Sample records for waste treatment system

  1. Animal Waste Treatment System Loan Program (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Animal Waste Treatment System Loan Program is to finance animal waste treatment systems for independent livestock and poultry producers at below conventional interest rates. Loan...

  2. Medical waste treatment and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  3. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  4. Summary - System Planning for Low-Activity Waste Treatment at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of System Planning for Low-Activity Waste Treatment at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review Construction of the facilities of...

  5. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D- 22419 Hamburg (Germany)] [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D- 22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  6. Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Frank G., III

    2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

  7. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  8. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  9. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Münster, M., E-mail: maem@dtu.dk [System Analysis Division, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Finnveden, G. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department of Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research – fms, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Wenzel, H. [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Approach for use of scenarios dealing with both waste management and energy issues. • Overall scenarios for the common project and sub-scenarios in parts of the project. • Combining different types of scenarios to the tools of different disciplines. • Use of explorative external scenarios based on marginals for consequential LCA. - Abstract: Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future background systems determine the outcomes of consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs), it is considered advisable to develop and use explorative external scenarios based on possible marginals as a framework for consequential LCAs. This approach is illustrated using an on-going Danish research project.

  10. Documentation on currently operating low-level radioactive waste treatment systems: National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1985, the US Department of Energy issued a Program Research and Development Announcement requesting documentation on currently operating low-level radioactive waste treatment systems. Six grants were awarded to support that documentation. Final reports for the following grants and grantees are compiled in this document: Shredder/Compactor Report by Impell Corp., Volume Reduction and Solidification System for Low-Level Radwaste Treatment by Waste Chem Corp., Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems in Northern Europe by Pacific Nuclear Services/Nuclear Packaging Inc., The University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility Can Melter System by the University of Missouri, Drying of Ion-Exchange Resin and Filter Media by Nuclear Packaging Inc., and Operational Experience with Selective Ion-Exchange Media in Sluiceable Pressurized Demineralizers at Nuclear Power Plants by Analytical Resources Inc. 65 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  12. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bechtold, T.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE`s mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements.

  13. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Observation of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems Hazards Analysis Activities...

  14. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  15. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Biagi, C. [Morrison Knudsen (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

  16. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

  17. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant? Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

  18. Figure-of-merit analysis and cost effectiveness of low-level radioactive waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, N.D.; Falconer, K.L.; McCormack, M.D.; Hootman, H.D.; Thompson, T.K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two studies were performed to assess low-level waste treatment systems that are available commercially for volume reduction and/or solidification. In the first, a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) decision analysis technique was used to evaluate fourteen low-level radioactive waste processing systems on their ability to treat power reactor wastes. The assessment of the various processing systems was accomplished using a five member task force. The systems were judged on eleven major criteria and twenty subcriteria. The system judged superior to all the others was compaction of dry wastes with liquid wastes and sludges being directly incorporated into concrete. This was also the lowest cost system. The controlled air incinerator was judged the preferred incineration process. The Werner-Pfleider bitumen extruder was the preferred liquid waste treatment system. In the second study, the cost economy of volume reduction measured in land disposal dollars was investigated. The greatest cost savings with volume reduction were realized with a BWR using a deep bed condensate polishing system; the least with a PWR with condensate polishing. For both BWR systems and PWRs without condensate cleanup, over 80% of the savings in land disposal dollars resulted from volume reduction of liquid waste streams (concentrated liquids and filter sludge). For a PWR with a condensate polishing system, which had the least cost effective system for volume reduction, about one-third of the savings resulting from incineration of spent resin and compactible trash was offset by the increased expense of casks required for transporting concentrated liquids which have undergone additional volume reduction.

  19. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  20. Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment Systems (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality administers regulations for waste water and waste water treatment systems. Construction of a municipal treatment work, non-industrial waste water...

  1. Development of US Navy Shipboard Systems for solid and liquid waste thermal treatment. Report for July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullet, B.K.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the U.S. Navy`s shipboard environmental challenges and a few of its research programs for meeting its needs for solid and liquid waste treatment. This objective is particularly important in environmentally sensitive areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, where fleet deployment time is significant. Prohibitions on ocean dumping and anticipated requirements on effluent discharge quality have led the Navy to continue the research, development, and demonstration of shipboard systems to treat their unpreventable wastes. For solid, non-hazardous wastes, post-minimization efforts are geared toward long-term development of systems to thermally pyrolyze and oxidize the wastes into significantly reduced volume and weight.

  2. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  3. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  4. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harp, Ben J. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc. (United States)

    2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

  5. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  6. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gingerich, Daniel B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  7. TREATMENT SYSTEMS AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    for on-site management and treatment of effluent and solid waste 3. Provide for surface water attenuationECOLOGICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF WASTE AND WASTE WATER biological removal efficiencies in excess of 95% Treatment system averages 92% reduction in suspended solids

  8. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  9. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project - October 2010 October 2010 Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  10. Independent Oversight Assessment, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2012 Independent Oversight Assessment, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2012 January 2012 Assessment of the...

  11. Development of low level liquid waste treatment systems: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.K.; Colvin, C.M.; Bond, W.H.

    1982-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The pilot plant reverse osmosis system was demonstrated to be effective in removing large percentages of cobalt-60, iodine-125, and a mixture of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and iodine-125 from two types of aqueous streams. The effectiveness of three membrane porosities, 0, 50, and 97% salt rejection, were explored with each isotope. The 97% salt rejection membrane was the most effective in each experiment. Removals as high as 97.5% of the cobalt, 92.9% of the iodine and 95.1% of the combined isotopes were achieved. The effect of possibly interfering factors on the adsorbence of cobalt-60 and iodine-129 on selected ion exchange resins were investigated. The factors thought to affect cobalt-60 adsorption were (OH/sup -/), (NH/sub 4//sup +/), and (SO/sub 3//sup =/). None of the seven factors investigated had any effect on iodine-129 adsorption. Cesium-137 was removed from a 4600-gal aqueous waste containing a large amount of sodium hydroxide by treatment with sodium tetraphenyl boron. The cesium concentration of the supernatant portion was reduced from 570 to 4 counts/min/ml.

  12. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  13. Operational experience of the Juelich incineration system in the treatment of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halaszovich, S.; Jablonski, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Lins, W.; Wurster, W.; Kaufmann, K.H. [Kraftanlagen Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    After ten years spent on development and testing of a prototype incinerator in the Juelich Research Center, a new industrial scale unit has been built. The paper gives a short description of the plant design and operation characteristics. The major part of the paper deals with the experience gained from the treatment of 355 Mg low-level radioactive waste during the last four years.

  14. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  15. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Melamed, Dan (Gaithersburg, MD); Patel, Bhavesh R (Elmhurst, NY); Fuhrmann, Mark (Babylon, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  16. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  17. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    system (LMH), the melter equipment support handling system (LSH), the radioactive solid waste handling system (RWH), and the radioactive liquid waste disposal system (RLD)....

  18. DECISION SUPPORT FOR A WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TREATMENT SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohanec, Marko

    and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) treatment system in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. In the paper, we describe the WEEE, taking a broad view of various types of decisions in the field of WEEE. A detailed explanation of the decisions in the WEEE Logistics is given

  19. The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

  20. The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

  1. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  2. Design report on the test system used to assess treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New liquid waste streams will be generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is proposed that these waste streams be treated for removal of contaminants by adding them to the ORNL wastewater treatment facilities. Previous bench-scale treatability studies indicate that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants, although additional study is required to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment. A larger scale treatment system was constructed to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for characterization and US Environmental protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system is designed to simulate the operation of the ORNL process waste treatment facilities and to treat a mixture of ORNL process wastewater and WAG 6 wastewater at a combined flow rate of 0.5 L/min. The system is designed to produce the necessary quantities of waste sludges and spent carbon for characterization studies and TCLP testing.

  3. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification{trademark} (ICV{trademark}) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full-scale testing over the past two years and DOE reviews.

  4. Overview of Pulse Jet Mixer/Hybrid Mixing System Development to Support the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.; Barnes, Steven M.

    2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology was selected for mixing the contents of many of the process vessels. Several of the tanks are expected to contain concentrated slurries that exhibit a non-Newtonian rheology and the understanding required to apply this technology to mobilize the non-Newtonian slurries was not mature. Consequently, an experimental testing effort was undertaken to investigate PJM performance in several scaled versions of WTP vessels and to develop mixing system configurations that met WTP requirements. This effort evolved into a large, multifaceted test program involving many different test facilities. Elements of the test program included theoretical analysis, development and characterization of simulants, development of instrumentation and measurement techniques, hundreds of tests at various scales in numerous test stands, and data analysis and application. This program provided the technical basis for the selection of pulse jet mixers along with air spargers and steady jets generated by recirculation pumps to provide mixing systems for several of the vessels with non-Newtonian slurries. This paper provides an overview of the testing program and a summary of the key technical results that formed the technical basis of the final mixing system configurations to be used in the WTP.

  5. Norcal Waste Systems, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes the LNG long-haul heavy-duty trucks at Norcal Waste Systems Inc.'s Sanitary Fill Company.

  6. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste.

  7. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  8. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper describes the potential near source treatment and waste disposition options as well as the impact these options could have on reducing infrastructure requirements, project cost and mission schedule.

  9. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  10. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POHTO, R.E.

    1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench.

  11. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  12. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 May 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  13. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  14. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 March 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  15. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent review of selected...

  16. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Dangerous Waste Treatment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Dangerous Waste Treatment Storage Disposal Facility New Permit Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web...

  17. Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 2013 Review of Radiation Protection Program Implementation at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project of the Idaho Site This report documents an independent review of...

  18. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Engineering Activities and Tank Farm Operations HIAR-HANFORD-2014-01-13 This Independent Oversight Activity Report documents...

  19. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The review was conducted August 18-28, 2014. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - December 2014 More Documents &...

  20. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    tables. The review was conducted June 2-19, 2014. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - December 2014 More Documents &...

  1. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Construction Quality Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Safety and Health Evaluations Activity Report for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Construction Quality Review Dates of Activity 02142011 - 02172011 Report Preparer Joseph...

  2. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  3. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2011 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  5. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  6. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  7. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Richard L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Niemi, Belinda J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Paik, Ingle K. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Buczek, Jeffrey A. [AREVA Federal Services LLC (United States); Lietzow, J. [URS Professional Services (United States); McCoy, F. [AREVA Federal Services LLC (United States); Beranek, F. [URS Professional Services (United States); Gupta, M. [URS Professional Services (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  8. KKP-waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, W.; Grundke, E. [NPP Philippsburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the radwaste treatment in nuclear power plants in order to minimize the repository volume of the waste and the necessity of minimizing nuclear transports leads to new waste processing methods. The volume reduction effects of the new processing methods compared with the former ones is significant. Various types of operational waste of the two NPP`s in Philippsburg are generated as a result of the different kind of plants and their different mode of operation. Therefore the necessity of adequate waste treatment requires a new concept.

  9. Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program.

  10. DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements June 4, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis...

  11. Final Hanford Offsite Waste Shipment Leaves Idaho Treatment Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Final Hanford Offsite Waste Shipment Leaves Idaho Treatment Facility Final Hanford Offsite Waste Shipment Leaves Idaho Treatment Facility August 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Idaho...

  12. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks June...

  13. Idaho Waste Treatment Facility Improves Worker Safety and Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Treatment Facility Improves Worker Safety and Efficiency, Saves Taxpayer Dollars Idaho Waste Treatment Facility Improves Worker Safety and Efficiency, Saves Taxpayer Dollars...

  14. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  15. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  16. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  17. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble components are mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, causing uncertainty in its composition, particularly the radionuclide content. This plan will provide an estimate of the likely composition and the basis for it, assess likely treatment technologies, identify potential disposition paths, establish target treatment limits, and recommend the testing needed to show feasibility. Two primary disposition options are proposed for investigation, one is concentration for storage in the tank farms, and the other is treatment prior to disposition in the Effluent Treatment Facility. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Recycle stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 210,000 years. Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Because {sup 99}Tc has a very long half-life and is highly mobile, it is the largest dose contributor to the Performance Assessment (PA) of the IDF. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Recycle are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. Although the baseline process will recycle this stream to the Pretreatment Facility, if the LAW facility begins operation first, this stream will not have a disposition path internal to WTP. One potential solution is to return the stream to the tank farms where it can be evaporated in the 242-A evaporator, or perhaps deploy an auxiliary evaporator to concentrate it prior to return to the tank farms. In either case, testing is needed to evaluat

  18. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  19. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Office of River Protection review of the High Level Waste Facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Independent Oversight Activity Report,...

  20. NORDIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biogas, electricity and fertilizer from 30 000 tons of annually waste. The plant was opened in March 2008 together it an- nually produces 18,9 GWh biogas and around 10 GWh of elec- tricity. The Cambi THP ­process biological sludge, which normally is very difficult to digest and dewater. The THP treats both municipal

  1. Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, Peter J., E-mail: gunning_peter@hotmail.co [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom); Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to pure carbon dioxide gas. The paper and cement wastes chemically combined with up to 25% by weight of gas. The reactivity of the wastes to carbon dioxide was controlled by their constituent minerals, and not by their elemental composition, as previously postulated. Similarly, microstructural alteration upon carbonation was primarily influenced by mineralogy. Many of the thermal wastes tested were classified as hazardous, based upon regulated metal content and pH. Treatment by accelerated carbonation reduced the leaching of certain metals, aiding the disposal of many as stable non-reactive wastes. Significant volumes of carbon dioxide were sequestrated into the accelerated carbonated treated wastes.

  2. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  4. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Construction Project - June 2010 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project - June 2010 June 2010 Evaluation to determine whether Waste...

  5. Design report on the test system used to assess treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New liquid waste streams will be generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is proposed that these waste streams be treated for removal of contaminants by adding them to the ORNL wastewater treatment facilities. Previous bench-scale treatability studies indicate that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants, although additional study is required to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment. A larger scale treatment system was constructed to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for characterization and US Environmental protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system is designed to simulate the operation of the ORNL process waste treatment facilities and to treat a mixture of ORNL process wastewater and WAG 6 wastewater at a combined flow rate of 0.5 L/min. The system is designed to produce the necessary quantities of waste sludges and spent carbon for characterization studies and TCLP testing.

  6. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  7. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  8. Waste water treatment and metal recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Waste water treatment and metal recovery Nickel catalysts for hydrogen production Nickel and single versions of which contained cobalt, chromium, carbon, molybdenum, tungsten, and nickel. In 1911 and 1912% on their stainless steel production. The company paid sizable dividends to its owners until it was dissolved

  9. TRAITEMENT DES EFFLUENTS WASTE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    residence time the production of biogas (7l-78 p. 100 CH,) was 237 1 per kg dry matter, i.e. 479 1 of CH to obtain the same amount of biogas four times quicklier. The treatment yield was improved (65 p. 100 COD). The mean production was 4931 biogas/kg degraded COD. It seems to be possible to apply that procedure

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  11. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  12. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  13. Waste treatment and metal recovery at the Robbins Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, P.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Robbins Company, of Attleboro, Massachusetts, a medium-sized jewelry manufacturing and plating company, installed a new wastewater treatment and metal recovery system, which forms a closed-loop, completed in February, 1988. The company now generates very small quantities of hazardous wastes non-contact cooling water from the annealing furnaces, and intends to complete it`s water conservation program by installing one or more chillers on the furnaces. Since 1986, chemical usage has dropped 81.8%, hazardous waste generation 89% and water usage by 47.7%, generating an annual savings of over $71,000.

