundwater with very low tritium contamination similar to that found at Hanford have focused mainly on controlling migration and on evaporation for dispersion in the atmosphere.

  18. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. January 1980-March 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds are included, as well as associated problems and recommendations from fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains 80 citations with title list and subject index.)

  19. Automation for industrial wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning automated monitoring and purification of wastewater. The design and development of new automated systems and improvements to existing applications are described. The citations examine the benefits of automation, including more efficient use of chemicals, continuous operation, and early warning of equipment failure. Disadvantages are addressed, as well, including increased cost of energy, the need for sophisticated hardware and software, and inability to maintain operation during electric power failure. Case histories of operating automated industrial and municipal systems are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  1. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

  2. NITRO-HYDROLYSIS: AN ENERGY EFFICIENT SOURCE REDUCTION AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT BIOSOLIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-03-10

    The nitro-hydrolysis process has been demonstrated in the laboratory in batch tests on one municipal waste stream. This project was designed to take the next step toward commercialization for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) by demonstrating the feasibility of the process on a small scale. In addition, a 1-lb/hr continuous treatment system was constructed at University of Tennessee to treat the Kuwahee WWTF (Knoxville, TN) sludge in future work. The nitro-hydrolysis work was conducted at University of Tennessee in the Chemical Engineering Department and the gas and liquid analysis were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nitro-hydrolysis of sludge proved a very efficient way of reducing sludge volume, producing a treated solution which contained unreacted solids (probably inorganics such as sand and silt) that settled quickly. Formic acid was one of the main organic acid products of reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used in the nitrolysis. When less nitric acid was used formic acid was initially produced but was later consumed in the reactions. The other major organic acid produced was acetic acid which doubled in concentration during the reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used. Propionic acid and butyric acid were not produced or consumed in these experiments. It is projected that the commercial use of nitro-hydrolysis at municipal wastewater treatment plants alone would result in a total estimated energy savings of greater than 20 trillion Btu/yr. A net reduction of 415,000 metric tons of biosolids per year would be realized and an estimated annual cost reduction of $122M/yr.

  3. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  4. Horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor for paper industry wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foresti, E.; Cabral, A.K.A.; Zaiat, M.; Del Nery, V.

    1996-11-01

    Immobilized cell reactors are known to permit the continuous operation without biomass washout and also for increasing the time available for cells` catalytic function in a reaction or in a series of reactions. Several cell immobilization supports have been used in different reactors for anaerobic wastewater treatment, such as: agar gel, acrylamide, porous ceramic, and polyurethane foam besides the self-immobilized biomass from UASB reactors. However, the results are not conclusive as to the advantages of these different reactors with different supports as compared to other anaerobic reactor configurations. This paper describes a new anaerobic attached growth reactor configuration, herein referred as horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor and presents the results of its performance test treating kraft paper industry wastewater. The reactor configuration was conceived aiming to increase the ratio useful volume/total volume by lowering the volume for gas separation. The HAIS reactor conception would permit also to incorporate the reactor hydrodynamic characteristics in its design criteria if the flow pattern could be approximated as plug-flow.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singapore wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dichosa, Armand E. K.; Davenport, Karen W.; Li, Po-E; Ahmed, Sanaa A.; Daligault, Hajnalka; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Kunde, Yuliya; McMurry, Kim; Lo, Chien -Chi; Reitenga, Krista G.; et al

    2015-03-19

    In this study, we report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species.

  6. Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Wastewater and water treatment: Anion exchange. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the theory and methods of anion exchange in the treatment of potable water and wastewaters. Citations discuss anion exchange resins and membranes, desalination techniques, and process evaluations. Methods for anion analysis using chromatographic techniques are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 74 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Wastewater and water treatment: Anion exchange. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the theory and methods of anion exchange in the treatment of potable water and wastewaters. Citations discuss anion exchange resins and membranes, desalination techniques, and process evaluations. Methods for anion analysis using chromatographic techniques are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 74 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hullenbusch, Eric; Farges, Francois; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  10. Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hullenbusch, Eric van; Farges, Francois; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E. Jr.

    2007-02-02

    Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinc red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  11. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  12. Biologically induced concrete deterioration in a wastewater treatment plant assessed by combining microstructural analysis with thermodynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemann, A.; Lothenbach, B.; Hoffmann, C.

    2010-08-15

    In the nitrification basins of wastewater treatment plants, deterioration of the concrete surface can occur due to acid attack caused by a nitrifying biofilm covering the concrete. To identify the mechanism of deterioration, concrete cubes of different composition were suspended in an aerated nitrification basin of a wastewater treatment plant for two years and analyzed afterwards. The microstructural investigation reveals that not only dissolution of hydrates takes place, but that calcite precipitation close to the surface occurs leading to the formation of a dense layer. The degree of deterioration of the different cubes correlates with the CaO content of the different cements used. Cements which contain a high fraction of CaO form more calcite offering a better protection against the acid attack. The presence of slag, which lowers the amount CaO in the cement, leads to a faster deterioration of the concrete than observed for samples produced with pure OPC.

  13. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  14. Identification and measurement of food and cosmetic dyes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgerding, A.J.; Hites, R.A. )

    1994-07-01

    Acid Blue 9, Acid Violet 17, Quinoline Yellow, Acid Red 51, Acid Red 87, and Acid Red 92 along with N-benzyl-N-ethylaniline sulfonic acid (BEASA), a synthetic precursor, were identified and measured in colored wastewater samples from a municipal treatment plant. Continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry was used to analyze BEASA. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to analyze the other dyes, but its lack of selectivity required prior isolation of the analytes from interfering compounds by solid-phase extraction onto C[sub 18] extraction disks and onto cartridges packed with strong anion-exchange resins. The xanthene dyes (Acid Red 51, 87, and 92) were found in low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations in the plant influent and were rapidly removed by adsorption to sludge. Acid Red 92 was found to be over 35 times more concentrated on secondary sludge than in the corresponding liquid samples, indicating high levels of accumulation. The other dyes and BEASA were found in hundred ppb concentrations in both the influent and the effluent of the plant, indicating a resistance to both degradation and removal by sorption. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Moreira, M.T.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  16. Domestic wastewater treatment using tidal-flow cinder bed with Cyperus alternifolius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, S.Y.; Tsang, Y.F.; Chua, H.

    2008-07-01

    A lab-scale vertical flow cinder bed was set up to treat domestic wastewater. Cinder, which is a common coal waste from electricity generation, was used as the filter medium in the six vertical flow column beds in this study. Three of the six columns were planted with umbrella grass (Cyperus alternifolius) to mimic a wetland system and to investigate the effects of plant on the pollutant removal efficiencies of the column bed systems. The six column beds were divided into three groups, operating with different durations of wet and dry periods. Group 2 column beds, with 4 hours wet periods and 4 hours dry periods, showed the highest carbonaceous removal. Similar ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were demonstrated in column beds of group 2 and in column beds of group 3 (6 hours wet periods and 2 hours dry periods). Phosphorus removal efficiencies were not significantly different in all groups of column bed. No significant differences in pollutant removal were observed between planted and unplanted column beds in this study (p > 0.05).

  17. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  18. WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANNA, KNOX

    2004-08-01

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

  19. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are important issues to consider when selecting a CHP technology, such as size, emissions, location of maintenance personnel, and efficiency. This document summarizes the following CHP technologies: Reciprocating Engine, Microturbine, Combustion Turbines, Stirling Engine, and Fuel Cell.

  20. Peak Treatment Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Treatment Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peak Treatment Systems Place: Golden, CO Website: www.peaktreatmentsystems.com References: Peak Treatment Systems1 Information...

  1. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  2. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with pac addition. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-07-01

    The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the viscous floating mass of mixed liquor solids (VFMLS), (2) generate additional research data for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process, (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics, (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity, and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settling characteristics of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units, and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins were operated.

  4. BUNCOMBE COUNTY WASTEWATER PRE-TREATMENT AND LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Creighton

    2012-03-13

    The objective of this project was to construct a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facility that generates a renewable energy source utilizing landfill gas to power a 1.4MW generator, while at the same time reducing the amount of leachate hauled offsite for treatment. The project included an enhanced gas collection and control system, gas conditioning equipment, and a 1.4 MW generator set. The production of cleaner renewable energy will help offset the carbon footprint of other energy sources that are currently utilized.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singapore wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dichosa, Armand E. K.; Davenport, Karen W.; Li, Po-E; Ahmed, Sanaa A.; Daligault, Hajnalka; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Kunde, Yuliya; McMurry, Kim; Lo, Chien -Chi; Reitenga, Krista G.; Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Shen, Xiaohong; Frietze, Seth; Wang, Dongping; Johnson, Shannon L.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Schuster, Stephan; Chain, Patrick S.; Han, Cliff

    2015-03-19

    In this study, we report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species.

  6. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  7. Innovative filter polishes oil refinery wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, J.; Finkler, M.

    1982-07-01

    Describes how, after extensive testing of 4 different treatment techniques, a Hydro Clear rapid sand filter was installed at the Sohio oil refinery in Toledo, Ohio. This filtration system has proven to be more cost-effective than conventional approaches. The system handles the refinery's wastewater flow of 10.3 mgd. With the aid of the polishing filter, readily meets the NPDES permit limitations. The Toledo refinery is a highly integrated petroleum processing complex. It processes 127,000 barrels per day of crude oil, including 40,000 barrels per day of sour crude. Tables give dissolved air flotation performance data; biological system performance data; filter performance data; and refinery waste treatment unit compared with NPDES-BPT limitations. Diagram shows the Sohio refinery wastewater treatment facility. Through a separate backwash treatment system complete control is brought to the suspended solids in the effluent which also tends to control chemical oxygen demand and oil/grease levels.

  8. Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 'Bugs' used to treat FGD wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2009-09-15

    Tough regulation of heavy metals may justify a bioreactor approach in addition to chemical treatment of FGD wastewater. Two of Duke Energy' coal-fired plants, Belews Creek and Allen (in North Carolina) have installed new biological reactor systems to increase selenium removal to levels not achievable by existing scrubber waste water systems. The ABMet system removes nitrate and selenium in a single step. Progress Energy has installed the system at Roxboro and Mayo Stations, also in North Carolina. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  10. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.C.; Green, T.S.; Hull, L.C.

    2001-02-28

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  11. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  12. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). Therefore, in 1984 EPA conducted a pilot-plant study of activated-carbon-treatment technologies utilizing pharmaceutical waste waters from a manufacturing plant that produces fermentation products (Subcategory A) and chemical synthesis products (Subcategory C). The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity; and, (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  13. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  14. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  15. Restoring a sludge holding tank at a wastewater treatment plant using high-performance coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dea, V.

    2005-11-01

    Faced with a serious hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion problem in two sludge holding tanks in 1993, the city of Concord, New Hampshire, repaired the deteriorating substrate by using a conventional acrylic-modified cementitious resurfacer and a coal tar epoxy (CTE) coating system. CTE failure occurred within 2 years, leading to more severe coating delamination. Restoration was delayed for 10 years, which caused extensive chemical attack on the concrete substrate-upwards of 2 in. (50 mm) of concrete loss. This article explains how one of these tanks was restored and prepared for another 15+ years of service.

  16. The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-25

    An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

  17. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  18. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  19. System and process for biomass treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  20. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  1. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  2. Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Technology Marketing Summary Scientists have developed a groundwater treatment technique that employs agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil,

  3. SEP WATER & WASTEWATER PILOT PROJECT | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WATER & WASTEWATER PILOT PROJECT SEP WATER & WASTEWATER PILOT PROJECT sep_logo_borderless.jpg DOE is partnering with a group of leading water and wastewater treatment agencies, including Better Plants partners, to demonstrate the energy and efficiency benefits of implementing the Superior Energy Performance® (SEP(tm)) program through the SEP Water and Wastewater Pilot Project. William Stowe.PNG Building on the SEP experience in the manufacturing sector, this pilot project will test the

  4. Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a processIntegrated Pollutant Removal (IPR)that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatmentfor in-process reuse and for releasehas been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  6. Oregon Application for Onsite Sewage Treatment System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application for Onsite Sewage Treatment System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Application for Onsite Sewage Treatment System...

  7. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  8. Falmouth Wastewater | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Jump to: navigation, search Name Falmouth Wastewater Facility Falmouth Wastewater Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner...

  9. Unique process combination decontaminates mixed wastewater at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelso, William J.; Cirillo, J. Russ

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the Sitewide Water Treatment Facility (SWTF) used to process environmental remediation wastewaters found at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

  10. Opportunities and Challenges for Water and Wastewater Industries to Provide Exchangeable Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, Bethany; Hunsberger, Randolph

    2015-11-13

    Water and wastewater treatment plants and distribution systems use significant amounts of energy, around 2 - 4% of the total electricity used in the US, and their energy use is projected to increase as populations increase and regulations become more stringent. Water and wastewater systems have largely been disconnected from the electric utilities' efforts to improve energy efficiency and provide energy efficiency and provide grid services, likely because their core mission is to provide clean water and treated wastewater. Energy efficiency has slowly crept into the water and wastewater industry as the economic benefit has become more apparent, but there is still potential for significant improvement. Some of the larger, more progressive water utilities are starting to consider providing grid services; however, it remains a foreign concept to many. This report explores intrinsic mechanisms by which the water and wastewater industries can provide exchangeable services, the benefit to the parties involved, and the barriers to implementation. It also highlights relevant case studies and next steps. Although opportunities for increasing process efficiencies are certainly available, this report focuses on the exchangeable services that water and wastewater loads can provide to help maintain grid reliability, keep overall costs down, and increase the penetration of distributed renewables on the electric grid. These services have potential to provide water utilities additional value streams, using existing equipment with modest or negligible upgrade cost.

  11. High throughput chemical munitions treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); Didlake, Jr., John E. (Livermore, CA); Wu, Benjamin C-P (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-11-01

    A new High-Throughput Explosive Destruction System is disclosed. The new system is comprised of two side-by-side detonation containment vessels each comprising first and second halves that feed into a single agent treatment vessel. Both detonation containment vessels further comprise a surrounding ventilation facility. Moreover, the detonation containment vessels are designed to separate into two half-shells, wherein one shell can be moved axially away from the fixed, second half for ease of access and loading. The vessels are closed by means of a surrounding, clam-shell type locking seal mechanisms.

  12. CRS 25-10-101 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems Act | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    causes of disease, infection, and aerosol contamination; and c) To reduce and control the pollution of the air, land, and water. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal...

  13. Hanford's Groundwater Treatment System Expands Already Impressive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opened in 2012, the groundwater treatment facility already removes numerous contaminants. Biological treatment removes nitrates; air strippers remove carbon tetrachloride...

  14. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. Medical waste treatment and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  16. Siphons for Geosiphon{trademark} Treatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2001-07-26

    GeoSiphon{trademark} systems (patent pending) induce contaminated groundwater flow through permeable treatment media by utilizing a siphon between two points of hydraulic head difference. A siphon is a closed conduit that conveys liquid from a point of higher hydraulic head to one of lower head after raising it to a higher intermediate elevation, at sub-atmospheric conditions (negative gauge pressures or vacuum), without external power input. All surface waters and groundwaters contain dissolved gases, which degas within a siphon due to the vacuum and temperature within the siphon. Bubbles form, and if not properly managed will accumulate in the siphon, gradually reducing the flow rate until the system is ultimately shut down. Therefore appropriate management of gas within a siphon is the primary factor that must be considered to maintain continuous siphon flow. This report provides an overview of GeoSiphon technology and generic details concerning de-gassing in siphons and associated gas management methods.

  17. Depositional history of sediments near a major submarine municipal wastewater outfall system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eganhouse, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Sediments deposited near the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts` submarine outfall system contain a variety of contaminants, and the history of waste emissions is recorded in vertical concentration profiles of waste-specific molecular markers. Using cores collected in 1991 and 1992 we reconstructed the depositional history of shelf sediments by comparing distributions of three classes of hydrophobic organic compounds (DDTs, PCBs, and the long-chain alkylbenzenes) with information about their release from the outfall system and/or domestic usage patterns. These data show that the average sedimentation rate at this site during the period 1981-92 was nearly double that observed during the previous 25 years. The recent increase in sedimentation is attributable to activation of a local landslide and the occurrence of several large storms during the 1980s. Together these events have acted to mobilize a large mass of sediment for transport to offshore sediments resulting in enhanced burial of the most heavily contaminated sediments.

