Sample records for waste storage disposal

  1. Biohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& LabelingTreatmentDisposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Waste Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Any of these devices if contaminated with biohazardousBiohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& packaging LabelingTreatmentDisposal Mixed container. Container must be leakproof, ridgid, puncture resistant, clearly marked for biohazardous waste

  2. Waste Disposal (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article lays an outline of waste disposal regulations, permits and fees, hazardous waste management and underground storage tank requirements.

  3. LABORATORY CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL POSTER (Post Near Chemical Waste Storage Area)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    WSTPS.rtf LABORATORY CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL POSTER (Post Near Chemical Waste Storage Area) Excess Chemicals and Chemical Wastes · Toxic and Flammable Chemicals - These cannot go down the drain. Call Environmental Health and Safety (EHSO) at x-2723 for collection. · Corrosive Chemicals (Acids & Bases) - When

  4. Statement of position of the United States Department of Energy in the matter of proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste (waste confidence rulemaking)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of this proceeding is to assess generically the degree of assurance that the radioactive waste can be safely disposed of, to determine when such disposal or off-site storage will be available, and to determine whether wastes can be safely stored on-site past license expiration until off-site disposal/storage is available. (DLC)

  5. Solid Waste Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Storage Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Disposal Laws and Regulations are found in Tenn. Code 68-211. These rules are enforced and subject to change by the Public Waste Board (PWB), which is established by the Division...

  6. The development of a management strategy for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, H.J.; Popp, F.W. [Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau and Betrieb von Endglagern fuer Abfallostofe mbH, Peine (Germany); Arntzen, P.; Botzem, W. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Soucek, B. [Czech Power Board, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall waste management strategy for alternative routes from reactor to final disposal, including dry interim storage, is discussed. Within the framework of a preliminary structure plan possible technical solutions must be investigated, and with sufficient relevant information available the future progress of the project, can be addressed on the base of a decision analysis.

  7. EIS-0200: Managing Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    00: Managing Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste EIS-0200: Managing Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste SUMMARY This...

  8. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  9. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; McAllaster, M.E. [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion.

  10. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  11. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil added to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  12. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX); Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  13. Sample storage/disposal study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste from defense operations has accumulated at the Hanford Site`s underground waste tanks since the late 1940`s. Each tank must be analyzed to determine whether it presents any harm to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public or the environment. Analyses of the waste aids in the decision making process in preparation of future tank waste stabilization procedures. Characterization of the 177 waste tanks on the Hanford Site will produce a large amount of archived material. This also brings up concerns as to how the excess waste tank sample material from 325 and 222-S Analytical Laboratories will be handled. Methods to archive and/or dispose of the waste have been implemented into the 222-S and 325 Laboratory procedures. As the amount of waste characterized from laboratory analysis grows, an examination of whether the waste disposal system will be able to compensate for this increase in the amount of waste needs to be examined. Therefore, the need to find the safest, most economically sound method of waste storage/disposal is important.

  14. RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. WitherspoonRADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. Wither spoona repository site in granite are to evaluate the suitability

  15. Waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  16. Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections contain information on fees and monitoring relevant to operators of hazardous waste disposal sites.

  17. Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.A.

    1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  19. TWRS Retrieval and Storage Mission and Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project plan has a twofold purpose. First, it provides a waste stream project plan specific to the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System [TWRS] Project) Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Disposal Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1994) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan (Ecology et al. 1998). Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line-item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 [DOE 1992] and 430.1 [DOE 1995a]). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the requirements mentioned by the Tri-Party Agreement and the DOE orders. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  1. TWRS retrieval and disposal mission, immobilized high-level waste storage plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project plan has a two fold purpose. First, it provides a plan specific to the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Immobilized High-Level Waste (EMW) Storage Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1996) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan. Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 (DOE 1992a) and 430.1 (DOE 1995)). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the plan`s dual purpose. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  2. Comparative assessment of status and opportunities for carbon Dioxide Capture and storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal In North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) and radioactive waste disposal (RWD) share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste (RW). There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of GCS include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO{sub 2}, the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for RW, the USA had proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level RWD site before removing it from consideration in early 2009. The Canadian RW program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the USA and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for RWD. The most challenging technical issue for RWD is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening RW repositories. Because of the many significant differences between RWD and GCS, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both GCS and RWD as they learn more about the urgent energy-climate crisis created by greenhouse gas emissions from current fossil-fuel combustion practices.

  3. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  4. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  5. South Carolina Radioactive Waste Transportation and Disposal Act (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health and Environmental Control is responsible for regulating the transportation of radioactive waste, with some exceptions, into or within the state for storage, disposal, or...

  6. Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

  7. MATERIAL HANDLING, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Materials shall be stored in a manner that allows easy identification and access to labels, identification entering storage areas. All persons shall be in a safe position while materials are being loadedEM 385-1-1 XX Jun 13 14-1 SECTION 14 MATERIAL HANDLING, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL 14.A MATERIAL

  8. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996.

  9. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996.

  10. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  11. WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    radioactive products as regular trash. All packages must be free of contamination, radiation symbols2/07 WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY PROCEDURE for DISPOSAL of RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS This procedure has been developed to ensure the safety of those individuals who handle radioactive waste

  12. Transuranic waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Folga, S.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transuranic waste (TRUW) loads and potential contaminant releases at and en route to treatment, storage, and disposal sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex are important considerations in DOE`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Waste loads are determined in part by the level of treatment the waste has undergone and the complex-wide configuration of origination, treatment, storage, and disposal sites selected for TRUW management. Other elements that impact waste loads are treatment volumes, waste characteristics, and the unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. Treatment levels and site configurations have been combined into six TRUW management alternatives for study in the WM PEIS. This supplemental report to the WM PEIS gives the projected waste loads and contaminant release profiles for DOE treatment sites under each of the six TRUW management alternatives. It gives TRUW characteristics and inventories for current DOE generation and storage sites, describes the treatment technologies for three proposed levels of TRUW treatment, and presents the representative unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. The data presented are primary inputs to developing the costs, health risks, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts of treating, packaging, and shipping TRUW for disposal.

  13. Economic disposal of solid oilfield wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, M.S.; Qian, H.X.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of solid oilfield wastes, including produced sand, tank bottoms, and crude contaminated soils, are generated during drilling, production, and storage processes. Crude oil and crude-contaminated sands or soils are generally designated as nonhazardous wastes. However, these materials still must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The problems can become most pressing as oil fields in urban areas reach the end of their productive lives and the productive lives and the properties are redeveloped for residential use. An economically and environmentally sound solution is to reinject the solid waste into sand formations through slurry fracture muds and cuttings in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, and the North Sea; naturally occurring radioactive materials in Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico; and large volumes of produced oily sand in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. The technique offers a number of economic and environmental advantages for disposal of solid oilfield wastes. When reinjecting into depleted oil sands, the crude waste is simply being returned to its place of origin. The long-term liability to the operator is eliminated, in marked contrast to surface storage or landfill disposal. Finally, fracture-injection costs are less than typical transport and landfill disposal costs for moderate to large quantities of solid waste

  14. RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal ............................................................................................ 7-2 II. Radiation Control Technique #2 Instructions for Preparation of Radioactive Waste

  15. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  16. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  17. Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections articulate rules for the maintenance and operation of solid waste disposal facilities, as well as site assignment procedures. Applications for site assignment will be reviewed by the...

  18. Optimization of Waste Disposal - 13338

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shephard, E.; Walter, N.; Downey, H. [AMEC E and I, Inc., 511 Congress Street, Suite 200, Portland, ME 04101 (United States)] [AMEC E and I, Inc., 511 Congress Street, Suite 200, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Collopy, P. [AMEC E and I, Inc., 9210 Sky Park Court, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92123 (United States)] [AMEC E and I, Inc., 9210 Sky Park Court, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92123 (United States); Conant, J. [ABB Inc., 5 Waterside Crossing, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States)] [ABB Inc., 5 Waterside Crossing, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From 2009 through 2011, remediation of areas of a former fuel cycle facility used for government contract work was conducted. Remediation efforts were focused on building demolition, underground pipeline removal, contaminated soil removal and removal of contaminated sediments from portions of an on-site stream. Prior to conducting the remediation field effort, planning and preparation for remediation (including strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal) was conducted during the design phase. During the remediation field effort, waste characterization and disposal practices were continuously reviewed and refined to optimize waste disposal practices. This paper discusses strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal that was employed in the design phase, and continuously reviewed and refined to optimize efficiency. (authors)

  19. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  20. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities we’ve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

  1. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

  2. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  3. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  4. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    waste (i.e, mixture of biohazardous and chemical or radioactive waste), call Environment, Health2/2009 Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (619

  5. Solid low level waste forms and extended storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, R. [R. Kohout & Associates, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents regulatory, technical, and economic aspects of selecting solid waste forms for the extended on-site storage of power plant low level wastes (LLW) in the United States. The author explains current uncertainties and disposal site shortages, defines power plant waste types, addresses regulatory requirements for disposal, discusses basic waste form storage considerations, outlines possible strategies for the management of individual waste types, and offers methodological steps for selecting a waste form for extended storage. Broader issues closely associated with waste form selection are also presented.

  6. Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and liability for carbon capture and sequestration, Environ.Wilson and Gerard, editors, Carbon Capture and SequestrationSpecial Report on carbon dioxide capture and storage, ISBN

  7. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534

  8. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  10. Solid waste disposal options: an optimum disposal model for the management of municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haney, Brenda Ann

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Solid Waste Disposal Act and shifted the emphasis from disposal practices to recycling, resource recovery, and energy conversion of wastes. ' The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) provided for the disposal of solid waste in such a... was constructed in 1930 in New York City. " But waste- to-energy technology development was hindered by poor reliability, poor efficiency, and low cost effectiveness. " The Resource Recovery Act of 1970 and RCRA of 1976, shifted the em- phasis in solid waste...

  11. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  12. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  13. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Michael D. (Las Vegas, NV); Klapperick, Robert L. (Las Vegas, NV); Bell, Chris (Las Vegas, NV)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  14. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Water Policy Program

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  15. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. J. Molz. Subsurface Waste Heat Storage, Experimentalfor land disposal of waste heat and waste water. Inst. forfor land disposal of waste heat and waste water. Inst. for

  16. Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

  17. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  18. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  19. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  20. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  1. Disposal of Hazardous Medical Waste Policy and Procedures Commencement Date: 27 November, 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manipulation Advisory Committee's publication, Guidelines for the Storage, Transport and Disposal of Medical" and must comply with the Guidelines for the Storage, Transport and Disposal of Medical Waste issued of their chemical, biological or physical properties. Sharps Means objects or devices having acute rigid corners

  2. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Yasser T. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  4. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility or disapproval to initiate construction of a new facility.''

  5. Waste Disposal Site and Radioactive Waste Management (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section describes the considerations of the Commission in determining whether to approve the establishment and operation of a disposal site for nuclear waste. If a permit is issued, the...

  6. WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demonstration LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MSW Municipal Solid Waste OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PPE Personal Protective Equipment POTW Publicly Owned Treatment Works RCRA Resource

  7. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together) buried in three rows in the northeast comer. In addition, five eight-foot diameter caissons are located at the west end of the center row of the drum storage units. Initially, wastes disposed to the caissons and drum storage units were from the 325 and 327 building hot cells. Later, a small amount of remote-handled (RH) waste from the 309 building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) cells, and the newly built 324 building hot cells, was disposed at the site.

  8. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winograd, I.J.

    1981-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolation is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere. 4 figures.

  9. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  10. Waste Handling and Disposal Biological Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    plumbing services, EHS personnel wastewater treatment plant personnel, and the general public canWaste Handling and Disposal Biological Safety General Biosafety Practices (GBP) Why You Should Care on the next experiment. Are you working with r/sNA, biological toxins, human materials, needles, plasticware

  11. Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation authorizes the state's entrance into the Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact, which provides for the cooperative management of low-level radioactive waste....

  12. Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory Radioactive waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoz, Shahar

    Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory waste Radioactive waste Solid radioactive waste or in a Perspex box. Liquid radioactive waste collect in a screw-cap plastic bottle, ½ or 1 L size. Place bottles in a tray to avoid spill Final disposal of both solid and radioactive waste into the yellow barrel

  13. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  14. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrinho, Alexandre [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Didelet, Filipe [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Semiao, Viriato [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  15. Criteria for releases and disposal of low level and intermediate level waste in Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindbom, G. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Waste Management and Environmental Protection

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In Sweden there exists a complete system for management, including final disposal, of all radioactive wastes which are not classified as long-lived or high-level waste. This paper will present the disposal options and the requirements set on the waste categories as well as Sweden`s four different engineered shallow land disposals. The advantages of having a shallow land disposal together with exemption of waste and a final storage facility for low-level and intermediate-level waste are discussed. Finally, the paper will give a summary of why Sweden has succeeded in establishing a full system for low-level and intermediate-level waste. The discussion is from regulatory point of view.

  16. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  17. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  18. 2401-W Waste storage building closure plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUKE, S.M.