  14. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the...

  15. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  17. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2014 June 2014 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  18. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January, 2015 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Enterprise Assessments (EA)...

  19. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    September 2014 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy independent Office of Enterprise Assessments...

  20. Oregon Procedure and Criteria for Hazardous Waste Treatment,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Procedure and Criteria for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage or Disposal Permits Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Permitting...

  1. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality January 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment,...

  2. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 March 2014 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  3. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  4. Bechtel National Inc. Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 2010 Bechtel National Incorporated Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project Report from the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review June 14-18, 2010...

  5. Biotechnology for environmental control and waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Harris, M.T.; Lee, D.D.; Walker, J.F.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A slide show is reproduced here to review the technology of anaerobic digestion as a process for cleaning waste waters from municipal and industry wastes. Radioactive wastes are addressed also. (PSB)

  6. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps.

  9. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  10. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

  11. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  12. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  13. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  14. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  15. Idaho Site Launches Corrective Actions Before Restarting Waste Treatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – The Idaho site and its cleanup contractor have launched a series of corrective actions they will complete before safely resuming startup operations at the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) following an incident in June that caused the new waste treatment facility to shut down.

  16. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juul, N., E-mail: njua@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risř Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Münster, M., E-mail: maem@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risř Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ravn, H., E-mail: hans.ravn@aeblevangen.dk [RAM-lřse edb, Ćblevangen 55, 2765 Smřrum (Denmark); Söderman, M. Ljunggren, E-mail: maria.ljunggren@chalmers.se [Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  18. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Graywater Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, Rebecca; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    irrigation and decr,ease the amount of wastewater entering sewers or onsite wastewater treatment systems. Onsite wastewater treatment systems However, homeowners who irrigate their lawns with graywater need to understand the risks and safety issues.... Residential wastewater can be classified as either blackwater (sew- age containing fecal matter or food wastes) or graywater. If graywater is collected separately from blackwater, it can be dispersed as irrigation water with less treatment than...

  19. Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming Technology for Treatment of TRU Orphan Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain transuranic (TRU) waste streams within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex cannot be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) because they do not meet the shipping requirements of the TRUPACT-II or the disposal requirements of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) in the WIPP RCRA Part B Permit. These waste streams, referred to as orphan wastes, cannot be shipped or disposed of because they contain one or more prohibited items, such as liquids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen gas, corrosive acids or bases, reactive metals, or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), etc. The patented, non-incineration, pyrolysis and steam reforming processes marketed by THOR Treatment Technologies LLC removes all of these prohibited items from drums of TRU waste and produces a dry, inert, inorganic waste material that meets the existing TRUPACT-II requirements for shipping, as well as the existing WAP requirements for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. THOR Treatment Technologies is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC (WGES) to further develop and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM technology within the DOE and Department of Defense (DoD) markets. The THORSM treatment process is a commercially proven system that has treated over 100,000 cu. ft. of nuclear waste from commercial power plants since 1999. Some of this waste has had contact dose rates of up to 400 R/hr. A distinguishing characteristic of the THORSM process for TRU waste treatment is the ability to treat drums of waste without removing the waste contents from the drum. This feature greatly minimizes criticality and contamination issues for processing of plutonium-containing wastes. The novel features described herein are protected by issued and pending patents.

  20. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  1. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  2. Subterranean drilling and in situ treatment of wastes using a contamination control system and methods relating thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessmore, James J.; Loomis, Guy G.; Pettet, Mark C.; Flyckt, Melissa C.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods relating to subterranean drilling while maintaining containment of any contaminants released during the drilling. A thrust block installed over a zone of interest provides an overflow space for retaining any contaminants and excess sealant returns. Negative air pressure may be maintained in the overflow space by a ventilation system. Access ports in the thrust block seal the overflow space from the surrounding environment with a membrane seal. A flexible sack seal in the access port may be connected to a drill shroud prior to drilling, providing containment during drilling after the drill bit penetrates the membrane seal. The drill shroud may be adapted to any industry standard drilling rig and includes a connection conduit for connecting to the flexible sack seal and a flexible enclosure surrounding the drill shaft and of a length to accommodate full extension thereof. Upon withdrawal, the sack seal may be closed off and separated, maintaining containment of the overflow space and the drill shroud.

  3. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP`s charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program.

  4. High Level Waste System Plan Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.; Choi, A.S.; Paul, P.; Wise, F.E.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 9 of the High Level Waste System Plan documents the current operating strategy of the HLW System at SRS to receive, store, treat, and dispose of high-level waste.

  5. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste (HLW) Facility Hazard Analysis (HA) Process for the HLW Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis upgrade during October 20 - November 6, 2014. The review covered a limited...

  6. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    that focuses on the technical adequacy of the low activity waste (LAW) documented safety analysis and supporting basis. BNI uses the VSL experimental data and reports to...

  7. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  8. Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, A.L. [Krofta Engineering Corp., Lenox, MA (United States); Nikolic, O. [INA Oil Refinery, Rijeka (Croatia)

    1995-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

  9. ORS 466 - Storage, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ORS 466 - Storage, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste and Materials Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS...

  10. Office of River Protection Waste Treatment and Immobilizatin...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Review of the Office of River Protection Waste Treatment and Immobilization Project Construction Site, November 16-18, 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Independent...

  11. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  12. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

  13. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  14. Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France: comparison of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    13 Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France In France, vertical flow constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds are both extensive treatment Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands, Waste Stabilization Ponds, operation and maintenance, sludge management

  15. Interface control document between the Tank Waste Remediation System and the Solid Waste Disposal Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses the interface between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Solid Waste Division (SWD).

  16. US Department of Energy mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area technical baseline development process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J.A.; Gombert, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Mixed wastes include both mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste. The goal of the MWFA is to develop mixed waste treatment systems to the point of implementation by the Environmental Management (EM) customer. To accomplish this goal, the MWFA is utilizing a three step process. First, the treatment system technology deficiencies were identified and categorized. Second, these identified needs were prioritized. This resulted in a list of technical deficiencies that will be used to develop a technical baseline. The third step, the Technical Baseline Development Process, is currently ongoing. When finalized, the technical baseline will integrate the requirements associated with the identified needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. Completion of this three-step process will result in a comprehensive technology development program that addresses customer identified and prioritized needs. The MWFA technical baseline will be a cost-effective, technically-defensible tool for addressing and resolving DOE`s mixed waste problems.

  17. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  18. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  19. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  20. Continuous mercury monitor for thermal treatment and waste-to-energy operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Sagan, F.J. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Treating wastes by thermal means offers benefits in terms of reducing waste volumes and in recovering energy values from the wastes. Thermal treatment has been an effective technology for a number of years, and is being used more in the US. Significant sources of waste in the US are municipal solid waste, hospital wastes, hazardous wastes, and wastes generated form the DOE complex. Mercury is found in these wastes and is emitted as a pollutant from sources that treat these materials thermally. Because of mercury`s toxicity, there is a considerable amount of activity aimed at its regulation and control. One of the key elements to effectively control the release of mercury is the ability to continuously monitor its concentration from emitting sources. ADA Technologies is developing a continuous monitoring system for measuring these emissions in real time. A real-time analyzer will assure that compliance limits are met and that emissions are kept as low as possible. Because mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride, provisions have been incorporated in the analyzer that will allow for the measurement of all mercury compounds. The system will provide a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emissions rates; (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency; and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds).

  1. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, T.

    1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

  2. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  3. Biohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& LabelingTreatmentDisposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Waste Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Any of these devices if contaminated with biohazardousBiohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& packaging LabelingTreatmentDisposal Mixed container. Container must be leakproof, ridgid, puncture resistant, clearly marked for biohazardous waste

  4. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  5. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  6. Tank waste treatment science task quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFemina, J.P.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third quarter of FY 1995 under the Tank Waste Treatment Science Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) analytical methods development, (2) sludge dissolution modeling, (3) sludge characterization studies, (4) sludge component speciation, (5) pretreatment chemistry evaluation, and (6) colloidal studies for solid-liquid separations.

  7. Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, October 2010 Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste...

  8. Surfactants containing radioactive run-offs: Ozone treatment, influence on nuclear power plants water waste special treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokudina, S.A.; Grachok, M.A. [Belarussian State Economic Univ., Minsk (Belarus)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the problems encountered in the efficiency of radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plants in Kursk. The ozonization of aqueous solutions of surfactants was carried out in the laboratory`s ozonization system. The surfactants which are discharged to the ion exchangers deteriorate resins, clog up the ion exchangers, and decrease filtration velocity. Therefore, this investigation focused on finding a method to increase the efficiency of this treatment process.

  9. Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at the laboratory scale H T Science known to extent that mathematical andor computer models and simulations are possible B P Preliminary system performance...

  10. Fluid dynamic demonstrations for waste retrieval and treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, E.L. Jr.; Hylton, T.D.; Berry, J.B.; Cummins, R.L.; Ruppel, F.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hanks, R.W. [R.W. Hanks Associates, Inc. (United States). Slurry Transport Consultant

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to develop or identify flow correlations for predicting the flow parameters needed for the design and operation of slurry pipeline systems for transporting radioactive waste of the type stored in the Hanford single-shell tanks and the type stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This was done by studying the flow characteristics of simulated waste with rheological properties similar to those of the actual waste. Chemical simulants with rheological properties similar to those of the waste stored in the Hanford single-shell tanks were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and simulated waste with properties similar to those of ORNL waste was developed at ORNL for use in the tests. Rheological properties and flow characteristics of the simulated slurry were studied in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers (constructed of 1/2-, 3/4-, and 1-in. schedule 40 pipe) at flow rates up to 35 gal/min. Runs were made with ORNL simulated waste at 54 wt % to 65 wt % total solids and temperatures of 25{degree}C and 55{degree}C. Grinding was done prior to one run to study the effect of reduced particle size. Runs were made with simulated Hanford single-shell tank waste at approximately 43 wt % total solids and at temperatures of 25{degree}C and 50{degree}C. The rheology of simulated Hanford and ORNL waste supernatant liquid was also measured.

  11. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

  12. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrate Salt BearingProcessingWaste

  13. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  14. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  15. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  16. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    River Protection, to conduct system-by-system HAs as part of developing the documented safety analysis for the WTP LAW, Balance of Facility, and Analytical Laboratory nuclear...

  17. Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Protection (ORP), to conduct system-by-system HAs as part of developing the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the WTP LAW, Balance of Facility, and Analytical Laboratory...

  18. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  19. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  20. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  1. Advanced Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    ADVANCED FLUIDIZED BED WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS G. R. PETERSON Project Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industri al Programs, has sponsored... the development of a Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery System (FBWHRS) and a higher temperature variant, the Ceramic Tubular Distributor Plate (CTOP) Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger (FBHX) system. Both systems recover energy from high-temperature flue gases...

  2. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation.

  3. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  4. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm...

  5. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty...

  6. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications...

  7. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

  8. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  9. Interaction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    and agricultural processing, centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment plants, and solid waste recoveryInteraction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment, and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During period 1 (day 0

  10. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Ulerich, N. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corporation, New York (New York)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100{degrees}C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal.

  11. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  12. Recent developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuing studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have shown that cost-efficient biotechnology for the removal of toxic trace metals from geothermal sludge is feasible. Pilot-scale experiments have shown that fast rates (< 24-h) of metal removal at 55{degree}C--60{degree}C can be achieved with removal efficiencies of better than 80%, yielding a product well within the environmental regulatory limits. Recent studies have shown that radionuclides, such as radium present in low concentrations in some sludges, can also be removed by means of a secondary biotreatment. The process produces an aqueous phase which contains all of the regulatory metals in a soluble form. A follow-up technology for the treatment of the aqueous phase is concurrently being developed at BNL. Preliminary results indicate that a small volume concentrate of metals can be generated producing an aqueous phase which meets drinking water standards. In this paper the current state-of-the-biotechnology will be discussed.

  13. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  14. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  15. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  16. The Mochovce final treatment center for liquid radioactive waste introduced to active trial operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajc, T.; Stubna, M.; Kravarik, K.; Zatkulak, M. [VUJE Trnava, Inc. (Slovakia); Slezak, M.; Remias, V. [Javys - Jadrova a vyradovacia spolocnost, a.s. - Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, plc., Tomasikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Final Treatment Centre (FTC) for Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced by named NPP equipped with Russian VVER-440 type of reactors. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. During the realisation of project the future operator of Centre required the contractor to solve the treatment of wastes produced in the process of NPP A-1 decommissioning. On the basis of this requirement the project was modified in order to enable manipulations with waste products from A-1 NPP transported to Centre in steel drums. The initial project was prepared in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC civil works started in August 2004. Initial nonradioactive testing of the system parts were carried out from April to September 2006, then the tests of systems started with model concentrates and non-radioactive resins. After the processes evaluation the radioactive test performed from February 2007. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion during 2007 and 2008. The company JAVYS, Inc. is responsible for radioactive waste and spent fuel treatment in the Slovak republic and will operate the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. This Company has also significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 820 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization on Thin Film Evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen in blade homogeniser. The bitumen product is discharged into 200 dm{sup 3} steel drums. Drums with bitumen product or drums originated from A-1 NPP are loaded into Fibre Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from the mixture of cement, additive and radioactive over-concentrate. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used to produce the cement grout. The grouted FRC containers are stored in the expedition hall and after 28 days of curing are transported to final disposal. After the start of routine operation, the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with bitumen product in drums and filled with radioactive cement product. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. This paper introducing the main parts of FTC and describes the technological procedures including the basic technological parameters for both used technologies, their working capacity and the overall waste flow. The evaluation of experience gained in the phases of Centre construction and commissioning and partially trial operation as well is a part of this paper (Evaluation of completion works process and time schedule, the process of individual system parts testing, testing of systems using model media, radioactive testing and trial operation). (authors)

  17. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. Waste management 1993 symposium papers and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives.

  18. Proposal for optimizing a biological treatment system for denitrification of Y-12 waste stream. Final report, March 16, 1987--September 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinstry, G.; Osborne, T.; King, A.; Tolman, C.