  18. Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Facility Metro Wastewater Reclamation...

  19. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  20. La-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Simple solution-combusting preparation and applications in the wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Tingting; Ni, Yonghong; Ma, Xiang; Hong, Jianming

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: La-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by a simple solution combustion route and exhibit good adsorption for Cu and Pb ion from water systems. - Highlights: La-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a simple solution-combustion route. The integration of La{sup 3+} ions into ZnO decreased the band-gap of ZnO nanoparticles. La-doped ZnO nanoparticles could remove more Pb and Cu ions from water resources than undoped ZnO. - Abstract: La-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple solution combustion method via employing a mixture of ethanol and ethyleneglycol (v/v = 60/40) as the solvent. Zinc acetate and oxygen gas in the atmosphere were used as zinc and oxygen sources, and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as the doping reagent. The as-obtained product was characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experiments showed that La-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited the higher capacities for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions in water resource than undoped ZnO nanoparticles.

  1. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  2. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  3. ORS 454 - Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    54 - Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 454 - Sewage Treatment and...

  4. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Treatment Facility | Department of Energy City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility April 29, 2015 - 6:05pm Addthis Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and county buses and is available to fuel public vehicles as well. Pictured above, a Grand Valley Transit bus is preparing to refuel. Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and

  5. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  6. Idaho waste treatment facility startup testing suspended to evaluate system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response | Department of Energy Idaho waste treatment facility startup testing suspended to evaluate system response Idaho waste treatment facility startup testing suspended to evaluate system response June 20, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Brad Bugger 208-526-0833 Danielle Miller 208-526-5709 IDAHO FALLS, ID- On Saturday, June 16, startup testing was suspended at the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho Site. Testing and plant

  7. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  8. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  9. Novel single stripper with side-draw to remove ammonia and sour gas simultaneously for coal-gasification wastewater treatment and the industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, D.C.; Yu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2009-06-15

    A large amount of wastewater is produced in the Lurgi coal-gasification process with the complex compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, phenol, etc., which cause a serious environmental problem. In this paper, a novel stripper operated at elevated pressure is designed to improve the pretreatment process. In this technology, two noticeable improvements were established. First, the carbon dioxide and ammonia were removed simultaneously in a single stripper where sour gas (mainly carbon dioxide) is removed from the tower top and the ammonia vapor is drawn from the side and recovered by partial condensation. Second, the ammonia is removed before the phenol recovery to reduce the pH value of the subsequent extraction units, so as the phenol removal performance of the extraction is greatly improved. To ensure the operational efficiency, some key operational parameters are analyzed and optimized though simulation. It is shown that when the top temperature is kept at 40 C and the weight ratio of the side draw to the feed is above 9%, the elevated pressures can ensure the removal efficiency of NH{sub 3} and carbon dioxide and the desired purified water as the bottom product of the unit is obtained. A real industrial application demonstrates the attractiveness of the new technique: it removes 99.9% CO{sub 2} and 99.6% ammonia, compared to known techniques which remove 66.5% and 94.4%, respectively. As a result, the pH value of the wastewater is reduced from above 9 to below 7. This ensures that the phenol removal ratio is above 93% in the following extraction units. The operating cost is lower than that of known techniques, and the operation is simplified.

  10. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  11. Summary - System Planning for Low-Activity Waste Treatment at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of System Planning for Low-Activity Waste Treatment at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review Construction of the facilities of the Hanford...

  12. Preliminary Scoping and Assessment Study of the Potential Impacts of Community-wide Radiological Events and Subsequent Decontamination Activities on Drinking Water and Wastewater Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Tomasko, D.; Chen, S.Y.; Hais, A.; MacKinney, J.; Janke, R.

    2006-07-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there has been a great deal of concern about further attacks within the United States, particularly attacks using weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or other unconventional weapons, such as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb', which is a type of RDD. During all phases of an RDD event, secondary impacts on drinking water and wastewater systems would be possible. Secondary impacts refer to those impacts that would occur when the water systems were not the direct or intended target of the specific event. Secondary impacts would include (1) fallout from an event occurring elsewhere on water supply reservoirs and (2) runoff into storm water and sewer systems during precipitation events or as a result of cleanup and decontamination activities. To help address potential secondary impacts, a scoping and assessment study was conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Homeland Security Research Center to support its water security program. The study addresses the potential impacts on water resources and infrastructure that could result from the use of an RDD, including potential impacts from the initial attack as well as from subsequent cleanup efforts. Eight radionuclides are considered in the assessment: Am-241, Cf-252, Cs-137, Co-60, Ir-192, Pu-238, Ra-226, and Sr-90. (authors)

  13. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  15. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  16. Analyzing water/wastewater infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillette, J. L.; Fisher, R. E.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Whitfield, R. G.

    2002-03-26

    This paper describes four general categories of infrastructure interdependencies (physical, cyber, geographic, and logical) as they apply to the water/wastewater infrastructure, and provides an overview of one of the analytic approaches and tools used by Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate interdependencies. Also discussed are the dimensions of infrastructure interdependency that create spatial, temporal, and system representation complexities that make analyzing the water/wastewater infrastructure particularly challenging. An analytical model developed to incorporate the impacts of interdependencies on infrastructure repair times is briefly addressed.

  17. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  18. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  19. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  20. Paraguay industrial and municipal waste-water project definitional mission. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meenahan, J.G.

    1992-04-20

    The Ministry of Agriculture of Paraguay and the Municipality of Asuncion (MA) requested the assistance of the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) in the form of a grant to support an Engineering/Economic Feasibility Study. The study would address the requirements for the collection and treatment of wastewaters generated from municipal and industrial sources within the greater Asuncion area. The feasibility study would be contracted to a U.S. firm. The Definitional Mission (DM) recommends that TDP finance the requested Feasibility Study (FS) for the implementation of an adequate wastewater collection and treatment system for Paraguay. The recommended TDP investment is justifiable because this is a project that has strong popular and government support. Treating wastewaters will benefit the public health and environment of all the people within a vast geographical region and will promote economic growth. This recommendation is consistent and supportive of the U.S. foreign policy as well as providing significant opportunities for the export of U.S. goods and services.

  1. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  2. Implementation of Treatment Systems for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste at Site Radwaste Treatment Facility (SRTF), PR China - 12556

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Peter; Nasarek, Ralph; Aign, Joerg

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000 reactors being built in the People's Republic of China require a waste treatment facility to process the low and intermediate radioactive waste produced by these nuclear power stations. Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH was successful in being awarded a contract as to the planning, delivery and commissioning of such a waste treatment facility. The Site Radwaste Treatment Facility (SRTF) is a waste treatment facility that can meet the AP1000 requirements and it will become operational in the near future. The SRTF is situated at the location of Sanmen, People's Republic of China, next to one of the AP1000 and is an adherent building to the AP1000 comprising different waste treatment processes for radioactive spent filter cartridges, ion-exchange resins and radioactive liquid and solid waste. The final product of the SRTF-treatment is a 200 l drum with cemented waste or grouted waste packages for storage in a local storage facility. The systems used in the SRTF are developed for these special requirements, based on experience from similar systems in the German nuclear industry. The main waste treatment systems in the SRTF are: - Filter Cartridge Processing System (FCS); - HVAC-Filter and Solid Waste Treatment Systems (HVS); - Chemical Liquid Treatment Systems (CTS); - Spent Resin Processing Systems (RES); - Mobile Treatment System (MBS). (authors)

  3. Hawaii Individual Wastewater Management Permit Packet | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Individual Wastewater Management Permit Packet Citation State of Hawaii Department of Health. 112013. Hawaii Individual Wastewater Management Permit Packet. State of Hawaii....

  4. Applying a Modified Triad Approach to Investigate Wastewater lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawlowicz, R.; Urizar, L.; Blanchard, S.; Jacobsen, K.; Scholfield, J.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 20 miles of wastewater lines are below grade at an active military Base. This piping network feeds or fed domestic or industrial wastewater treatment plants on the Base. Past wastewater line investigations indicated potential contaminant releases to soil and groundwater. Further environmental assessment was recommended to characterize the lines because of possible releases. A Remedial Investigation (RI) using random sampling or use of sampling points spaced at predetermined distances along the entire length of the wastewater lines, however, would be inefficient and cost prohibitive. To accomplish RI goals efficiently and within budget, a modified Triad approach was used to design a defensible sampling and analysis plan and perform the investigation. The RI task was successfully executed and resulted in a reduced fieldwork schedule, and sampling and analytical costs. Results indicated that no major releases occurred at the biased sampling points. It was reasonably extrapolated that since releases did not occur at the most likely locations, then the entire length of a particular wastewater line segment was unlikely to have contaminated soil or groundwater and was recommended for no further action. A determination of no further action was recommended for the majority of the waste lines after completing the investigation. The modified Triad approach was successful and a similar approach could be applied to investigate wastewater lines on other United States Department of Defense or Department of Energy facilities. (authors)

  5. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (?2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ?2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the original plan fluence map as the starting stage reduced OAR dose at the mid-dose region, but increased the monitor units by 17%. Differences of only 2cc or less in OAR V50%/V70Gy/V76Gy were observed between 100 and 50 iterations.Conclusions: It is feasible to perform automatic online reoptimization in ?2 min using a clinical treatment planning system. Selecting optimal sets of input parameters is the key to achieving high quality reoptimized plans, and should be based on the individual patient's daily anatomy, delivery efficiency, and time allowed for plan adaptation.

  6. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  7. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  8. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N. europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.

  9. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  10. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-03-03

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS.

  11. Conneaut Wastewater Facility Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Facility Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Conneaut Wastewater Facility Wind Turbine Facility Conneaut Wastewater Facility Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  12. Fourche Creek Wastewater Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fourche Creek Wastewater Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fourche Creek Wastewater Biomass Facility Facility Fourche Creek Wastewater Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  13. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  14. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Lalit S. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  15. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

    2001-04-30

    This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable, self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.

  16. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

  17. Hawaii Wastewater Branch Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Wastewater Branch Webpage Abstract This is the webpage of the Wastewater Branch of the...

  18. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  19. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop: Agenda and Objectives | Department of Energy Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Agenda and objectives for the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Workshop Agenda and Objectives More Documents & Publications Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and

  20. Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site | Department of Energy Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site PDF icon Construction Summary and As-Built

  1. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

  2. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  3. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  4. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with standard high-temperature SCR catalyst formulation in one system provides high NOx conversion over wide temperature range. PDF icon deer08_iretskaya.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Advanced Technology Light Duty

  5. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  6. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  7. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse, Perry McCarty, Stanford University Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing ...

  8. Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans

    2007-07-01

    Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

  9. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Wastewater Recycling Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Foley, K. J.; Sutherland, T. A.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of a wastewater recycling system installed in the Grand Hyatt Seattle.

  10. LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, which issues permits for industrial and sanitary wastewater...

  11. Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance Superior Energy Performance Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in New Pilot Program Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP ...

  12. Oregon Onsite Wastewater Management Program Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Onsite Wastewater Management Program Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Onsite Wastewater Management Program Webpage...

  13. SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS: REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS: REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS AND CONTAMINATED SOIL* Robert W. Peters + and Linda Shem Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 Abstract This paper reviews the applicable separation technologies relating to removal of heavy metals from solution and from soils in order to present the state-of-the-art in the field. Each technology is briefly described and typical operating conditions and technology

  14. Vehicle Use of Recycled Natural Gas Derived from Wastewater Biosolids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    William Eleazer, PE Brown and Caldwell Project Design Manager St. Petersburg, FL: Vehicle Use of Recycled Natural Gas Derived from Wastewater Biosolids U.S Department of Energy - Biomass 2014 John Willis, PE, BCEE Brown and Caldwell Project Technical Supervisor Steven Marshall, PE St. Petersburg City Project Manager Eron Jacobson, PE Brown and Caldwell Gas Upgrade Systems Process Area Manager Project Summary Biogas to Recycled Natural Gas Technology Evaluation and Design Phase Future

  15. Development and evaluation of a prototype tracking system using the treatment couch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, Stephanie Riesterer, Oliver; Klck, Stephan; Zeimetz, Jrg; Ochsner, Gregor; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Tumor motion increases safety margins around the clinical target volume and leads to an increased dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. The authors have developed and evaluated a one-dimensional treatment couch tracking system to counter steer respiratory tumor motion. Three different motion detection sensors with different lag times were evaluated. Methods: The couch tracking system consists of a motion detection sensor, which can be the topometrical system Topos (Cyber Technologies, Germany), the respiratory gating system RPM (Varian Medical Systems) or a laser triangulation system (Micro Epsilon), and the Protura treatment couch (Civco Medical Systems). The control of the treatment couch was implemented in the block diagram environment Simulink (MathWorks). To achieve real time performance, the Simulink models were executed on a real time engine, provided by Real-Time Windows Target (MathWorks). A proportional-integral control system was implemented. The lag time of the couch tracking system using the three different motion detection sensors was measured. The geometrical accuracy of the system was evaluated by measuring the mean absolute deviation from the reference (static position) during motion tracking. This deviation was compared to the mean absolute deviation without tracking and a reduction factor was defined. A hexapod system was moving according to seven respiration patterns previously acquired with the RPM system as well as according to a sin{sup 6} function with two different frequencies (0.33 and 0.17 Hz) and the treatment table compensated the motion. Results: A prototype system for treatment couch tracking of respiratory motion was developed. The laser based tracking system with a small lag time of 57 ms reduced the residual motion by a factor of 11.9 5.5 (mean value standard deviation). An increase in delay time from 57 to 130 ms (RPM based system) resulted in a reduction by a factor of 4.7 2.6. The Topos based tracking system with the largest lag time of 300 ms achieved a mean reduction by a factor of 3.4 2.3. The increase in the penumbra of a profile (1 1 cm{sup 2}) for a motion of 6 mm was 1.4 mm. With tracking applied there was no increase in the penumbra. Conclusions: Couch tracking with the Protura treatment couch is achievable. To reliably track all possible respiration patterns without prediction filters a short lag time below 100 ms is needed. More scientific work is necessary to extend our prototype to tracking of internal motion.

  16. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  17. Summary - System Planning for Low-Activity Waste Treatment at Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford EM Project: WTP ETR Report Date: November 2008 ETR-18 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of System Planning for Low-Activity Waste Treatment at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review Construction of the facilities of the Hanford site's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) are scheduled for completion in 2017, with radioactive waste processing scheduled to begin in 2019. An estimated 23 to 35 years will then be required to complete

  18. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  19. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  20. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

  1. Title Flood Assessment at the Proposed Area 6 Liquid Waste Treatment System - DOE/NV Test

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Proposed Area 6 Liquid Waste Treatment System - DOE/NV Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Draft Issue; Not finalized. Author Miller, J.J., D. L. Gustafson, S. E. Rawlinson/RSN Document Date 10/1/94 Document Type Report Recipients DOE/NV 101160 ERC Index number 05.09.204 Box Number 1686-1 October 1994 Draft ]Q Flood Assessment at the Proposed Area 6 Liquid Waste Treatment System DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada Prepared by Raytheon Services Nevada Environmental Restoration and Waste

  2. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Office: Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Sewage Pump System Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Sewage System Process: Sewage Pumping System: Pump System Technology: Downsized pump, direct on-line pump controls Project Profile SIC: 4952 Products: Sewage Pumping Location: Trumbull, Connecticut Showcase Team Leaders: Paul Kallmeyer, Town of Trumbull Three employees in the wastewater treatment department. Town of Trumbull U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Sewage Pump System

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  5. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-04-18

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

  6. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  7. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  8. Preliminary design report for the K basins integrated water treatment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauly, T.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a revised concept for the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment Systems (IWTS). This PDR incorporates the 11 recommendations made in a May 1996 Value Engineering session into the Conceptual Design, and provides new flow diagrams, hazard category assessment, cost estimate, and schedule for the IWTS Subproject.

  9. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  10. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-17

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  11. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  12. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  13. LLW Processing and Operational Experience using a Plasma ARC Centrifugal Treatment (PACT{sup TM}) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuey, M.W.; Ottmer, P.P.