    1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

  19. Chemical Disposal The Office of Environmental Health & Safety operates a Chemical Waste Disposal Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    Chemical Disposal Dec, 2011 Chemicals: The Office of Environmental Health & Safety operates a Chemical Waste Disposal Program where all University chemical waste is picked up and sent out for proper disposal. (There are some chemicals that they will not take because of their extreme hazards

  20. Interface control document between PUREX/UO{sub 3} Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This interface control document (ICD) between PUREX/UO{sub 3} Plant Transition (PPT) and Solid Waste Disposal Division (SWD) establishes at a top level the functional responsibilities of each division where interfaces exist between the two divisions. Since the PUREX Transition and Solid Waste Disposal divisions operate autonomously, it is important that each division has a clear understanding of the other division`s expectations regarding these interfaces. This ICD primarily deals with solid wastes generated by the PPT. In addition to delineating functional responsibilities, the ICD includes a baseline description of those wastes that will require management as part of the interface between the divisions. The baseline description of wastes includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities: the primary purpose of this ICD is to ensure defensibility of expected waste stream volumes and Characteristics for future waste management facilities. Waste descriptions must be as complete as-possible to ensure adequate treatment, storage, and disposal capability will exist. The ICD also facilitates integration of existing or planned waste management capabilities of the PUREX. Transition and Solid Waste Disposal divisions. The ICD does not impact or affect the existing processes or procedures for shipping, packaging, or approval for shipping wastes by generators to the Solid Waste Division.

  1. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutt, W.M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of options for the management of radioactive waste. There is a variety of alternatives for processing waste and for short term or long term storage prior to disposal. Likewise, there are various alternatives currently in use across the globe for the safe disposal of waste, ranging from near surface to geological disposal, depending on the specific classification of the waste. At present, there appears to be a clear and unequivocal understanding that each country is ethically and legally responsible for its own wastes, in accordance with the provisions of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Therefore the default position is that all nuclear wastes will be disposed of in each of the 40 or so countries concerned with nuclear power generation or part of the fuel cycle. To illustrate the global distribution of radioactive waste now and in the near future, Table 1 provides the regional breakdown, based on the UN classification of the world in regions illustrated in Figure 1, of nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction worldwide. In summary, 31 countries operate 433 plants, with a total capacity of more than 365 gigawatts of electrical energy (GW[e]). A further 65 units, totaling nearly 63 GW(e), are under construction across 15 of these nations. In addition, 65 countries are expressing new interest in, considering, or actively planning for nuclear power to help address growing energy demands to fuel economic growth and development, climate change concerns, and volatile fossil fuel prices. Of these 65 new countries, 21 are in Asia and the Pacific region, 21 are from the Africa region, 12 are in Europe (mostly Eastern Europe), and 11 in Central and South America. However, 31 of these 65 are not currently planning to build reactors, and 17 of those 31 have grids of less than 5 GW, which is said to be too small to accommodate most of the reactor designs available. For the remaining 34 countries actively planning reactors, as of September 2010: 14 indicate a strong intention to precede w

  2. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  3. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Dickman, P.T. [Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Nevada Operations Office

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ``home`` for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ``special-case`` or ``orphan`` wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes can be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  5. 1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal, argillite is being of the radioactive waste disposal, the host rock will be subjected to various thermo-hydro-mechanical loadings, thermal solicitation comes from the heat emitting from the radioactive waste packages. On one hand

  6. A model approach to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    A model approach to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield R. 5. Haszeldine* and C. Mc of the great environmentalproblems of our age is the safe disposal of radioactive waste for geological time of the BorrowdaleVolcanic Group (BVG).Nirex plan to site their nuclear waste Repository at 650 m below sea- level

  7. An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallman, Anne K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meyer, Dann [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rellergert, Carla A. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schriner, Joseph A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

  8. An effective waste management process for segregation and disposal of legacy mixed waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallman, A.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meyer, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rellergert, C.A. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schriner, J.A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Inc., NM (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2,500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well-defined, properly characterized, and accurately inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this report is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

  9. Processing and waste disposal representative for fusion breeder blanket systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an evaluation of the waste handling concepts applicable to fusion breeder systems. Its goal is to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under US Nuclear Regulatory regulations. The radionuclides expected in the materials used in fusion reactor blankets are described, as are plans for reprocessing and disposal of the components of different breeder blankets. An estimate of the operating costs involved in waste disposal is made.

  10. Used Nuclear Fuels Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Used Nuclear Fuels Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF-ST&DARDS) Apr 08 2014 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM John M. Scaglione, ORNL staff, Oak Ridge...

  11. Fees For Disposal Of Hazardous Waste Or Substances (Alabama)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The article lists annual payments to be made to counties, restrictions on disposal of hazardous waste, additional fees collected by counties and penalties.

  12. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conca, James [RJLee Group, Inc., Pasco WA 509.205.7541 (United States); Wright, Judith [UFA Ventures, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To some, the perceived inability of the United States to dispose of high-level nuclear waste justifies a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power in this country. Instead, it is more an example of how science yields to social pressure, even on a subject as technical as nuclear waste. Most of the problems, however, stem from confusion on the part of the public and their elected officials, not from a lack of scientific knowledge. We know where to put nuclear waste, how to put it there, how much it will cost, and how well it will work. And it's all about the geology. The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future has drafted a number of recommendations addressing nuclear energy and waste issues (BRC 2011) and three recommendations, in particular, have set the stage for a new strategy to dispose of high-level nuclear waste and to manage spent nuclear fuel in the United States: 1) interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, 2) resumption of the site selection process for a second repository, and 3) a quasi-government entity to execute the program and take control of the Nuclear Waste Fund in order to do so. The first two recommendations allow removal and storage of spent fuel from reactor sites to be used in the future, and allows permanent disposal of actual waste, while the third controls cost and administration. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NPWA 1982) provides the second repository different waste criteria, retrievability, and schedule, so massive salt returns as the candidate formation of choice. The cost (in 2007 dollars) of disposing of 83,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) high-level waste (HLW) is about $ 83 billion (b) in volcanic tuff, $ 29 b in massive salt, and $ 77 b in crystalline rock. Only in salt is the annual revenue stream from the Nuclear Waste Fund more than sufficient to accomplish this program without additional taxes or rate hikes. The cost is determined primarily by the suitability of the geologic formation, i.e., how well it performs on its own for millions of years with little engineering assistance from humans. It is critical that the states most affected by this issue (WA, SC, ID, TN, NM and perhaps others) develop an independent multi-state agreement in order for a successful program to move forward. Federal approval would follow. Unknown to most, the United States has a successful operating deep permanent geologic nuclear repository for high and low activity waste, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its success results from several factors, including an optimal geologic and physio-graphic setting, a strong scientific basis, early regional community support, frequent interactions among stakeholders at all stages of the process, long-term commitment from the upper management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over several administrations, strong New Mexico State involvement and oversight, and constant environmental monitoring from before nuclear waste was first emplaced in the WIPP underground (in 1999) to the present. WIPP is located in the massive bedded salts of the Salado Formation, whose geological, physical, chemical, redox, thermal, and creep-closure properties make it an ideal formation for long-term disposal, long-term in this case being greater than 200 million years. These properties also mean minimal engineering requirements as the rock does most of the work of isolating the waste. WIPP has been operating for twelve years, and as of this writing, has disposed of over 80,000 m{sup 3} of nuclear weapons waste, called transuranic or TRU waste (>100 nCurie/g but <23 Curie/1000 cm{sup 3}) including some high activity waste from reprocessing of spent fuel from old weapons reactors. All nuclear waste of any type from any source can be disposed in this formation better, safer and cheaper than in any other geologic formation. At the same time, it is critical that we complete the Yucca Mountain license application review so as not to undermine the credibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the scientific commun

  13. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  14. Minor actinide waste disposal in deep geological boreholes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sizer, Calvin Gregory

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a waste canister design suitable for the disposal of vitrified minor actinide waste in deep geological boreholes using conventional oil/gas/geothermal drilling technology. ...

  15. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act provides a comprehensive strategy for the siting of commercial low-level waste compactors and other waste management facilities, and to ensure the proper transportation, disposal and...

  16. On-Farm Storage and Disposal of Sorghum Grain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Charles W.; Moore, Clarence A.

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APRIL 1963 ON-FARM - STORAGE AND DISPOSAL OF SORGHUM GRAIN -- THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. E. PATTERSON. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE ST+TION, TEXAS IN COOPERATION WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT... OF AGRICULTURE summary The sorghum storage space. Utilization increases resulted from an increased awareness and acceptance by feeders and millers...

  17. Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

  18. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  19. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. This paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues, and presents the closure strategy. Disposals have been made in 25 shallow excavated pits and trenches and 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the 92-Acre Area since 1961. The pits and trenches have been used to dispose unclassified low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform waste, and to store classified low-level and low-level mixed materials. The GCD boreholes are intermediate-depth disposal units about 10 feet (ft) in diameter and 120 ft deep. Classified and unclassified high-specific activity LLW, transuranic (TRU), and mixed TRU are disposed in the GCD boreholes. TRU waste was also disposed inadvertently in trench T-04C. Except for three disposal units that are active, all pits and trenches are operationally covered with 8-ft thick alluvium. The 92-Acre Area also includes a Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) operating under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status, and an asbestiform waste unit operating under a state of Nevada Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit. A single final closure cover is envisioned over the 92-Acre Area. The cover is the evapotranspirative-type cover that has been successfully employed at the NTS. Closure, post-closure care, and monitoring must meet the requirements of the following regulations: U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Title 40 CFR Part 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, RCRA requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A grouping of waste disposal units according to waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements identified six closure units: LLW Unit, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111 under FFACO, Asbestiform LLW Unit, Pit 3 MWDU, TRU GCD Borehole Unit, and TRU Trench Unit. The closure schedule of all units is tied to the closure schedule of the Pit 3 MWDU under RCRA.

  20. Remedial Action and Waste Disposal Conduct of OperationsMatrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. A. Casbon.

    1999-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conduct of Operations (CONOPS) matrix incorporates the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) CONOPS matrix (BHI-00746, Rev. 0). The ERDF CONOPS matrix has been expanded to cover all aspects of the RAWD project. All remedial action and waste disposal (RAWD) operations, including waste remediation, transportation, and disposal at the ERDF consist of construction-type activities as opposed to nuclear power plant-like operations. In keeping with this distinction, the graded approach has been applied to the developmentof this matrix.

  1. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  2. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  3. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  4. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  5. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities stored, generation rates, location and method of storage, an assessment of storage-unit compliance status, storage capacity, and the bases and assumptions used in making the estimates.

  6. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorries, Alison M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  7. UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal, WA Rabanco Recycling Co Landfill Roosevelt, WA Waste Management, Columbia Ridge Landfill Arlington Refrigeration Shop Recovery Seattle, WA Fluorescent light tubes - intact Ecolights NW Recycle Seattle, WA Shop

  8. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Redus, K.S. [MACTEC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DuMont, S.P. [Hazardous and Medical Waste Services, Inc. (United States); Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  9. Chapter 37 Land Disposal Restrictions (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This administrative regulation establishes requirements for land disposal of hazardous waste. These include- surface impound exemptions, prohibitions on disposal and storage and treatment standards...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

  11. SWAMI: An Autonomous Mobile Robot for Inspection of Nuclear Waste Storage Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Larry M.

    SWAMI: An Autonomous Mobile Robot for Inspection of Nuclear Waste Storage Facilities Ron Fulbright Inspector (SWAMI) is a prototype mobile robot designed to perform autonomous inspection of nuclear waste user interface building tool called UIM/X. Introduction Safe disposal of nuclear waste is a difficult

  12. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, A.R.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) from various activities: research and development, sampling and storage of TRU wastes, decommissioning and decontamination of facilities, and from LANL`s major role in stockpile stewardship. The Laboratory has its own active LLW disposal facility located at Technical Area 54, Area G. This paper will identify the current operations of the facility and the issues pertaining to operating a disposal facility in today`s compliance and cost-effective environment.

  13. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  14. Hanford Landfill Reaches 15 Million Tons Disposed - Waste Disposal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    River. ERDF receives contaminated soil, demolition debris, and solid waste from cleanup operations across the 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeast Washington state. On...

  15. Interface control document between PUREX Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacing responsibilities regarding solid waste management are described for the Solid Waste Disposal Division and the PUREX Transition Organization.

  16. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Regional Facility Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act establishes a low-level radioactive waste disposal regional facility siting fund that requires nuclear power reactor constructors and operators to pay to the Department of Environmental...

  17. Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoag, Christopher Ian

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling ...

  18. Proof of Proper Solid Waste Disposal (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule provides guidance to persons occupying a residence or operating a business establishment in this state regarding the approved method of providing proof of proper solid waste disposal to...

  19. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  20. User Guide for Disposal of Unwanted Items and Electronic Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    is the Recycle department at 502-6808 o For more information on the UCSF Sustainability program visit: http://sustainability.ucsf.edu/stay_informed/recycling_resources consulting support Ensuring proper reuse, recycle, or disposal Maintaining regulatory and policy compliance metal and wood o Waste/trash management o Recycle, reuse or disposal of materials D&S does not process o

  1. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorn, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.dorn@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Nelles, Michael, E-mail: michael.nelles@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Flamme, Sabine, E-mail: flamme@fh-muenster.de [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Corrensstrasse 25, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Jinming, Cai [Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, 230009 Hefei (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the various technologies available. It is hoped that the resulting research can build a bridge between technology transfer research and waste disposal research in order to enhance the exchange of more sustainable solutions in future.