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 6 months quite a bit of information was gathered on the denitrification of plating rinse waste by microorganisms present in Y-12 process tanks. Work efforts under the contract assigned to us by Martin Marietta Y-12 engineers was perceived by Oak Ridge Research Institute (ORRI) as being a successful undertaking, completed on time as targeted by three milestone progress reports and a final summary report. The following suggestions were made for improving their rates of denitrification in their waste stream process tanks: (1) Substitute succinate for acetate as C-source. (2) Temperature controls on the process tanks to maintain them at 35--39C; and (3) Three-stage seed of their dentrification process.

  19. SYSTEM PLANNING WITH THE HANFORD WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW; CERTA PJ; WELLS MN

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

  20. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  1. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970`s and 1980`s in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures ({approx} 525--600{degree}C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB`s) with 99.9999% (``six-nines``) destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste.

  2. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  3. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  4. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  5. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  6. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE`s investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4).

  7. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  8. Waste Treatment Plant and Tank Farm Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|of Energy WashingtonWaste IsolationTreatment Plant

  9. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- Waste Treatment Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abigpresentedMetalWaste Treatment Laboratories

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

  11. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  12. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  13. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, John K. (San Diego, CA); Lindemann, Paul E. (Escondido, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  14. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  15. Use of Statistical Entropy and Life Cycle Analysis to Evaluate Global Warming Potential of Waste Management Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    The statistical entropy (SE) function has been applied to waste treatment systems to account for dilution solid waste (MSW). A greenhouse gas- forcing factor is also introduced to account for the entropyUse of Statistical Entropy and Life Cycle Analysis to Evaluate Global Warming Potential of Waste

  16. Successful Waste Treatment Methods at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rast, D.M.; Thompson, J.J.; Cooper, T.W.; Stockham, D.J

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the remediation of the waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico nine drums of mock high explosives were generated. This mixed waste stream was proposed to several offsite vendors for treatment and prices ranged from $2.50 to $10 per gram a total cost estimated to be in excess of $2 million dollars. This cost represents more than 30 percent of the annual budget for the Sandia Waste Management Operations. Concentrated solutions of common oxidizers, such as nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides, will also act as oxidizers and will give positive results in the Hazard Categorization oxidizer test. These solutions carry an EPA Hazardous Waste Number D001, Ignitable Waste, and Oxidizer as defined in 49 CFR 173.151. Sandia decided that given budget and time constraints to meet a Federal Facilities Compliance Act milestone, a process for onsite treatment should be evaluated. Clean samples of mock high explosive materials were obtained from Pantex excess inventory and treatability studies initiated to develop a treatment formula and process. The following process was developed and implemented in the summer of 2006: - Size reduction to allow for dissolution of the barium nitrate in water; - Dissolution of the Mock HE in water; - Deactivation of the oxidizer; - Stabilization of the barium and the cadmium contamination present as an underlying hazardous constituent. This project was completed and the treatment milestone achieved for less than $300,000. The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) is a process that was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition using recycling and waste minimization while achieving the demilitarization mission. The Department of Energy is faced with disassembling and disposition of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, and weapon maintenance equipment. Environmental regulations have caused a dramatic increase for information needed to support the disposal and handling of these parts and materials. Manufacturing information from past decades often does not meet the needs for regulatory decisions of today to assure proper management of weapons components. Huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and many other locations throughout the complex. These materials are stored because they are classified, they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components and disposal options may not have existed for this material. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic. It requires a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing and it also has the potential for loss or theft of this material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made to extreme standards and are made of high quality materials. Once the material has been sanitized, the demand for these metals is very high. The DSO process for the NGPF classified components established the credibility of this technique as a viable process for addressing the long-term storage requirements of classified weapons component inventory. The success of this operation has generated interest from other Sandia Organization other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are soliciting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these solicitations by expanding its scope to include work for other projects. For example, Pantex has asked the DSO team to assist with the destruction of their classified components. The operation is full scale and continues to grow and serve SNL/NM and DoE by providing a solution to this evolving issue. On an ongoing basis, SNL has been incurring expenses for the management and storage of classified components. It is estimated that this project will save the DoE and Sandia several hundreds of thousands of dollars until the excess inventory is eliminated. This innovative approach eliminates the need for long-term storage of classified weapons components and the

  17. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  18. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  19. Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

  20. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  1. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project- June 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  2. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Bechtel National Inc., Waste Treatment Plant Construction Site – November 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Bechtel National Inc., Waste Treatment Plant Construction Site is performing at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  3. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant Hanford Site- June 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether the Waste Treatment Plant Hanford Site is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  4. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  5. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. King

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

  6. Function analysis for waste information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, J.L.; Neal, C.T.; Heath, T.C.; Starling, C.D.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study has a two-fold purpose. It seeks to identify the functional requirements of a waste tracking information system and to find feasible alternatives for meeting those requirements on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the Portsmouth (PORTS) and Paducah (PGDP) facilities; identify options that offer potential cost savings to the US government and also show opportunities for improved efficiency and effectiveness in managing waste information; and, finally, to recommend a practical course of action that can be immediately initiated. In addition to identifying relevant requirements, it also identifies any existing requirements that are currently not being completely met. Another aim of this study is to carry out preliminary benchmarking by contacting representative companies about their strategic directions in waste information. The information obtained from representatives of these organizations is contained in an appendix to the document; a full benchmarking effort, however, is beyond the intended scope of this study.

  7. The German quality system for waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Saltzgitter (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)--Federal Office for Radiation protection--has to guarantee that the requirements resulting from different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository are fulfilled. In addition, the results of the safety assessments lead to nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant as well as to requirements on the radioactive waste packages intended to be disposed of. Therefore, the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the designed quality is achieved so that the necessary precaution against damage is taken. In this paper, a detailed description of QA and QC to be applied to the planned Konrad repository as well as the basic principles and the present status of the waste package QC are indicated and discussed.

  8. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z. [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Slezak, M. [SE - VYZ, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller conveyor. After the drums cool, they are capped and removed from the conveyor and placed in a storage hall. Drums with bitumen product are loaded into Fiber Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from mixture of cement, additive and radioactive concentrates. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used produce the cement grout. FRCs loaded with bitumen drums are placed on roller conveyor and moved along the cementation line. Grouted FRCs are stored in the expedition hall for 28 days of curing and then transported to final disposal. After placed in operation the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with 7 drums of waste fixed in bitumen and the space between the drums is grouted with cement. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  9. Composition of Municipal Solid Waste-Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Composition of Municipal Solid Waste- Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context of an eternally inherent low heating value on the other. Current status of Solid Waste Management The MSW Rules front in India17 . None of the major metros have any projects of significant scale of Solid Waste

  10. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFee, J. [IT Corp. (United States); Hinman, M.B. [Carter and Hinman, P.A. (United States); Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems.

  11. Scaled Testing to Evaluate Pulse Jet Mixer Performance in Waste Treatment Plant Mixing Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pre-treat and vitrify the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. These vessels have pulse jet mixer (PJM) systems. A test program was developed to evaluate the adequacy of mixing system designs in the solids-containing vessels in the WTP. The program focused mainly on non-cohesive solids behavior. Specifically, the program addressed the effectiveness of the mixing systems to suspend settled solids off the vessel bottom, and distribute the solids vertically. Experiments were conducted at three scales using various particulate simulants. A range of solids loadings and operational parameters were evaluated, including jet velocity, pulse volume, and duty cycle. In place of actual PJMs, the tests used direct injection from tubes with suction at the top of the tank fluid. This gave better control over the discharge duration and duty cycle and simplified the facility requirements. The mixing system configurations represented in testing varied from 4 to 12 PJMs with various jet nozzle sizes. In this way the results collected could be applied to the broad range of WTP vessels with varying geometrical configurations and planned operating conditions. Data for “just-suspended velocity”, solids cloud height, and solids concentration vertical profile were collected, analyzed, and correlated. The correlations were successfully benchmarked against previous large-scale test results, then applied to the WTP vessels using reasonable assumptions of anticipated waste properties to evaluate adequacy of the existing mixing system designs.

  12. The PERC{trademark} process: Existing and potential applications for induction coupled plasma technology in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blutke, A.S.; Vavruska, J.S.; Serino, J.F. [Plasma Technology, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma Technology, Inc. (PTI), a Santa Fe, New Mexico corporation has developed the Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC){trademark} treatment process as a safe and environmentally clean alternative to conventional thermal destruction technologies. The PERC{trademark} treatment process uses as its heat source an advanced Induction Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch connected to a reaction chamber system with an additional emission control system. For example, organic-based gas, liquid, slurry, and/or solid waste streams can be converted into usable or even salable products while residual emissions are reduced to an absolute minimum. In applications for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste streams, the PERC system could be used for destruction of the hazardous organic constituents and/or significant waste volume reduction while capturing the radioactive fraction in a non-leachable form. Like Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) arc plasma systems, ICP torches offer sufficient energy to decompose, melt and/or vitrify any waste stream. The decision for an arc plasma or an IC plasma system has to be made on a case by case evaluation and is highly dependent on the specific waste stream`s form and composition. Induction coupled plasma technology offers one simple, but significant difference compared to DC or AC arc plasma systems: the ICP torch is electrodeless. To date, enormous research effort has been spent to improve the lifetime of electrodes and the effectiveness of related cooling systems. Arc plasma systems are established in research laboratories worldwide and are approaching a broad use in commercial applications. ICP technology has been improved relatively recently, but nowadays offers complete new and beneficial approaches in the field of waste conversion and treatment.

  13. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  15. Waste Management Effluent Treatment Facility: Phase I. CAC basic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gemar, D.W.; O'Leary, C.D.

    1984-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to expedite design and construction of the Waste Management Effluent Treatment Facility (WMETF), the project has been divided into two phases. Phase I consists of four storage basins and the associated transfer lines, diversion boxes, and control rooms. The design data pertaining to Phase I of the WMETF project are presented together with general background information and objectives for both phases. The project will provide means to store and decontaminate wastewater streams that are currently discharged to the seepage basins in F Area and H Area. This currently includes both routine process flows sent directly to the seepage basins and diversions of contaminated cooling water or storm water runoff that are stored in the retention basins before being pumped to the seepage basins.

  16. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  17. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  18. Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Eric A. Zielke February 15, 2006 #12;Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria to generate electricity from organic

  19. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  20. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  1. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  2. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  3. Major: Ecological Systems Design, Air Quality Control and Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    1 Major: Ecological Systems Design, Air Quality Control and Waste Management · Being able to solve control technologies · Knowledge in waste management and technologies Module 1: Ecological Systems Design quality control and biogas Waste management and air quality control Examples for combination of Modules

  4. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  5. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, May Catherine (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  6. Facilitating the improved management of waste in South Africa through a national waste information system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, Linda [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: lgodfrey@csir.co.za

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing a waste information system (WIS) for a country is more than just about collecting routine data on waste; it is about facilitating the improved management of waste by providing timely, reliable information to the relevant role-players. It is a means of supporting the waste governance challenges facing South Africa - challenges ranging from strategic waste management issues at national government to basic operational challenges at local government. The paper addresses two hypotheses. The first is that the identified needs of government can provide a platform from which to design a national WIS framework for a developing country such as South Africa, and the second is that the needs for waste information reflect greater, currently unfulfilled challenges in the sustainable management of waste. Through a participatory needs analysis process, it is shown that waste information is needed by the three spheres of government, to support amongst others, informed planning and decision-making, compliance monitoring and enforcement, community participation through public access to information, human, infrastructure and financial resource management and policy development. These needs for waste information correspond closely with key waste management challenges currently facing the country. A shift in governments approach to waste, in line with national and international policy, is evident from identified current and future waste information needs. However, the need for information on landfilling remains entrenched within government, possibly due to the poor compliance of landfill sites in South Africa and the problems around the illegal disposal of both general and hazardous waste.

  7. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  8. The mutagenic potential of soil and runoff water from land treatment of three hazardous industrial wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davol, Phebe

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of agricultural chemicals and the performance of hazardous waste land treatment facilities. This study used a bioassay directed chemical analysis protocol to monitor the environmental fate of mutagenic constituents from a simulated land treatment demonstration...THE MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF SOIL AND RUNOFF WATER FROM LAND TREATMENT OF THREE HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES A Thesis by PHEBE DAYOL Submitted to the Graduate College of Te xa s ASM Un i ver s i ty in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  9. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varvas, M. [AS ALARA, Leetse tee 21, Paldiski, 76806 (Estonia); Putnik, H. [Delegation of the European Commission to Russia, Kadashevskaja nab. 14/1 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nirvin, B.; Pettersson, S. [SKB, Box 5864, Stockholm, SE-102 40 (Sweden); Johnsson, B. [Studsvik RadWaste, Nykoping, SE-611 82 (Sweden)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  10. STATUS & DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification{trademark} process. As an outcome of this work, the hulk vitrification process was recommended for further evaluation. In fiscal year 2004, a follow-on bulk vitrification project was initiated to design, procure, assemble and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low activity tank waste from Hanford tank 241-S-109 under a Research, Development and Demonstration permit. That project is referred to as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (or DBVS). The DBVS project will provide a full-scale bulk vitrification demonstration facility that can be used to assess the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process under actual operating conditions. The pilot-plant is scheduled to commence operations in late 2005. The Supplemental Treatment Program represents a major element of the ORP's strategy to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of tank wastes by 2028. This paper will provide an overview of the bulk vitrification process and the progress in establishing the pilot-plant.

  11. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  12. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations of the WTP are not only dependent upon the successful design and construction of the WTP, but also on appropriately preparing the tank farms and waste feed delivery infrastructure to reliably and consistently deliver waste feed to the WTP for many decades. The key components of the 2020 vision are: all WTP facilities are commissioned, turned-over and operational, achieving the earliest possible hot operations of completed WTP facilities, and supplying low-activity waste (LAW) feed directly to the LAW Facility using in-tank/near tank supplemental treatment technologies. A One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was recently formed to focus on developing and executing the programs that will be critical to successful waste feed delivery and WTP startup. The team is comprised of members from Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), and DOE-ORP and DOE-WTP. The IPT will combine WTP and WRPS capabilities in a mission-focused model that is clearly defined, empowered and cost efficient. The genesis for this new team and much of the 2020 vision is based on the work of an earlier team that was tasked with identifying the optimum approach to startup, commissioning, and turnover of WTP facilities for operations. This team worked backwards from 2020 - a date when the project will be completed and steady-state operations will be underway - and identified success criteria to achieving safe and efficient operations of the WTP. The team was not constrained by any existing contract work scope, labor, or funding parameters. Several essential strategies were identified to effectively realize the one-system model of integrated feed stream delivery, WTP operations, and product delivery, and to accomplish the team's vision of hot operations beginning in 2016: - Use a phased startup and turnover approach that will allow WTP facilities to be transitioned to an operational state on as short a timeline as credible. - Align Tank Farm (TF) and WTP objectives such that feed can be supplied to the WTP when it is required for hot operations. - Ensure immobilized waste and waste recycle streams can be recei

  13. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  14. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  15. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  16. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  17. Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery techniques is waste heat and condensation water recovery system. Waste heat and condensation water recovery system is one of the most important facilities in power plants. High efficiency waste heat

  18. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  19. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  20. Optimizing the National TRU waste system transportation program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, S. A. (Sheila A.); Countiss, S. (Sue)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the National TRU Waste Program (NTP) is to operate the system safely and cost-effectively, in compliance with applicable regulations and agreements, and at full capacity in a fully integrated mode. One of the objectives of the Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) is to complete the current Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) mission for the disposal of the nation's legacy transuranic (TRU) waste at least IO years earlier thus saving approximately %7B. The National TRU Waste Optimization Plan (1) recommends changes to accomplish this. This paper discusses the optimization of the National TRU Waste System Transportation Program.