    2006-07-01

    After several years of development, a commercially available high-temperature treatment system has been developed, licensed, and installed that treats heterogeneous low-level radioactive waste. High temperature plasma processing, unique torch design and operating features make it feasible to achieve a volume reduced, permanent, high integrity waste form while eliminating the personnel exposure and costs associated with conventional sorting, characterizing and handling. The Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment system or PACT{sup TM} manufactured by Retech Systems LLC is a licensed thermal plasma system that processes and consolidates low level radioactive wastes. The first PACT{sup TM} thermal plasma system to be licensed was at ZWILAG (Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG, Switzerland) in May 2004, and the second is utilized by the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) in Tsuruga, Japan in March 2005. ZWILAG uses a drum feeder that processes the 200-liter drums from storage horizontally and pours the molten slag into molds. The drums contain organic and inorganic wastes (mixed waste), and by processing the drums directly lowers exposure to processing personnel. ZWILAG production data mid-2004 through mid-June 2005 has fed 9.4 E+10 Bq of mixed waste and stabilized 8.5 E+10 Bq in slag with a mean activity of 2.1 E+09 Bq/drum. The operational experience demonstrated by ZWILAG and JAPC has been a testament to the success of thermal plasma and their unique status has proven the real benefits of using the PACT{sup TM} system. (authors)

  14. Anaerobic treatment in a sludge bed system compared with a filter system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frostell, B.

    1981-02-01

    In parallel experiments, an anaerobic filter filled with a high-porosity (0.96) plastic material and an anaerobic sludge bed reactor equipped with a specially designed sludge separation system were investigated. The main purpose was to study the sludge bed reactor and to compare the results with those obtained using a well designed anaerobic filter. The experiments are described and the results discussed indicating that the sludge bed reactor should be an economically attractive alternative to the anaerobic filter.

  15. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

  16. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE TREATMENTS FOR MASS SPECTROSCOPY AND OTHER TRITIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Mauldin, C.; Neikirk, K.

    2012-02-29

    There are specific components in the SRS Tritium Facilities that are required to introduce as few chemical impurities (such as protium and methane) as possible into the process gas. Two such components are the inlet systems for the mass spectroscopy facilities and hydrogen isotope mix standard containers. Two vendors now passivate stainless steel components for these systems, and both are relatively small businesses whose future viability can be questioned, which creates the need for new sources. Stainless steel containers were designed to evaluate alternate surface treatment vendors for tritium storage and handling for these high purity tritium systems. Five vendors applied their own 'best' surface treatments to two containers each - one was a current vendor, another was a chemical vapor deposited silicon coating, and the other three were electropolishing and chemical cleaning vendors. Pure tritium gas was introduced into all ten containers and the composition was monitored over time. The only observed impurities in the gas were some HT, less CT{sub 4}, and very small amounts of T{sub 2}O in all cases. The currently used vendor treated containers contained the least impurities. The chemical vapor deposited silicon treatment resulted in the highest impurity levels. Sampling one set of containers after about one month of tritium exposure revealed the impurity level to be nearly the same as that after more than a year of exposure - this result suggests that cleaning new stainless steel components by tritium gas contact for about a month may be a worthy operation.

  17. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  18. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance System for a Dedicated Intracranial Radiosurgery Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruschin, Mark; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Ansell, Steve; Menard, Cynthia; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Bootsma, Gregory; Cho, Young-Bin; Chung, Caroline; Jaffray, David; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Image guidance has improved the precision of fractionated radiation treatment delivery on linear accelerators. Precise radiation delivery is particularly critical when high doses are delivered to complex shapes with steep dose gradients near critical structures, as is the case for intracranial radiosurgery. To reduce potential geometric uncertainties, a cone beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance system was developed in-house to generate high-resolution images of the head at the time of treatment, using a dedicated radiosurgery unit. The performance and initial clinical use of this imaging system are described. Methods and Materials: A kilovoltage cone beam CT system was integrated with a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit. The X-ray tube and flat-panel detector are mounted on a translational arm, which is parked above the treatment unit when not in use. Upon descent, a rotational axis provides 210 Degree-Sign of rotation for cone beam CT scans. Mechanical integrity of the system was evaluated over a 6-month period. Subsequent clinical commissioning included end-to-end testing of targeting performance and subjective image quality performance in phantoms. The system has been used to image 2 patients, 1 of whom received single-fraction radiosurgery and 1 who received 3 fractions, using a relocatable head frame. Results: Images of phantoms demonstrated soft tissue contrast visibility and submillimeter spatial resolution. A contrast difference of 35 HU was easily detected at a calibration dose of 1.2 cGy (center of head phantom). The shape of the mechanical flex vs scan angle was highly reproducible and exhibited <0.2 mm peak-to-peak variation. With a 0.5-mm voxel pitch, the maximum targeting error was 0.4 mm. Images of 2 patients were analyzed offline and submillimeter agreement was confirmed with conventional frame. Conclusions: A cone beam CT image guidance system was successfully adapted to a radiosurgery unit. The system is capable of producing high-resolution images of bone and soft tissue. The system is in clinical use and provides excellent image guidance without invasive frames.

  19. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  20. Recovery of ammonia from industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, R. ); Koncar, M. )

    1993-07-01

    The ecological problems of ammonia and ammonium salts in wastewater, and the sources of effluents containing these two products, are discussed. Feasible separation processes and methods of recovery are reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of the individual processes are compared.

  1. Tritium Waste Treatment System component failure data analysis from June 18, 1984--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C. ); Stolpe Gavett, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    This document gives the failure rates for the major tritium-bearing components in the Tritium Waste Treatment System at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The failure reports, component populations, and operating demands/hours are given in this report, and sample calculations for binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for tritium-bearing components were on the order of the screening failure rate values suggested for fusion reliability and risk analyses. More effort should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fusion component failure data, since accurate failure rates are necessary to refine reliability and risk analyses. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  3. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masala, Salvatore; Tarantino, Umberto; Nano, Giovanni; Iundusi, Riccardo; Fiori, Roberto Da Ros, Valerio Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

  4. Verification and validation of the decision analysis model for assessment of tank waste remediation system waste treatment strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awadalla, N.G.; Eaton, S.C.F.

    1996-09-04

    This document is the verification and validation final report for the Decision Analysis Model for Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Treatment Strategies. This model is also known as the INSIGHT Model.

  5. An adaptive strategy to control anaerobic digesters for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroy, O.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Cuervo, F.; Femat, R.

    1996-10-01

    The design and implementation of a new adaptive controller for anaerobic digesters is presented using a general nonlinear model and an uncertainties estimation scheme. The primary advantage of this controller over standard adaptive controllers is that biogas flow rate measurements are not required. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard adaptive controllers and can be tuned analogously. The adaptive control strategy has been implemented in a pilot-scale anaerobic digester showing good performance and robustness against changes in the feed load.

  6. SU-E-P-05: Is Routine Treatment Planning System Quality Assurance Necessary?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alaei, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the variation of dose calculations using a treatment planning system (TPS) over a two year period and assessment of the need for TPS QA on regular intervals. Methods: Two phantoms containing solid water and lung- and bone-equivalent heterogeneities were constructed in two different institutions for the same brand treatment planning system. Multiple plans, consisting of photons and electron beams, including IMRT and VMAT ones, were created and calculated on the phantoms. The accuracy of dose computation in the phantoms was evaluated at the onset by dose measurements within the phantoms. The dose values at up to 24 points of interest (POI) within the solid water, lung, and bone slabs, as well as mean doses to several regions of interest (ROI), were re-calculated over a two-year period which included two software upgrades. The variations in POI and ROI dose values were analyzed and evaluated. Results: The computed doses vary slightly month-over-month. There are noticeable variations at the times of software upgrade, if the upgrade involves remodeling and/or re-commissioning of the beams. The variations are larger in certain points within the phantom, usually in the buildup region or near interfaces, and are almost non-existent for electron beams. Conclusion: Routine TPS QA is recommended by AAPM and other professional societies, and is often required by accreditation organizations. The frequency and type of QA, though, is subject to debate. The results presented here demonstrate that the frequency of these tests could be at longer intervals than monthly. However, it is essential to perform TPS QA at the time of commissioning and after each software upgrade.

  7. Fukushima Nuclear Crisis Recovery: A Modular Water Treatment System Deployed in Seven Weeks - 12489

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua L.; Bostick, William D.

    2012-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. This was one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history and the most powerful one known to have hit Japan. The ensuing tsunami devastated a huge area resulting in some 25,000 persons confirmed dead or missing. The perfect storm was complete when the tsunami then found the four reactor, Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Station directly in its destructive path. While recovery systems admirably survived the powerful earthquake, the seawater from the tsunami knocked the emergency cooling systems out and did extensive damage to the plant and site. Subsequent hydrogen generation caused explosions which extended this damage to a new level and further flooded the buildings with highly contaminated water. Some 2 million people were evacuated from a fifty mile radius of the area and evaluation and cleanup began. Teams were assembled in Tokyo the first week of April to lay out potential plans for the immediate treatment of some 63 million gallons (a number which later exceeded 110 million gallons) of highly contaminated water to avoid overflow from the buildings as well as supply the desperately needed clean cooling water for the reactors. A system had to be deployed with a very brief cold shake down and hot startup before the rainy season started in early June. Joined by team members Toshiba (oil removal system), AREVA (chemical precipitation system) and Hitachi-GE (RO system), Kurion (cesium removal system following the oil separator) proposed, designed, fabricated, delivered and started up a one of a kind treatment skid and over 100 metric tons of specially engineered and modified Ion Specific Media (ISM) customized for this very challenging seawater/oil application, all in seven weeks. After a very short cold shake down, the system went into operation on June 17, 2011 on actual waste waters far exceeding 1 million Bq/mL in cesium and many other isotopes. One must remember that, in addition to attempting to do isotope removal in the competition of seawater (as high as 18,000 ppm sodium due to concentration), some 350,000 gallons of turbine oil was dispersed into the flooded buildings as well. The proposed system consisted of a 4 guard vessel skid for the oil and debris, 4 skids containing 16 cesium towers in a lead-lag layout with removable vessels (sent to an interim storage facility), and a 4 polishing vessel skid for iodine removal and trace cesium levels. At a flow rate of at least 220 gallons per minute, the system has routinely removed over 99% of the cesium, the main component of the activity, since going on line. To date, some 50% of the original activity has been removed and stabilized and cold shutdown of the plant was announced on December 10, 2011. In March and April alone, 10 cubic feet of Engineered Herschelite was shipped to Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, NPP, to support the April 1, 2011 outage cleanup; 400 cubic feet was shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for strontium (Sr-90) ground water remediation; and 6000 cubic feet (100 metric tons, MT, or 220,400 pounds) was readied for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station with an additional 100 MT on standby for replacement vessels. This experience and accelerated media production in the U.S. bore direct application to what was to soon be used in Fukushima. How such a sophisticated and totally unique system and huge amount of media could be deployable in such a challenging and changing matrix, and in only seven weeks, is outlined in this paper as well as the system and operation itself. As demonstrated herein, all ten major steps leading up to the readiness and acceptance of a modular emergency technology recovery system were met and in a very short period of time, thus utilizing three decades of experience to produce and deliver such a system literally in seven weeks: - EPRI - U.S. Testing and Experience Leading to Introduction to EPRI - Japan and Subsequently TEPCO Emergency Meetings - Three Mile Island (TMI) Media and Vitrification Experience by PNNL - Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Media Experience (including long term Cs removal) - DOE Low Active Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) in High Salt and pH Conditions Media and Vitrification Experience - National Laboratory (e.g. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL) Ground Water Media Experience - Gulf Oil Spill Media Experience in Seawater - All Media Had to be Fully Tested at High Rad Levels in Seawater and Oil Before Arriving in Japan - Final Waste Form and Disposal Experience (e.g., vitrification) - 100 Metric Tons (6000 cubic feet or 220,400 pounds) of Media had to be Immediately Available with the same amount in production as replacement media. [To date, for 2011, 400 MT of media have been prepared for Japan alone.] - Remote Operation, Modular Water Treatment Equipment Design and Fabrication in both Commercial NPP and DOE Canyon Operations. (authors)

  8. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  9. Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Breakout Session 2-A: The Future of Algae-Based Biofuels Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Tryg Lundquist, Associate Professor, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo PDF icon lundquist_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009557: Categorical Exclusion Determination ATP3 Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership

  10. Camera selection for real-time in vivo radiation treatment verification systems using Cherenkov imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M. Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To identify achievable camera performance and hardware needs in a clinical Cherenkov imaging system for real-time, in vivo monitoring of the surface beam profile on patients, as novel visual information, documentation, and possible treatment verification for clinicians. Methods: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), charge-coupled device (CCD), intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and electron multiplying-intensified charge coupled device (EM-ICCD) cameras were investigated to determine Cherenkov imaging performance in a clinical radiotherapy setting, with one emphasis on the maximum supportable frame rate. Where possible, the image intensifier was synchronized using a pulse signal from the Linac in order to image with room lighting conditions comparable to patient treatment scenarios. A solid water phantom irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam was imaged by the cameras to evaluate the maximum frame rate for adequate Cherenkov detection. Adequate detection was defined as an average electron count in the background-subtracted Cherenkov image region of interest in excess of 0.5% (327 counts) of the 16-bit maximum electron count value. Additionally, an ICCD and an EM-ICCD were each used clinically to image two patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy to compare clinical advantages and limitations of each system. Results: Intensifier-coupled cameras were required for imaging Cherenkov emission on the phantom surface with ambient room lighting; standalone CMOS and CCD cameras were not viable. The EM-ICCD was able to collect images from a single Linac pulse delivering less than 0.05 cGy of dose at 30 frames/s (fps) and pixel resolution of 512 512, compared to an ICCD which was limited to 4.7 fps at 1024 1024 resolution. An intensifier with higher quantum efficiency at the entrance photocathode in the red wavelengths [30% quantum efficiency (QE) vs previous 19%] promises at least 8.6 fps at a resolution of 1024 1024 and lower monetary cost than the EM-ICCD. Conclusions: The ICCD with an intensifier better optimized for red wavelengths was found to provide the best potential for real-time display (at least 8.6 fps) of radiation dose on the skin during treatment at a resolution of 1024 1024.

  11. Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

  12. Hawaii Wastewater Branch Online Application Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Wastewater Branch Online Application Webpage Author State of Hawaii...

  13. File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CDPHE Industrial Individual...

  14. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification...

  15. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Wastewater Management Division...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Management Division Water Pollution Control Permit Regulations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation:...

  16. WSDE Report: Wastewater Discharge Permits in Washington State...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Discharge Permits in Washington State Author Washington State Department of Ecology Organization Washington State Department of Ecology Published Washington State...

  17. WAC - 173 - 221A - Wastewater Discharge Standards and Effluent...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A - Wastewater Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173 -...

  18. MHK Projects/Bonnybrook Wastewater Facility Project 2 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bonnybrook Wastewater Facility Project 2 < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

  19. Oregon Onsite Wastewater Management Program Forms by County Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Onsite Wastewater Management Program Forms by County Webpage Abstract Provides access to county level onsite...

  20. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-12-18

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

  1. SU-E-T-73: Commissioning of a Treatment Planning System for Proton Spot Scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, J; Kang, Y; Schultz, L; Nicewonger, D; Herrera, M; Wong, T; Bowen, S; Bloch, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A treatment planning system (TPS) was commissioned for clinical use with a fixed beam line proton delivery system. An outline of the data collection, modeling, and verification is provided. Methods: Beam data modeling for proton spot scanning in CMS Xio TPS requires the following measurements: (i) integral depth dose curves (IDDCs); (ii) absolute dose calibration; and (iii) beam spot characteristics. The IDDCs for 18 proton energies were measured using an integrating detector in a single spot field in a water phantom. Absolute scaling of the IDDCs were performed based on ion chamber measurements in mono-energetic 1010 cm{sup 2} fields in water. Beam spot shapes were measured in air using a flat panel scintillator detector at multiple planes. For beam model verification, more than 45 uniform dose phantom and patient plans were generated. These plans were used to measure range, point dose, and longitudinal and lateral profiles. Tolerances employed for verification are: point dose and longitudinal profiles, 2%; range, 1 mm; FWHM for lateral profiles, 2 mm; and patient plan dose distribution, gamma index of >90% at 3%/3 mm criteria. Results: More than 97% of the point dose measurements out of 115 were within +/-2% with maximum deviation of 3%. 98% of the ranges measured were within 1 mm with maximum deviation of 1.4mm. The normalized depth doses were within 2% at all depths. The maximum error in FWHM of lateral profiles was found to be less than 2mm. For 5 patient plans representing different anatomic sites, a total of 38 planes for 12 beams were analyzed for gamma index with average value of 99% and minimum of 94%. Conclusions: The planning system is successfully commissioned and can be safely deployed for clinical use. Measurements of IDDCs on user beam are highly recommended instead of using standard beam IDDCs.