  2. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  3. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

  4. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  5. Site Visit Report, Hanford Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site Visit Report, Hanford Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility - January 2011 Site Visit Report, Hanford Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility - January 2011 January 2011 Hanford...

  6. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  7. Ultimate disposal of low and medium radioactive waste in France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringeard, C. [National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Environmental, Safety, Quality Dept.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) has been entrusted with the long-term management of radioactive waste. This paper presents the methodology of safety assessment used by ANDRA for a land disposal facility of radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and with low or medium specific activity. This methodology was used in the design of ``the Centre de stockage de l`Aube``.

  8. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  9. Minimizing WMinimizing WMinimizing WMinimizing WMinimizing Waste Disposal:aste Disposal:aste Disposal:aste Disposal:aste Disposal: Grass ClippingsGrass ClippingsGrass ClippingsGrass ClippingsGrass Clippings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    Minimizing WMinimizing WMinimizing WMinimizing WMinimizing Waste Disposal:aste Disposal and supplying part of the fertilizer needs of the lawn. Adopt a mowing schedule to keep clippings short enough

  10. Rules and Regulations for the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, disposal facilities, and applicable fees.

  11. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  12. KKP-waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, W.; Grundke, E. [NPP Philippsburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the radwaste treatment in nuclear power plants in order to minimize the repository volume of the waste and the necessity of minimizing nuclear transports leads to new waste processing methods. The volume reduction effects of the new processing methods compared with the former ones is significant. Various types of operational waste of the two NPP`s in Philippsburg are generated as a result of the different kind of plants and their different mode of operation. Therefore the necessity of adequate waste treatment requires a new concept.

  13. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  15. ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  16. Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  17. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lewis, L.C. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  18. Geosynthetic Clay Liner applications in waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, L.T.; Creamer, P.D. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are becoming a popular alternative to compacted clay barrier layers, and represent the state of the art in waste disposal facility design. They possess many of the same qualities of compacted clay barrier layers while occupying only a small fraction of the airspace. This is a very attractive feature to waste disposal facility owners and operators. There are many manufacturers of GCLs in the marketplace, providing numerous products that can be used in a wide variety of applications. Designing for the constructing with a GCL an be a challenging task; stability issues must be evaluated, selecting the appropriate product should be considered, comprehensive specifications are needed to ensure proper product selection and installation, and steps must be taken during installation to prevent damage to the GCL. Perhaps most importantly, state regulatory agencies must be convinced that GCLs will provide long-term protection equivalent to a clay barrier layer. This paper will discuss design considerations, specification guidelines, installation criteria, construction quality assurance guidelines and regulatory issues pertaining to GCL. The paper will also present three brief case histories of relevant GCL applications in waste disposal facility design and construction. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that GCLs are a viable alternative to compacted clay barrier layers and to provide useful information in designing, specifying and installing them in waste disposal facilities.

  19. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  20. LLaannggeerrhhaannss LLaabb PPrroottooccoollss Chemical Waste Disposal Protocol.docx pg 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    LLaannggeerrhhaannss LLaabb PPrroottooccoollss Chemical Waste Disposal Protocol.docx pg 1 of 1 Chemical Waste Disposal Protocol For Chemical Waste Pick-Up: 1. Log on to http://www.ncsu.edu/ehs. 2. Click waste item being submitted. 7. Fill out and affix a Hazardous Waste label, from the drawer labeled

  1. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  2. Material Recycling and Waste Disposal Document Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    of pollution, compliance with legislative requirements and continual improvement. The list of parties involved managers. Legislation referenced by this document. Environmental protection Act 1990 (EPA 1990). Waste. The clear bag bin liners are removed by the O&G Cleaners, tied closed, and taken to the building

  3. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Low-level radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility -- Permanent disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Jasen, W.G.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive mixed waste (RMW) disposal at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). Westinghouse Hanford Company, in Richland, Washington, has completed the design of a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility, which is based on the best available technology compliant with RCRA. When completed, this facility will provide permanent disposal of solid RMW, after treatment, in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The facility includes a double clay and geosynthetic liner with a leachate collection system to minimize potential leakage of radioactive or hazardous constituents from the landfill. The two clay liners will be capable of achieving a permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s. The two clay liners, along with the two high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners and the leachate collection and removal system, provide a more than conservative, physical containment of any potential radioactive and/or hazardous contamination.

  6. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

  7. Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

  8. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  10. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  11. Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Chang, Fu-lin (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Mattie, Patrick D.; Knowlton, Robert G.; Chuang, W-S (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Chi, L-M (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Jow, Hong-Nian; Tien, Norman C. (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be decomissioned. Operational and decommissioning wastes will need to be disposed in a licensed disposal facility starting in 2014. Taiwan has adopted regulations similar to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) low-level radioactive waste rules (10 CFR 61) to govern the disposal of LLW. Taiwan has proposed several potential sites for the final disposal of LLW that is now in temporary storage on Lanyu Island and on-site at operating nuclear power plants, and for waste generated in the future through 2045. The planned final disposal facility will have a capacity of approximately 966,000 55-gallon drums. Taiwan is in the process of evaluating the best candidate site to pursue for licensing. Among these proposed sites there are basically two disposal concepts: shallow land burial and cavern disposal. A representative potential site for shallow land burial is located on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock and interbedded sedimentary rocks. An engineered cover system would be constructed to limit infiltration for shallow land burial. A representative potential site for cavern disposal is located along the southeastern coast of Taiwan in a tunnel system that would be about 500 to 800 m below the surface. Bedrock at this site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. Performance assessment analyses will be performed to evaluate future performance of the facility and the potential dose/risk to exposed populations. Preliminary performance assessment analyses will be used in the site-selection process and to aid in design of the disposal system. Final performance assessment analyses will be used in the regulatory process of licensing a site. The SNL/INER team has developed a performance assessment methodology that is used to simulate processes associated with the potential release of radionuclides to evaluate these sites. The following software codes are utilized in the performance assessment methodology: GoldSim (to implement a probabilistic analysis that will explicitly address uncertainties); the NRC's Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS) code (to simulate waste-container degradation, waste-form leaching, and transport through the host rock); the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) (to simulate groundwater flow and estimate flow velocities); the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill performance Model (HELP) code (to evaluate infiltration through the disposal cover); the AMBER code (to evaluate human health exposures); and the NRC's Disposal Unit Source Term -- Multiple Species (DUST-MS) code (to screen applicable radionuclides). Preliminary results of the evaluations of the two disposal concept sites are presented.

  12. Does Dual Ownership of Waste Imply a Regional Disposal Approach?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mele, I. [ARAO - Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, Si-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, being located in Slovenia near the Slovenian-Croatian border, was a joint investment by Slovenia and Croatia, two republics of the former Yugoslavia. The plant was completed in 1981 and the commercial operation started early in 1983. The obligations and rights of both investors during the construction and operation were specified in two bilateral contracts signed in 1974 and 1982. These contracts were fairly detailed on construction, operation and exploitation of the nuclear power plant (NPP), but they said very little about future nuclear liabilities. The electricity production was equally shared between the two countries and both parties participated in management of the NPP. In 1991, after Slovenia and Croatia became two independent countries, the agreement on the ownership and exploitation of the NPP Krsko was re-negotiated and a new contract signed in 2003. By the new contract the decommissioning and the disposal of spent fuel (SF) as well as low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is the responsibility of both parties, and the financial resources for covering these liabilities should be equally provided. Regardless of shared ownership of waste, the agreement opts for a single disposal solution for LILW as well as for SF, but the details are left open. More clear elaboration of these responsibilities is given in the programme of the decommissioning and disposal of radioactive waste from the NPP which was jointly prepared by the Slovenian and Croatian waste management organisations in 2004. The programme is clearly opting for only one repository for LILW and one repository for spent fuel, which can be located either in Slovenia or Croatia. Irrespective of the country where such a repository will be sited, dual ownership of waste opens up another dimension of such a solution: will such a repository be regarded as a national facility or as a regional or multinational facility? Both options-national and regional/multinational- may have a strong influence on future agreements on waste disposal, but so far these aspects have not been addressed either in Slovenia or Croatia. The paper brings reflections and discussion on these aspects of waste management in Slovenia and reveals the current situation of the waste disposal project in the country. (authors)

  13. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P. (Hamburg, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  14. CONTAINMENT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AT THE DOE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.; Flach, G.

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As facilities look for permanent storage of toxic materials, they are forced to address the long-term impacts to the environment as well as any individuals living in affected area. As these materials are stored underground, modeling of the contaminant transport through the ground is an essential part of the evaluation. The contaminant transport model must address the long-term degradation of the containment system as well as any movement of the contaminant through the soil and into the groundwater. In order for disposal facilities to meet their performance objectives, engineered and natural barriers are relied upon. Engineered barriers include things like the design of the disposal unit, while natural barriers include things like the depth of soil between the disposal unit and the water table. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is an example of a waste disposal unit that must be evaluated over a timeframe of thousands of years. The engineered and natural barriers for the SDF allow it to meet its performance objective over the long time frame. Some waste disposal facilities are required to meet certain standards to ensure public safety. These type of facilities require an engineered containment system to ensure that these requirements are met. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an example of this type of facility. The facility is evaluated based on a groundwater pathway analysis which considers long-term changes to material properties due to physical and chemical degradation processes. The facility is able to meet these performance objectives due to the multiple engineered and natural barriers to contaminant migration.

  15. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  16. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaconu, D. R. (Daniela R.); Birdsell, K. H. (Kay H.); Witkowski, M. S. (Marc S.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  17. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  18. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  19. Stabilization of a mixed waste sludge for land disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, S.E.; Zander, A.K. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solidification and stabilization technique was developed for a chemically complex mixed waste sludge containing nitrate processing wastes, sewage sludge and electroplating wastewaters, among other wastes. The sludge is originally from a solar evaporation pond and has high concentrations of nitrate salts; cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations of concern; and low levels of organic constituents and alpha and beta emitters. Sulfide reduction of nitrate and precipitation of metallic species, followed by evaporation to dryness and solidification of the dry sludge in recycled high density polyethylene with added lime was determined to be a satisfactory preparation for land disposal in a mixed waste repository. The application of post-consumer polyethylene has the added benefit of utilizing another problem-causing waste product. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure was used to determine required treatment chemical dosages and treatment effectiveness. The waste complexity prohibited use of standard chemical equilibrium methods for prediction of reaction products during treatment. Waste characterization followed by determination of thermodynamic feasibility of oxidation and reduction products. These calculations were shown to be accurate in laboratory testing. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  1. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  2. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  3. Analysis of environmental regulations governing the disposal of geothermal wastes in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royce, B.A.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal and California regulations governing the disposal of sludges and liquid wastes associated with the production of electricity from geothermal resources were evaluated. Current disposal practices, near/far term disposal requirements, and the potential for alternate disposal methods or beneficial uses for these materials were determined. 36 refs., 3 figs., 15 tabs. (ACR)

  4. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  5. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  6. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation); R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  7. PROCEDURES FOR DISPOSING OF WASTE CHEMICALS 1. All containers submitted for disposal must be clearly labeled with the following information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -duty plastic bags. Tape all containers of chemically-contaminated dry materials securely shut and label. Container Is - Indicate P (plastic), G (glass), or M (metal). Physical State - Indicate if the material8/99 PROCEDURES FOR DISPOSING OF WASTE CHEMICALS 1. All containers submitted for disposal must

  8. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (40 cfr parts 264/265, subparts a-e) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The management of hazardous waste at treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) plays a large and critical role in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory scheme. The training module presents an overview of the general TSDF standards found in 40 CFR Parts 264/265, Subparts A through E.