  1. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  2. Small Waste Tank Sampling and Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magleby, Mary Theresa

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), four 1500-gal catch tanks were found to contain RCRAhazardous waste. A system was needed to obtain a representative sample of the liquid, as well as the hardpacked heels, and to ultimately homogenize and remove the tank contents for disposal. After surveying the available technologies, the AEA Fluidic Pulse Mixing and Retrieval System was chosen for a technology demonstration. A demonstration, conducted with nonhazardous surrogate material, proved that the system was capable of loosening the hard-packed heel, homogenizing the entire tank contents, and collecting a representative sample. Based on the success of the demonstration, a detailed evaluation was done to determine the applicability of the system to other tanks. The evaluation included the sorting of data on more than 700 tanks to select candidates for further deployment of the system. A detailed study was also done to determine if the purchase of a second system would be cost effective. The results of the evaluation indicated that a total of thirteen tanks at the INEEL are amenable to sampling and/or remediation using the AEA Fluidic Pulse Mixing and Retrieval System. Although the currently-owned system appears sufficient for the needs of one INEEL program, it is insufficient to meet the combined needs at the INEEL. The INEEL will commence operation of the system on the TRA-730 Catch Tank System in June 2002.

  3. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

  4. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  6. EIS-0133: Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s San Francisco Operations Office developed this statement to analyze the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of alternatives for constructing and operating a Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility for nonradioactive (hazardous and nonhazardous) mixed and radioactive wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  7. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  8. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  9. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  10. EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State...

  11. EA-1292: On-site Treatment of Low Level Mixed Waste, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to evaluate the proposed treatment of low level mixed waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

  12. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, D.K.; Fischer, D.K.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW.

  13. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  14. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  15. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and the associated occupational hygiene in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolvanen, Outi K. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]. E-mail: outolvan@bytl.jyu.fi; Haenninen, Kari I. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A special feature of waste management in Finland has been the emphasis on the source separation of kitchen biowaste (catering waste); more than two-thirds of the Finnish population participates in this separation. Source-separated biowaste is usually treated by composting. The biowaste of about 5% of the population is handled by mechanical-biological treatment. A waste treatment plant at Mustasaari is the only plant in Finland using digestion for kitchen biowaste. For the protection of their employees, the plant owners commissioned a study on environmental factors and occupational hygiene in the plant area. During 1998-2000 the concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins and noise levels were investigated to identify possible problems at the plant. Three different work areas were investigated: the pre-processing and crushing hall, the bioreactor hall and the drying hall. Employees were asked about work-related health problems. Some problems with occupational hygiene were identified: concentrations of microbes and endotoxins may increase to levels harmful to health during waste crushing and in the bioreactor hall. Because employees complained of symptoms such as dry cough and rash or itching appearing once or twice a month, it is advisable to use respirator masks (class P3) during dusty working phases. The noise level in the drying hall exceeded the Finnish threshold value of 85 dBA. Qualitatively harmful factors for the health of employees are similar in all closed waste treatment plants in Finland. Quantitatively, however, the situation at the Mustasaari treatment plant is better than at some Finnish dry waste treatment plants. Therefore is reasonable to conclude that mechanical sorting, which produces a dry waste fraction for combustion and a biowaste fraction for anaerobic treatment, is in terms of occupational hygiene better for employees than combined aerobic treatment and dry waste treatment.

  16. ASPEN computer simulations of the mixed waste treatment project baseline flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietsche, L.J.; Upadhye, R.S.; Camp, D.W.; Pendergrass, J.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Thompson, T.K.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The treatment and disposal of mixed waste (i.e., waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) is a challenging waste- management problem of particular concern to Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for destroying hazardous wastes must be re- evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and, in some cases, new technologies must be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP), a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), was established by the DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM-30) to develop and analyze alternative mixed waste treatment approaches. One of the MWTP`s initiatives, and the objective of this study, was to develop flowsheets for prototype, integrated, mixed-waste treatment facilities that can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modeling. The objectives of the flowsheet simulations are to compare process effectiveness and costs of alternative flowsheets and to determine if commercial process-simulation software could be used on the large, complex process of an integrated mixed waste processing facility. Flowsheet modeling is needed to evaluate many aspects of proposed flowsheet designs. A major advantage of modeling the complete flowsheet is the ability to define the internal recycle streams, thereby making it possible to evaluate the impact of one operation on the whole plant. Many effects that can be seen only in this way. Modeling also can be used to evaluate sensitivity and range of operating conditions, radioactive criticality, and relative costs of different flowsheet designs. Further, the modeled flowsheets must be easily modified so that one can examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams affect the overall integrated process.

  17. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  18. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutzel, T.; Manhardt, J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO{sub 2} blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS.

  19. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  20. Bioaugmentation for the treatment of oilfield drilling waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, T.P. [BioGEE International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of oilfield drilling pit waste is a problem for the petroleum industry. In the past, drilling pits were covered with dirt of the waste was excavated and hauled to a landfill. Bioremediation can clean-up the waste and save the oilfield drillers money and headaches. Bioremediation is the technique of using microbes capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons into environmentally safe water and carbon dioxide. Drilling companies can utilize bioremediation to treat the petroleum wastes in-situ rather than transport the waste. BioGEE has developed a procedure to use in-situ bioremediation on drilling wastes. After environmental conditions are adjusted, hydrocarbon degrading microbes and nutrients are applied. Drilling wastes consist primarily of hydrocarbons. An average well has a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level of 44,880 PPM. Using BioGEE`s bioremediation technology, TPH levels have successfully been lowered to below the maximum allowable level of 10,000 PPM to 6,486 PPM of TPH in 47 days.

  1. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  2. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  3. Leaching characteristics of the metal waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process: Product consistency testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S. G.; Keiser, D. D.; Frank, S. M.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.

    1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent fuel from the experimental breeder reactor II. A product of this treatment process is a metal waste form that incorporates the stainless steel cladding hulls, zirconium from the fuel and the fission products that are noble to the process, i.e., Tc, Ru, Nb, Pd, Rh, Ag. The nominal composition of this waste form is stainless steel/15 wt% zirconium/1--4 wt% noble metal fission products/1--2 wt % U. Leaching results are presented from several tests and sample types: (1) 2 week monolithic immersion tests on actual metal waste forms produced from irradiated cladding hulls, (2) long term (>2 years) pulsed flow tests on samples containing technetium and uranium and (3) crushed sample immersion tests on cold simulated metal waste form samples. The test results will be compared and their relevance for waste form product consistency testing discussed.

  4. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borglin, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    products from the treatment of solid waste streams with aaeration on treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in Simulatedtreatment systems a sustainable system could be developed. Waste could be mixed with sewage solids and

  5. Treatment plan for aqueous/organic/decontamination wastes under the Oak Ridge Reservation FFCA Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, P.M.; Benson, C.E.; Gilbert, V.P.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which seeks to facilitate the treatment of low-level mixed wastes currently stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in violation of the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The FFCA establishes schedules for DOE to identify treatment for wastes, referred to as Appendix B wastes, that current have no identified or existing capacity for treatment. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DDT&E) program was established to provide the support necessary to identify treatment methods for mixed was meeting the Appendix B criteria. The Program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs for major categories of the Appendix B wastes based on the waste characteristics and possible treatment technologies. The Aqueous, Organic, and Decontamination (A/O/D) project team was established to identify pretreatment options for aqueous and organic wastes which will render the waste acceptable for treatment in existing waste treatment facilities and to identify the processes to decontaminate heterogeneous debris waste. In addition, the project must also address the treatment of secondary waste generated by other DDT&E projects. This report details the activities to be performed under the A/O/D Project in support of the identification, selection, and evaluation of treatment processes. The goals of this plan are (1) to determine the major aqueous and organic waste streams requiring treatment, (2) to determine the treatment steps necessary to make the aqueous and organic waste acceptable for treatment in existing treatment facilities on the ORR or off-site, and (3) to determine the processes necessary to decontaminate heterogeneous wastes that are considered debris.

  6. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  7. Treatment technologies for hazardous ashes generated from possible incineration of navy waste. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, T.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Navy recognizes that thermal treatment of Navy hazardous wastes (HW) should, under the terms of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, be avoided. Combustion waste disposal may nonetheless become unavoidable in certain cases, even after all possible process enhancements that avoid HW production are implemented. Even then, some toxic constituents that may be present in the waste will not be destroyed by incineration and will persist in the ash residue produced by incineration. Such incinerator ashes will have to be disposed of in HW landfills. The Navy is thus evaluating methods of treatment of such ash to remove or immobilize the toxic constituents that persist following incineration in order to render the waste treatment residue nonhazardous. Appropriate technology identified in this work can be applied to ash produced by HW combuster operated by the Navy, if any, or be required for ash produced by commercial generators handling Navy HWs.

  8. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Constructed Wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A constructed wetland system for domestic wastewater treatment is designed to mimic the natural wetland treatment process of Mother Nature. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands....

  9. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  10. EIS-0189: Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Richland, WA (Programmatic)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental impact statement evaluates the Department of Energy (DOE)'s, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), decisions on how to properly manage and dispose of Hanford Site tank waste and encapsulated cesium and strontium to reduce existing and potential future risk to the public, Site workers, and the environment. The waste includes radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste currently stored in 177 underground storage tanks, approximately 60 other smaller active and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs), and additional Site waste likely to be added to the tank waste, which is part of the tank farm system. In addition, DOE proposes to manage and dispose of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules that are by-products of tank waste. The tank waste and capsules are located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

  11. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  12. EA-1106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility to treat explosive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence...

  13. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  14. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  15. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Development and status of the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan or I love that mobile unit of mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bounini, L. [USDOE Grand Junction Project Office, CO (United States); Williams, M. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States); Zygmunt, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine Department of Energy (DOE) sites reporting to the Albuquerque Office (AL) have mixed waste that is chemically hazardous and radioactive. The hazardous waste regulations require the chemical portion of mixed waste to be to be treated to certain standards. The total volume of low-level mixed waste at the nine sites is equivalent to 7,000 drums, with individual site volumes ranging from 1 gallon of waste at the Pinellas Plant to 4,500 drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nearly all the sites have a diversity of wastes requiring a diversity of treatment processes. Treatment capacity does not exist for much of this waste, and it would be expensive for each site to build the diversity of treatment processes needed to treat its own wastes. DOE-AL assembled a team that developed the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan that uses the resources of the nine sites to treat the waste at the sites. Work on the plan started in October 1993, and the plan was finalized in March 1994. The plan uses commercial treatment, treatability studies, and mobile treatment units. The plan specifies treatment technologies that will be built as mobile treatment units to be moved from site to site. Mobile units include bench-top units for very small volumes and treatability studies, drum-size units that treat one drum per day, and skid-size units that handle multiple drum volumes. After the tools needed to treat the wastes were determined, the sites were assigned to provide part of the treatment capacity using their own resources and expertise. The sites are making progress on treatability studies, commercial treatment, and mobile treatment design and fabrication. To date, this is the only plan for treating waste that brings the resources of several DOE sites together to treat mixed waste. It is the only program actively planning to use mobile treatment coordinated between DOE sites.

  18. Processing and waste disposal representative for fusion breeder blanket systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an evaluation of the waste handling concepts applicable to fusion breeder systems. Its goal is to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under US Nuclear Regulatory regulations. The radionuclides expected in the materials used in fusion reactor blankets are described, as are plans for reprocessing and disposal of the components of different breeder blankets. An estimate of the operating costs involved in waste disposal is made.

  19. LINAC-based transuranic waste characterization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, F.J.; Womble, P.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vourvopoulos, G. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Roberts, M.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Remote-handled transuranic nuclear waste poses a particular challenge for assaying due to the high neutron and gamma ray background that emanates from the non-fissile, but highly radioactive material, contained with the waste. The utilization of a RFQ linac with a neutron flux has shown that, in principle, the differential die-away technique can reliably assay this special class of nuclear waste.

  20. Design of a TRU Waste Repackaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogle, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the work that SRTC is performing in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the TRU-Waste Repackaging Module.

  1. Hazardous Waste Management System-General (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides general regulations regarding hazardous waste, including landfills. Specific passages refer to the...

  2. The treatment of wood preserving wastes with activated carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pence, Robert Fuller

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirement and treatment schemes should be based on these combined requirements. Current treatment schemes employed in the wood preserving industry combine physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations in treating wastewaters. Jones, et al...-five of the plants performed secondary treatment on-site of which 32 used biological methods. Only 6 per- cent discharged their wastewaters directly to the environment without any form of treatment and approximately 40 percent of the plants planned to change...

  3. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  4. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: LLNL and LANL computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camp, D.W.; Dietsche, L.J.; Upadhye, R.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Borduin, L.C.; Pendergrass, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, T.K. [Thompson (T.K.), Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulations of mixed waste processing flowsheets using ASPEN PLUS process simulation software were completed by a joint Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Los National Laboratory (LLNL/LANL) effort for the US Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project. The LLNL model used relatively detailed synthesized chemical ``cocktails`` to simulate waste streams. The LANL approach used less detail but made extensive use of simple steam splitters and thermodynamic coal models for combustible waste compositions. The two modeling approaches agreed within 16% for the product streams and within 25% for the auxiliary fuel rate. The discrepancy between the auxiliary fuel rates was traced to different methods of handling organics in lab packs and scintillation vials with the process models. The ASPEN models are valuable tools for evaluating waste processing flowsheets.

  5. Disposition of Nuclear Waste Using Subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolen, G.D.; Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.A.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    ATW destroys virtually all the plutonium and higher actinides without reprocessing the spent fuel in a way that could lead to weapons material diversion. An ATW facility consists of three major elements: (1) a high-power proton linear accelerator; (2) a pyrochemical spent fuel treatment i waste cleanup system; (3) a liquid lead-bismuth cooled burner that produces and utilizes an intense source-driven neutron flux for transmutation in a heterogeneous (solid fuel) core. The concept is the result of many years of development at LANL as well as other major international research centers. Once demonstrated and developed, ATW could be an essential part of a global non-proliferation strategy for countries that could build up large quantities of plutonium from their commercial reactor waste. ATW technology, initially proposed in the US, has received wide and rapidly increasing attention abroad, especially in Europe and the Far East with major programs now being planned, organized and tided. Substantial convergence presently exists on the technology choices among the programs, opening the possibility of a strong and effective international collaboration on the phased development of the ATW technology.