  2. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  3. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

  4. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter is then backwashed into the STSC. The STSC and STS cask are then inerted and transported to T Plant.

  6. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

  7. SU-E-T-555: A Protontherapy Inverse Treatment Planning System Prototype with Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D; Carabe-Fernandez, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Develop and benchmark an inverse treatment planning system (TPS) for proton radiotherapy integrating fast analytical dose and LET calculations in patient geometries and a dual objective function with both dose and LET components, enabling us to apply optimization techniques to improve the predicted outcome of treatments based on radiobiological models. Methods: The software package was developed in MATLAB and implements a fluence-dose calculation technique based on a pencil beam model for dose calculations and a 3D LET model based on the extension of the LET in the radial direction as a function of the predicted radiological pathway. Both models were benchmarked against commissioning data from our institution, dose calculations performed with a commercial treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations. The optimization is based on the adaptive simulated annealing approach . Results: The dose and LET calculations were tested in a water phantom and several real patient treatments. The pass rate for the gamma index analysis (3%/3mm) test was above 90% for all test cases analyzed, and the calculation time was of the order of seconds. The inverse planning module produced plans with a significantly higher mean LET in the target compared to traditional plans, without any loss of target coverage. The clinical relevance of this improvement is under consideration . Conclusion: The developed treatment planning system is a valuable clinical and research tool that enables us to incorporate LET effects into proton radiotherapy planning in a streamlined fashion.

  8. ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Kszos, Lynn A; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

  9. Exploitation of olive mill wastewater and liquid cow manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareioti, Margarita A.; Dokianakis, Spyros N.; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Zafiri, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste streams is an innovative technology for the reduction of methane/greenhouse gas emissions. Different organic substrates are combined to generate a homogeneous mixture as input to the anaerobic reactor in order to increase process performance, realize a more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. In this study, the potential of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of a mixture containing olive mill wastewater (OMW) and liquid cow manure (LCM) using a two-stage process has been evaluated by using two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) under mesophilic conditions (35 {sup o}C) in order to separately monitor and control the processes of acidogenesis and methanogenesis. The overall process was studied with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 19 days. The digester was continuously fed with an influent composed (v/v) of 20% OMW and 80% LCM. The average removal of dissolved and total COD was 63.2% and 50%, respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal was 34.2% for the examined mixture of feedstocks operating the system at an overall OLR of 3.63 g CODL{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1}. Methane production rate at the steady state reached 0.91 L CH{sub 4}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1} or 250.9 L CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) per kg COD fed to the system.

  10. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  11. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Song (Fort Collins, CO); Fallgren, Paul H. (Laramie, WY); Morris, Jeffrey M. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  12. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 C, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

  13. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

  14. Hanford Site Creates One-Touch Wonder for Groundwater Treatment Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Engineers and operators supporting the Richland Operations Office at the Hanford site found a way to start and stop groundwater treatment along the Columbia River with literally the push of a button.

  15. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb; Vandergaast, Gary; Arey, Jimi

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow and load scenarios. (authors)

  16. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  17. Wastewater effluent guidelines and performance standards using best technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning guidelines and standards governing wastewater effluent treatment. Topics include point source performance standards and pretreatment standards for industry, as mandated by the Federal Water Pollution Act Amendments. Effluent guidelines are set forth for the degree of effluent reduction attainable through the Best Technology Economically Achievable. Studies on the economic and environmental impacts of these guidelines on industries are presented.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Remediation for wastewater. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater contamination by volatile organic materials and the technology for reclamation. Remediation techniques discussed include use of activated carbon, activated sludge, oxidation, scrubbing, vapor stripping, biodegradation, and other degradative treatments. Articles include remediation of soils contaminated by volatile wastes. The citations examine a variety of compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum wastes, chlorinated organics, and other volatile materials. (Contains a minimum of 215 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Coming Up With the Latest in High-Tech Water Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many people dont think much about what happens to water once it goes down the drain. Thanks to a vast network of wastewater treatment facilities in the United States, were able to clean and...

  20. Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, W. F. [Office of River Protection, U.S. Department of Energy, 2400 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Gerdes, K. [U.S. Department of Energy, 19901 Germantown Road, Germantown, MD 20874 (United States); Holton, L. K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pegg, I.L. [Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Bowan, B.W. [Duratek, Inc., 10100 Old Columbia Road, Columbia, Maryland 21046 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)

  1. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

  2. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Wastewater Triad Project: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, J.F.

    2001-12-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have performed nuclear energy research and radiochemical production since the early 1940s. Currently, millions of gallons of legacy radioactive liquid and sludge wastes are contained in over 300 large underground storage tanks, located primarily at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Plans for tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization are being developed and implemented throughout the DOE complex In order to meet regulatory requirements for remediation of underground storage tanks, ORNL has developed an integrated approach to the management of its waste that has applications across the DOE complex. The integrated approach consolidates plans for remediation of inactive tanks; upgrade of the active waste collection, storage, and treatment systems; and treatment of transuranic (TRU) tank waste for disposal. Important elements of this integrated approach to tank waste management include waste retrieval of sludges from tanks, conditioning and transport of retrieved waste to active storage tanks or treatment facilities, solid/liquid separations for supernatant recycle and/or waste treatment, removal of cesium from the supernatant, volume reduction of the supernatant, and solidification of sludges and supernatant for disposal. Each unit operation of the flowsheet is interconnected and impacts the overall efficiency of the entire flowsheet. ORNL has implemented innovative but proven technologies for each of the major unit operations to accelerate clean-up. ORNL used the integrated plan to determine where developing technologies were required to create an optimized flowsheet to (1) accelerate clean-out and remediation of underground storage tanks; (2) provide significant cost avoidance and schedule reductions; (3) consolidate wastes for private-sector immobilization; (4) facilitate regulatory compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) regulations; and (5) deploy state-of-the art technologies that have applications across the DOE complex. Partnerships were developed with DOE technology development agencies, private-sector companies, and other DOE sites to accomplish implementation of these technologies.

  6. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18–19, 2015, hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices.

  7. Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Form 2E) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater (MDEQ Form 2E) Abstract Form...

  8. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT)

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  9. Activated sludge studies of selected contaminants of PFH wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, S.K.; Bustamante, R.B.; Bonner, W.P.

    1991-12-31

    Acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate were selected as representative compounds of wastewater expected from pressurized, fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) of Eastern oil shales. The PFH process has been the subject of investigation by the Institute of Gas Technology, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, for the purpose of obtaining higher oil yields from Eastern shales than has been possible using conventional retorting methods. Preliminary batch experiments illustrated that acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate are aerobically biodegradable by heterogeneous microbiological cultures. Three continuous flow activated sludge reactors were used to further evaluate the biological treatability of the synthetic waste. The studies revealed that the compounds could be removed at hydraulic residence times of as low as one day. Three one-day experiments demonstrated that biological system`s capability to accept organic shock loadings without a change in effluent quality. A no-recycle reactor illustrated that the flocculent microbiological population had a high resistance to solids washout. Because a supplementary nitrogen source was not included in synthetic waste treated by the no-recycle unit, it was shown that propionitrile, pyrrole, and/or thiocyanate supplied the nitrogen necessary for biological activity.

  10. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 2025X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  11. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  12. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office and Fuel Cell Technologies Office jointly sponsored a workshop on Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters on March 17–18, 2015, in Washington, D.C. The workshop focused on the use of biological, biochemical, and other techniques to produce hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons from wastewaters.The ideas presented in this report represent a snapshot of the perspectives and concepts offered by the individuals who attended the workshop.

  13. Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

  14. SciFri PM: Dosimetry06: Commissioning of a 3D patient specific QA system for hypofractionated prostate treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivest, R; Venkataraman, S; McCurdy, B

    2014-08-15

    The objective of this work is to commission the 6MV-SRS beam model in COMPASS (v2.1, IBA-Dosimetry) and validate its use for patient specific QA of hypofractionated prostate treatments. The COMPASS system consists of a 2D ion chamber array (MatriXX{sup Evolution}), an independent gantry angle sensor and associated software. The system can either directly calculate or reconstruct (using measured detector responses) a 3D dose distribution on the patient CT dataset for plan verification. Beam models are developed and commissioned in the same manner as a beam model is commissioned in a standard treatment planning system. Model validation was initially performed by comparing both COMPASS calculations and reconstructions to measured open field beam data. Next, 10 hypofractionated prostate RapidArc plans were delivered to both the COMPASS system and a phantom with ion chamber and film inserted. COMPASS dose distributions calculated and reconstructed on the phantom CT dataset were compared to the chamber and film measurements. The mean ( standard deviation) difference between COMPASS reconstructed dose and ion chamber measurement was 1.4 1.0%. The maximum discrepancy was 2.6%. Corresponding values for COMPASS calculation were 0.9 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. The average gamma agreement index (3%/3mm) for COMPAS reconstruction and film was 96.7% and 95.3% when using 70% and 20% dose thresholds, respectively. The corresponding values for COMPASS calculation were 97.1% and 97.1%, respectively. Based on our results, COMPASS can be used for the patient specific QA of hypofractionated prostate treatments delivered with the 6MV-SRS beam.

  15. Activated sludge studies of selected contaminants of PFH wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, S.K. ); Bustamante, R.B.; Bonner, W.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate were selected as representative compounds of wastewater expected from pressurized, fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) of Eastern oil shales. The PFH process has been the subject of investigation by the Institute of Gas Technology, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, for the purpose of obtaining higher oil yields from Eastern shales than has been possible using conventional retorting methods. Preliminary batch experiments illustrated that acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate are aerobically biodegradable by heterogeneous microbiological cultures. Three continuous flow activated sludge reactors were used to further evaluate the biological treatability of the synthetic waste. The studies revealed that the compounds could be removed at hydraulic residence times of as low as one day. Three one-day experiments demonstrated that biological system's capability to accept organic shock loadings without a change in effluent quality. A no-recycle reactor illustrated that the flocculent microbiological population had a high resistance to solids washout. Because a supplementary nitrogen source was not included in synthetic waste treated by the no-recycle unit, it was shown that propionitrile, pyrrole, and/or thiocyanate supplied the nitrogen necessary for biological activity.

  16. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  17. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  18. Evaluation of a two-stage biofilter for treatment of POTW waste air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitwood, D.E.; Devinny, J.S.; Reynolds, F.E. Jr.

    1999-09-30

    Recent efforts have been made to reduce releases of air toxics and smog precursors from wastewater treatment plants. Hydrogen sulfide is commonly the primary odor and is an important target for removal. Its oxidation, however, generates sulfuric acid and sometimes elemental sulfur, which can create substantial operational problems for biofilters. Declining pH may inhibit the organisms that degrade compounds other than hydrogen sulfide and may hasten aging of organic biofilter media. A two-stage biofilter has been designed and installed at the Ohio Valley Sanitary District wastewater treatment plant. The first stage is an enclosed system with a medium of small, inert, porous stones. It is called an acid gas biofilter. The second stage is a section of a traditional open biofilter filled with wood chips. The acid gas biofilter effectively removed H{sub 2}S and volatile organic compounds while causing much lower headloss than traditional biofilters. However, considerable flow heterogeneity in both the acid gas biofilter and the wood chip biofilter was observed. The two-stage system presumably will have a longer bed life because the first stage bed is inert and because the second stage is protected from acidification by removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage.

  19. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  20. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  1. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gerald N. (Corby, GB); Kesse, Mary L. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  2. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

  4. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant� Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

  5. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  6. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of special compliance conditions Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  7. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  8. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of special compliance conditions Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  9. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of special compliance conditions Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Qualitys groundwater quality standard levels.

  10. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  11. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 410-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<410-6 m/s).

  12. Transacting generation attributes across market boundaries: Compatible information systems and the treatment of imports and exports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, Robert; Wiser, Ryan

    2002-11-01

    Voluntary markets for ''green'' power, and mandatory policies such as fuel source disclosure requirements and renewables portfolio standards, each rely on the ability to differentiate electricity by the ''attributes'' of the generation. Throughout North America, electricity markets are devising accounting and verification systems for generation ''attributes'': those characteristics of a power plant's production such as fuel source and emissions that differentiate it from undifferentiated (or ''commodity'') electricity. These accounting and verification systems are intended to verify compliance with market mandates, create accurate disclosure labels, substantiate green power claims, and support emissions markets. Simultaneously, interest is growing in transacting (importing or exporting) generation attributes across electricity market borders, with or without associated electricity. Cross-border renewable attribute transactions have advantages and disadvantages. Broad access to markets may encourage more renewable generation at lower cost, but this result may conflict with desires to assure that at least some renewable resources are built locally to achieve either local policy goals or purchaser objectives. This report is intended to serve as a resource document for those interested in and struggling with cross-border renewable attribute transactions. The report assesses the circumstances under which renewable generation attributes from a ''source'' region might be recognized in a ''sink'' region. The report identifies several distinct approaches that might be used to account for and verify attribute import and export transactions, and assesses the suitability of these alternative approaches. Because policymakers have often made systems ''compatibility'' between market areas a pre-requisite to allowing cross-border renewable transactions, this report develops criteria for ''compatible information systems.'' Where fully compatible information systems do not exist, certain cross-border attribute transactions may still be deemed suitably credible and verifiable to be recognized; this report also identifies possible criteria for such ''compatible transactions.'' The importance of credibly addressing imports and exports of renewable energy attributes should be evident. A lack of clarity as to what generation can and cannot be recognized in various markets can paralyze investment in and contracting for renewable generation. The development of rules for imports and exports will also minimize the potential for ''double counting'' of renewable energy attributes, will help define where and at what cost renewable plants will be built, and will directly impact the location of the benefits that renewable generation provides. This report ultimately concludes that the ''correct'' approach to treating renewable energy imports and exports depends on the context and motivations behind the transaction or the mandate, and that the presence of practical constraints or multiple objectives of ten make selecting the best approach difficult. That said, the report urges those creating market rules to move quickly in defining valid cross-border transaction structures and to consider the implications of their decisions on the creation of viable markets for new renewable generation.

  13. Fractionation of heavy metals in sludge from anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds in southern Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, E.

    2006-07-01

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to assess the potential environmental and health risk associated with the sludge coming from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, it is necessary to apply sequential extraction techniques to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability or toxicity. In this paper, a sequential extraction scheme according to the Standard, Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission was applied to sludge samples collected from ten anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) located in southern Spain. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn were determined in the sludge extracts by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In relation to current international legislation for the use of sludge for agricultural purposes, none of the metal concentrations exceeded maximum permitted levels. Overall, heavy metals were mainly associated with the two less-available fractions (34% oxidizable metal and 55% residual metal). Only Mn and Zn showed the highest share of the available (exchangeable and reducible) fractions (25-48%)

  14. Management Alert - The 2020 Vision One System Proposal for Commissioning and Startup of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, IG-0871

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The 2020 Vision One System Proposal for Commissioning and Startup of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant DOE/IG-0871 October 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 3, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Management Alert on "The 2020 Vision One System Proposal for Commissioning and Startup of the Waste Treatment and

  15. Bescorp soil washing system for lead battery site treatment. Applications analysis report. Project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaire, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Brice Environmental Services Corporation (BESCORP) Soil Washing System (BSWS) and its applicability in remediating lead-contaminated soil at lead battery sites was evaluated. The report presents performance and economic data, developed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration (three test runs) and additional data provided by the developer. The demonstration took place at the Alaskan Battery Enterprises (ABE) site in Fairbanks, Alaska. Economic data for a commercial 20-tph unit processing wastes similar to those treated in the SITE Demonstration, including disposal of waste effluents, project operating costs to be about $165/ton of soil (dry basis) containing 6.6 wt percent moisture. This figure does not reflect any revenue from recycling of metallic lead or cashing chips.