  9. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  10. Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

  11. Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | DepartmentEnergy InvitationLegaltoLizLow- LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

  12. Guide to Laboratory Sink/Sewer Disposal of Wastes EPA Compliance Fact Sheet: Revision 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    to collect and manage hazardous wastes, contact VEHS. WASTES FORBIDDEN FROM SINK/SEWER DISPOSAL The following be collected and managed as hazardous waste. 1. Raw Chemical Waste. Unused, pure, or concentrated chemicals. 2 it is part of a written protocol for the laboratory process generating the waste and the neutralization

  13. GNEP Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Analysis FY-08 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halsey, W

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary for FY-2008 of activities, analyses and products from the Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal (M-TSD) sub-task of Systems Analysis within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Research & Development area of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. The objective of this work is to evaluate near-term material management requirements for initial GNEP facilities and activities, long-term requirements for large-scale GNEP technology deployment, and alternatives and paths forward to meet these needs. For FY-08, the work expanded to include the Integrated Waste Management Strategy as well as integration with the newly formed Waste Forms Campaign. The M-TSD team was expanded with the addition of support from Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) to the existing team of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL), Argonne National Lab (ANL), Idaho National Lab (INL), Sandia National Lab (SNL) and University of Nevada - Reno (UN-R). During the first half of the year, analysis was focused on providing supporting technical analysis and documentation to support anticipated high-level decisions on program direction. A number of analyses were conducted and reports prepared as program deliverables. This work is briefly summarized in this report. Analyses provided informally to other program efforts are included in this report to provide documentation. This year-end summary was planned primarily as a compilation of activities following the anticipated programmatic decisions. These decisions were deferred beyond the end of the year, and funds were reallocated in a number of areas, thus reducing the M-TSD activities. This report summarizes the miscellaneous 'ad-hoc' work conducted during the later part of the year, such as support to the draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), and support to other program studies. Major programmatic contributions from the M-TSD team during the year included: (1) Completion of the IWMS in March 2008 as the baseline for waste management calculations for the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The IWMS represents a collaborative effort between the Systems Analysis, Waste Forms, and Separations Campaigns with contributing authors from multiple laboratories. The IWMS reference is: 'Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Integrated Waste Management Strategy, D. Gombert, INL, et al, GNEP-WAST-WAST-AI-RT-2008-000214, March 2008'. (2) As input to the IWMS and support for program decisions, an evaluation of the current regulatory framework in the U.S. pertaining to the disposal of radioactive wastes under an advanced nuclear fuel cycle was completed by ANL. This evaluation also investigated potential disposal pathways for these wastes. The entire evaluation is provided in Appendix A of this report. (3) Support was provided to the development of the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement from INL, SNL and ANL M-TSD staff. (4) M-TSD staff prepared input for DSARR (Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle) report. The DSARR is an INL led report to examine the time-dependent dynamics for a transition from the current open fuel cycle to either a 1-tier or 2-tier closed fuel cycle. Section 5.3 Waste Management Impacts was provided to INL for incorporation into the DSARR. (5) SNL M-TSD staff prepared a M2 milestone report 'Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Contribution for Secretarial Decision Package'. The report purpose was to comprehensively evaluate and discuss packaging, storage, and transportation for all potential nuclear and radioactive materials in the process and waste streams being considered by the GNEP program. In particular, a systems view was used to capture all packaging, storage, and transport operations needed to link the various functional aspects of the fuel cycle. (6) SRNL M-TSD staff developed a deliverable report 'Management of Decay Heat from Spent Nuclear Fuel'. This report evaluated a range of options for managing the near-term decay heat associated with Cs and Sr in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing waste

  14. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; DREZ,P.E.; RATH,JONATHAN S.; TRELLUE,H.R.

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the handling of plutonium in research on or production of US nuclear weapons will be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the physical and radiological properties of the TRU waste that will be deposited in the WIPP. This geologic repository will accommodate up to 175,564 m{sup 3} of TRU waste, corresponding to 168,485 m{sup 3} of contact-handled (CH-) TRU waste and 7,079 m{sup 3} of remote-handled (RH-) TRU waste. Approximately 35% of the TRU waste is currently packaged and stored (i.e., legacy) waste, with the remainder of the waste to be packaged or generated and packaged in activities before the year 2033, the closure time for the repository. These wastes were produced at 27 US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the course of generating defense nuclear materials. The radionuclide and nonradionuclide inventories for the TRU wastes described in this paper were used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) performance assessment calculations by Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM).

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - assess waste disposal Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the University is implementing a charge to fund the costs of handling and disposal of "E-Waste." As previously... : Tuesday, December 23, 2008 Re: Notice of E-Waste Charge,...

  16. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  17. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  18. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  19. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and to assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the Development Plan ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) with no deviations from the plan.

  20. EIS-0062: Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Waste Storage, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the impacts of the various design alternatives for the construction of fourteen 1.3 million gallon high-activity radioactive waste tanks. The EIS further evaluates the effects of these alternative designs on tank durability, on the ease of waste retrieval from such tanks, and the choice of technology and timing for long-term storage or disposal of the wastes.

  1. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  2. LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL (MAIN SITE) Landfill (England & Wales) Regulations 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    the Chemicals Technicians when they have empty glass bottles for disposal. EMPTY PLASTIC CHEMICAL BOTTLES Plastic containers that have open necks, e.g. solvent bottles, may be washed out and disposed of via be disposed of as non-hazardous waste. EMPTY (GLASS) CHEMICAL BOTTLES University regulations governing

  3. DC Hazardous Waste Management (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation regulates the generation, storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste, and wherever feasible, reduces or eliminates waste at the source. It is the policy of...

  4. Revision 08 (08/10) Form G Radioactive Waste Disposal Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Revision 08 (08/10) Form G Radioactive Waste Disposal Form RS - 19g Proc. 9290, 9501 General Instructions: 1. Do not mix different waste forms together. Keep dry, liquid, and scintillation vials separate. 2. Do not mix waste of different isotopes. 3. Entries are to be made on this form each time waste

  5. ACTIVATION, DECAY HEAT, AND WASTE DISPOSAL ANALYSES FOR THE ARIES-AT POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    ACTIVATION, DECAY HEAT, AND WASTE DISPOSAL ANALYSES FOR THE ARIES-AT POWER PLANT D. Henderson, L, decay heat and waste disposal calculations of the ARIES-AT design are performed to evaluate the safety directly into a higher initial decay heat for these structures than for the well-protected steel

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 national security complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterization alternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedial action DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    allowing the use of macroencapsulation technologies. SCFADemonstration of Macroencapsulation of Mixed Waste Debrisoff-site for treatment. Macroencapsulation will meet the LDR

  9. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting of buildings, tents, other structures, and open areas as described in Chapter 2 of the DSA. Section 2.4 of the DSA provides an overview of the buildings, structures, and areas in the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, including construction details such as basic floor plans, equipment layout, construction materials, controlling dimensions, and dimensions significant to the hazard and accident analysis. Chapter 5 of the DSA documents the derivation of the TSRs and develops the operational limits that protect the safety envelope defined for the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. This TSR document is applicable to the handling, storage, and treatment of hazardous waste, TRU WASTE, LLW, mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste received or generated in the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. Section 5, Administrative Controls, contains those Administrative Controls necessary to ensure safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. Programmatic Administrative Controls are in Section 5.6. This Introduction to the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES TSRs is not part of the TSR limits or conditions and contains no requirements related to WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES operations or to the safety analyses of the DSA.

  10. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

  11. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  12. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laycak, D

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  13. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  14. The necessity for permanence : making a nuclear waste storage facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stupay, Robert Irving

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is proposing to build a nuclear waste storage facility in southern Nevada. This facility will be designed to last 10,000 years. It must prevent the waste from contaminating the ...

  15. Options and costs for offsite disposal of oil and gas exploration and production wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, most of the exploration and production (E&P) wastes generated at onshore oil and gas wells are disposed of or otherwise managed at the well site. Certain types of wastes are not suitable for onsite management, and some well locations in sensitive environments cannot be used for onsite management. In these situations, operators must transport the wastes offsite for disposal. In 1997, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) prepared a report that identified offsite commercial disposal facilities in the United States. This information has since become outdated. Over the past year, Argonne has updated the study through contacts with state oil and gas agencies and commercial disposal companies. The new report, including an extensive database for more than 200 disposal facilities, provides an excellent reference for information about commercial disposal operations. This paper describes Argonne's report. The national study provides summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities found in each state. Data are presented by waste type and by disposal method. The categories of E&P wastes in the database include: contaminated soils, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), oil-based muds and cuttings, produced water, tank bottoms, and water-based muds and cuttings. The different waste management or disposal methods in the database involve: bioremediation, burial, salt cavern, discharge, evaporation, injection, land application, recycling, thermal treatment, and treatment. The database includes disposal costs for each facility. In the United States, most of the 18 billion barrels (bbl) of produced water, 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes generated at onshore oil and gas wells are disposed of or otherwise managed at the well site. However, under certain conditions, operators will seek offsite management options for these E&P wastes. Commercial disposal facilities are offsite businesses that accept and manage E&P wastes for a fee. Their services include waste management and disposal, transportation, cleaning of vehicles and tanks, disposal of wash water, and, in some cases, laboratory analysis. Commercial disposal facilities offer a suite of waste management methods and technologies.

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

  17. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RHLLW) Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability.

  18. Numerical simulation of hydrothermal salt separation process and analysis and cost estimating of shipboard liquid waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Robert

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to environmental regulations, waste water disposal for US Navy ships has become a requirement which impacts both operations and the US Navy's budget. In 2006, the cost for waste water disposal Navy-wide was 54 million ...

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Initial Report for PCB Disposal Authorization (40 CFR {section} 761.75[c])

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This initial report is being submitted pursuant to Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) {section} 761.75(c) to request authorization to allow the disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are duly regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Approval of this initial report will not affect the disposal of TRU or TRU mixed wastes that do not contain PCBs. This initial report also demonstrates how the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets or exceeds the technical standards for a Chemical Waste Landfill. Approval of this request will allow the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose of approximately 88,000 cubic feet (ft3) (2,500 cubic meters [m3]) of TRU wastes containing PCBs subject to regulation under the TSCA. This approval will include only those PCB/TRU wastes, which the TSCA regulations allow for disposal of the PCB component in municipal solid waste facilities or chemical waste landfills (e.g., PCB remediation waste, PC B articles, and bulk PCB product waste). Disposal of TRU waste by the DOE is congressionally mandated in Public Law 102-579 (as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Pub. L. 104-201, referred to as the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act [LWA]). Portions of the TRU waste inventory contain hazardous waste constituents regulated under 40 CFR Parts 260 through 279, and/or PCBs and PCB Items regulated under 40 CFR Part 761. Therefore, the DOE TRU waste program must address the disposal requirements for these hazardous waste constituents and PCBs. To facilitate the disposal of TRU wastes containing hazardous waste constituents, the owner/operators received a Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) on October 27, 1999. The permit allows the disposal of TRU wastes subject to hazardous waste disposal requirements (TRU mixed waste). Informational copies of this permit and other referenced documents are available from the WIPP website. To facilitate the disposal of TRU wastes containing PCBs, the owner/operators are hereby submitting this initial report containing information required pursuant to the Chemical Waste Landfill Approval requirements in 40 CFR {section} 761.75(c). Although WIPP is defined as a miscellaneous unit and not a landfill by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act, WIPP meets or exceeds all applicable technical standards for chemical waste landfills by virtue of its design and programs as indicated in the Engineering Report (Attachment B). The layout of this initial report is consistent with requirements (i.e., Sections 2.0 through 12.0 following the sequence of 40 CFR {section} 761.75[c][i] -[ix] with sections added to discuss the Contingency and Training Plans; and Attachment B of this initial report addresses the requirements of 40 CFR {section} 761.75[b][1] through [9] in this order). This initial report includes a description of three proposed changes that will be subject to ''conditional approval.'' The first will allow the disposal of remote-handled (RH) PCB/TRU waste at WIPP. The second will allow the establishment of a central confirmation facility at WIPP. The third will allow for an increase in contact-handled Working Copy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Initial Report for PCB Disposal Authorization DOE/WIPP 02-3196 (CH) waste storage capacities. These proposed changes are discussed further in Section 3.3 of this initial report. ''Conditional approval'' of these requests would allow these activities at WIPP contingent upon: - Approval of the HWFP modification (NMED) and Compliance Certification Application (CCA) change request (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]) - Inspection of facility prior to implementing the change (if deemed necessary by the EPA) - Written approval from the EPA This initial report also includes the following three requests for waivers to the technical requirements for Chemical Waste Landfills pursuant to 40 CFR {section} 761.75(c)(4): - Hydrologic Conditions (40 CFR {section} 761.75[b][3]) - Monitoring Systems (40 CFR {sect

  20. CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition

  1. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  2. Composite analysis for solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The composite analysis (CA) provides an estimate of the potential cumulative impacts to a hypothetical future member of the public from the Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) disposal operations and all of the other sources of radioactive material in the ground on the ORR that may interact with contamination originating in SWSA 6.The projected annual dose to hypothetical future member of the public from all contributing sources is compared to the primary dose limit of 100 mrem per year and a dose constraint of 30 mrem per year. Consistent with the CA guidance, dose estimates for the first 1000 years after disposal are emphasized for comparison with the primary dose limit and dose constraint.The current land use plan for the ORR is being revised, and may include a reduction in the land currently controlled by DOE on the ORR. The possibility of changes in the land use boundary is considered in the CA as part of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, the interpretation of results, and the conclusions.

  3. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  4. Environmental impact statement for initiation of transuranic waste disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, H.E. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States) Carlsbad Area Office; Whatley, M.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WIPP`s long-standing mission is to demonstrate the safe disposal of TRU waste from US defense activities. In 1980, to comply with NEPA, US DOE completed its first environmental impact statement (EIS) which compared impacts of alternatives for TRU waste disposal. Based on this 1980 analysis, DOE decided to construct WIPP in 1981. In a 1990 decision based on examination of alternatives in a 1990 Supplemental EIS, DOE decided to continue WIPP development by proceeding with a testing program to examine WIPP`s suitability as a TRU waste repository. Now, as DOE`s Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) attempts to complete its regulatory obligations to begin WIPP disposal operations, CAO is developing WIPP`s second supplemental EIS (SEIS-II). To complete the SEIS-II, CAO will have to meet a number of challenges. This paper explores both the past and present EISs prepared to evaluate the suitability of WIPP. The challenges in completing an objective comparison of alternatives, while also finalizing other critical-path compliance documents, controlling costs, and keeping stakeholders involved during the decision-making process are addressed.