  6. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems - Current status and potential improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A., E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly relevant to establish more detailed guidelines within this field in order to increase both the general quality in assessments as well as the potentials for cross-study comparisons.

  7. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  8. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  9. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  10. Vitrification as a low-level radioactive mixed waste treatment technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazer, J.J.; No, Hyo J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is developing plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated onsite. The ultimate objective of this project is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the annual generation and historic stockpiles of selected LLMW streams. This project is currently in the process of identifying a range of processible glass compositions that can be produced from actual mixed wastes and additives, such as boric acid or borax. During the formulation of these glasses, there has been an emphasis on maximizing the waste content in the glass (70 to 90 wt %), reducing the overall final waste volume, and producing a stabilized low-level radioactive waste glass. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced alkali borosilicate glasses that pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals well above the expected levels in actual wastes, also pass the TCLP test. These results provide compelling evidence that the vitrification system and the glass waste form will be robust enough to accommodate expected variations in the LLMW streams from ANL-E. Approximately 40 crucible melts will be studied to establish a compositional envelope for vitrifying ANL-E mixed wastes. Also being determined is the identity of volatilized metals or off-gases that will be generated.

  11. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  12. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program annual report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much emphasis continues to be on the transfer of remote design technology for components integral to the West Valley Demonstration Project's (WVDP) vitrification process. In addition to preparing equipment specifications and drawings, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff also participated in numerous design coordination meetings and reviews of drawings prepared by other WVDP contractors. Nearly 200 jumper drawings for the vitrification cell were prepared by this program in FY 1988. The remote jumpers connect vessels in the cell to each other for the transfer of solutions and provide for the flow of materials, instrumentation signals, and power from outside the cell. Analysis required in preparing the jumper designs involved balance, thermal stress, seismic, set-down stress, and displacement calculations. Design efforts were begun on the canister decontamination and swipe station and on the remote maintenance station. Equipment selection and layouts of the vitrification off-gas treatment system, including a reamer to remotely clean the melter off-gas line, were finalized. Also finalized were the designs for the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter assemblies for heating, cooling and air conditioning of the vitrification cell.

  13. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from

  14. Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slomka, B.J.

    1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel system and method is developed for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. 1 fig.

  15. Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slomka, Bogdan J. (Ames, IA)

    1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel system and method for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object.

  16. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rives, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Rives@uab.ca [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  17. Hanford waste vitrification systems risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.C.; Hamilton, D.W.; Holton, L.K.; Bailey, J.W.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic Risk Assessment was performed to identify the technical, regulatory, and programmatic uncertainties and to quantify the risks to the Hanford Site double-shell tank waste vitrification program baseline (as defined in December 1990). Mitigating strategies to reduce the overall program risk were proposed. All major program elements were evaluated, including double-shell tank waste characterization, Tank Farms, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and grouting. Computer-based techniques were used to quantify risks to proceeding with construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant on the present baseline schedule. Risks to the potential vitrification of single-shell tank wastes and cesium and strontium capsules were also assessed. 62 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  19. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2; - Development of a set of alternatives to the current baseline that involve aspects of direct feed, feed conditioning, and design changes. The One System Technical Organization has served WTP, TOC, and DOE well in managing and resolving issues at the interface. This paper describes the organizational structure used to improve the interface and several examples of technical interface issues that have been successfully addressed by the new organization. (authors)

  20. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site located near Idaho Falls, ID USA, has developed a comprehensive waste management and tracking tool that integrates multiple operational activities with characterization data from waste declaration through final waste disposition. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS) provides information necessary to help facility personnel properly manage their waste and demonstrate a wide range of legal and regulatory compliance. As a client?server database system, the IWTS is a proven tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of flexibility. This paper describes some of the history involved with the development and current use of IWTS as a comprehensive waste management tool as well as a discussion of IWTS deployments performed by the INL for outside clients. Waste management spans a wide range of activities including: work group interactions, regulatory compliance management, reporting, procedure management, and similar activities. The IWTS documents these activities and performs tasks in a computer-automated environment. Waste characterization data, container characterization data, shipments, waste processing, disposals, reporting, and limit compliance checks are just a few of the items that IWTS documents and performs to help waste management personnel perform their jobs. Throughout most hazardous and radioactive waste generating, storage and disposal sites, waste management is performed by many different groups of people in many facilities. Several organizations administer their areas of waste management using their own procedures and documentation independent of other organizations. Files are kept, some of which are treated as quality records, others not as stringent. Quality records maintain a history of: changes performed after approval, the reason for the change(s), and a record of whom and when the changes were made. As regulations and permits change, and as the proliferation of personal computers flourish, procedures and data files begin to be stored in electronic databases. With many different organizations, contractors, and unique procedures, several dozen databases are used to track and maintain aspects of waste management. As one can see, the logistics of collecting and certifying data from all organizations to provide comprehensive information would not only take weeks to perform, but usually presents a variety of answers that require an immediate unified resolution. A lot of personnel time is spent scrubbing the data in order to determine the correct information. The issue of disparate data is a concern in itself, and is coupled with the costs associated with maintaining several separate databases. In order to gain waste management efficiencies across an entire facility or site, several waste management databases located among several organizations would need to be consolidated. The IWTS is a system to do just that, namely store and track containerized waste information for an entire site. The IWTS has proven itself at the INL since 1995 as an efficient, successful, time saving management tool to help meet the needs of both operations and management for hazardous and radiological containerized waste. Other sites have also benefited from IWTS as it has been deployed at West Valley Nuclear Services Company DOE site as well as Ontario Power Ge

  1. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010 SNFEnergySession0-02 -Railroad Hazardous gthe Waste

  2. Waste Treatment Facility Passes Federal Inspection, Completes Final

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|of Energy WashingtonWaste Isolation PilotMilestone,

  3. Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment of the DWTF (LLNL 2004). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment of the DWTF is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment of the DWTF (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment of the DWTF are shown in the B695 Segment of the DWTF DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment of the DWTF include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained LLW. A permit modification for B696S was submitted to DTSC in January 2004 to store and treat hazardous and mixed waste. Upon approval of the permit modification, B696S rooms 1007, 1008, and 1009 will be able to store hazardous and mixed waste for up to 1 year. Furthermore, an additional drum crusher and a Waste Packaging Unit will be permitted to treat hazardous and mixed waste. RHWM generally processes LLW with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (i.e., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 3}H. Chapter 5 of the DSA documents the derivation of TSRs and develops the operational limits that protect the safety envelope defined for this facility. The DSA is applicable to the handling of radioactive waste stored and treated in the B695 Segment of the DWTF. Section 5 of the TSR, Administrative Controls, contains those Administrative Controls necessary to ensure safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. A basis explanation follows each of the requirements described in Section 5.5, Specific Administrative Controls. The basis explanation does not constitute an additional requirement, but is intended as an expansion of the logic and reasoning behind development of the requirement. Programmatic Administrative Controls are addressed in Section 5.6.

  4. Assessment of natural gas technology opportunities in the treatment of selected metals containing wastes. Topical report, June 1994-August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGervey, J.; Holmes, J.G.; Bluestein, J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report analyzes the disposal of certain waste streams that contain heavy metals, as determined by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. Generation of the wastes, the regulatory status of the wastes, and current treatment practices are characterized, and the role of natural gas is determined. The four hazardous metal waste streams addressed in this report are electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, electroplating sludge wastes, used and off-specification circuit boards and cathode ray tubes, and wastes from lead manufacturing. This report assesses research and development opportunities relevant to natural gas technologies that may result from current and future enviromental regulations.

  5. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  6. Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidner, J.; Shaw, P.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100{degrees}C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna [Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, 2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Bengtsson, Magnus, E-mail: bengtsson@iges.or.jp [Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, 2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  8. Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

  9. WASTES-II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Release 24: User's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WASTES models each reactor pool and an at-reactor, out-of-pool (ex-pool) storage facility for each reactor site. Spent fuel transfers between pools can be simulated under various constraints controlled by user input. In addition to simulating each pool and ex-pool facility, WASTES can accommodate up to ten other storage facilities of four different types: federal interim storage (FIS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS), auxiliary plants, and repositories. Considerable flexibility is allowed for the user to specify system configuration and priorities for fuel receipts. In addition, the WASTES computer code simulates very detailed (assembly-specific) movements of spent fuel throughout the waste management system. Spent fuel characteristics that are tracked by WASTES for each movement are: discharge year and month, number of assemblies, weight of uranium (MTU), exposure, original enrichment, and heat generation rate (calculated from the preceding characteristics). Data for the WASTES model is based upon the DOE reactor-specific spent fuel data base, which is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition to the spent fuel characteristics, this data includes reactor location, type, transportation access, and historical and projected discharge data on the number of fuel assemblies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Remote infrared imaging system for scanning hazardous waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.L.H.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a description of the deployment of an infrared imaging system in an underground radioactive waste storage tank. The system was made for surface scanning to detect regions of high heat if present. The deployment described was for testing the system`s capabilities as well as the logistics of deployment and the system`s functionality in the field. The system was deployed and removed successfully providing a surface scan of the tank. Some improvements are recommended.

  11. UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    solid waste, use the approved facilities listed below. This document is primarily intended & sludge Seattle, WA Ventilation Power Cleaning Vactor & parking garage waste Seattle, WA King County Treatment Plant Liquids & sludge Seattle, WA La Farge Cement Kiln Liquids & sludge Seattle, WA Cemex Liquids

  12. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  13. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  14. Treatment of liquid radioactive waste using combination of chemical processes with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabrodsky, V.N.; Davidov, Y.P.; Toropov, I.G.; Glushko, A.S. [Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. of Radioecological Problems; Efremenkov, V.M. [State Committee on Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety, Minsk (Belarus)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of chemical processes and ultrafiltration was used for treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Cs, Sr, Pu by using large amounts of surfactants and complexing substances. The nature of carriers and conditions of complete separation of Cs and Sr are reported. The mechanisms of the processes are discussed.

  15. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

  16. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Operation and Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil absorption fieldTwo-compartment septic tank Perforated pipe for effluent disposal Sand/loam soil Gravel Geotextile fabric Onsite wastewater treatment systems Operation and maintenance L-5347 8-08 Figure 1: A septic tank and soil absorption... field system. I f your home or business uses an onsite wastewater treatment system, common- ly known as a septic system, you need to know how to operate and maintain the system properly to prevent pollution and sewage backups. For many years, people...

  17. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  18. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulibarri, A.; Veganzones, A. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 as a state-owned limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kinds of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international co-operational are also included.

  19. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  20. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  1. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details: Thermoelectric generators, waste heat recovery, automotive exhaust, skutterudites INTRODUCTION In part I

  2. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  3. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10°C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GM’s shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  4. Transportation functions of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shappert, L.B. [ed.; Attaway, C.R.; Pope, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dixon, L.D. [Dixon (L.D.), Martinez, GA (United States); Jones, R.H. [Jones (R.H.), Los Gatos, CA (United States); Klimas, M.J. [USDOE Chicago Operations Office, Argonne, IL (United States); Peterson, R.W. [Bentz (E.J.) and Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of Public Law 97.425 and provisions specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 961, the US Department of Energy has the responsibility to accept and transport spent fuel and high-level waste from various organizations which have entered into a contract with the federal government in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and workers. In implementing these requirements, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has, among other things, supported the identification of functions that must be performed by a transportation system (TS) that will accept the waste for transport to a federal facility for storage and/or disposal. This document, through the application of system engineering principles, identifies the functions that must be performed to transport waste under this law.

  5. Treatment of high-level wastes from the IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.R.; Lewis, M.A.; Newman, A.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is being developed as a future commercial power source that promises to have important advantages over present reactors, including improved resource conservation and waste management. The spent metal alloy fuels from an IFR will be processed in an electrochemical cell operating at 500{degree}C with a molten chloride salt electrolyte and cadmium metal anode. After the actinides have been recovered from several batches of core and blanket fuels, the salt cadmium in this electrorefiner will be treated to separate fission products from residual transuranic elements. This treatment produces a waste salt that contains the alkali metal, alkaline earth, and halide fission products; some of the rare earths; and less than 100 nCi/g of alpha activity. The treated metal wastes contain the rest of the fission products (except T, Kr, and Xe) small amounts of uranium, and only trace amounts of transuranic elements. The current concept for the salt waste form is an aluminosilicate matrix, and the concept for the metal waste form is a corrosion-resistant metal alloy. The processes and equipment being developed to treat and immobilize the salt and metal wastes are described.

  6. Treatment of high-level wastes from the IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.R.; Lewis, M.A.; Newman, A.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is being developed as a future commercial power source that promises to have important advantages over present reactors, including improved resource conservation and waste management. The spent metal alloy fuels from an IFR will be processed in an electrochemical cell operating at 500{degree}C with a molten chloride salt electrolyte and cadmium metal anode. After the actinides have been recovered from several batches of core and blanket fuels, the salt cadmium in this electrorefiner will be treated to separate fission products from residual transuranic elements. This treatment produces a waste salt that contains the alkali metal, alkaline earth, and halide fission products; some of the rare earths; and less than 100 nCi/g of alpha activity. The treated metal wastes contain the rest of the fission products (except T, Kr, and Xe) small amounts of uranium, and only trace amounts of transuranic elements. The current concept for the salt waste form is an aluminosilicate matrix, and the concept for the metal waste form is a corrosion-resistant metal alloy. The processes and equipment being developed to treat and immobilize the salt and metal wastes are described.

  7. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  8. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  9. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  10. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Ultraviolet Light Disinfection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Some onsite wastewater treatment systems include a disinfection component. This publication explains how homeowners can disinfect wastewater with ultraviolet light, what the components of such a system are, what factors affect the performance of a...

  11. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the pressure tests, EA examined the sections of the piping system and examined the valve lineup and pressure test tags attached to the valves. EA witnessed the pressurization...

  12. Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    such as structural steel, supports, and reinforcing steel that could be affected by corrosion; incomplete piping systems (verify ends are capped to prevent internal...

  13. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  14. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  15. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRatesAbout Us > HanfordTreatment

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of EnergyTreatment and Immobilization| Department

  17. Summary - Savannah River Site Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ng (FBSR). Th deciding which ng the Tank 48 he TRA Team m determined t ts (CTEs) and t ess Level (TRL) on Process: stem (TRL3) atment System RA reports, please v govPages...

  18. A systematic look at Tank Waste Remediation System privatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, J.H.; Duffy, M.A.; Vieth, D.L.; Sohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Highly radioactive Hanford waste includes current and future tank waste plus the cesium and strontium capsules. In the TWRS program, as in other Department of Energy (DOE) clean-up activities, there is an increasing gap between the estimated funding required to enable DOE to meet all of its clean-up commitments and level of funding that is perceived to be available. Privatization is one contracting/management approach being explored by DOE as a means to achieve cost reductions and as a means to achieve a more outcome-oriented program. Privatization introduces the element of competition, a proven means of establishing true cost as well as achieving significant cost reduction.