  16. Reinforcing of QA/QC programs in radiotherapy departments in Croatia: Results of treatment planning system verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovi?, Slaven; vabi?, Manda; Dikli?, Ana; Smilovi? Radoj?i?, ?eni; Dundara, Dea; Kasabai?, Mladen; Ivkovi?, Ana; Faj, Dario

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of advanced techniques in clinical practice can greatly improve the outcome of radiation therapy, but it also makes the process much more complex with a lot of room for errors. An important part of the quality assurance program is verification of treatment planning system (TPS). Dosimetric verifications in anthropomorphic phantom were performed in 4 centers where new systems were installed. A total of 14 tests for 2 photon energies and multigrid superposition algorithms were conducted using the CMS XiO TPS. Evaluation criteria as specified in the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Reports Series (IAEA TRS) 430 were employed. Results of measurements are grouped according to the placement of the measuring point and the beam energy. The majority of differences between calculated and measured doses in the water-equivalent part of the phantom were in tolerance. Significantly more out-of-tolerance values were observed in nonwater-equivalent parts of the phantom, especially for higher-energy photon beams. This survey was done as a part of continuous effort to build up awareness of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) importance in the Croatian radiotherapy community. Understanding the limitations of different parts of the various systems used in radiation therapy can systematically improve quality as well.

  17. Analysis of road pricing, metering and the priority treatment of high occupancy vehicles using system dynamics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo, W.

    1992-01-01

    Transportation Systems Management (TSM) employs various techniques such as road pricing, metering and the priority treatment of high occupancy vehicles (HOVs) in an effort to make more efficient use of existing transportation facilities. Efficiency is improved in terms of moving more people through the facility while simultaneously reducing the number of vehicles using the facility. This report uses a hypothetical toll facility and examines four computer modeling approaches to determine which of the approaches are valid in terms of predicting the behavior of trip makers seeking to use the facility in response to various combinations of TSM techniques. Once an approach has been determined to be valid, seven different combination of TSM techniques, or strategies, are compared to a base strategy to determine what strategy or strategies are most affective in achieving the goals of TSM.

  18. Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Africa, New Zealand (but not designed for nutrient removal). 9 Typical Electro-Mechanical Treatment Plant 10 Aeration Basins with Air Blowers Sludge Settling Tanks -100,000 0...

  19. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Materials from the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop that was held March 18-19, 2015, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices and sponsored by DOE's Bioenergy and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices.

  20. Energy Recovery Potential from Wastewater Utilities through Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Energy Recovery Potential from Wastewater Utilities through Innovation Lauren Fillmore, Senior Program Director, Water Environment Research Foundation

  1. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  2. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-11-07

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  3. SU-E-T-580: Comparison of Cervical Carcinoma IMRT Plans From Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z; Zhu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different treatment planning systems (TPS) use different treatment optimization and leaf sequencing algorithms. This work compares cervical carcinoma IMRT plans optimized with four commercial TPSs to investigate the plan quality in terms of target conformity and delivery efficiency. Methods: Five cervical carcinoma cases were planned with the Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio TPSs by experienced planners using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. Plans were normalized for at least 95% of PTV to receive the prescription dose (Dp). Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as Dmin(the minimum dose received by 99% of GTV/PTV), Dmax(the maximum dose received by 1% of GTV/PTV), D100, D95, D90, V110%, V105%, V100% (the volume of GTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 100% of Dp), conformity index(CI), homogeneity index (HI), the volume of receiving 40Gy and 50 Gy to rectum (V40,V50) ; the volume of receiving 30Gy and 50 Gy to bladder (V30,V50) were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: While all plans meet target dose specifications and normal tissue constraints, the maximum GTVCI of Pinnacle plans was up to 0.74 and the minimum of Corvus plans was only 0.21, these four TPSs PTVCI had significant difference. The GTVHI and PTVHI of Pinnacle plans are all very low and show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans require significantly less segments and MUs to deliver than the other plans. Conclusion: To deliver on a Varian linear-accelerator, the Pinnacle plans show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans have faster beam delivery.

  4. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  5. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  6. Office of Wastewater Management catalog of publications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The contents include: Introduction; Categories of Documents (Biosolids; Construction Grants; Environmental Impact Statements; Federal Registers; Finance; Needs and Assessments; Operation and Maintenance; Permitting Issues; Pollution Prevention and Control; Pretreatment; Small Communities; Storm Water/Combined Sewer Overflows; Treatment; Water Conservation and Efficiency; Water Quality and Standards; and Miscellaneous); and Document Title Index.

  7. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-02-14

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification{trademark} (ICV{trademark}) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full-scale testing over the past two years and DOE reviews.

  8. SU-E-T-219: Investigation of IMRT Out-Of-Field Dose Calculation Accuracy for a Commercial Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Inaccuracies in out-of-field calculations could lead to underestimation of dose to organs-at-risk. This study evaluates the dose calculation accuracy of a model-based calculation algorithm at points outside the primary treatment field for an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan using experimental measurements. Methods: The treatment planning system investigated is Varian Eclipse V.10 with Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA). The IMRT fields investigated are from real patient treatment plans. The doses from a dynamic (DMLC) IMRT brain plan were calculated and compared with measured doses at locations outside the primary treatment fields. Measurements were performed with a MatriXX system (2-D chamber array) placed in solid water. All fields were set vertically incident on the phantom and were 9 cm 6 cm or smaller. The dose was normalized to the central axis for points up to 15 cm off isocenter. The comparisons were performed at depths of 2, 10, 15, and 20 cm Results: The measurements have shown that AAA calculations underestimate doses at points outside the primary treatment field. The underestimation occurs at 2 cm depth and decreases down to a factor of 2 as depth increases to 20 cm. In low dose (<2% of target dose) regions outside the primary fields the local dose underestimations can be >200% compared to measured doses. Relative to the plan target dose, the measured doses to points outside the field were less than 1% at shallow depths and less than 2% at greater depths. Conclusion: Compared to measurements, the AAA algorithm underestimated the dose at points outside the treatment field with the greatest differences observed at shallow depths. Despite large local dose uncertainties predicted by the treatment planning system, the impact of these uncertainties is expected to be insignificant as doses at these points were less than 1-2% of the prescribed treatment dose.

  9. Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse treatment planning system for effects on dose distribution of the hip prostheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    atl?, Serap; Tan?r, Gne?

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.

  10. Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2012-01-15

    Where public environmental funds support development of wastewater infrastructure, funding institutions ensure the economic use of funds, while the beneficiaries minimize their own costs. In rural areas, there is often a choice between decentralized or centralized (multi-village) systems: if the centralized system is most economic, then only this system is eligible for public funding. However, its implementation requires a voluntary cooperation of the concerned communities, who need to organize themselves to develop and run the infrastructure. The paper analyzes the social determinants of collaboration in a generic case study, using the following variables: method of (economic) assessment, modeled by the social discount rate, funding policy, modeled by the funding rate, and users' self-organization, modeled by cost sharing. In a borderline situation, where the centralized system turns out to be most economic, but this assessment is contingent on the assessment method, collective action may fail: the advantages of collective action from funding are too small to outweigh organizational deficiencies. Considering in this situation sanitation as a human right, authors recommend using innovative forms of organization and, if these fail, reassessing either the amount of funding or the eligibility for funding of more acceptable alternatives. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A generic case study models collective action and funding in wastewater management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determinants of success: economic assessment, funding policy and self-organization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success indicators: conflict rate, funds needed to make cost shares fair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method for analyzing centralized vs. decentralized disputes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If collective action has less benefits, innovative cost sharing may ensure success.

  11. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  12. Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

  13. SU-E-T-583: Optimizing the MLC Model Parameters for IMRT in the RayStation Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S; Yi, B; Xu, H; Yang, X; Prado, K; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To optimize the MLC model parameters for IMRT in the RayStation v.4.0 planning system and for a Varian C-series Linac with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC. Methods: The RayStation treatment planning system models rounded leaf-end MLC with the following parameters: average transmission, leaf-tip width, tongue-and-groove, and position offset. The position offset was provided by Varian. The leaf-tip width was iteratively evaluated by comparing computed and measured transverse dose profiles of MLC-defined fields at dmax in water. The profile comparison was also used to verify the MLC position offset. The transmission factor and leaf tongue width were derived iteratively by optimizing five clinical patient IMRT QA Results: brain, lung, pancreas, head-and-neck (HN), and prostate. The HN and prostate cases involved splitting fields. Verifications were performed with Mapcheck2 measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Finally, the MLC model was validated using five test IMRT cases from the AAPM TG119 report. Absolute gamma analyses (3mm/3% and 2mm/2%) were applied. In addition, computed output factors for MLC-defined small fields (22, 33, 44, 66cm) of both 6MV and 18MV were compared to those measured by the Radiological Physics Center (RPC). Results: Both 6MV and 18MV models were determined to have the same MLC parameters: 2.5% transmission, tongue-and-groove 0.05cm, and leaftip 0.3cm. IMRT QA analysis for five cases in TG119 resulted in a 100% passing rate with 3mm/3% gamma analysis for 6MV, and >97.5% for 18MV. With 2mm/2% gamma analysis, the passing rate was >94.6% for 6MV and >90.9% for 18MV. The difference between computed output factors in RayStation and RPC measurements was less than 2% for all MLCdefined fields, which meets the RPC's acceptance criterion. Conclusion: The rounded leaf-end MLC model in RayStation 4.0 planning system was verified and IMRT commissioning was clinically acceptable. The IMRT commissioning was well validated using guidance from the AAPMTG119 protocol.

  14. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN (United States); Darwen, N.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance functional and timing studies throughout the design process. Since no humans can go in or out of the cell, there are several recovery options that have been designed into the system including jack-down wheels for the bridge and trolley, recovery drums for the manipulator hoist, and a wire rope cable cutter for the slewer jib hoist. If the entire crane fails in cell, the large diameter cable reel that provides power, signal, and control to the crane can be used to retrieve the crane from the cell into the crane maintenance area. (authors)

  15. Energy Recovery Potential from Wastewater Utilities through Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Potential from Wastewater Utilities through Innovation Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste-Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? July 30, 2014 Who WERF is * Manage peer- reviewed research lifecycle to deliver timely, actionable results. * 35-40 reports published annually that are housed in a online, searchable database. * Serve as a research hub for the water quality community; utilities, policy makers, consultants, universities and industry. WERF

  16. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2002-02-15

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  17. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Lewis, Michael George

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  18. SU-E-T-608: Performance Comparison of Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems Applied to Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the performances of four commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used for the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Ten patients of nasopharyngeal (4 cases), esophageal (3 cases) and cervical (3 cases) cancer were randomly selected from a 3-month IMRT plan pool at one radiotherapy center. For each patient, four IMRT plans were newly generated by using four commercial TPS (Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio), and then verified with Matrixx (two-dimensional array/IBA Company) on Varian23EX accelerator. A pass rate (PR) calculated from the Gamma index by OminiPro IMRT 1.5 software was evaluated at four plan verification standards (1%/1mm, 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, 4%/4mm and 5%/5mm) for each treatment plan. Overall and multiple pairwise comparisons of PRs were statistically conducted by analysis of covariance (ANOVA) F and LSD tests among four TPSs. Results: Overall significant (p>0.05) differences of PRs were found among four TPSs with F test values of 3.8 (p=0.02), 21.1(>0.01), 14.0 (>0.01), 8.3(>0.01) at standards of 1%/1mm to 4%/4mm respectively, except at 5%/5mm standard with 2.6 (p=0.06). All means (standard deviation) of PRs at 3%/3mm of 94.3 3.3 (Corvus), 98.8 0.8 (Monaco), 97.5 1.7 (Pinnacle), 98.4 1.0 (Xio) were above 90% and met clinical requirement. Multiple pairwise comparisons had not demonstrated a consistent low or high pattern on either TPS. Conclusion: Matrixx dose verification results show that the validation pass rates of Monaco and Xio plans are relatively higher than those of the other two; Pinnacle plan shows slight higher pass rate than Corvus plan; lowest pass rate was achieved by the Corvus plan among these four kinds of TPS.

  19. Multifunctional gold coated rare-earth hydroxide fluoride nanotubes for simultaneous wastewater purification and quantitative pollutant determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Da-Quan; Sun, Tian-Ying; Yu, Xue-Feng; Jia, Yue; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jia-Hong; Huang, Hao; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: The morphology and properties of Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) were investigated. YHF:Ce NTs were conjugated with Au nanoparticles to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. Au-YHF:Ce NTs showed excellent capability and efficiency in removing Congo red from solutions. Au-YHF:Ce NTs were utilized to determine the concentration of Congo red based on SERS. - Abstract: Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) with large surface area are synthesized and conjugated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. The Au-YHF:Ce NTs have a hollow structure, rough surface, polymer coating, and good surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) properties. They are applied to wastewater treatment to remove Congo red as a typical pollutant. The materials not only remove pollutants rapidly from the wastewater, but also detect trace amounts of the pollutants quantitatively. The multifunctional Au-YHF:Ce NTs have commercial potential as nano-absorbents and nano-detectors in water treatment and environmental monitoring.

  20. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Basin Facility Basin Water Treatment System - Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, S. K.

    2007-11-07

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Basin Water Treatment System located in the Basin Facility (CPP-603), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet future milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The system to be closed includes units and associated ancillary equipment included in the Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan and Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank Systems INTEC-077 and INTEC-078 that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The Basin Water Treatment System will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265, to achieve "clean closure" of the tank system. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards for the Basin Water Treatment Systems.

  1. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) background document for universal standards. Volume B. Universal standards for wastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is establishing Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) universal standards for the listed wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Section 261.31 (40 CFR 261.31). A universal standard is a single concentration-based treatment standard established for a specific constituent; a constituent has the same treatment standard in each waste code in which it is regulated. The background document provides the Agency`s rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents for regulation under universal standards and for developing the universal standards for wastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes.

  2. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  3. SU-E-T-585: Commissioning of Electron Monte Carlo in Eclipse Treatment Planning System for TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X; Lasio, G; Zhou, J; Lin, M; Yi, B; Guerrero, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To commission electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm in Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) for TrueBeam Linacs, including the evaluation of dose calculation accuracy for small fields and oblique beams and comparison with the existing eMC model for Clinacs. Methods: Electron beam percent-depth-dose (PDDs) and profiles with and without applicators, as well as output factors, were measured from two Varian TrueBeam machines. Measured data were compared against the Varian TrueBeam Representative Beam Data (VTBRBD). The selected data set was transferred into Eclipse for beam configuration. Dose calculation accuracy from eMC was evaluated for open fields, small cut-out fields, and oblique beams at different incident angles. The TrueBeam data was compared to the existing Clinac data and eMC model to evaluate the differences among Linac types. Results: Our measured data indicated that electron beam PDDs from our TrueBeam machines are well matched to those from our Varian Clinac machines, but in-air profiles, cone factors and open-filed output factors are significantly different. The data from our two TrueBeam machines were well represented by the VTBRBD. Variations of TrueBeam PDDs and profiles were within the 2% /2mm criteria for all energies, and the output factors for fields with and without applicators all agree within 2%. Obliquity factor for two clinically relevant applicator sizes (1010 and 1515 cm{sup 2}) and three oblique angles (15, 30, and 45 degree) were measured for nominal R100, R90, and R80 of each electron beam energy. Comparisons of calculations using eMC of obliquity factors and cut-out factors versus measurements will be presented. Conclusion: eMC algorithm in Eclipse TPS can be configured using the VTBRBD. Significant differences between TrueBeam and Clinacs were found in in-air profiles and open field output factors. The accuracy of the eMC algorithm was evaluated for a wide range of cut-out factors and oblique incidence.

  4. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  5. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2003-02-20

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  6. 1997 evaluation of tritium removal and mitigation technologies for Hanford Site wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Duncan, J.B.; Flyckt, D.L.; Mohondro, P.C.; Sinton, G.L.

    1997-07-24

    This report contains results of a biennial assessment of tritium separation technology and tritium nitration techniques for control of tritium bearing wastewaters at the Hanford Site. Tritium in wastewaters at Hanford have resulted from plutonium production, fuel reprocessing, and waste handling operations since 1944. this assessment was conducted in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  7. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K.; Oomori, T.