  5. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting of buildings, tents, other structures, and open areas as described in Chapter 2 of the DSA. Section 2.4 of the DSA provides an overview of the buildings, structures, and areas in the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, including construction details such as basic floor plans, equipment layout, construction materials, controlling dimensions, and dimensions significant to the hazard and accident analysis. Chapter 5 of the DSA documents the derivation of the TSRs and develops the operational limits that protect the safety envelope defined for the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. This TSR document is applicable to the handling, storage, and treatment of hazardous waste, TRU WASTE, LLW, mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste received or generated in the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. Section 5, Administrative Controls, contains those Administrative Controls necessary to ensure safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. Programmatic Administrative Controls are in Section 5.6.

  6. Unresolved issues for the disposal of remote-handled transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, M.K.; Neill, R.H.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to dispose of 176,000 cubic meters of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. The envisioned inventory contains approximately 6 million cubic feet of contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste and 250,000 cubic feet of remote handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste. CH TRU emits less than 0.2 rem/hr at the container surface. Of the 250,000 cubic feet of RH TRU waste, 5% by volume can emit up to 1,000 rem/hr at the container surface. The remainder of RH TRU waste must emit less than 100 rem/hr. These are major unresolved problems with the intended disposal of RH TRU waste in the WIPP. (1) The WIPP design requires the canisters of RH TRU waste to be emplaced in the walls (ribs) of each repository room. Each room will then be filled with drums of CH TRU waste. However, the RH TRU waste will not be available for shipment and disposal until after several rooms have already been filled with drums of CH TRU waste. RH TRU disposal capacity will be loss for each room that is first filled with CH TRU waste. (2) Complete RH TRU waste characterization data will not be available for performance assessment because the facilities needed for waste handling, waste treatment, waste packaging, and waste characterization do not yet exist. (3) The DOE does not have a transportation cask for RH TRU waste certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues are discussed along with possible solutions and consequences from these solutions. 46 refs.

  7. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was implemented. (6) At CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie, a UR was implemented. (7) At CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station, no work was performed.

  9. Nuclear Waste Disposal: An Independent View of the Big Picture and a Proposal for CARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Nuclear Waste Disposal: An Independent View of the Big Picture and a Proposal for CARD Presented to isolate nuclear waste successfully from the biosphere for the long term can be developed if our society to this impasse? In the 1940's at the beginning of the nuclear age, nuclear waste was seen as a "problem" only

  10. Numerical Zoom for Multiscale Problems with an Application to Nuclear Waste Disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical Zoom for Multiscale Problems with an Application to Nuclear Waste Disposal Jean of a nuclear waste repository site. Key words: Multiscale, Finite Element, Domain Decomposition, Chimera, Numerical Zoom, Nuclear Waste. PACS: 02.30.Jr, 47.11.Fg, 28.41.Kw, 47.55.P- 1 Introduction The present paper

  11. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (157,437 cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd{sup 3} (756,999 ft{sup 3}) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd{sup 3} (0.9 million ft{sup 3}). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) 325

  12. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  13. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  14. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  15. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  16. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  17. Ceramic package fabrication for YMP nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfinger, K.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to develop alternate materials/design concepts to metal barriers for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. There is some potential that site conditions may prove to be too aggressive for successful employment of the metal alloys under current consideration or that performance assessment models will predict metal container degradation rates that are inconsistent with the goal of substantially complete containment included in the NRC regulations. In the event that the anticipated lifetimes of metal containers are considered inadequate, alternate materials (i.e. ceramics or ceramic/metal composites) will be chosen due to superior corrosion resistance. This document was prepared using information taken from the open literature, conversations and correspondence with vendors, news releases and data presented at conferences to determine what form such a package might take. This discussion presents some ceramic material selection criteria, alternatives for the materials which might be used and alternatives for potential fabrication routes. This includes {open_quotes}stand alone{close_quotes} ceramic components and ceramic coatings/linings for metallic structures. A list of companies providing verbal or written information concerning the production of ceramic or ceramic lined waste containers appears at the end of this discussion.

  18. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  19. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  20. RCT#2-Instr for Prep of Rad Waste Disposal 7/00 Page 1 of 6 RADIATION CONTROL TECHNIQUE #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE FOR DISPOSAL I. PURPOSE: To establish a standard procedure for preparing Radioactive Waste and Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) to ensure it's efficient pick-up and disposal, labels, and pickup forms. III. PURPOSE: A. The goals of the radioactive waste program are to; - Minimize

  1. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  2. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  3. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  4. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE /Navarro

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  5. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

  6. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

  7. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK-RESULTS OF FIELD INVESTIGATIONS AT STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Storage in Mined Caverns—Program Summary. LawrenceWASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK- BESULTS

  8. An evaluation of the feasibility of disposal of nuclear waste in very deep boreholes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Victoria Katherine, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep boreholes, 3 to 5 km into igneous rock, such as granite, are evaluated for next- generation repository use in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high level waste. The primary focus is on the stability and ...

  9. Effective thermal conductivity measurements relevant to deep borehole nuclear waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh, Samina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to measure the effective thermal conductivity of a number of materials (particle beds, and fluids) proposed for use in and around canisters for disposal of high level nuclear waste in deep ...

  10. Introduction to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to DOE Order 435.1 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Requirements Christine Gelles*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Edward Regnier, U.S. Department of Energy; Andrew Wallo,...

  11. Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Why DOE-EM Did...

  12. Risk assessment involving the land disposal of animal waste on Central Texas dairies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Thomas Chadwick

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land disposal of animal waste is an increasing problem for dairies in central Texas Once isolated, many producers now and themselves surrounded by towns and subdivisions. Many of these new neighbors are showing an increasing concern about potential...

  13. EA-1097: Solid waste Disposal- Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to continue the on-site disposal of solid waste at the Area 9 and Area 23 landfills at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site...

  14. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  15. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  16. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  17. Preliminary Closure Plan for the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the preliminary plans for closure of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) disposal facility to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The facility will provide near-surface disposal of up to 204,000 cubic meters of ILAW in engineered trenches with modified RCRA Subtitle C closure barriers.

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, R.C.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.

  19. Low-Level Waste Overview of the Nevada Test Site Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carilli, J.T.; Skougard, M.G. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Krenzien, S.K. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wrapp, J.K.; Ramirez, C.; Yucel, V.; Shott, G.J.; Gordon, S.J.; Enockson, K.C.; Desotell, L.T. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an overview and the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Operational changes have been implemented, such as larger trench sizes and more efficient soil management as have administrative processes to address U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Code of Federal Regulation analyses. Some adverse conditions have prompted changes in transportation and mixed low-level waste polices, and a new funding mechanism was developed. This year has seen many changes to the NTS disposal family. (authors)

  20. The role of acceptable knowledge in transuranic waste disposal operations - 11117

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Roger [DOE-CARLSBAD

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Acceptable Knowledge (AK) process plays a key role in the delineation of waste streams destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). General Electric's Vallecitos Nuclear Center (GEVNC) provides for an ideal case study of the application of AK in a multiple steward environment. In this review we will elucidate the pivotal role Acceptable Knowledge played in segregating Department of Energy (DOE) responsibilities from a commercial facility. The Acceptable Knowledge process is a necessary component of waste characterization that determines whether or not a waste stream may be considered for disposal at the WIPP site. This process may be thought of as an effort to gain a thorough understanding of the waste origin, chemical content, and physical form gleaned by the collection of documentation that concerns generator/storage site history, mission, and operations; in addition to waste stream specific information which includes the waste generation process, the waste matrix, the quantity of waste concerned, and the radiological and chemical make up of the waste. The collection and dissemination of relevant documentation is the fundamental requirement for the AK process to work. Acceptable Knowledge is the predominant process of characterization and, therefore, a crucial part of WIPP's transuranic waste characterization program. This characterization process, when conducted to the standards set forth in WIPP's operating permit, requires confirmation/verification by physical techniques such as Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), Visual Examination (VE), and Non-Destructive Assay (NDA). These physical characterization techniques may vary in their appropriateness for a given waste stream; however, nothing will allow the substitution or exclusion of AK. Beyond the normal scope of operations, AK may be considered, when appropriate, a surrogate for the physical characterization techniques in a procedure that appeals to concepts such As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and budgetary savings. This substitution is referred to as an Acceptable Knowledge Sufficiency Determination. With a Sufficiency Determination Request, AK may supplant the need for one or all of the physical analysis methods. This powerful procedure may be used on a scale as small as a single container to that of a vast waste stream. Only under the most stringent requirements will an AK Sufficiency Determination be approved by the regulators and, to date, only six such Sufficiency Determinations have been approved. Although Acceptable Knowledge is legislated into the operational procedures of the WIPP facility there is more to it than compliance. AK is not merely one of a long list of requirements in the characterization and verification of transuranic (TRU) waste destined for the WIPP. Acceptable Knowledge goes beyond the regulatory threshold by offering a way to reduce risk, cost, time, and uncertainty on its own laurels. Therefore, AK alone can be argued superior to any other waste characterization technique.

  1. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  2. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  3. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call into question certain aspects of the analyses. For example, if the volumes and activities of waste disposed of during the remainder of the disposal facility's lifetime differ significantly from those projected, the doses projected by the analyses may no longer apply. DOE field sites are required to implement a performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. The purpose of this program is to ensure the continued applicability of the analyses through incremental improvement of the level of understanding of the disposal site and facility. Site personnel are required to conduct field and experimental work to reduce the uncertainty in the data and models used in the assessments. Furthermore, they are required to conduct periodic reviews of waste receipts, comparing them to projected waste disposal rates. The radiological inventory for Area G was updated in conjunction with Revision 4 of the performance assessment and composite analysis (Shuman, 2008). That effort used disposal records and other sources of information to estimate the quantities of radioactive waste that have been disposed of at Area G from 1959, the year the facility started receiving waste on a routine basis, through 2007. It also estimated the quantities of LLW that will require disposal from 2008 through 2044, the year in which it is assumed that disposal operations at Area G will cease. This report documents the fourth review of Area G disposal receipts since the inventory was updated and examines information for waste placed in the ground during fiscal years (FY) 2008 through 2011. The primary objective of the disposal receipt review is to ensure that the future waste inventory projections developed for the performance assessment and composite analysis are consistent with the actual types and quantities of waste being disposed of at Area G. Toward this end, the disposal data that are the subject of this review are used to update the future waste inventory projections for the disposal facility. These projections are compared to the future inventory projections that were develope

  4. Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

  5. Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at Low-Level Waste Burial facilities. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fifth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1994, superseding the values given in the June 1994 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1995 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

  6. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  7. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  8. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  9. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  10. Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  11. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE and commercial disposal options exist for contact-handled LLW; however, offsite disposal options are either not currently available (i.e., commercial disposal facilities), practical, or cost-effective for all remote-handled LLW streams generated at INL. Offsite disposal of all INL and tenant-generated remote-handled waste is further complicated by issues associated with transporting highly radioactive waste in commerce; and infrastructure and processing changes at the generating facilities, specifically NRF, that would be required to support offsite disposal. The INL Remote-Handled LLW Disposal Project will develop a new remote handled LLW disposal facility to meet mission-critical, remote-handled LLW disposal needs. A formal DOE decision to proceed with the project has been made in accordance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (42 USC§ 4321 et seq.). Remote-handled LLW is generated from nuclear programs conducted at INL, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at NRF and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled LLW also will be generated by new INL programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex.

  12. Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

  13. AREA 5 WASTE DISPOSAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Biomass reduction and arsenic transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    AREA 5 · WASTE DISPOSAL · RESEARCH ARTICLE Biomass reduction and arsenic transformation during X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive Arsenic-rich biomass . Arsenic speciation . Composting . Phytoextraction . Pteris vittata L . Waste

  14. EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units $8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – The EM program at Savannah River Site (SRS) has built two more low-level salt waste disposal units ahead of schedule and under budget. This work is essential to the mission of cleaning and closing the site's underground waste tanks.

  15. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  16. RH-TRU Waste Shipments from Battelle Columbus Laboratories to the Hanford Nuclear Facility for Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eide, J.; Baillieul, T. A.; Biedscheid, J.; Forrester, T,; McMillan, B.; Shrader, T.; Richterich, L.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL), located in Columbus, Ohio, must complete decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for nuclear research buildings and grounds by 2006, as directed by Congress. Most of the resulting waste (approximately 27 cubic meters [m3]) is remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The BCL, under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Ohio Field Office, has initiated a plan to ship the TRU waste to the DOE Hanford Nuclear Facility (Hanford) for interim storage pending the authorization of WIPP for the permanent disposal of RH-TRU waste. The first of the BCL RH-TRU waste shipments was successfully completed on December 18, 2002. This BCL shipment of one fully loaded 10-160B Cask was the first shipment of RH-TRU waste in several years. Its successful completion required a complex effort entailing coordination between different contractors and federal agencies to establish necessary supporting agreements. This paper discusses the agreements and funding mechanisms used in support of the BCL shipments of TRU waste to Hanford for interim storage. In addition, this paper presents a summary of the efforts completed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 10-160B Cask system. Lessons learned during this process are discussed and may be applicable to other TRU waste site shipment plans.