  19. Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

  20. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to demonstrate increases in filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today.

  1. SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew C. Morrison; Kenneth J. Bateman; Michael F. Simpson

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS Matthew C. Morrison, Kenneth J. Bateman, Michael F. Simpson Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 The ceramic waste process is the intended method for disposing of waste salt electrolyte, which contains fission products from the fuel-processing electrorefiners (ER) at the INL. When mixed and processed with other materials, the waste salt can be stored in a durable ceramic waste form (CWF). The development of the CWF has recently progressed from small-scale testing and characterization to full-scale implementation and experimentation using surrogate materials in lieu of the ER electrolyte. Two full-scale (378 kg and 383 kg) CWF test runs have been successfully completed with final densities of 2.2 g/cm3 and 2.1 g/cm3, respectively. The purpose of the first CWF was to establish material preparation parameters. The emphasis of the second pre-qualification test run was to evaluate a preliminary multi-section CWF container design. Other considerations were to finalize material preparation parameters, measure the material height as it consolidates in the furnace, and identify when cracking occurs during the CWF cooldown process.

  2. Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste treatment technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, T W; Fischer, D K

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was developed to provide the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program with criteria and a methodology to select candidate treatment technologies for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) destined for dedicated storage and ultimately disposal. The technology selection criteria are provided in a Lotus spreadsheet format to allow the methodology to evolve as the GTCC LLW Program evolves. It is recognized that the final disposal facility is not yet defined; thus, the waste acceptance criteria and other facility-specific features are subject to change. The spreadsheet format will allow for these changes a they occur. As additional treatment information becomes available, it can be factored into the analysis. The technology selection criteria were established from program goals, draft waste acceptance criteria for dedicated storage (including applicable regulations), and accepted remedial investigation methods utilized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Kepner-Tregoe decisionmaking techniques are used to compare and rank technologies against the criteria.

  3. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, Stuart T. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number oftechnical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule.

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  6. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  7. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  8. System and process for biomass treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  9. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  10. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  11. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant places first complex piping module in Pretreatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Crews at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," placed a 19-ton piping module inside the Pretreatment Facility. The module was lifted over 98-foot-tall walls and lowered into a space that provided less than two inches of clearance on each side and just a few feet on each end. It was set 56 feet above the ground.

  12. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, Daniel E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mullen, Carlan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Donald W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Feldman, Edgar M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meyer, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  14. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  15. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant [Information Systems Laboratories, 2235 East 25th Street, Suite 100, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)] [Information Systems Laboratories, 2235 East 25th Street, Suite 100, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  16. Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, ...

  17. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  18. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  19. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  20. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  1. Operation and maintenance considerations for waste-to-energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, F.; O'Leary, P.; Walsh, P.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the author discusses environmental and safety issues surrounding waste-to-energy systems. A facility can be safe and compatible with the surrounding community if management has an ethic to provide for the disposal of refuse in an economic, safe, and environmentally sound manner and the operator is trained in the proper procedures for facility operation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair.

  2. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  3. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Substantial increases in engine efficiency of a...

  4. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clavreul, Julie, E-mail: julc@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Guyonnet, Dominique [BRGM, ENAG BRGM-School, BP 6009, 3 Avenue C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model, scenario and parameter uncertainties contribute. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential procedure for quantifying uncertainty is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of procedure is illustrated by a case-study. - Abstract: Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining the selected methods: (Step 1) a sensitivity analysis evaluating the sensitivities of the results with respect to the input uncertainties, (Step 2) an uncertainty propagation providing appropriate tools for representing uncertainties and calculating the overall uncertainty of the model results, (Step 3) an uncertainty contribution analysis quantifying the contribution of each parameter uncertainty to the final uncertainty and (Step 4) as a new approach, a combined sensitivity analysis providing a visualisation of the shift in the ranking of different options due to variations of selected key parameters. This tiered approach optimises the resources available to LCA practitioners by only propagating the most influential uncertainties.

  6. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; W.M. McCartin; S.M. Frank; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; T.S. Yoo; D. Vaden; D.G. Cummings; K.J. Bateman; J. J. Giglio; T. P. O'Holleran; P. A. Hahn; M. N. Patterson

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 degrees C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  7. Environmental assessment for liquid waste treatment at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential impacts to the environment from treatment of low-level radioactive liquid and low-level mixed liquid and semi-solid wastes generated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The potential impacts of the proposed action and alternative actions are discussed herein in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended in Title 42 U.S.C. (4321), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) policies and procedures set forth in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1021 and DOE Order 451.1, ``NEPA Compliance Program.`` The potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, construction and operation of a centralized liquid waste treatment facility, were addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. However, DOE is reevaluating the need for a centralized facility and is considering other alternative treatment options. This EA retains a centralized treatment facility as the proposed action but also considers other feasible alternatives.

  8. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  9. Value-based performance measures for Hanford Tank Waste Remedition System (TWRS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and preparation for disposal of high-level waste currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Richland. The TWRS program has adopted a logical approach to decision making that is based on systems engineering and decision analysis (Westinghouse Hanford Company, 1995). This approach involves the explicit consideration of stakeholder values and an evaluation of the TWRS alternatives in terms of these values. Such evaluations need to be consistent across decisions. Thus, an effort was undertaken to develop a consistent, quantifiable set of measures that can be used by TVVRS to assess alternatives against the stakeholder values. The measures developed also met two additional requirements: 1) the number of measure should be relatively small; and 2) performance with respect to the measures should be relatively easy to estimate.

  10. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  11. Advanced oxidation treatment of high strength bilge and aqueous petroleum waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulsey, R.A.; Kobylinski, E.A. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Leach, B. [EEC, Inc., Virginia Beach, VA (United States); Pearce, L. [TRITECH, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Craney Island Fuel Depot is the largest US Navy fuel terminal in the continental US. Services provided at this facility include fuel storage (current capacity is 1.5 million barrels), fuel reclamation (recovery of oil from oily wastewater), and physical/chemical treatment for the removal of residual oil from bilge water and from aqueous petroleum waste. Current wastewater treatment consists of storage/equalization, oil/water separation, dissolved air flotation, sand filtration, and carbon adsorption. The Navy initiated this study to comply with the State requirement that its existing physical/chemical oily wastewater treatment plant be upgraded to remove soluble organics and produce an effluent which would meet acute toxicity limits. The pilot tests conducted during the study included several variations of chemical and biological wastewater treatment processes. While biological treatment alone was capable of meeting the proposed BOD limit of 26 mg/L, the study showed that the effluent of the biological process contained a high concentration of refractory (nonbiodegradable) organics and could not consistently meet the proposed limits for COD and TOC when treating high-strength wastewater. Additional tests were conducted with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). AOPs were evaluated for use as independent treatment processes as well as polishing processes following biological treatment. The AOP processes used for this study included combinations of ozone (O{sub 3}) ultraviolet radiation (UV), and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}).

  12. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  13. Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borneman, L.E.

    1998-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996).

  14. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  15. LCA-IWM: A decision support tool for sustainability assessment of waste management systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, J. den [Institute of Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Cycles, Environmental and Spatial Planning (Institute WAR), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 13, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: j.denboer@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Boer, E. den; Jager, J. [Institute of Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Cycles, Environmental and Spatial Planning (Institute WAR), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 13, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper outlines the most significant result of the project 'The use of life cycle assessment tools for the development of integrated waste management strategies for cities and regions with rapid growing economies', which was the development of two decision-support tools: a municipal waste prognostic tool and a waste management system assessment tool. The article focuses on the assessment tool, which supports the adequate decision making in the planning of urban waste management systems by allowing the creation and comparison of different scenarios, considering three basic subsystems: (i) temporary storage; (ii) collection and transport and (iii) treatment, disposal and recycling. The design and analysis options, as well as the assumptions made for each subsystem, are shortly introduced, providing an overview of the applied methodologies and technologies. The sustainability assessment methodology used in the project to support the selection of the most adequate scenario is presented with a brief explanation of the procedures, criteria and indicators applied on the evaluation of each of the three sustainability pillars.

  16. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, A.W., E-mail: awl@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  17. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  18. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  19. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

  20. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors to consider in repository design and optimization were then discussed. Japan is considering various alternatives and options for the geologic disposal facility and the framework for future analysis of repository concepts was discussed. Regarding the advanced waste and storage form development, waste form technologies developed in both countries were surveyed and compared. Potential collaboration areas and activities were next identified. Disposal system optimization processes and techniques were reviewed, and factors to consider in future repository design optimization activities were also discussed. Then the potential collaboration areas and activities related to the optimization problem were extracted.

  1. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  2. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittmaier, M. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: wittmaier@hs-bremen.de; Langer, S.; Sawilla, B. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Identification of the source of methane at a hazardous waste treatment facility using isotopic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackley, K.C.; Liu, C.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Peabody, IL (United States)); Trainor, D.P. (Dames and Moore, Madison, WI (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopic analyses have been used to determine the source of methane in subsurface sediments at a hazardous waste treatment facility in the Lake Calumet area of Chicago, Illinois. The study area is surrounded by landfills and other waste management operations and has a long history of waste disposal. The facility property consists of land constructed of approximately 15 feet of fill placed over lake sediments. The fill is underlain by successively older lacustrine and glacial till deposits to a maximum depth of approximately 80 feet. During a subsurface investigation of the site performed for a RCRA Facility Investigation of former solid waste management units (SWMUs) in the fill, significant quantities of methane were encountered in the natural deposits. Gas samples were collected from the headspace of 11 piezometers screened at depths of approximately 30, 40, and 50 feet beneath the surface. Methane concentrations up to 75% by volume were observed in some of the piezometers. Stable isotope analyses were completed on methane and associated CO[sub 2] separated from the gas samples. Radiocarbon (C-14) analyses were also completed on several of the samples. The delta C-13 results for the intermediate and deep zones are indicative of methane produced by microbial reduction of CO[sub 2]. The methane occurring in the shallow zone appears to be a mixture of methane from the intermediate zone and methane produced by microbial fermentation of naturally (nonanthropogenic) buried organic matter within the shallow lacustrine sediments. According to the isotopic and chemical results, the methane does not appear to be related to gas generation from nearby landfills or from organic wastes previously placed in the former facility SWMUs.

  4. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

  5. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeman, Gordon H.

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

  6. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  7. Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Parts 370-376: Hazardous Waste Management System (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations prescribe the management of hazardous waste facilities in New York State. They identify and list different types of hazardous wastes and describe standards for generators,...

  8. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Lawrence T. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Chew, David P. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance. There is currently a premium on processing and storage space in the radioactive liquid waste tank system. To enable continuation of risk reduction initiatives, the Plan establishes a processing strategy that provides tank space required to meet, or minimizes the impacts to meeting, programmatic objectives. The Plan also addresses perturbations in funding and schedule impacts. (authors)

  9. Specialized video systems for use in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Heckendorn, F.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing a remote video system for use in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Site, as a portion of its site support role. Viewing of the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in assessing their condition and controlling their operation. Several specialized video systems have been built that provide remote viewing and lighting, including remotely controlled tank entry and exit. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. The SRS waste tanks are nominal 4.5 million liter (1.3 million gallon) underground tanks used to store liquid high level radioactive waste generated by the site, awaiting final disposal. The typical waste tank (Figure 1) is of flattened shape (i.e. wider than high). The tanks sit in a dry secondary containment pan. The annular space between the tank wall and the secondary containment wall is continuously monitored for liquid intrusion and periodically inspected and documented. The latter was historically accomplished with remote still photography. The video systems includes camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, and vertical deployment. The assembly enters through a 125 mm (5 in) diameter opening. A special attribute of the systems is they never get larger than the entry hole during camera aiming etc. and can always be retrieved. The latest systems are easily deployable to a remote setup point and can extend down vertically 15 meters (50ft). The systems are expected to be a valuable asset to tank operations.

  10. Specialized video systems for use in waste tanks. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Heckendorn, F.M.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing a remote video system for use in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Site, as a portion of its site support role. Viewing of the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in assessing their condition and controlling their operation. Several specialized video systems have been built that provide remote viewing and lighting, including remotely controlled tank entry and exit. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. The SRS waste tanks are nominal 4.5 million liter (1.3 million gallon) underground tanks used to store liquid high level radioactive waste generated by the site, awaiting final disposal. The typical waste tank (Figure 1) is of flattened shape (i.e. wider than high). The tanks sit in a dry secondary containment pan. The annular space between the tank wall and the secondary containment wall is continuously monitored for liquid intrusion and periodically inspected and documented. The latter was historically accomplished with remote still photography. The video systems includes camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, and vertical deployment. The assembly enters through a 125 mm (5 in) diameter opening. A special attribute of the systems is they never get larger than the entry hole during camera aiming etc. and can always be retrieved. The latest systems are easily deployable to a remote setup point and can extend down vertically 15 meters (50ft). The systems are expected to be a valuable asset to tank operations.

  11. Consolidation and Centralization of Waste Operations Business Systems - 12319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, D. Dean [Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This abstract provides a comprehensive plan supporting the continued development and integration of all waste operations and waste management business systems. These include existing systems such as ATMS (Automated Transportation Management System), RadCalc, RFITS (Radio Frequency Identification Transportation System) Programs as well as incorporating key components of existing government developed waste management systems and COTS (Computer Off The Shelf) applications in order to deliver a truly integrated waste tracking and management business system. Some of these existing systems to be integrated include IWTS at Idaho National Lab, WIMS at Sandia National Lab and others. The aggregation of data and consolidation into a single comprehensive business system delivers best practices in lifecycle waste management processes to be delivered across the Department of Energy facilities. This concept exists to reduce operational costs to the federal government by combining key business systems into a centralized enterprise application following the methodology that as contractors change, the tools they use to manage DOE's assets do not. IWITS is one efficient representation of a sound architecture currently supporting multiple DOE sites from a waste management solution. The integration of ATMS, RadCalc and RFITS and the concept like IWITS into a single solution for DOE contractors will result in significant savings and increased efficiencies for DOE. Building continuity and solving collective problems can only be achieved through mass collaboration, resulting in an online community that DOE contractors and subcontractors access common applications, allowing for the collection of business intelligence at an unprecedented level. This is a fundamental shift from a solely 'for profit' business model to a 'for purpose' business model. To the conventional-minded, putting values before profit is an unfamiliar and unnatural way for a contractor to operate - unless however; your objective is to build a strong, strategic alliance across the enterprise in order to execute an unprecedented change in waste management, transportation and logistical operations. The success of such an initiative can be achieved by creating a responsible framework by enabling key individuals to 'own' the sustainability of the program. This includes the strategic collaboration of responsible revolutionaries covering application developers, information owners and federal stakeholders to ensure compliance, security and risk management are 'baked' into the process and sustainability is fostered through continued innovation by both technology and application functionality. This ensures that working software can adapt to changing circumstances and is the principle measure of the success of the program. The consolidation of waste management business systems must be achieved in order to realize efficiencies in information technology portfolio management, data integrity, business intelligence and the lifecycle management of hazardous materials within the DOE enterprise architecture. By identifying best practices across the enterprise and aggregating computational and application development resources, you can provide a unified, holistic solution serviceable from a single location while being accessed from anywhere. The business impact of integrating and delivering a unified solution would reduce costs to the Department of Energy within the first year of deployment with increased savings annually. (author)

  12. Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, R.R.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  13. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  14. The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy SolarRadioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

  15. Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality, August 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, anEnergy nepdg_5251_5500.pdfAnalysis of Downwash fromWaste Treatment

  16. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. 38 39 Information provided in this Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 40 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility permit application documentation is 41 current as of June 1, 1997.