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  8. Biodegradation of phenolic wastewaters in a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor with the KMT{reg_sign} biomass support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokol, W.; Halfini, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    A treatment of wastewater from a local refinery in a three-phase fluidised bed bioreactor with the KMT{sup R} biomass support was investigated. It was found that after adding mineral salts to the wastewater to be treated, a reduction in the COD values increased from about 55% to almost 90%. The reduction in COD was increasing with an increase in both a superficial air velocity and a ratio of bed volume to bioreactor volume (V{sub b}/V{sub r}). The highest value of (V{sub b}/V{sub r}) which could be applied in the experiments was 0.7, because at larger (V{sub b}/V{sub r}) movement of the whole bed was impossible. The bioreactor as operated was not successful in degrading thiocyanates, cyanides, nitrates and ammonia. However, results of independent experiments that have been started to adapt the symbiotic populations of microorganisms that may effectively degrade those compounds are promising. Stratification of the support media coated with the biomass led to their movement to the base of the bioreactor where concentration of organic compounds was highest. This was desirable since the compounds could penetrate far into the biofilm so most of the biomass grown on the support was active. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Sandia Energy - Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Water Monitoring & Treatment Technologycwdd2015-05-0...

  10. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31

    The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

  11. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  12. Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu; Savage, Paul B.; Pollard, Jacob; Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla; Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli; Stafslien, Shane; Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2012-01-01

    Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

  13. WATER AND WASTEWATER POLISHING USING 3M SELECTIVE SEPARATION REMEDIATION CARTRIDGE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, K. M.; Scanlan, T. J.; Seely, D. C.

    2002-02-25

    3M has developed technology for selectively removing trace levels of dissolved contaminant materials from liquids using systems operating at flow rates up to 50 gallons per minute. This technology combines active particle chemistries with a particle-loaded membrane to achieve a new medium for liquid waste processing--a spiral wound filter cartridge. This technology has shown success by generating high decontamination factors and reducing contaminants to part per trillion levels. The spiral wound cartridge offers simplified installation, convenient replacement, and clean, easy disposal of a concentrated waste. By incorporating small, high surface area particles (5 to 80 microns) into a sturdy, yet porous, membrane greater removal efficiencies of even trace contaminants can be achieved at higher flow rates than with conventional column systems. In addition, the captive-particle medium prevents channeling of liquids and insures uniform flow across the sorbing particle surface. The cartridges fit into standard, commercially-available housings and whole system capital costs are substantially lower than those of column or reverse osmosis systems. Developmental work at high degrees of water polishing have included removal of mercury from contaminated wastewater, various radionuclides from process water, and organometallic species from surface water discharges. Laboratory testing and on-site demonstration data of these applications show the levels of success that have been achieved thus far.

  14. SU-E-J-160: Comparing the Setup Accuracy of Non-Ionizing Patient Localization Systems with CBCT to Reduce Imaging Dose in Prone Breast Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, E; Yamamoto, T; Mayadev, J; Dieterich, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: CBCT is the current gold standard to verify prone breast patient setup. We investigated in a phantom if non-ionizing localization systems can replace ionizing localization systems for prone breast treatments. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was positioned on a prone breast board. Electromagnetic transponders were attached on the left chest surface. The CT images of the phantom were imported to the treatment planning system. The isocenter was set to the center of the transponders. The positions of the isocenter and transponders transferred to the transponder tracking system. The posterior phantom surface was contoured and exported to the optical surface tracking system. A CBCT was taken for the initial setup alignment on the treatment machine. Using the electromagnetic and optical localization systems, the deviation of the phantom setup from the original CT images was measured. This was compared with the difference between the original CT and kV-CBCT images. Results: For the electromagnetic localization system, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 1.5 mm, 0.0 mm and 0.5 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions. For the optical localization system, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 2.0 mm, ?2.0 mm and 0.1 mm in the AP, SI and LR directions. For the CBCT, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 4.0 mm, 1.0 mm and ?1.0 mm in the AP, SI and LR directions. The measured values from the non-ionizing localization systems differed from those with the CBCT less than 3.0 mm in all directions. Conclusions: This phantom study showed the feasibility of using a combination of non-ionizing localization systems to achieve a similar setup accuracy as CBCT for prone breast patients. This could potentially eliminate imaging dose. As a next step, we are expanding this study to actual patients. This work has been in part supported by Departmental Research Award RODEPT1-JS001, Department of Radiation Oncology, UC Davis Medical Center.

  15. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  16. SU-E-T-587: Monte Carlo Versus Ray-Tracing for Treatment Planning Involving CNS Tumors On the MultiPlan System for CyberKnife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forbang, R Teboh

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: MultiPlan, the treatment planning system for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery system offers two approaches to dose computation, namely Ray-Tracing (RT), the default technique and Monte Carlo (MC), an option. RT is deterministic, however it accounts for primary heterogeneity only. MC on the other hand has an uncertainty associated with the calculation results. The advantage is that in addition, it accounts for heterogeneity effects on the scattered dose. Not all sites will benefit from MC. The goal of this work was to focus on central nervous system (CNS) tumors and compare dosimetrically, treatment plans computed with RT versus MC. Methods: Treatment plans were computed using both RT and MC for sites covering (a) the brain (b) C-spine (c) upper T-spine (d) lower T-spine (e) L-spine and (f) sacrum. RT was first used to compute clinically valid treatment plans. Then the same treatment parameters, monitor units, beam weights, etc., were used in the MC algorithm to compute the dose distribution. The plans were then compared for tumor coverage to illustrate the difference if any. All MC calculations were performed at a 1% uncertainty. Results: Using the RT technique, the tumor coverage for the brain, C-spine (C3–C7), upper T-spine (T4–T6), lower T-spine (T10), Lspine (L2) and sacrum were 96.8%, 93.1%, 97.2%, 87.3%, 91.1%, and 95.3%. The corresponding tumor coverage based on the MC approach was 98.2%, 95.3%, 87.55%, 88.2%, 92.5%, and 95.3%. It should be noted that the acceptable planning target coverage for our clinical practice is >95%. The coverage can be compromised for spine tumors to spare normal tissues such as the spinal cord. Conclusion: For treatment planning involving the CNS, RT and MC appear to be similar for most sites but for the T-spine area where most of the beams traverse lung tissue. In this case, MC is highly recommended.

  17. Suppression of current fluctuations in a crossed ExB field system for low-voltage plasma immersion treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levchenko, I.; Keidar, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Yu, M.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma transport in a hybrid dc vacuum arc plasma source for ion deposition and plasma immersion treatment is considered. It is found that external crossed electric and magnetic fields near the substrate can significantly reduce the relative amplitude of ion current fluctuations I{sub f} at the substrate surface. In particular, I{sub f} decreases with the applied magnetic field when the bias voltage exceeds 300 V, thus allowing one to reduce the deviations from the rated process parameters. This phenomenon can be attributed to an interaction between the metal-plasma jet from the arc source and the discharge plasma in the crossed fields.

  18. SU-E-T-595: Design of a Graphical User Interface for An In-House Monte Carlo Based Treatment Planning System: Planning and Contouring Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EMAM, M; Eldib, A; Lin, M; Li, J; Chibani, O; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: An in-house Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (MC TPS) has been developed for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT). Our preliminary MERT planning experience called for a more user friendly graphical user interface. The current work aimed to design graphical windows and tools to facilitate the contouring and planning process. Methods: Our In-house GUI MC TPS is built on a set of EGS4 user codes namely MCPLAN and MCBEAM in addition to an in-house optimization code, which was named as MCOPTIM. Patient virtual phantom is constructed using the tomographic images in DICOM format exported from clinical treatment planning systems (TPS). Treatment target volumes and critical structures were usually contoured on clinical TPS and then sent as a structure set file. In our GUI program we developed a visualization tool to allow the planner to visualize the DICOM images and delineate the various structures. We implemented an option in our code for automatic contouring of the patient body and lungs. We also created an interface window displaying a three dimensional representation of the target and also showing a graphical representation of the treatment beams. Results: The new GUI features helped streamline the planning process. The implemented contouring option eliminated the need for performing this step on clinical TPS. The auto detection option for contouring the outer patient body and lungs was tested on patient CTs and it was shown to be accurate as compared to that of clinical TPS. The three dimensional representation of the target and the beams allows better selection of the gantry, collimator and couch angles. Conclusion: An in-house GUI program has been developed for more efficient MERT planning. The application of aiding tools implemented in the program is time saving and gives better control of the planning process.

  19. WO3/TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the nanotubes. SEM images show that these materials have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes, and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work indicate that the unique structure and composition of these composite materials enhance the charge carrier transport and optical properties compared with the parent materials.

  20. Design, fabrication, and testing of a getter-based atmosphere purification and waste treatment system for a nitrogen-hydrogen-helium glovebox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibeault, M. L.; Paglieri, S. N.; Tuggle, D. G.; Wermer, J. R.; Nobile Jr, A.

    2008-07-15

    A system containing a combination of getters (Zr-Mn-Fe, SAES St909; and Zr{sub 2}Fe, SAES St198) was used to process the nitrogen-hydrogen-helium atmosphere in a glovebox used for handling metal tritide samples. During routine operations, the glovebox atmosphere is recirculated and hydrogenous impurities (i.e. CQ{sub 4}, Q{sub 2}O, and NQ{sub 3}, where Q =H, D, T) are decomposed (cracked) and removed by Zr-Mn-Fe without absorbing elemental hydrogen isotopes. If the tritium content of the glovebox atmosphere becomes unacceptably high, the getter system can rapidly strip the glovebox atmosphere of all hydrogen isotopes by absorption on the Zr{sub 2}Fe, thus lessening the burden on the facility waste gas treatment system. The getter system was designed for high flowrate ( > 100 1/min), which is achieved by using a honeycomb support for the getter pellets and 1.27-cm diameter tubing throughout the system for reduced pressure drop. The novel getter bed design also includes an integral preheater and copper liner to accommodate swelling of the getter pellets, which occurs during loading with oxygen and carbon impurities. Non-tritium functional tests were conducted to determine the gettering efficiencies at different getter bed temperatures and flowrates by recirculating gas through the system from, a 6-m{sup 3} glovebox containing known concentrations of impurities. (authors)

  1. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  2. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  3. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  4. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C.

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  5. On-Line Microbial Whole Effluent Toxicity Monitoring for Industrial Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, S; Hoppes, W; Mascetti, M; Campbell, C G

    2002-09-17

    In this study a respirometer is tested for its ability to act as an early upset warning device and whole effluent toxicity monitor for industrial discharge. Industrial discharge water quality is commonly evaluated by comparing measured chemical concentrations to target values or regulatory limits established by governmental agencies. Unless the regulatory values are based upon empirical data, the actual effect of the discharge on aquatic systems is unknown. At the same time assessing the environmental toxicology of wastewater discharges is complicated by synergistic relationships among chemical constituents producing greater total toxicity. For example, metals may be more toxic in waters with low total hardness or more soluble at lower pH. An alternative approach that we are investigating is whole effluent toxicity testing. This study investigates the measurement of whole effluent toxicity through an on-line respirometer that measures toxicity to microorganisms comprising activated sludge. In this approach the oxygen uptake rate is monitored and used as an indicator of microbial activity or health. This study investigates the use of an online whole effluent toxicity testing system to provide early upset warning and the consistency of measured response to low pH. Repeated exposure of the microorganisms to low pH results in reduced sensitivity of the microbial population. We investigate whether this reduction in sensitivity results from physiological acclimation or changes in species composition. We identify promising applications, where, with proper calibration, respirometry based toxicity monitoring appear to be well suited for relative comparisons of whole effluent toxicity.

  6. Subterranean drilling and in situ treatment of wastes using a contamination control system and methods relating thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessmore, James J.; Loomis, Guy G.; Pettet, Mark C.; Flyckt, Melissa C.

    2004-09-28

    Systems and methods relating to subterranean drilling while maintaining containment of any contaminants released during the drilling. A thrust block installed over a zone of interest provides an overflow space for retaining any contaminants and excess sealant returns. Negative air pressure may be maintained in the overflow space by a ventilation system. Access ports in the thrust block seal the overflow space from the surrounding environment with a membrane seal. A flexible sack seal in the access port may be connected to a drill shroud prior to drilling, providing containment during drilling after the drill bit penetrates the membrane seal. The drill shroud may be adapted to any industry standard drilling rig and includes a connection conduit for connecting to the flexible sack seal and a flexible enclosure surrounding the drill shaft and of a length to accommodate full extension thereof. Upon withdrawal, the sack seal may be closed off and separated, maintaining containment of the overflow space and the drill shroud.

  7. Preozonation of primary-treated municipal wastewater for reuse in biofuel feedstock generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondala, Andro H.; Hernandez, Rafael; French, William Todd; Estevez, L. Antonio; Meckes, Mark; Trillo, Marlene; Hall, Jacqueline

    2011-12-01

    The results of a laboratory scale investigation on ozone pretreatment of primary-treated municipal wastewater for potential reuse in fermentation processes for the production of biofuels and bio-based feedstock chemicals were presented. Semi-batch preozonation with 3.0% (w/w) ozone at 1 L min -1 resulted into a considerable inactivation of the indigenous heterotrophic bacteria in the wastewater with less than 0.0002% comprising the ozone-resistant fraction of the microbial population. The disinfection process was modeled using first-order inactivation kinetics with a rate constant of 4.39 ???? 10 -3 s -1. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were reduced by 30% in 1-h experiments. COD depletion was also modeled using a pseudo-first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 9.50 ???? 10 -5 s -1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD 5) values were reduced by 60% up to 20 min of ozonation followed by a plateau and some slight increases attributed to partial oxidation of recalcitrant materials. Ozone also had no substantial effect on the concentration of ammonium and phosphate ions, which are essential for microbial growth and metabolism. Preliminary tests indicated that oleaginous microorganisms could be cultivated in the ozonated wastewater, resulting in relatively higher cell densities than in raw wastewater and comparable results with autoclave-sterilized wastewater. This process could potentially produce significant quantities of oil for biofuel production from municipal wastewater streams.

  8. Coherent quantum transport in disordered systems: A unified polaron treatment of hopping and band-like transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-04-28

    Quantum transport in disordered systems is studied using a polaron-based master equation. The polaron approach is capable of bridging the results from the coherent band-like transport regime governed by the Redfield equation to incoherent hopping transport in the classical regime. A non-monotonic dependence of the diffusion coefficient is observed both as a function of temperature and system-phonon coupling strength. In the band-like transport regime, the diffusion coefficient is shown to be linearly proportional to the system-phonon coupling strength and vanishes at zero coupling due to Anderson localization. In the opposite classical hopping regime, we correctly recover the dynamics described by the Fermis Golden Rule and establish that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient depends on the phonon bath relaxation time. In both the hopping and band-like transport regimes, it is demonstrated that at low temperature, the zero-point fluctuations of the bath lead to non-zero transport rates and hence a finite diffusion constant. Application to rubrene and other organic semiconductor materials shows a good agreement with experimental mobility data.

  9. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E.

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  10. Waste treatment by dialysis. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of dialysis in the treatment of wastewaters. Techniques for the removal of metals, ammonia, waste acids, nitrates, and phosphates are described. Special attention is given to the desalination of liquid wastes. Applications of this technology to the treatment of effluent from the agrochemical, petrochemical, tanning, and electroplating industries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 60 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Waste treatment by dialysis. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of dialysis in the treatment of wastewaters. Techniques for the removal of metals, ammonia, waste acids, nitrates, and phosphates are described. Special attention is given to the desalination of liquid wastes. Applications of this technology to the treatment of effluent from the agrochemical, petrochemical, tanning, and electroplating industries are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  13. Effect of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-treatment on textural and solid-solid interactions in ferric/cobaltic oxides system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fagal, Gehan A.; Badawy, Abdelrahman A.; Hassan, Neven A.; El-Shobaky, Gamil A.

    2012-10-15

    Pure and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing (0.75-3.0 mol%) Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} solids were prepared by thermal treatment of their carbonates at 500-700 Degree-Sign C. The produced solids were characterized using XRD, HRTEM, EDX and nitrogen adsorption at -196 Degree-Sign C. The results revealed that pure solids calcined at 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C consisted of nanosized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase, while pure mixed solids calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C consisted of trace amount of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and unreacted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases. The presence of 0.75 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} enhanced solid-solid interaction between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} at 500 Degree-Sign C yielding CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The ferrite phase existed also in all mixed oxides upon treated with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} besides LaCoO{sub 3} phase. LaCoO{sub 3} existed as a major phase in all mixed oxides treated with 3 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-treatment modified the crystallite size of all phases present to an extent dependent on calcination temperature and amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. This treatment decreased effectively the S{sub BET} of all mixed solids. - Graphical Abstract: TEM photographs of pure mixed oxides calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt ferrite exhibit chemical stability, low electric loss and high coercivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt ferrite is used in microwave devices, computer memories and magnetic storage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-solid interactions in ferric/cobaltic oxides system were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-treatment modified surface compositions of the system investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All phases present in various solids existed as nanosized solids.