  17. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  18. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  19. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  20. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  1. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  2. SWEDISH-AMERICAN COOPERATIVE PROGRAM ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS. PROGRAM SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS by P. A. Witherspoon LawrenceWASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS INTRODUCTION Final and safeon the possibility of using mined caverns in salt as waste

  3. NDAA Section 3116 Waste Determinations with Related Disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The other two DOE sites with similar waste (residuals remaining after cleaning out tanks and equipment that held liquid high-level waste) are Office of River Protection and...

  4. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, M. Daniel, Swenson, Michael C.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This comprehensive report provides definitive volume, mass, and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Calcine composition data are required for regulatory compliance (such as permitting and waste disposal), future treatment of the caline, and shipping the calcine to an off-Site-facility (such as a geologic repository). This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins. The Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs) were designed by different architectural engineering firms and built at different times. Each CSSF has a unique design, reflecting varying design criteria and lessons learned from historical CSSF operation. The varying CSSF design will affect future calcine retrieval processes and equipment. Revision 4 of this report presents refinements and enhancements of calculations concerning the composition, volume, mass, chemical content, and radioactivity of calcined waste produced and stored within the CSSFs. The historical calcine samples are insufficient in number and scope of analysis to fully characterize the entire inventory of calcine in the CSSFs. Sample data exist for all the liquid wastes that were calcined. This report provides calcine composition data based on liquid waste sample analyses, volume of liquid waste calcined, calciner operating data, and CSSF operating data using several large Microsoft Excel (Microsoft 2003) databases and spreadsheets that are collectively called the Historical Processing Model. The calcine composition determined by this method compares favorably with historical calcine sample data.

  5. An Underwater Robotic Network for Monitoring Nuclear Waste Storage Pools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeavons, Peter

    An Underwater Robotic Network for Monitoring Nuclear Waste Storage Pools Sarfraz Nawaz1 , Muzammil Manchester M60 1QD simon.watson@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk peter.n.green@manchester.ac.uk Abstract. Nuclear to build maps of their internal structure which can then be used for waste removal and pool decommissioning

  6. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  7. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Ann T.W., E-mail: bsannyu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  8. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P. [and others

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  9. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  10. Hazardous Waste Management (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste. It also provides information about permit requirements for the transport, treatment and storage of such waste. It also mentions...

  11. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  12. Safety Assessment for VLLW Disposal at the National Radioactive Waste Repository Mochovce in Slovakia - 13508

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A. [Westinghouse Electric Spain SAR, Padilla 17, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Westinghouse Electric Spain SAR, Padilla 17, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in the Slovak Republic have prompted the need to introduce the new category of very low level waste (VLLW) in the operation of the country's repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). By doing this, significant savings are expected to be achieved while disposing the waste resulting from early decommissioning of older, Soviet type reactors. To study the feasibility and the likely impact of such introduction, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium. The study confirmed by means of a safety assessment the feasibility of this waste category in the specific context of the Slovakian repository. Moreover, the advantages that such new waste category would render were stressed and the best option for enlargement of the repository, the construction of a module for LILW disposal within the limits of the existing repository, was identified. (authors)

  13. University of Delaware Laboratory Chemical Waste Disposal Guide ALL CHEMICAL WASTE MUST BE DISPOSED OF THROUGH THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    experiments and procedures Non-Returnable gas cylinders Batteries Spent solvents, Stains, Strippers, Thinners, Fertilizers Formaldehyde and Formalin Solutions Mercury containing items (other heavy metals) Liquid OR SMALL CONTAINERS IMPORTANT: DO NOT DISPOSE OF REACTIVE, AIR SENSITIVE, OR OXIDIZER SAMPLES

  14. Moving Forward to Address Nuclear Waste Storage and Disposal | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitorsfor ShadeProjectMinorityMissionMoisture

  15. Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDF) Guidance

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer CountyCorridorPart A Permit Application Jump to: navigation,|

  16. Potential for Subsidence at the Low-level Waste Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keck, Karen Nina; Seitz, Roger Ray

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management requires that DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities receive a Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) from DOE-Headquarters. The DAS for the LLW disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was granted in April 2000 and included a number of conditions that must be addressed. A maintenance plan (Schuman 2000) was prepared that identifies the tasks to be completed to address the conditions in the DAS as well as a schedule for their completion. The need for a subsidence analysis was one of the conditions identified for the DAS, and thus, a task to prepare a subsidence analysis was included in the maintenance plan. This document provides the information necessary to satisfy that requirement.

  17. Potential for Subsidence at the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keck, K.A.; Seitz, R.R.

    2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management requires that DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities receive a Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) from DOE-Headquarters. The DAS for the LLW disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was granted in April 2000 and included a number of conditions that must be addressed. A maintenance plan (Schuman 2000) was prepared that identifies the tasks to be completed to address the conditions in the DAS as well as a schedule for their completion. The need for a subsidence analysis was one of the conditions identified for the DAS, and thus, a task to prepare a subsidence analysis was included in the maintenance plan. This document provides the information necessary to satisfy that requirement.

  18. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  19. Solid Waste Disposal Resource Recovery Facilities Act (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation authorizes local governing bodies to form joint agencies to advance the collection, transfer, processing of solid waste, recovery of resources, and sales of recovered resources in...

  20. EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units $8 Million under Budget...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    work is essential to the mission of cleaning and closing the site's underground waste tanks. Construction of these circular units - vaults built in the past are rectangular -...

  1. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  2. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). DOE has completed or begun additional work related to salt waste disposal to address these factors. NRC staff continues to evaluate information related to the performance of the SDF and has been working with DOE and SCDHEC to resolve NRC staff's technical concerns. (authors)

  3. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  4. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making -- implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baer, T.A. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These have been termed ``special-case`` waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk concepts to guide affective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance decisions to closure.

  5. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  7. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  8. National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggy Hinman

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

  9. EIS-0110: Central Waste Disposal Facility for Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS assesses the environmental impacts of alternatives for the disposal of low-level waste and by-product materials generated by the three major plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). In addition to the no-action alternative, two classes of alternatives are evaluated: facility design alternatives and siting alternatives.

  10. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures thorough and thoughtful processes for disposing of the SRS low-level waste and the closure of the tank farm facilities. (authors)

  11. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Reservoir Engineering in Coal Seams: Part 1—The PhysicalStorage and Movement in Coal Seams. SPE Reserv. Eng. , 2 (swelling stress for coal seams that can involve swelling or

  12. Container Approval for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste with Negligible Heat Generation in the German Konrad Repository - 12148

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Ellouz, Manel; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver; Hoerning, Tony [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the license for the Konrad repository was finally confirmed by legal decision in 2007, the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection (BfS) has been performing further planning and preparation work to prepare the repository for operation. Waste conditioning and packaging has been continued by different waste producers as the nuclear industry and federal research institutes on the basis of the official disposal requirements. The necessary prerequisites for this are approved containers as well as certified waste conditioning and packaging procedures. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is responsible for container design testing and evaluation of quality assurance measures on behalf of BfS under consideration of the Konrad disposal requirements. Besides assessing the container handling stability (stacking tests, handling loads), design testing procedures are performed that include fire tests (800 deg. C, 1 hour) and drop tests from different heights and drop orientations. This paper presents the current state of BAM design testing experiences about relevant container types (box shaped, cylindrical) made of steel sheets, ductile cast iron or concrete. It explains usual testing and evaluation methods which range from experimental testing to analytical and numerical calculations. Another focus has been laid on already existing containers and packages. The question arises as to how they can be evaluated properly especially with respect to lack of completeness of safety assessment and fabrication documentation. At present BAM works on numerous applications for container design testing for the Konrad repository. Some licensing procedures were successfully finished in the past and BfS certified several container types like steel sheet, concrete until cast iron containers which are now available for waste packaging for final disposal. However, large quantities of radioactive wastes had been placed into interim storage using containers which are not already licensed for the Konrad repository. Safety assessment of these so-called 'old' containers is a big challenge for all parties because documentation sheets about container design testing and fabrication often contain gaps or have not yet been completed. Appropriate solution strategies are currently under development and discussion. Furthermore, BAM has successfully initiated and established an information forum, called 'ERFA QM Konrad Containers', which facilitates discussions on various issues of common interest with respect to Konrad container licensing procedures as well as the interpretation of disposal requirements under consideration of operational needs. Thus, it provides additional, valuable supports for container licensing procedures. (authors)

  13. Chapter 38 Hazardous Waste Permitting Process (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This administrative regulation establishes the general provisions for storage, treatment, recycling, or disposal of hazardous waste. It provides information about permits and specific requirements...

  14. TRU waste certification compliance requirements for contact-handled wastes retrieved from storage for shipment to the WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compliance requirements are presented for certifying that unclassified, contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) solid wastes retrieved from storage at DOE sites meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). All applicable DOE Orders must continue to be met. The compliance requirements for certified waste retrieved from certified storage are addressed in another document. The compliance requirements are divided into four sections, primarily determined by the general feature that the requirements address. These sections are General Requirements, Waste Container Requirements, Waste Form Requirements, and Waste Package Requirements. The waste package is the combination of waste container and waste.

  15. Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Steven Douglas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . All groundwater that recharges on the disposal site is slightly saline and flows east, probably discharging into the Gibbons Creek Reservoir. Selenium, arsenic, boron, iron, manganese, and sulfate in the lignite waste effluent exceed either EPA... ( 1975) drinking water standards or EPA (1973) recommended livestock water standards. Since the natural groundwater contains higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and sulfate than the waste effluent, only arsenic and boron should...

  16. Vehicle Radiation Monitoring Systems for Medical Waste Disposal - 12102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondrashov, Vladislav S.; Steranka, Steve A. [RadComm Systems Corp., 2931 Portland Dr., Oakville, ON L6H 5S4 (Canada)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hospitals often declare their waste as being 'non-radioactive'; however this material often has excessive levels of radiation caused either by an accident or lack of control. To ensure the best possible protection against the accidental receipt of radioactive materials and as a safety precaution for their employees, waste-handling companies have installed large-scale radiation portal monitors at their weigh scales or entry gates of the incinerator plant, waste transfer station, and/or landfill. Large-volume plastic scintillator-based systems can be used to monitor radiation levels at entry points to companies handling medical waste. The recent and intensive field tests together with the thousands of accumulated hours of actual real-life vehicle scanning have proven that the plastic scintillation based system is an appropriate radiation control instrument for waste management companies. The Real-Time background compensation algorithm is flexible with automatic adjustable coefficients that will response to rapidly changing environmental and weather conditions maintaining the preset alarm threshold levels. The Dose Rate correction algorithms further enhance the system's ability to meet the stringent requirements of the waste industries need for Dose Rate measurements. (authors)

  17. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  18. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.

  19. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  20. LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL (BEGBROKE SITE) Landfill (England & Wales) Regulations 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    are to be disposed of as hazardous waste in the same way as chemicals. EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES Empty plastic chemical washed them out and have cleaned the outside of the bottles before throwing them in the skips. Bottles that cannot be washed out (e.g. hydrofluoric acid bottles) or bottles that stubbornly resist cleaning must

  1. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1993-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, Disposal and Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) sponsored program. It also supports DOE Defense Program (DP) dismantlement activities. The goal of WeDID is to demonstrate the end-to-end disposal process for Sandia National Laboratories designed nuclear weapon components. One of the primary objectives of WeDID is to develop and demonstrate advanced system treatment technologies that will allow DOE to continue dismantlement and disposal unhindered even as environmental regulations become more stringent. WeDID is also demonstrating waste minimization techniques by recycling a significant weight percentage of the bulk/precious metals found in weapon components and by destroying the organic materials typically found in these components. WeDID is concentrating on demonstrating technologies that are regulatory compliant, are cost effective, technologically robust, and are near-term to ensure the support of DOE dismantlement time lines. The waste minimization technologies being demonstrated by WeDID are cross cutting and should be able to support a number of ERWM programs.

  3. Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1993-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, Disposal and Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) sponsored program. It also supports DOE Defense Program (DP) dismantlement activities. The goal of WeDID is to demonstrate the end-to-end disposal process for Sandia National Laboratories designed nuclear weapon components. One of the primary objectives of WeDID is to develop and demonstrate advanced system treatment technologies that will allow DOE to continue dismantlement and disposal unhindered even as environmental regulations become more stringent. WeDID is also demonstrating waste minimization techniques by recycling a significant weight percentage of the bulk/precious metals found in weapon components and by destroying the organic materials typically found in these components. WeDID is concentrating on demonstrating technologies that are regulatory compliant, are cost effective, technologically robust, and are near-term to ensure the support of DOE dismantlement time lines. The waste minimization technologies being demonstrated by WeDID are cross cutting and should be able to support a number of ERWM programs.