  17. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE`s plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations.

  18. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  19. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)] [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH STORAGE, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE AND CHEMICALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE AT THE HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Wayne L.; Nelson, Iral C.; Payson, David R.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices for certain solid radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site through the year 2046. The HSW EIS covers four primary aspects of waste management at Hanford – storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal. It also addresses four types of solid waste – low-level waste, mixed low-level waste that contains both radioactive and chemically hazardous constituents, immobilized low-activity waste from processing Hanford tank waste, and transuranic waste. The HSW EIS was prepared to assist DOE in determining which specific Hanford Site facilities will continue to be used, will be modified, or need to be constructed, to safely treat, store, and dispose of these wastes.

  1. Evaluating electronic waste recycling systems : the influence of physical architecture on system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredholm, Susan (Susan A.)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many different forms of electronic waste recycling systems now exist worldwide, and the amount of related legislation continues to increase. Numerous approaches have been proposed including landfill bans, extended producer ...

  2. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  3. Polyoxometalates for Radioactive Waste Treatment - Final Report - 06/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, Michael T.

    2000-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The research was directed primarily towards the use of polyoxometalate complexes for separation of lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species from aqueous waste solutions, such as the Hanford Tank Wastes. Selective binding of these species responsible for much of the high level waste (HWL) activity, can reduce the volume of material to be subsequently vitrified or otherwise converted for long-term storage. A secondary objective was to explore the direct conversion of the polyoxometalate complexes into possible waste forms, oxide bronzes, thereby avoiding additional handling and energy-intensive vitrification procedures. Although the advantages of polyoxometalate anions (POMs) lie in their high thermal and radiolytical stabilities, that has been no attempt to exploit the remarkable variety of these complexes beyond the use of the two anions mentioned above. Our broad knowledge of POM chemistry has allowed us to address and rectify this omission. The innovative aspects of the project are: (a) the selective sequestration of lanthanide and actinide cations by a POM system in the presence of excess alkali and transition metal cations; (b) the formation of the first examples of POM complexes of UO2-2+ and their extraction into nonaqueous solvents; (c) the thermal conversion of ammonium salts of lanthanide and actinide POM complexes into inert oxide bronzes at relatively low temperatures; and (d) the direct formation of highly thermally-robust niobate and tantalate complexes of Re (surrogate for Tc) in highly basic solutions.

  4. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  5. Advanced and developmental technologies for treatment and volume reduction of dry active wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, R. [R. Kohout & Associates, Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear power industry processes Dry Active Wastes (DAW) to achieve cost-effective volume reduction and/or to produce a residue that is more compatible with final disposal criteria. The two principal processes currently used by the industry are compaction and incineration. Although incineration is often considered the process of choice, capital and operating cost are often high, and in some countries, public opposition and lengthy permitting processes result in expensive delays to bringing the process to operation. Therefore, alternative treatment options (mechanical, thermal, chemical, and biological) are being investigated to provide timely, cost-effective options for industry use. An overview of those developmental processes considered applicable to processing DAW is presented. In each category, {open_quotes}established{close_quotes} processes are mentioned and/or referenced, but the focus is on {open_quotes}potential{close_quotes} technologies and the status of their development. The emphasis is on processing DAW, and therefore, those developmental processes that primarily treat solids in aqueous streams and melting/sintering technologies, both of lesser applicability to nuclear utility wastes, have been omitted. Included are those developmental technologies that appear to have a potential for radioactive waste application based on development on demonstration programs.

  6. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The project completed TPA Milestone M-083-032 to 'Complete those activities required by the 241-Z Treatment and Storage Unit's RCRA Closure Plan' four years and seven months ahead of this legally enforceable milestone. In addition, the project completed TPA Milestone M-083-042 to 'Complete transition and dismantlement of the 241-2 Waste Treatment Facility' four years and four months ahead of schedule. The project used an innovative approach in developing the project-specific RCRA closure plan to assure clear integration between the 241-Z RCRA closure activities and ongoing and future CERCLA actions at PFP. This approach provided a regulatory mechanism within the RCRA closure plan to place segments of the closure that were not practical to address at this time into future actions under CERCLA. Lessons learned from th is approach can be applied to other closure projects within the DOE Complex to control scope creep and mitigate risk. A paper on this topic, entitled 'Integration of the 241-Z Building D and D Under CERCLA with RCRA Closure at the PFP', was presented at the 2007 Waste Management Conference in Tucson, Arizona. In addition, techniques developed by the 241-Z D&D Project to control airborne contamination, clean the interior of the waste tanks, don and doff protective equipment, size-reduce plutonium-contaminated process piping, and mitigate thermal stress for the workers can be applied to other cleanup activities. The project-management team developed a strategy utilizing early characterization, targeted cleanup, and close coordination with PFP Criticality Engineering to significantly streamline the waste- handling costs associated with the project . The project schedule was structured to support an early transition to a criticality 'incredible' status for the 241-Z Facility. The cleanup work was sequenced and coordinated with project-specific criticality analysis to allow the fissile material waste being generated to be managed in a bulk fashion, instead of individual waste packages. This approach negated the need for real-time assay of individ

  7. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: The potential for energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, Stefano [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP - Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Vigano, Federico, E-mail: federico.vigano@polimi.it [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP -Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The amount of waste available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW). > Its energy potential is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). > Increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery. > Variations in the composition of the waste fed to WtE plants affect only marginally their performances. > A large WtE plant with a treatment capacity some times higher than a small plant achieves electric efficiency appreciably higher. - Abstract: This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on 'Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)'. An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa).

  8. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  9. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)] [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  10. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (?m). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  11. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.; Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of ?14 micrometers (?m). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS’ System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP.

  12. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  13. Subsurface Planar Vitrification Treatment of Problematic TRU Wastes: Status of a Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, M.K.; Nowack, B.R.; Thompson, L.E. [AMEC, 1135 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a status of the In Situ Transuranic Waste Delineation and Removal Project in which the GeoMelt{sup R} Subsurface Planar Vitrification{sup TM} (SPV{sup TM}) process is being evaluated for the in situ treatment of burial sites containing remote handled mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. The GeoMelt{sup R} SPV{sup TM} process was invented and patented by Geosafe Corporation. AMEC holds the exclusive worldwide license to use this technology. The current project is part of a three-phase demonstration program to evaluate the effectiveness of the GeoMelt{sup R} SPV{sup TM} process to treat waste contained in vertical pipe units (VPUs) and caissons that were used for the disposal of remote handled transuranic wastes located at Hanford's 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. This project is being performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for use at the Hanford site and other DOE installations. The Phase I evaluation determined that removal and treatment of the 618-10/11 VPUs are beyond what can be safely accomplished using conventional excavation methods. Accordingly, a careful stepwise non-intrusive delineation approach and treatment using the GeoMelt{sup R} SPV{sup TM} technology, followed by removal, characterization, and disposal of the resulting inert vitrified mass was identified as the preferred alternative. Phase II of the project, which started in July 2004, included a full-scale non-radioactive demonstration of AMEC's GeoMelt{sup R} SPV{sup TM} process on a mock VPU configured to match the actual VPUs. The non-radioactive demonstration (completed in May 2005) was performed to confirm the approach and design before proceeding to a radioactive ('hot') demonstration on an actual VPU. This demonstration took approximately 130 hours, processed the entire mock VPU, and resulted in a vitrified monolith weighing an estimated 90 tonnes. [1] Plans for a radioactive demonstration on an actual VPU are being developed for CY 2006. In addition to demonstrating GeoMelt{sup R} SPV{sup TM}, delineation techniques are being evaluated as part of the project to confirm the locations of the actual VPUs and to progressively determine their physical and chemical contents. The initial calibration and testing activities were completed in December 2005. The techniques included non-intrusive geophysical measurements from adjacent boreholes (ground penetrating radar, neutron-gamma radiography, etc.). Other methods available for use, on an as needed basis, include gas headspace sampling and boro-scope examinations inside the VPUs/caissons. (authors)

  14. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  15. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  16. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Mound System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, B.; Waynard, V.

    Septic tank Pump tank Distribution pipe Sand Gravel Geotextile fabric On-site wastewater treatment systems Mound system Bruce Lesikar and Vance Weynand Associate Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist, Extension Assistant.... The wastewater is pumped at low pressure in controlled doses to ensure that it is distributed uniformly throughout the bed. It flows through holes in the pipes, trickles downward through the absorption area and percolates into the sand. Treatment Wastewater must...

  17. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  18. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  19. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  20. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  1. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented.

  2. THERMAL TREATMENT REVIEW . WTE I THERMAL TREATMENT Since the beginning of this century, global waste-to-energy capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of new waste-to gasification process at an industrial scale The Waste-To-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT), headquartered at Columbia University in New York City, keeps a close watch on the thermal waste-to-energy capacity has increased steadily at the rate of about four million tonnes of MSW per year

  3. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  4. High throughput chemical munitions treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); Didlake, Jr., John E. (Livermore, CA); Wu, Benjamin C-P (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new High-Throughput Explosive Destruction System is disclosed. The new system is comprised of two side-by-side detonation containment vessels each comprising first and second halves that feed into a single agent treatment vessel. Both detonation containment vessels further comprise a surrounding ventilation facility. Moreover, the detonation containment vessels are designed to separate into two half-shells, wherein one shell can be moved axially away from the fixed, second half for ease of access and loading. The vessels are closed by means of a surrounding, clam-shell type locking seal mechanisms.

  5. Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchRayreviewAl., 2005) |RGGI Jump to:Waste Systems

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.

  7. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  8. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yimei, E-mail: yimei.zhang1@gmail.com [Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guo He [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 (Canada); He, Li [Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF WET-OXIDATION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR FILTER BACKWASH SLUDGE AND ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, T.; Motoyama, M.; Shibuya, M.; Wada, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in filter backwash sludge and spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the sludge and resins stored at Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, 357MWe BWR, owned by The Japan Atomic Power Company. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Waste samples collected from storage tanks were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After the decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement or bitumen for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be reduced by a factor of a few dozens for the sludge and three for the resin. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Tsuruga Power Station was verified. Some of the conditions studied were specific to the Tsuruga Power Station, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for sludge and resin treatment at other NPPs.

  10. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office evaluation of feasibility studies for private sector treatment of alpha and TRU mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently storing a large quantity of alpha contaminated mixed low level waste which will require treatment prior to disposal. The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) recognized that current knowledge and funding were insufficient to directly pursue services for the requisite treatment. Therefore, it was decided that private sector studies would be funded to clarify cost, regulatory, technology, and contractual issues associated with procuring treatment services. This report analyzes the three private sector studies procured and recommends a path forward for DOE in procuring retrieval, assay, characterization, and treatment services for INEL transuranic and alpha contaminated mixed low level waste. This report was prepared by a team of subject matter experts from the INEL referred to as the DOE-ID Evaluation Team.

  11. IWater Processing and Waste Management SystemsIntegrated System Health Management 2007 Phase II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and other sources. It may serve as a backup processor for one or more existing water recovery systems unit drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system surfaces. The process is suitable for dewatering brine from the vapor compression distillation processor

  12. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ? The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ? We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ? Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D and R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry and digital building information models will likely to be available for most buildings (including historical buildings) in the future, our system can be used in various demolition and renovation projects and be extended to facilitate project control.

  13. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MHRC System Concept ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with...

  14. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  15. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  16. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  17. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Ris-R-Report Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř-R-Report Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN Marie Münster Risř-R-1667(EN) April 2009 #12;Author: Marie Münster Title: Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN Division: Systems Analysis Division Risř-R-1667(EN) April 2009

  19. Home and community composting for on-site treatment of urban organic waste: perspective for Europe and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Home and community composting for on-site treatment of urban organic waste: perspective for Europe practice (Base Sce), this paper examines on-site UOW composting strategies using a combination of centralized composting facilities (CCF), community composting centres (CCC) and home composting (HC) (Sce 1, 2

  20. New Standards in Liquid Waste Treatment at Fukushima Dai-ichi - 13134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sylvester, Paul; Milner, Tim; Ruffing, Jennifer; Poole, Scott [EnergySolutions, 100 Center Point Circle, Suite 100, Center Point II, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States)] [EnergySolutions, 100 Center Point Circle, Suite 100, Center Point II, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States); Townson, Paul; Jensen, Jesse [EnergySolutions, 2345 Stevens Drive, Suite 240, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [EnergySolutions, 2345 Stevens Drive, Suite 240, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant leading to the most severe nuclear incident since Chernobyl. Ongoing operations to cool the damaged reactors at the site have led to the generation of highly radioactive coolant water. This is currently mainly treated to remove Cs-137 and Cs-134 and passed through a reverse osmosis (RO) unit to reduce the salinity before being cycled back to the reactors. Because only the Cs isotopes are removed, the RO reject water still contains many radioactive isotopes and this has led to the accumulation of over 200,000 cubic meters (52 million gallons) of extremely contaminated water which is currently stored on site in tanks. EnergySolutions, in partnership with Toshiba, were contracted to develop a system to reduce 62 isotopes in this waste down to allowable levels. This was a significant technical challenge given the high background salt content of the wastewater, the variation in aqueous chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and the presence of non-active competing ions (e.g. Ca and Mg) which inhibit the removal of isotopes such as Sr-89 and Sr-90. Extensive testing was performed to design a suitable system that could meet the required decontamination goals. These tests were performed over a 6 month period at facilities available in the nearby Fukushima Dai-ni laboratory using actual waste samples. This data was then utilized to design a Multi Radioactive Nuclides Removal System (MRRS) for Fukushima which is a modified version of EnergySolutions' proprietary Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS)'. The stored tank waste is fed into a preliminary precipitation system where iron flocculation is performed to remove a number of isotopes, including Sb-125, Ru-106, Mn-54 and Co-60. The supernatant is then fed into a second precipitation tank where the pH is adjusted and the bulk of the Mg, Ca and Sr precipitated out as carbonates and hydroxides. After passing through a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane, the permeate then goes through a total of 14 fixed ion exchange and adsorbent columns followed by a disposable polishing column to polish the residual isotopes down to allowable levels. At the end of the system, the effluent is filtered for a final time to removal any particulates that may have been picked up from the media columns and then stored prior to analysis. (authors)

  1. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  2. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  3. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the following: Collection and characterization of samples for relevant process analytes from the tanks to be blended during the staging process; Initiation of qualification activities earlier in the staging process to optimize the campaign composition through evaluation from both a processing and glass composition perspective; Definition of the parameters that are important for processing in the WTP facilities (unit operations) across the anticipated range of wastes and as they relate to qualification-scale equipment; Performance of limited testing with simulants ahead of the waste feed qualification sample demonstration as needed to determine the available processing window for that campaign; and Demonstration of sufficient mixing in the staging tank to show that the waste qualification sample chemical and physical properties are representative of the transfers to be made to WTP. Potential flowcharts for derivatives of the Hanford waste feed qualification process are also provided in this report. While these recommendations are an extension of the existing WTP waste qualification program, they are more in line with the processes currently performed for SRS. The implementation of these processes at SRS has been shown to offer flexibility for processing, having identified potential processing issues ahead of the qualification or facility processing, and having provided opportunity to optimize waste loading and throughput in the DWPF.