  14. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  15. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible.

  16. How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; He, Q.; Hemme, C.L.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hillesland, K.; Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; Hazen, T.C.; Stahl, D.A.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) are a phylogenetically diverse group of anaerobes encompassing distinct physiologies with a broad ecological distribution. As SRMs have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and various metals, an understanding of how these organisms respond to environmental stresses is of fundamental and practical importance. In this Review, we highlight recent applications of systems biology tools in studying the stress responses of SRMs, particularly Desulfovibrio spp., at the cell, population, community and ecosystem levels. The syntrophic lifestyle of SRMs is also discussed, with a focus on system-level analyses of adaptive mechanisms. Such information is important for understanding the microbiology of the global sulphur cycle and for developing biotechnological applications of SRMs for environmental remediation, energy production, biocorrosion control, wastewater treatment and mineral recovery.

  17. Selecting chemical treatment programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E. )

    1988-09-01

    Many process equipment performance and reliability problems can be solved economically by the proper selection and application of chemical treatment programs. It is important to choose an experienced chemical vendor and to work closely with the vendor to develop a good chemical treatment program. This requires devoting sufficient manpower to ensure that the treatment program development is thorough and timely. After the treatment program is installed, the system operation and performance should be routinely monitored to ensure that expected benefits are achieved and unexpected problems do not develop.

  18. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  19. Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

  20. Sequencing of Local Therapy Affects the Pattern of Treatment Failure and Survival in Children With Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S., E-mail: atmaram.pai-panandiker@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E.; Beltran, Chris [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Sharma, Shelly [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Jenkins, Jesse J. [Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Helton, Kathleen J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wright, Karen D.; Broniscer, Alberto [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of treatment failure associated with current therapeutic paradigms for childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with AT/RT of the central nervous system treated at our institution between 1987 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of local failure were correlated with age, sex, tumor location, extent of disease, and extent of surgical resection. Radiotherapy (RT) sequencing, chemotherapy, dose, timing, and volume administered after resection were also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients at a median age of 2.3 years at diagnosis (range, 0.45-16.87 years) were enrolled into protocols that included risk- and age-stratified RT. Craniospinal irradiation with focal tumor bed boost (median dose, 54 Gy) was administered to 18 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 16. Ten patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. RT was delayed more than 3 months in 20 patients and between 1 and 3 months in 4; 7 patients received immediate postoperative irradiation preceding high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the cumulative incidence of local treatment failure was 37.5% {+-} 9%; progression-free survival was 33.2% {+-} 10%; and OS was 53.5% {+-} 10%. Children receiving delayed RT ({>=}1 month postoperatively) were more likely to experience local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, p = 0.007); the development of distant metastases before RT increased the risk of progression (HR 3.49, p = 0.006); and any evidence of disease progressionbefore RT decreased OS (HR 20.78, p = 0.004). Disease progression occurred in 52% (11/21) of children with initially localized tumors who underwent gross total resection, and the progression rate increased proportionally with increasing delay from surgery to RT. Conclusions: Delayed RT is associated with a higher rate of local and metastatic disease progression in children with AT/RT. Current treatment regimens for pediatric patients with AT/RT are distinctly age stratified; novel protocols investigating RT volumes and sequencing are needed.

  1. Study the sensitivity of dose calculation in prism treatment planning system using Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MeV electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardiansyah, D.; Haryanto, F.; Male, S.

    2014-09-30

    Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (R{sub p}) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue.

  2. Hanford Contractor Assumes Responsibility of Three Wastewater Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – EM’s Office of River Protection (ORP) gained a few more operations recently when the Effluent Treatment (ETF), Liquid Effluent Retention (LERF), and Treated Effluent Disposal (TEDF) facilities changed hands.

  3. Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in New Pilot Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Des Moines Metropolitan Wastewater Reclamation Authority (WRA) and Des Moines Water Works have committed to participate in the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program as the first members of a new program pilot. SEP recognizes facilities that meet the ISO 50001 global energy management standard and demonstrate improved energy performance.

  4. St. Petersburg, FL: Vehicle Use of Recycled Natural Gas Derived from Wastewater Biosolids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? St. Petersburg, FL: Vehicle Use of Recycled Natural Gas Derived from Wastewater Biosolids William Eleazer, Supervising Engineer, Brown and Caldwell

  5. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  6. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with...

  8. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 Recycled Water Rules and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Qualitys Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  9. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  10. Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sharon M; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Bradley D; Sullivan, Nicholas M; Bugbee, Kathy P

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes dispositioning facilities, contaminated legacy materials/waste, and contamination sources and remediation of soil under facilities, groundwater, and surface water to support final Records of Decision (RODs). The Integrated Facilities Disposition Project (IFDP) is a roughly $15B project for completion of the EM mission at Oak Ridge, with a project duration of up to 35 years. The IFDP Mission Need Statement - Critical Decision-0 (CD-0) - was approved by DOE in July 2007, and the IFDP Alternative Selection and Cost Range - Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) - was approved in November 2008. The IFDP scope includes reconfiguration of waste collection and treatment systems as needed to complete the IFDP remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) missions in a safe and cost-effective manner while maintaining compliance with all governing regulations and bodies and preserving the support of continuing operations at ORNL. A step in the CD-1 approval process included an external technical review (ETR) of technical approaches proposed in the CD-1 document related to the facility reconfiguration for the ORNL radioactive waste and liquid low-level waste management systems. The ETR team recommended that the IFDP team consider the use of trenchless technologies for installing pipelines underground in and around contaminated sites as part of the alternatives evaluations required in support of the CD-2 process. The team specifically recommended evaluating trenchless technologies for installing new pipes in existing underground pipelines as an alternative to conventional open trench installation methods. Potential benefits could include reduction in project costs, less costly underground piping, fewer disruptions of ongoing and surface activities, and lower risk for workers. While trenchless technologies have been used extensively in the sanitary sewer and natural gas pipeline industries, they have been used far less in contaminated environments. Although trenchless technologies have been used at ORNL in limited applications to install new potable water and gas lines, the technologies have not been used in radioactive applications. This study evaluates the technical risks, benefits, and economics for installing gravity drained and pressurized piping using trenchless technologies compared to conventional installation methods for radioactive applications under ORNL geological conditions. A range of trenchless installation technologies was reviewed for this report for general applicability for replacing existing contaminated piping and/or installing new pipelines in potentially contaminated areas. Installation methods that were determined to have potential for use in typical ORNL contaminated environments were then evaluated in more detail for three specific ORNL applications. Each feasible alternative was evaluated against the baseline conventional open trench installation method using weighted criteria in the areas of environment, safety, and health (ES&H); project cost and schedule; and technical operability. The formulation of alternatives for evaluation, the development of selection criteria, and the scoring of alternatives were performed by ORNL staff with input from vendors and consultants. A description of the evaluation methodology and the evaluation results are documented in the following sections of this report.

  11. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, D.D.; Hiller, J.M.

    1998-02-24

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration. 1 fig.

  12. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN); Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration.

  13. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Facility Hazards Analysis Reports for the Melter and Melter Offgas Systems … September 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Facility Hazards Analysis Reports for the Melter and Melter Offgas Systems September 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents Acronyms

  14. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  15. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

  16. Environmental transport and fate of endocrine disruptors from non-potable reuse of municipal wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, B; Beller, H; Bartel, C M; Kane, S; Campbell, C; Grayson, A; Liu, N; Burastero, S

    2005-11-16

    This project was designed to investigate the important but virtually unstudied topic of the subsurface transport and fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation (non-potable water reuse). Although potable water reuse was outside the scope of this project, the investigation clearly has relevance to such water recycling practices. The target compounds, which are discussed in the following section and include EDCs such as 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol, were studied not only because of their potential estrogenic effects on receptors but also because they can be useful as tracers of wastewater residue in groundwater. Since the compounds were expected to occur at very low (part per trillion) concentrations in groundwater, highly selective and sensitive analytical techniques had to be developed for their analysis. This project assessed the distributions of these compounds in wastewater effluents and groundwater, and examined their fate in laboratory soil columns simulating the infiltration of treated wastewater into an aquifer (e.g., as could occur during irrigation of a golf course or park with nonpotable treated water). Bioassays were used to determine the estrogenic activity present in effluents and groundwater, and the results were correlated with those from chemical analysis. In vitro assays for estrogenic activity were employed to provide an integrated measure of estrogenic potency of environmental samples without requiring knowledge or measurement of all bioactive compounds in the samples. For this project, the Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) in the City of Livermore provided an ideal setting. Since 1978, irrigation of this area with treated wastewater has dominated the overall water budget. For a variety of reasons, a group of 10 monitoring wells were installed to evaluate wastewater impacts on the local groundwater. Additionally, these wells were regularly monitored for tritium ({sup 3}H). Overall volumes of irrigation water have been recorded along with total flows through the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP). The Environmental Protection Department at LLNL has carefully monitored {sup 3}H effluent leaving the laboratory for many years. For two years preceding the initiation of this project, Grayson and Hudson, working with LWRP staff, had demonstrated that these data could be used to accurately calculate the {sup 3}H concentration in the applied irrigation water as a function of time. This was accomplished by performing two carefully monitored tritium releases from LLNL and following the {sup 3}H through the LWRP. Combining these data with our ability to age-date groundwater using the {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He age-dating technique, it was possible determine both the age and the degree of dilution from other water sources. This information was critical in the evaluation of observed concentrations of trace organic compounds from wastewater. The project included the following tasks: (1) Develop a conceptual model for Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) irrigation that integrates existing meteorological, hydrologic, and environmental monitoring data. (2) Develop analytical methods (involving solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution LC/MS/MS) for the specific and sensitive measurement of target EDCs. (3) Develop a bioassay for estrogenic activity for application to effluent and groundwater samples. (4) Perform detailed hydrological evaluation of groundwater taken from LPGC. (5) Characterize the source term for target EDCs in wastewater. (6) Evaluate the utility of EDCs as source tracers for groundwater contamination.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated performance enhancements to the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP) high-level waste vitrification (HLW) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowan, Bradley [Energy Solutions, LLC (United States); Gerdes, Kurt [United States Department of Energy (United States); Pegg, Ian [Vitreous State Laboratory, Catholic University of America, 400 Hannan Hall 620 Michigan Avenue, NE Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Holton, Langdon [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The U.S Department of Energy is currently constructing, at the Hanford, Washington Site, a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and immobilization, by vitrification, of stored underground tank wastes. The WTP is comprised of four major facilities: a Pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW); a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction and an analytical Laboratory to support the treatment facilities. DOE has strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities, and waste forms, in order to reduce the overall schedule and cost for the treatment of the Hanford tank wastes. One key part of this strategy is to maximize the loading of inorganic waste components in the final glass product (waste loading). For the Hanford tank wastes, this is challenging because of the compositional diversity of the wastes generated over several decades. This paper presents the results of an initial series of HLW waste loading enhancement tests, using diverse HLW compositions that are projected for treatment at the WTP. Specifically, results of glass formulation development and melter testing with simulated Hanford HLW containing high concentrations of troublesome components such as bismuth, aluminum, aluminum-sodium, and chromium will be presented. (authors)

  18. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  19. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake; Pienkos, Philip P.; O'Leary, Stephen J.; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

  20. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  1. Independent Oversight Activity Report for Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory Tour and Discussion of Experiments Conducted in Support of Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Select Systems Design, November 18, 2013

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report Number: HIAR-VSL-2013-11-18 Site: Catholic University of America - Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory Tour and Discussion of Experiments Conducted in Support of Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Select Systems Design Date of Activity : 11/18/13 Report Preparer: James O. Low Activity

  2. Comparison of 3D dose distributions for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry and treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senkesen, Oznur; Tezcanli, Evrim; Buyuksarac, Bora; Ozbay, Ismail

    2014-10-01

    Radiation fluence changes caused by the dosimeter itself and poor spatial resolution may lead to lack of 3-dimensional (3D) information depending on the features of the dosimeter and quality assurance of dose distributions for highdose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) brachytherapy sources is challenging and experimental dosimetry methods used for brachytherapy sources are limited. In this study, we investigated 3D dose distributions of {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources for irradiation with single and multiple dwell positions using a normoxic gel dosimeter and compared them with treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. For dose calibration purposes, 100-mL gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses and then scanned in an magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. Gel phantoms prepared in 2 spherical glasses were irradiated with {sup 192}Ir for the calculated dwell positions, and MR scans of the phantoms were obtained. The images were analyzed with MATLAB software. Dose distributions and profiles derived with 1-mm resolution were compared with TPS calculations. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. The x-, y-, and z-axes were defined as the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes, respectively, the sagittal and axial planes were defined parallel to the long axis of the source while the coronal plane was defined horizontally to the long axis of the source. The differences between measured and calculated profile widths of 3-cm source length and point source for 70%, 50%, and 30% isodose lines were evaluated at 3 dose levels using 18 profiles of comparison. The calculations for 3-cm source length revealed a difference of > 3 mm in 1 coordinate at 50% profile width on the sagittal plane and 3 coordinates at 70% profile width and 2 coordinates at 50% and 30% profile widths on the axial plane. Calculations on the coronal plane for 3-cm source length showed > 3-mm difference in 1 coordinate at 50% and 70% and 2 coordinates at 30% profile widths. The point source measurements and calculations for 50% profile widths revealed a difference > 3 mm in 1 coordinate on the sagittal plane and 2 coordinates on the axial plane. The doses of 3 coordinates on the sagittal plane and 4 coordinates on the axial plane could not be evaluated in 30% profile width because of low doses. There was good agreement between the gel dosimetry and TPS results. Gel dosimetry provides dose distributions in all 3 planes at the same time, which enables us to define the dose distributions in any plane with high resolution. It can be used to obtain 3D dose distributions for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources and 3D dose verification of TPS.

  3. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-03-03

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOEs initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost.

  4. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-15-031.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 SECTION A. Project Title: Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment System Lagoon #3 and Land Application Site Closure SECTION B. Project Description: The CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) has been operating under Wastewater Reuse Permits (WRPs) (formerly Wastewater Land Application Permits) since it began operation. Treated wastewater was discharged to the land application site (73.5 acres) by pumping wastewater from Lagoon #3, which is a 0.5 acre polishing lagoon, through a pivot

  5. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C.

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  6. Corrective action investigation plan: Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Unit 332. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains a detailed description and plan for an environmental investigation of the Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit. The site is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. The Photo Skid Wastewater Pit was used for disposal of photochemical process waste, and there is a concern that such disposal may have released photochemicals and metals to the soil beneath the pit and adjacent to it. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the presence and nature of contamination present in and adjacent to the wastewater pit and to determine the appropriate course of environmental response action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure through remediation, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  7. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  8. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity The Office of Enforcement and...

  9. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Hazards Analysis Activities (EA-WTP-HLW-2014-08-18(a))...

  10. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bioelectrochemical System and Microbial Fuel Cells Current wastewater treatment processes ... Find More Like This Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes ...

  11. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittauer, K; Deraniyagala, R; Li, J; Lu, B; Liu, C; Lightsey, J; Yan, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility.

  12. Optimization of wastewater microalgae saccharification using dilute acid hydrolysis for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, Yessica; Ellis, Joshua T.; Miller, Charles D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2015-02-01

    Exploring and developing sustainable and efficient technologies for biofuel production are crucial for averting global consequences associated with fuel shortages and climate change. Optimization of sugar liberation from wastewater algae through acid hydrolysis was determined for subsequent fermentation to acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acid concentration, retention time, and temperature were evaluated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions by assessing the sugar and ABE yield as well as the associated costs. Sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0-1.5 M, retention times of 40-120 min, and temperatures from 23C- 90C were combined to form a full factorial experiment. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment of 10% dried wastewater microalgae using 1.0 M sulfuric acid for 120 min at 80-90C was found to be the optimal parameters, with a sugar yield of 166.1 g for kg of dry algae, concentrations of 5.23 g/L of total ABE, and 3.74 g/L of butanol at a rate of USD $12.83 per kg of butanol.