  4. Waste-heat recovery in batch processes using heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltze, S.; Mikkelsen, J.; Lorentzen, B.; Petersen, P.M.; Qvale, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Lab. for Energetics

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste-heat recovery in batch processes has been studied using the pinch-point method. The aim of the work has been to investigate theoretical and practical approaches to the design of heat-exchanger networks, including heat storage, for waste-heat recovery in batch processes. The study is limited to the incorporation of energy-storage systems based on fixed-temperature variable-mass stores. The background for preferring this to the alternatives (variable-temperature fixed-mass and constant-mass constant-temperature (latent-heat) stores) is given. It is shown that the maximum energy-saving targets as calculated by the pinch-point method (time average model, TAM) can be achieved by locating energy stores at either end of each process stream. This theoretically large number of heat-storage tanks (twice the number of process streams) can be reduced to just a few tanks. A simple procedure for determining a number of heat-storage tanks sufficient to achieve the maximum energy-saving targets as calculated by the pinch-point method is described. This procedure relies on combinatorial considerations, and could therefore be labeled the combinatorial method for incorporation of heat storage in heat-exchanger networks. Qualitative arguments justifying the procedure are presented. For simple systems, waste-heat recovery systems with only three heat-storage temperatures (a hot storage, a cold storage, and a heat store at the pinch temperature) often can achieve the maximum energy-saving targets. Through case studies, six of which are presented, it is found that a theoretically large number of heat-storage tanks (twice the number of process streams) can be reduced to just a few tanks. The description of these six cases is intended to be sufficiently detailed to serve as benchmark cases for development of alternative methods.

  5. MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  6. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, M.S.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.

  8. A Study on Optimized Management Options for the Wolsong Low- and Intermediate - Level Waste Disposal Center in Korea - 13479

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, JooWan; Kim, DongSun; Choi, DongEun [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Korea 89, Bukseongno, Gyeongju, 780-050 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Korea 89, Bukseongno, Gyeongju, 780-050 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safe and effective management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Currently, for permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) is under construction. It will accommodate a total of 800,000 drums at the final stage after stepwise expansion. As an implementing strategy for cost-effective development of the WLDC, various disposal options suitable for waste classification schemes would be considered. It is also needed an optimized management of the WLDC by taking a countermeasure of volume reduction treatment. In this study, various management options to be applied to each waste class are analyzed in terms of its inventory and disposal cost. For the volume reduction and stabilization of waste, the vitrification and plasma melting methods are considered for combustible and incombustible waste, respectively. (authors)

  9. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Yearly report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1993-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project consists of 3 tasks: (1) Developing a Production Environmental Database (PED) with the purpose of investigating the current industry waste storage and disposal practices by different regions, states and types of waste and investigating the environmental impacts associated with these practices; (2) Evaluating the suitability of available and developing technologies for treating produced water and identifying applicable unit process configurations; and (3) Evaluating the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different configurations. Records of wells drilled during the years 1986 through 1991 were compiled from industry reports. Overall, drilling has decreased from an average of 60,000 wells/yr for the period 1981 through 1985 to 20,000/yr during 1986 through 1991. A produced water database was developed from data and information provided by the various state and federal agencies. Currently, the database has information on the production of oil, gas and brines from 24 states. The data from the produced water database indicate that for the most part, Class II Injection seemed to be the common disposal method. Other methods included evaporation, surface disposal via NPDES permit, road spreading, hauling out-of-state, and annular disposal. A survey of oil and gas operators has been developed, reviewed and edited. The survey is divided-by topic into three sections. (1) drilling wastes; (2) associated wastes; and (3) produced water. The objective of the survey is to develop more current information on the waste volumes and disposal methods used during 1986 through 1991. The possible treatment scenarios for produced water have been identified. Organic and inorganic contaminant removal, liquid/solid separation and liquid/emulsified oil separation have been identified as the main objectives of the treatment of produced water.

  10. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  11. On the thermal impact on the excavation damaged zone around deep radioactive waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clays and claystones are considered in some countries (including Belgium, France and Switzerland) as a potential host rock for high activity long lived radioactive waste disposal at great depth. One of the aspects to deal with in performance assessment is related to the effects on the host rock of the temperature elevation due to the placement of exothermic wastes. The potential effects of the thermal impact on the excavated damaged zone in the close field are another important issue that was the goal of the TIMODAZ European research project. In this paper, some principles of waste disposal in clayey host rocks at great depth are first presented and a series of experimental investigations carried out on specific equipment specially developed to face the problem are presented. Both drained and undrained tests have been developed to investigate the drained thermal volume changes of clays and claystone and the thermal pressurization occurring around the galleries. This importance of proper initial saturation (un...

  12. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  13. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  14. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  15. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  16. Waste Management Assistance Act (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section promotes the proper and safe storage, treatment, and disposal of solid, hazardous, and low-level radioactive wastes in Iowa, and calls on Iowans to assume responsibility for waste...

  17. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action.

  18. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action alternatives.

  20. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  1. Selected biological investigations on deep sea disposal of industrial wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Sandra Lea

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shrimp bioassay summary. Dinoflagellate bioassay summary. Diatom bioassay summary. Summary of 96-hour TL bioassay results. 25 28 30 33 viii LIST OF FIGURES Number ~Pa e Growth of control showing logarithmic rate. Waste concentration decrease.... To date, funds have been available only for short- term studies that have been directed toward specific questions such as maximum discharge rates and short-term toxic effects on marine organisms. Hood and his associates (1958) at Texas A&M University...

  2. Perspectives on Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Consideration of Economic Efficiency and Intergenerational Equity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neill, H. R.; Neill, R. H.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    There are both internal and external pressures on the U.S. Department of Energy to reduce the estimated costs of isolating radioactive waste, $19 billion for transuranic waste at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and $57 billion for high level waste at Yucca Mountain. The question arises whether economic analyses would add to the decision-making process to reduce costs yet maintain the same level of radiological protection. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of using cost-benefit analysis (CBA), a tool used to measure economic efficiency as an input for these decisions. Using a comparative research approach, we find that CBA analyses appear particularly applicable where the benefits and costs are in the near term. These findings can help policymakers become more informed on funding decisions and to develop public confidence in the merits of the program for waste disposal.

  3. Seismic modeling and analysis of a prototype heated nuclear waste storage tunnel, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Seismic modeling and analysis of a prototype heated nuclear waste storage tunnel, Yucca Mountain was heated to replicate the effects of long-term storage of decaying nuclear waste and to study the effects for the long- term storage of high-level nuclear waste from reactors and decom- missioned atomic weapons

  4. Nevada Nuclear-Waste-Storage Investigations. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) are studying the Nevada Test Site (NTS) area to establish whether it would qualify as a licensable location for a commercial nuclear waste repository; determining whether specific underground rock masses in the NTS area are technically acceptable for permanently disposing of highly radioactive solid wastes; and developing and demonstrating the capability to safely handle and store commercial spent reactor fuel and high-level waste. Progress reports for the following eight tasks are presented: systems; waste package; site; repository; regulatory and institutional; test facilities; land acquisition; and program management. Some of the highlights are: A code library was established to provide a central location for documentation of repository performance assessment codes. A two-dimensional finite element code, SAGUARO, was developed for modeling saturated/unsaturated groundwater flow. The results of an initial experiment to determine canister penetration rates due to corrosion indicate the expected strong effect of toxic environmental conditions on the corrosion rate of carbon steel in tuff-conditioned water. Wells USW-H3 and USW-H4 at Yucca Mountain have been sampled for groundwater analysis. A summary characterizing and relating the mineralogy and petrology of Yucca Mountain tuffs was compiled from the findings of studies of core samples from five drill holes.

  5. Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100{degree}C. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Below regulatory concern owners group: Individual and population impacts from BRC (below regulatory concern) waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E.S.; Rogers, V.C.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the IMPACTS-BRC and PRESTO-EPA-POP codes, researchers calculated potential individual and population doses for routine and unexpected radiation exposures resulting from the transportation and disposal of BRC nuclear power plant wastes. These calculations provided a basis for establishing annual curie and radionuclide concentration limits for BRC treatment and disposal. EPRI has initiated a program to develop a petition for rulemaking to NRC that would allow management of certain very low activity nuclear power plant waste types as below regulatory concern (BRC), thus exempting these wastes from requirements for burial at licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The technical information required to support the BRC petition includes an assessment of radiologic impacts resulting from the proposed exemption, based on estimated individual and population doses that might result from BRC treatment and disposal of nuclear power plant wastes. 13 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se.

  8. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Interim Status Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). WESF is located within the 225B Facility in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based on Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the storage unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the intention is to clean close WESF, postclosure activities are not applicable to this interim status closure plan. To clean close the storage unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or environmentally is impracticable, the interim status closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. WESF stores cesium and strontium encapsulated salts. The encapsulated salts are stored in the pool cells or process cells located within 225B Facility. The dangerous waste is contained within a double containment system to preclude spills to the environment. In the unlikely event that a waste spill does occur outside the capsules, operating methods and administrative controls require that waste spills be cleaned up promptly and completely, and a notation made in the operating record. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  9. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  10. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  11. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE /Navarro/NSTec

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program.

  12. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site selection and safety assessment.

  13. Literature survey of tritiated waste characterization and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1996-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing, handling, and storing tritiated waste is challenging because of the physical and chemical properties of tritium. Tritium is soluble in many materials, including structural materials such as, stainless steel, structural steel, polymers, concrete and paints. Tritium permeates rapidly into these materials compared to other species, and so parts exposed to tritium are normally contaminated to some degree throughout the bulk. The relatively low kinetic energy of the {beta}-decay causes detecting tritium anywhere but very near the surface of materials to be impossible, because the {beta}-particle is absorbed by the material. Tritium readily exchanges with hydrogen in water vapor, and the resulting tritiated water can permeate polymers, concrete, oil, and the oxide surface films normally present on metals. Most of the tritium contamination in structural metals resides in the surface oxide film and in organic films at the surface, when metals are exposed to tritium at ambient temperature and pressure, whether the exposure is to gas or tritiated water. The most reliable method of assaying tritium is to dissolve samples in a proper liquid scintillant and use {beta}-scintillation counting. Other methods that require less time or are non-destructive (such as smear/counting) are significantly less reliable, but they can be used for routine waste characterization if sample dissolution/liquid scintillation counting is regularly employed to benchmark them.

  14. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within a few meters of the repository, that can be reasonably characterized. Within a few centuries after waste emplacement, overburden pressures will seal fractures, resaturate the dehydrated zones, and provide a repository setting that strongly limits radionuclide movement to diffusive transport. Coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations indicate maximum extents of radionuclide transport on the order of tens to hundreds of meters, or less, in a million years. Under the conditions modeled, a shale repository could achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios. The performance analyses described here are based on the assumption that long-term standards for disposal in clay/shale would be identical in the key aspects, to those prescribed for existing repository programs such as Yucca Mountain. This generic repository evaluation for shale is the first developed in the United States. Previous repository considerations have emphasized salt formations and volcanic rock formations. Much of the experience gained from U.S. repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, is applied here to scoping analyses for a shale repository. A contemporary understanding of clay mineralogy and attendant chemical environments has allowed identification of the appropriate features, events, and processes to be incorporated into the analysis. Advanced multi-physics modeling provides key support for understanding the effects from coupled processes. The results of the assessment show that shale formations provide a technically advanced, scientifically sound disposal option for the U.S.

  16. THERMAL IMPACT OF WASTE EMPLACEMENT AND SURFACE COOLING ASSOCIATED WITH GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    released by the buried wastes and heat remain­ ing in theOF 10-YEAR-OLD WASTES Waste Heat Source C h a r a c t e r ia t e r s e c t i o n s . WASTE HEAT SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION

  17. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Alan K.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  18. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Alan Keith

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  19. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

  20. al mixed waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and characterization alternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedial action DARA solids storage facility (SSF) University of California eScholarship...

  1. Decommissioning and waste disposal methods for an uranium mill facility in Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santiago, J.L. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, M. [INITEC, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the south of Spain on the outskirts of the town of Andujar an inactive uranium mill tailings pile is being stabilized in place. Mill equipment, buildings and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris will be placed in the pile. The tailings mass is being reshaped by flattening the sideslopes and a cover system will be placed over the pile. This paper describes the technical procedures used for the remediation and closure of the Andujar mill site and in particular discusses the approaches used for the dismantling and demolition of the processing facilities and the disposal of the metal wastes and demolition debris.

  2. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  3. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  4. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  5. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  7. Siting of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenhower, Daniel Bruce

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University property was evaluated for suitability for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. This site was evaluated to demonstrate, briefly, the site characterization process and to determine the ability of the statewide study to accurately predict... these boreholes. Literature review was an additional method employed to characterize the site. The results of this site characterization reveal that a more extensive investigation would be necessary to completely evaluate the site and that the state- wide...

  8. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  9. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole.

  10. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  11. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  12. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Mark L.; Eriksson, Leif G.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the URL and the repository are situated approximately 650 meters (m) below the ground surface in a 250-million-year-old, 600-m-thick, undisturbed, bedded salt formation, and they have been in operation since 1982 and 1999, respectively. Founded on long-standing CBFO collaborations with international and national radioactive waste management organizations, since 2001, WIPP serves as the Center of Excellence in Rock Salt for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Network of Centers on ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities'' (the IAEA Network). The primary objective for the IAEA Network is to foster collaborative projects among IAEA Member States that: supplement national efforts and promote public confidence in waste disposal schemes; contribute to the resolution of key technical issues; and encourage the transfer and preservation of knowledge and technologies.