  4. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  5. Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    In small and medium sized manufacturing facilities, several situations exist where sources of waste heat and sinks needing heat transfer coexist. Examples of waste heat include but are not limited to: drained hot water streams from water cooled...

  6. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Selecting and Permitting (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how to select and obtain a permit for an on-site wastewater treatment system in Texas....

  7. The Use of Induction Melting for the Treatment of Metal Radioactive Waste - 13088

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Pastushkov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Pavel; Smelova, Tatiana; Shadrin, Andrey [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the work is to assess the efficacy of induction melting metal for recycling radioactive waste in order to reduce the volume of solid radioactive waste to be disposed of, and utilization of the metal. (authors)

  8. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  9. Solid Waste Management Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Solid Waste Management Program Written Program Cornell University 8/28/2012 #12;Solid Waste.................................................................... 4 4.2.1 Compost Solid Waste Treatment Facility.................................................................... 4 4.2.2 Pathological Solid Waste Treatment Facility

  10. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  11. Idaho waste treatment facility startup testing suspended to evaluate system

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P.Department of EnergyLessons Learned Report, NNSA,

  12. Idaho Waste Treatment Facility Startup Testing Suspended To Evaluate System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT | NationalMentoring Program31,2010Idaho

  13. Idaho waste treatment facility startup testing suspended to evaluate system

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology VisionImproper UseIdahoDecades Ago

  14. The mutagenic potential of soil and runoff water from land treatment of three hazardous industrial wastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davol, Phebe

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (EPA, 1983). Land tr eatment may be a viable disposal alternative for many petroleum based hazardous wastes. This technology involves the controlled incorporation of wastes into the surface layer of soil resulting in degradation, immobilization... increased as the waste degraded, but began to decrease by the end of the study. Although the mechanism to explain this phenomena is unknown, it is possible that non-mutagenic compounds in the waste may have degraded into mutagenic compounds...

  15. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities.

  16. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  17. Installing and Commissioning a New Radioactive Waste Tracking System - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Anderson; Miklos Garamszeghy; Fred Rodrigues; Ed Nicholls

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) recognizes the importance of information management particularly with regards to its low and intermediate level waste program. Various computer based waste tracking systems have been used in OPG since the 1980s. These systems tracked the physical receipt, processing, storage, and inventory of the waste. As OPG moved towards long-term management (e.g. disposal), it was recognized that tracking of more detailed waste characterization information was important. This required either substantial modification of the existing system to include a waste characterization module or replacing it entirely with a new system. After a detailed review of available options, it was decided that the existing waste tracking application would be replaced with the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS). Installing and commissioning a system which must receive historical operational waste management information (data) and provide new features, required much more attention than was originally considered. The operational readiness of IWTS required extensive vetting and preparation of historic data (which itself had been created from multiple databases in varied formats) to ensure a consistent format for import of some 30,000-container records, and merging and linking these container records to a waste stream based characterization database. This paper will discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses contributing to project success or hindrance so that others can understand and minimize the difficulties inherent in a project of this magnitude.

  18. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  19. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

  20. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  1. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

  2. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil refineries, and waste treatment operations such as composting, sludgeoil refineries, and waste treatment operations such as composting, sludge

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  4. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R., E-mail: mrislam1985@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Takai, K.; Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University Corporation Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  5. Report on the flowsheet model for the electrochemical treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to describe the modeling and optimization procedure for the electrochemical removal of nitrates and nitrites from low level radioactive wastes. The simulation is carried out in SPEEDUP{trademark}, which is a state of the art flowsheet modeling package. The flowsheet model will provide a better understanding of the process and aid in the scale-up of the system. For example, the flowsheet model has shown that the electrochemical cell must be operated in batch mode to achieve 95% destruction. The present status of the flowsheet model is detailed in this report along with a systematic description of the batch optimization of the electrochemical cell. Results from two batch runs and one optimization run are also presented.

  6. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

  7. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1997 multi-year workplan WBS 1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.E.

    1996-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program to manage and immobilize for disposal the waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The TWRS program was established as a DOE major system acquisition under an approved Justification of Mission Need (JMN) dated January 19, 1993. The JMN states that the purpose of the TWRS Program is to: Resolve the tank waste safety issues; Integrate the waste disposal mission with the ongoing waste management mission; Assess the technical bases for tank waste management and disposal; Determine the technology available and develop any needed technologies; and Establish a dedicated organization and provide the resources to meet the technical challenge. The principal objectives of management of existing and future tank wastes is to cost-effectively minimize the environmental, safety, and health risks associated with stored wastes, with reduction of safety risks given the highest priority. The potentials must be minimized for release of tank wastes to the air and to the ground (and subsequently to the groundwater) and for exposure of the operating personnel to tank wastes.

  8. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punkkinen, Henna, E-mail: henna.punkkinen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Merta, Elina, E-mail: elina.merta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Teerioja, Nea, E-mail: nea.teerioja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Moliis, Katja, E-mail: katja.moliis@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Kuvaja, Eveliina, E-mail: eveliina.kuvaja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare the environmental sustainability of two MSW collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greenhouse gas emissions of pneumatic collection are around three times higher. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System components are decisive but assumptions on electricity use are also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic collection could provide other benefits over door-to-door system. - Abstract: Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive.

  9. Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

  10. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  11. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, Linda [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Scott, Dianne [University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Development Studies, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Difford, Mark [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  12. WASTES: Wastes system transportation and economic simulation: Version 2, Programmer's reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, M.E.; Shay, M.R.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The WASTES Version II (WASTES II) Programmer's Reference Manual was written to document code development activities performed under the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The manual will also serve as a valuable tool for programmers involved in maintenance of and updates to the WASTES II code. The intended audience for this manual are experienced FORTRAN programmers who have only a limited knowledge of nuclear reactor operation, the nuclear fuel cycle, or nuclear waste management practices. It is assumed that the readers of this manual have previously reviewed the WASTES II Users Guide published as PNL Report 5714. The WASTES II code is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation package. The model is predominately a FORTRAN based model that makes extensive use of the SLAM file maintenance and time management routines. This manual documents the general manner in which the code is constructed and the interactions between SLAM and the WASTES subroutines. The functionality of each of the major WASTES subroutines is illustrated with ''block flow'' diagrams. The basic function of each of these subroutines, the algorithms used in them, and a discussion of items of particular note in the subroutine are reviewed in this manual. The items of note may include an assumption, a coding practice that particularly applies to a subroutine, or sections of the code that are particularly intricate or whose mastery may be difficult. The appendices to the manual provide extensive detail on the use of arrays, subroutines, included common blocks, parameters, variables, and files.

  13. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  14. Waste systems. Progress report, January 1982-February 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickle, G.L.

    1983-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale beryllium electrorefining cell has been placed in operation and metallic beryllium with a purity greater than 99.95% has been produced. Methods of uranium chip disposal have been evaluated by performing bench- and pilot-scale testing and by surveying present chip disposal methods. A design criteria has been completed for a new production uranium chip disposal facility. Two types of cementation immobilization processes are being developed to treat several Rocky Flats wastes which do not currently meet repository acceptance criteria. The nitrate salts, as now shipped, are an extremely fine powder, composed chiefly of sodium and potassium nitrate. Nitrates are an oxidizer, and their behavior in a possible fire would be of concern. Accident caused fires involving a cargo of boxed nitrate salts were modeled and the burning characteristics noted. In addition, gypsum cement was tested as an immobilization matrix to reduce dispersibility. A program is in process to construct a facility to remotely size reduce gloveboxes and miscellaneous equipment contaminated with plutonium and other radioactive nuclides. The Title II engineering package is completed and the construction of the facility has been initiated. Modification and additions to the 82 kg/h Fluidized Bed Incinerator were made in preparation for turning the unit over to Production. A program was initiated to identify, characterize, and evaluate for recycle all the spent oil and solvent streams which are immobilized and disposed as Transuranic (TRU) waste. Three technologies were evaluted for denitrification method was studied at Rocky Flats while a thermal decomposition process and a molten salt chemical conversion technique were investigated on a subcontract basis with Thagard Research Corporation and Rockwell International, Energy Systems Group, respectively.

  15. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  16. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  17. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  18. Modeling Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems in the Dickinson Bayou Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are a commonly used means of wastewater treatment in the Dickinson Bayou watershed which is located between Houston and Galveston. The Dickinson Bayou is classified as "impaired" by the Texas Commission...

  19. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles, W.P.; Jasen, W.G.; Roberts, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid radioactive waste must be classified before treatment and disposal methods can be chosen. After treatment and before disposal, the radionuclide contents of a container must be certified. This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  20. Waste systems progress report, March 1983 through February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickle, G.L.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary design engineering for a Beryllum Electrorefining Demonstration Process has been completed and final engineering for fabrication of the process will be completed by the fourth quarter of FY-84. A remotely operated Advanced Size Reduction Facility (ASRF) is under construction and, when completed, will be used for sectioning plutonium-contaminated gloveboxes for disposal. Modification and additions were made to the 82 kg/hr Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI) in preparation for turning the unit over to Production. Several types of cementation processes are being developed to treat various TRU and low-level waste streams to reduce the dispersibility of the wastes. Portland cement and Envirostone gypsum cement were investigated as immobilization media for wet precipitation sludges and organic liquid wastes. Transuranic contaminated waste is being retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for examination at Rocky Flats Plant for compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria. The removal of unreacted calcium metal from the waste salt formed during the direct oxide reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal is necessary in order to comply with regulations regarding the transportation and storage of waste material containing flammable substances. Chemical methods of denitrification of simulated low-level nitrate wastes were investigated on a laboratory scale. Methods of inserting the carbon composite filters into presently stored and currently generated radioactive waste drums have been investigated and their sealing efficiencies determined. Analyses of carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) recovered from spent lathe coolant revealed contamination levels above usable limits. A handbook covering techniques and processes that have been successfully demonstrated to minimize generation of new transuranic waste is being prepared.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  3. Nuclear Waste Assessment System for Technical Evaluation (NUWASTE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-cycle initiatives on the generation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The effort is led by Dr of the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board's analysis of the impact of alternative fuel

  4. EIS-0356: Retrieval, Treatment and Disposal of Tank Wastes and Closure of Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the waste being managed in the high-level waste (HLW) tank farms at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and closure of the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and associated facilities in the HLW tank farms.

  5. EA-1862: Oneida Seven Generation Corporation Waste-To-Energy System, Ashwaubenon, Wisconsin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oneida’s Energy Recovery Project would construct and operate a solid waste-to-electricity power plant on vacant property within the Bayport Industrial Center in the City of Green Bay, Brown County, Wisconsin. This energy recovery process would involve bringing municipal solid waste into the plant for sizing (shredding), sorting (removing recyclable material), and conveying into one of three pyrolytic gasification systems.

  6. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  7. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  8. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  9. SARDINIA2003_2_Infrastructure.doc 1 Waste Treatment Infrastructure in North Rhine-Westphalia,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    % of German hazardous waste. These conditions led to an extreme variety of disposal and recycling activities management boards. This waste disposal and recycling register has been existing and growing in number 3090 recycling and disposal plants in operation (Appendix 1, status June 2000). The disposal

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L., E-mail: lucia.martin@uab.ca [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Colturato, L.F. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, X.; Vicent, T. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA) Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  11. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program requirements and document management process guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROOT, R.W.

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Infrastructure Program management with processes and requirements to appropriately control information and documents in accordance with the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Plan (Vann 1998b). This includes documents and information created by the program, as well as non-program generated materials submitted to the project. It provides appropriate approval/control, distribution and filing systems.

  12. Proposed technologies for use in the National TRU waste system optimization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, D. C. (David C.); Lott, S. A. (Sheila A.); Behrens, R. G. (Robert G.); Basabilvazo, George T. (George Taylor),; Countiss, S. (Sue)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology deployments planned for the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project are aimed at using appropriate cost-effective technologies to drive the national TRU waste system to a performance-driven certification system that is based on administrative and operational requirements with a sound safety and/or technical basis. Appropriate technology deployments are determined by first identifying technology needs; selecting promising technologies; and overseeing the development of operating procedures, personnel training, testing, and startup and operations to ensure that the resulting operations function correctly and meet the TRU waste certification requirements.

  13. Updated Site Response Analyses for the Waste Treatment Plant, DOE Hanford, Site, Washington.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngs, Robert R.

    2007-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the calculations performed to develop updated relative amplification functions for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facility at the DOE Hanford Site, Washington State. The original 2,000-year return period design spectra for the WTP were based on the results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) performed for the DOE Hanford Site by Geomatrix (1996). Geomatrix (1996) performed the PSHA using empirical soil-site ground motion models based primarily on recordings from California. As part of that study, site response analyses were performed to evaluate ground motions at the Hanford sites and California deep soil sites. As described in Appendix A of Geomatrix (1996), characteristic site profiles and dynamic soil properties representative of conditions at various Hanford sites and California deep soil strong motion recording stations were defined. Relative site responses of the Hanford profiles and California profiles were then compared. Based on the results of those site response analyses, it was concluded that ground motions at the Hanford sites underlain by deep soil deposits are similar in character to those on California deep soil sites and it was judged appropriate to use empirical deep soil site attenuation relationships based primarily on California ground motion data to develop design spectra for the Hanford sites. In a subsequent analysis, Geomatrix (2003) updated the site response analyses of Geomatrix (1996, Appendix A) to incorporate randomization of the California and Hanford profiles. The results of that analysis also led to the conclusion that the response of the Hanford profiles was similar to the response of deep soil sites in California.

  14. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  15. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  16. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

  17. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Constructed Wetland Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Weaver, Richard; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

    2005-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the functions, characteristics, choices, configurations and maintenance needs for constructed wetland media in on-site wastewater treatment systems....

  18. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  19. Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1998-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees.

  20. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.