  13. Determination of operating conditions in an anaerobic acid-phase reactor treating dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasapgil, B.; Ince, O.; Anderson, G.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic material is a multistep process. Two groups of bacteria, namely acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria, are responsible for the acidification and for the methane formation, respectively. The growth requirements of the two groups of bacteria are rather different. In order to create optimum conditions for the process, it was first proposed to separate the process into two phases. Operating variables applicable for the selection and enrichment of microbial populations in phased digesters include digester loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, temperature, reactor design, and operating mode. By proper manipulation of these operating parameters it is possible to prevent any significant growth of methane bacteria and at the same time achieve the required level of acidification in the first reactor. Further enrichment of two cultures is possible by biomass recycle around each phase. Since the 1970s, phase separation has been introduced into anaerobic digestion technology. However, data concerning the optimization of operating conditions in both acidogenic and methanogenic phase reactors are scarce. This study was therefore carried out for the purposes given below. These were: (1) to determine the best combination of pH and temperature within the ranges studied for the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater; (2) to determine the maximum acidogenic conversion from COD to VFAs, and (3) to determine the changes in the distribution of major VFAs being produced during the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater.

  14. F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF): ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration systems testing at Carre, Inc. with simulated F and H area effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, J.P.

    1984-05-23

    The F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility is essentially a four-stage process that will decontaminate the waste water that is currently being discharged to seepage basins in the Separations Areas. The stages include pretreatment, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and evaporation. A series of tests were performed at Carre, Inc. (Seneca, SC) from March 5 through March 13, to determine the usefulness of ultrafiltration (UF) in the pretreatment stage of the ETF. The results of that testing program indicate that UF would be an excellent means of removing entrained activity from the 200 Area process effluents. Hyperfiltration (HF) was also tested as a means of providing an improved concentration factor from the reverse osmosis stage. The results show that the membranes that were tested would not reject salt well enough at high salt concentrations to be useful in the final reverse osmosis stage. However, there are several membranes which are commercially available that would provide the needed rejection if they could be applied (dynamically) on the Carre support structure. This avenue is still being explored, as theoretically, it could eliminate the need for the F/H ETF evaporator.

  15. Modeling Hepatitis C treatment policy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuypers, Marshall A.; Lambert, Gregory Joseph; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John,; Finley, Patrick D.; Ross, David; Chartier, Maggie

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. As the nation's largest provider of care for HCV, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) invests extensive resources in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This report documents modeling and analysis of HCV treatment dynamics performed for the VHA aimed at improving service delivery efficiency. System dynamics modeling of disease treatment demonstrated the benefits of early detection and the role of comorbidities in disease progress and patient mortality. Preliminary modeling showed that adherence to rigorous treatment protocols is a primary determinant of treatment success. In depth meta-analysis revealed correlations of adherence and various psycho-social factors. This initial meta-analysis indicates areas where substantial improvement in patient outcomes can potentially result from VA programs which incorporate these factors into their design.

  16. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  17. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- December 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity

  18. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Activated-sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were encapsulated in borosilicate glass. Because the heat load of the glass was much less than the PWR and BWR assemblies, the glass waste form was able to be co-disposed with the open cycle waste, by interspersing glass waste packages among the spent fuel assembly waste packages. In addition, the Yucca Mountain repository was designed to include some research reactor spent fuel and naval reactor spent fuel, within the envelope that was set using the commercial reactor assemblies as the design basis waste form. This milestone report supports Sandia National Laboratory milestone M2FT-12SN0814052, and is intended to be a chapter in that milestone report. The independent technical review of this LLNL milestone was performed at LLNL and is documented in the electronic Information Management (IM) system at LLNL. The objective of this work is to investigate what aspects of quantifying, characterizing, and representing the uncertainty associated with the engineered barrier are affected by implementing different advanced nuclear fuel cycles (e.g., partitioning and transmutation scenarios) together with corresponding designs and thermal constraints.

  2. Ultrasonic process for remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater/wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.M.; Peters, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    A technology is being developed that employs ultrasonic-wave energy for remediation of groundwater/wastewater contaminated with volatile organic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). This paper presents the updated results of a laboratory investigation of ultrasonic groundwater remediation using synthetic groundwaters prepared with laboratory deionized water. Key process parameters investigated included steady-state temperature, contaminant concentration, solution pH, sonication time, and intensity of the applied ultrasonics-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of the target contaminants were achieved, and the sonication time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. The sonication time can be further reduced by adding a chemical oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Hanford Treatment Facility Achieves First Gold Ranking for Sustainable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design in EM Complex: New groundwater treatment facility will be Hanford's largest, greenest pump-and-treat system | Department of Energy Treatment Facility Achieves First Gold Ranking for Sustainable Design in EM Complex: New groundwater treatment facility will be Hanford's largest, greenest pump-and-treat system Hanford Treatment Facility Achieves First Gold Ranking for Sustainable Design in EM Complex: New groundwater treatment facility will be Hanford's largest, greenest pump-and-treat

  4. Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – A team of scientists is working at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to evaluate the impact of an innovative, inexpensive treatment system that removes mercury from water.

  5. A Study on Removal of Iodine, Iodide Ion, and Iodate Ion from Radioactive Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, S.P.; Kim, K.R.; Lee, M.S.; Chung, H.; Shim, M.H.; Lee, C.K.

    2006-07-01

    For the two methods to remove iodine, the iodide ion and the iodate ion from radioactive waste water, we proposed previously, the main reactions were experimentally investigated to examine the feasibility of them. One is the reaction of the iodide ion and the iodate ion. In this reaction, it was confirmed that the reaction rate is faster with a pH of less than 2 and, to undergo the reaction faster under the condition of pH 2, an addition of excess iodide ions and iodate ions is necessary. Another is the reduction of the iodate ion and the iodine by pyrite. In the experiment, it was found that when the iodate ion in the solution is in contact with pyrite, it is reduced to iodine on the surface of the pyrite and the produced iodine is consecutively reduced to the iodide ion. The reaction occurred at room temperature under a wide range of pHs. Based on the results of this preliminary study, it is expected that a more substantial method could be prepared for the effective removal of an iodine mixture from radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Office: Case Study - The Challenge: Saving Energy at a Sewage Lift Station Through Pump System Modificat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sewage System Process: Sewage Pumping System: Pump System Technology: Booster Pump, Energy-Efficient Motor Project Profile SIC: 4952 Products: Sewage Pumping Location: Milford, Connecticut Employees: 26 Showcase Team Leader: Art Berube Company Energy Philosophy: Changes in energy conservation must take place without any detrimental effects on system reliability. Conservation and reliability go hand in hand in the wastewater field. City of Milford, Connecticut U.S. Department of Energy - Energy

  7. Genomics and Systems Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems: * Understanding the dynamics and treatments of viral diseases, such as HIV, influenza, and hepatitis. * Explore the complex soil community of bacteria and fungi using...

  8. Enterprise Assessments, Review of the Hanford Site Sludge Treatment Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis, Revision 00 - April 2015 | Department of Energy Assessments, Review of the Hanford Site Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis, Revision 00 - April 2015 Enterprise Assessments, Review of the Hanford Site Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis, Revision

  9. Method and device for electroextraction of heavy metals from technological solutions and wastewater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khalemsky, Aron Mikhailov; Payusov, Sergei Abramovic; Kelner, Leonid; Jo, Jae

    2005-05-03

    The basic principles of the method for heavy metals electroextraction from technological solutions and wastewater includes pretreating to remove Chromium-6 and high concentrations of heavy metals and periodically treating in a six-electrode bipolar cylindrical electroreactor made of non-conducting material to achieve lower accepted levels of impurities. Six cylindrical steel electrodes form two triode stacks and are fed with three-phase alternating current of commercial frequency (50-60 Hz), which can be pulsed. Each phase of the three-phase current is connected to three electrodes of one triode stack or in parallel to two triode stacks. The parallel connection of three-phase current to two triode stacks is performed so that the same phase of the three phase current is connected in parallel with each two opposite electrodes of six electrodes located along the periphery, or with two adjacent electrodes. A bipolar stationary aluminum electrode is situated in the inter-electrode space. In one of the embodiments, the bipolar electrode is made of a perforated heat-resistant plastic container filled with secondary aluminum and duralumin scrap. In another embodiment, the bipolar electrode of aluminum or duralumin scrap may be made without a perforated container and is placed in the inter-electrode space as a bulk scrap. In this case, to prevent shorts, each of six steel electrodes is placed in isolated perforated plastic shell with holes of 5 mm in diameter. Non-ferrous metals are extracted in a form of ferrite-chromites, and aluminates as well as hydroxyl salts deposited in the inter-electrode space without electrolysis deposits on electrodes. Deposits are separated from solution by known methods of filtration.

  10. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/18-HI-c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the statewide engineering and financial functions relating to water pollution control, municipal and private wastewater treatment works program, individual wastewater...

  12. Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    southeast Washington state. The material, an ion exchange resin, is used in groundwater treatment systems to strip contaminants from the water-in this case, hexavalent...

  13. Enterprise Assessments, Review of the Hanford Site Sludge Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessments, Review of the Hanford Site Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis, Revision 00 - April 2015...

  14. Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- March 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Follow-up of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Review [HIAR-WTP-2013-03-18

  15. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Hazards Analysis Report for the Low-Activity Waste Facility Reagent Systems July 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental...

  16. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  17. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 2013 | Department of Energy Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 November 2013 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Operational Awareness Review and Sludge Treatment Project Independent Project Review [HIAR-RL-2013-09-18] This Independent Oversight Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and

  18. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  19. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1996-03-21

    There is growing evidence that global warming could become a major global environmental threat during the 21st century. The precautionary principle commands preventive action, at both national and international levels, to minimize this potential threat. Many near-term, relatively inexpensive, mitigation options are available. In addition, long-term research is required to evaluate and develop advanced, possibly more expensive, countermeasures, in the eventuality that they may be required. The utilization of power plant CO{sub 2} and its recycling into fossil fuel substitutes by microalgae cultures could be one such long-term technology. Microalgae production is an expanding industry in the U.S., with three commercial systems (of approximately 10 hectare each) producing nutriceuticals, specifically beta-carotene, extracted from Dunaliella, and Spirulina biomass. Microalgae are also used in wastewater treatment. Currently production costs are high, about $10,000/ton of algal biomass, almost two orders of magnitude higher than acceptable for greenhouse gas mitigation. This report reviews the current state-of-the-art, including algal cultivation and harvesting-processing, and outlines a technique for achieving very high productivities. Costs of CO{sub 2} mitigation with microalgae production of oils ({open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}) are estimated and future R&D needs outlined.

  1. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Plum, Martin Michael

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE -owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that the treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  2. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

  3. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Immobilization Plant Hazards Analysis Report for the Low-Activity Waste Facility Reagent Systems - July 2015 | Department of Energy Hazards Analysis Report for the Low-Activity Waste Facility Reagent Systems - July 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Hazards Analysis Report for the Low-Activity Waste Facility Reagent Systems - July 2015 July 2015 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Hazards Analysis

  4. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

  5. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Ruiz, Roberto; Pico, Tristan M.

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  6. Determination of Nitrogen by Flow Injection Analysis in Environmental and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straw, K.A.

    1999-03-01

    In summary, three generations of Lachat FIA systems have been used in the laboratory over a period of 13 yrs, running, in addition to the 4 N methods, Cr{sup +6}, SiO{sub 2}, Fluoride by ISE. Overall flow injection systems have been versatile and reliable and a good choice in the lab for analyzing a wide variety of samples quickly.

  7. K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Project Phase 1 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download PDF icon K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 More Documents & Publications Compilation of TRA Summaries Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - April 2011 Enterprise Assessments, Review of the Hanford Site Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis, Revision 00 - April 2015

  8. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  9. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John F. (Ogden, UT); Brager, Howard R. (Richland, WA); Paxton, Michael M. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  10. Water_Treatment.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Since dewatering at the Weldon Spring site began in 1992, more than 290 million gallons of contaminated water have been treated and released into the Missouri River from two similar water treatment facilities at the site and the nearby Quarry. On September 30, 1999, dewatering efforts at the Chemical Plant site were completed, meeting one of the most substantial milestones of the project and bringing to an end a part of history that was started nearly 5 decades ago. From 1955 to 1966, uranium

  11. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  12. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  13. American Manufacturing Gets a Boost | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    instance, researchers in North Carolina are developing a system for industrial wastewater treatment and reuse that will use waste heat to treat a wide variety of waste streams at...

  14. Tech trends (number 11)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Contents: extraction process separates organics from sludges, soils and sediments; organics desorbed from soil with low temperature thermal treatment; evaporation/oxidation system treats a variety of wastewater contaminants; anaerobic thermal processor completes second pcb remediation.

  15. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  16. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Immobilization Plant - December 2014 | Department of Energy Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Hazards Analysis Activities (EA-WTP-HLW-2014-08-18(a)) The Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments, within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enterprise Assessments, reviewed the hazard analyses for the radioactive liquid waste disposal system of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

  17. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Immobilization Plant - December 2014 | Department of Energy Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Waste Handling Systems Hazard Analysis Activities Observation (EA-WTP-LAW-2014-08-18(b)) The Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments, within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enterprise Assessments (EA), reviewed hazard analyses (HAs) documents for the waste system of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility.

  18. Evolution of a Groundwater Treatment System—Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project to reconfigure the East Trenches Plume Treatment System (ETPTS) at the Rocky Flats site, to improve treatment effectiveness and meet the strict water quality standards in the area, is...

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  20. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  1. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  2. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anton, Donald L. (Toland, CT); Lemkey, Franklin D. (Windsor, CT)

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  3. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Lu, Peng; Allen, D.E.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.; Fu, J.K.; Dobbs, C.L.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  4. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Lu, Peng; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila; Fu, Jaw K.; Dobbs, Charles L.; Degalbo, Angelo; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  5. RCRA information on hazardous wastes for publicly owned treatment works. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The guidance manual provides guidance to municipal personnel in understanding hazardous waste requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the implications of these RCRA requirements for the wastewater treatment plant operated by your municipality, for your local pretreatment program, and for local industries served by the treatment plant. The primary purpose of the manual is the RCRA notification requirement specified in the General Pretreatment Regulations. The manual focuses on Subtitle C requirements. (Subtitle C is directly applicable to industries since this program regulates generators, transporters, and disposers of hazardous waste). The manual also provides a general understanding of how federal RCRA requirements for hazardous waste affect industrial users. The manual also will be helpful in complying with any applicable federal requirements incumbent upon your POTW under Subtitle C of RCRA. The appendices contain lists of hazardous wastes regulated by federal requirements; selected EPA-approved forms for hazardous waste facilities to use; RCRA information brochure which briefly outlines the Act's impact on industries that generate or transport hazardous wastes; and EPA pamphlets summarizing information for generators of small quantities of hazardous waste.

  6. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 November 2013 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project...

  7. Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2013 Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2013 March 2013 Follow-up of Waste Treatment and...

  8. Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 February 2012 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Operational...

  9. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – February 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Off-gas Systems Hazards Analysis Activities [HIAR-WTP-2014-01-27

  10. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – July 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operational Awareness of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity [HIAR-WTP-2013-07-31

  11. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – February 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Observation of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems Hazards Analysis Activities [HIAR-WTP-2014-01-27

  12. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- June 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Observation [HIAR-WTP-2013-05-13

  13. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  14. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  15. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - December 2014 Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility

  16. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL OF IODINE RICH CAUSTIC WASTE DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    2005-07-14

    CH2M HILL is working to develop, design, and construct low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and imcholization systems to supplement the LAW capacity provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. CH2M HILL is investigating use of cast stone technology for treatment and immobilization of caustic solutions containing high concentrations of radioactive Iodine-129.

  17. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium in Sanitary Sewers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tritium in Sanitary Sewers chart graphic As part of our environmental monitoring program, we routinely sample our sanitary sewer water that is discharged to wastewater treatment systems in the cities of Batavia and Warrenville. Samples taken from sanitary sewer water discharged to the Batavia Wastewater Treatment Facility show small but measurable levels of tritium. All tritium levels found on site are well below any federal health and environmental standards. No tritium has been detected in

  18. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Facility Hazards Analysis Reports for the Melter and Melter Offgas Systems - September 2015 | Department of Energy Low-Activity Waste Facility Hazards Analysis Reports for the Melter and Melter Offgas Systems - September 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Facility Hazards Analysis Reports for the Melter and Melter Offgas Systems - September 2015 September 2015 Review of the

  19. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.