  13. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  14. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  15. Faecal contamination of watercourses from farm waste disposal for three sites in the UK with contrasting soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Philip

    Faecal contamination of watercourses from farm waste disposal for three sites in the UK of fertilizer (Hooda et al. 2000). However, there are concerns about the faecal contribution that such field

  16. EIS-0113: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Waste, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to examine the potential environmental impacts of final disposal options for legacy and future radioactive defense wastes stored at the Hanford Site.

  17. Pipe overpack container for trasuranic waste storage and shipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geinitz, Richard R. (Arvada, CO); Thorp, Donald T. (Broomfield, CO); Rivera, Michael A. (Boulder, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pipe Overpack Container for transuranic waste storage and shipment. The system consists of a vented pipe component which is positioned in a vented, insulated 55 gallon steel drum. Both the vented pipe component and the insulated drum are capable of being secured to prevent the contents from leaving the vessel. The vented pipe component is constructed of 1/4 inch stainless steel to provide radiation shielding. Thus, allowing shipment having high Americium-241 content. Several Pipe Overpack Containers are then positioned in a type B, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved, container. In the current embodiment, a TRUPACT-II container was employed and a maximum of fourteen Pipe Overpack Containers were placed in the TRUPACT-II. The combination received NRC approval for the shipment and storage of transuranic waste.

  18. Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    enters the waste stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air conditioners, refrigeratorsAsset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have

  19. Generation, storage, collection and transportation of municipal solid waste - A case study in the city of Kathmandu, capital of Nepal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, R. [Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: rakib_env@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.A.I.; Hasan, G.M.J.; Karanjit, B.; Shrestha, L.R. [Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid waste management (SWM) services have consistently failed to keep up with the vast amount of solid waste produced in urban areas. There is not currently an efficient system in place for the management, storage, collection, and transportation of solid waste. Kathmandu City, an important urban center of South Asia, is no exception. In Kathmandu Metropolitan City, solid waste generation is predicted to be 1091 m{sup 3}/d (245 tons/day) and 1155 m{sup 3}/d (260 tons/day) for the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. The majority (89%) of households in Kathmandu Metropolitan City are willing to segregate the organic and non-organic portions of their waste. Overall collection efficiency was 94% in 2003. An increase in waste collection occurred due to private sector involvement, the shutdown of the second transfer station near the airport due to local protest, a lack of funding to maintain trucks/equipment, a huge increase in plastic waste, and the willingness of people to separate their waste into separate bins. Despite a substantial increase in total expenditure, no additional investments were made to the existing development plan to introduce a modern disposal system due to insufficient funding. Due to the lack of a proper lining, raw solid waste from the existing dumping site comes in contact with river water directly, causing severe river contamination and deteriorating the quality of the water.

  20. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Frank G.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory constraints based on the intruder analysis are well above conservative estimates of the OSWDF inventory and, based on intruder disposal limits; about 7% of the disposal capacity is reached with the estimated OSWDF inventory.

  1. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aye, Lu [International Technologies Centre (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia)]. E-mail: lua@unimelb.edu.au; Widjaya, E.R. [International Technologies Centre (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  2. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  3. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe RACM. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the DOE/NV-325, Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC, current revision). Approval will be given by NNSA/NSO to generators that have successfully demonstrated through process knowledge (PK) and/or sampling and analysis that the waste is low-level, contains asbestiform material, or contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, or small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste and does not contain prohibited waste materials. Each waste stream will be approved through the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP), which ensures that the waste meets acceptance requirements outlined in the NNSSWAC.

  4. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  5. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results are insensitive to TRU waste-related parameters. Limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench can meet DOE performance objectives for disposal of TRU waste and contribute negligibly to disposal site risk. Leaving limited quantities of buried TRU waste in-place may be preferred over retrieval for disposal in a deep geologic repository.

  6. Status of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, R. C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) are part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program being conducted by the Department of Energy. Within the NWTS program, the NNWSI is the component that focuses on siting evaluations on and near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The objectives of the Nevada project include evaluating the suitability of a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) site on or near the NTS, evaluating the suitability of a commercial nuclear waste repository site on or near the NTS, and supporting the NWTS program with research that is uniquely possible at NTS. Current engineering studies suggest that TEF and repository surface facilities would need to be located on gently sloping alluvium east of Yucca Mountain. Access from surface facilities to underground waste emplacement areas would be by vertical shafts and horizontal drifts, or possibly by inclined adits. The current NNWSI schedule includes an exploratory shaft location and horizon recommendation in 12/82, with a start of exploratory shaft drilling in 9/83. Because of the complexities of horizon selection, it is possible that the exploratory shaft depth or horizon recommendation may involve the exploration of more than one horizon. Phase I of the exploratory shaft, determination of TEF site suitability, is currently scheduled for 7/85. Phase II of the exploratory shaft, determination of repository site suitability, is currently scheduled for 3/87. This schedule is consistent with the current NWTS TEF and repository site selection schedules.

  7. Shielded Payload Containers Will Enhance the Safety and Efficiency of the DOE's Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.A. [U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad, New Mexico (United States); White, D.S. [Washington Group International, Carlsbad, New Mexico (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal operation currently employs two different disposal methods: one for Contact Handled (CH) waste and another for Remote Handled (RH) waste. CH waste is emplaced in a variety of payload container configurations on the floor of each disposal room. In contrast, RH waste is packaged into a single type of canister and emplaced in pre-drilled holes in the walls of disposal rooms. Emplacement of the RH waste in the walls must proceed in advance of CH waste emplacement. This poses a significant logistical constraint on waste handling operations by requiring significant coordination between waste characterization and preparations for shipping among the various generators. To improve operational efficiency, the Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing a new waste emplacement process for certain RH waste streams that can be safely managed in shielded containers. RH waste with relatively low gamma-emitting activity would be packaged in lead-lined containers, shipped to WIPP in existing certified transportation packages for CH waste, and emplaced in WIPP among the stacks of CH waste containers on the floor of a disposal room. RH waste with high gamma-emitting activity would continue to be emplaced in the boreholes along the walls. The new RH container appears essentially the same as a nominal 208-liter drum, but is built with about 2.5 cm of lead, sandwiched between thick steel sheet. The top and bottom are made of very thick plate steel, for strengthening the package to meet transportation requirements, and provide similar gamma attenuation. This robust configuration provides an overpack for waste that otherwise would be remotely handled. Up to a 3:1 reduction in number of shipments is projected if RH waste were transported in the proposed shielded containers. This paper describes the container design and testing, as well as the regulatory approach used to meet the requirements that apply to WIPP and its associated transportation system. This paper describes the RH transuranic waste inventory that may be candidates for packaging and emplacement in shielded containers. DOE does not propose to use shielded containers to increase the amount of RH waste allowed at WIPP. DOE's approach to gain approval for the transportation of shielded containers and to secure regulatory approval for use of shielded containers from WIPP regulators is discussed. Finally, the paper describes how DOE proposes to count the waste packaged into shielded containers against the RH waste inventory and how this will comply with the volume and radioactivity limitations imposed in the many and sometimes overlapping regulations that apply to WIPP. (authors)

  8. Transport and transportation pathways of hazardous chemicals from solid waste disposal. Environ. Health Perspect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Van Hook

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the impact of hazardous chemicals in solid wastes on man and other organisms, it is necessary to have information about amounts of chemical present, extent of exposure, and chemical toxicity. This paper addresses the question of organism exposure by considering the major physical and biological transport pathways and the physicochemical and biochemical transformations that may occur in sediments, soils, and water. Disposal of solid wastes in both terrestrial and oceank environments is considered. Atmospheric transport is considered for emissions from incineration of solid wastes and for wind resuspension of particulates from surface waste deposits. Solid wastes deposited in terrestrial environments are subject to leaching by surface and ground waters. Leachates may then be transported to other surface waters and drinking water aquifers through hydrologic transport. Leachates also interact with natural organic matter, clays, and microorganisms in soils and sediments. These interactions may render chemical constituents in leachates more or less mobile, possibly change chemical and physical forms, and alter their biological activity. Oceanic waste disposal practices result in migration through diffusion and ocean currents. Surface area-to-volume ratios play a major role in the initial distributions of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Sediments serve as major sources and sinks of chemical contaminants. Food chain transport in both aquatic and terrestrial environments results in the movement of hazardous chemicals from lower to higher positions in the food web. Bioconcentration is observed in both terrestrial and aquatic food chains with certain elements and synthetic organics. Bioconcentration factors tend to be higher for synthetic organics, and higher in aquatic than in terrestrial systems. Biodilution is not atypical in terrestrial environments. Synergistic and antagonistic actions are common occurrences among chemical contaminants and can be particularly important toxicity considerations in aquatic environments receiving runoff from several terrestrial sources.

  9. Status of the WAND (Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal) project as of July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnone, G.J.; Foster, L.A.; Foxx, C.L.; Hagan, R.C.; Martin, E.R.; Myers, S.C.; Parker, J.L.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The WAND (Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal) system can scan thought-to-be-clean, low-density waste (mostly paper and plastics) to determine whether the levels of any contaminant radioactivity are low enough to justify their disposal in normal public landfills or similar facilities. Such a screening would allow probably at least half of the large volume of low-density waste now buried at high cost in LANL`s Rad Waste Landfill (Area G at Technical Area 54) to be disposed of elsewhere at a much lower cost. The WAND System consists of a well-shielded bank of six 5-in.-diam. phoswich scintillation detectors; a mechanical conveyor system that carries a 12-in.-wide layer of either shredded material or packets of paper sheets beneath the bank of detectors; the electronics needed to process the outputs of the detectors; and a small computer to control the whole system and to perform the data analysis. WAND system minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for point sources range from {approximately}20 dps for {sup 241}Am to approximately 10 times that value for {sup 239}Pu, with most other nuclides of interest being between those values, depending upon the emission probabilities of the radiations emitted (usually gamma rays and/or x-rays). The system can also detect beta particles that have energies {ge}100 keV, but it is not easy to define an MDA based on beta radiation detection because of the greater absorption of beta particles relative to photons in low Z-materials. The only radioactive nuclides not detectable by the WAND system are pure alpha emitters and very-low-energy beta emitters. At this time, operating procedures and quality assurance procedures are in place and training materials are available to operators. The system is ready to perform useful work; however, it would be both possible and desirable to upgrade the electronic components and the analysis algorithms.

  10. Assessing risks of contained-in wastes may substitute for treatment, disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, J.S. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to EPA's contained-in rule, soils and groundwater containing RCRA-listed hazardous waste must be managed as hazardous until they no longer contain the waste, no longer exhibit a characteristic, or are delisted. This usually is quite costly. However, for some materials, there is a less expensive alternative -- a risk-based determination that the material is non-hazardous. EPA has not issued clear guidance on how to determine that contained-in materials no longer contain listed wastes. However, the agency says it assumes contained-in materials can be treated to levels that render them non-hazardous. Despite delays in promulgation of EPA's Hazardous Waste Identification Rule, the Agency appears unlikely to provide definitive guidance on managing contained-in materials. Rather, EPA is likely to continue focusing on broader aspects of waste classification. The recent corrective action management unit (CAMU) rule facilitates managing remediation and investigating wastes at RCRA corrective action facilities, and some Superfund sites; RCRA minimum technology requirements and land disposal restrictions do not apply within CAMUs.

  11. A risk-based decision-aiding tool for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, R.F.; Reiser, A.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elcock, C.G.; Nevins, S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N-CART (the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program Cost Analysis and Risk Tool) is being developed to aid in low-risk, cost-effective, timely management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and can therefore be used in management of mixed waste. N-CART provides evaluation of multiple alternatives and presents the consequences of proposed waste management activities in a clear and concise format. N-CART`s decision-aiding analyses include comparisons and sensitivity analyses of multiple alternatives and allows the user to perform quick turn-around {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} studies to investigate various scenarios. Uncertainties in data (such as cost and schedule of various activities) are represented as distributions. N-CART centralizes documentation of the bases of program alternatives and program decisions, thereby supporting responses to stakeholders concerns. The initial N-CART design considers regulatory requirements, costs, and schedules for alternative courses of action. The final design will include risks (public health, occupational, economic, scheduling), economic benefits, and the impacts of secondary waste generation. An optimization tool is being incorporated that allows the user to specify the relative importance of cost, time risks, and other bases for decisions. The N-CART prototype can be used to compare the costs and schedules of disposal alternatives for mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) and greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) waste, as well as spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and related scrap material.

  12. THERMAL IMPACT OF WASTE EMPLACEMENT AND SURFACE COOLING ASSOCIATED WITH GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waste repository design AERE-R--9343 Atomic Energy Researchof the thermal s t r e s s field. AERE R-8999, Atomic Energy

  13. Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth`s geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth`s geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with {sup 238}U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the {sup 238}U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with-{sup 238}U to 1 wt % {sup 235}U equivalent.

  14. Superfund Policy Statements and Guidance Regarding Disposition of Radioactive Waste in Non-NRC Licensed Disposal Facilities - 13407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Stuart [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)] [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This talk will discuss EPA congressional testimony and follow-up letters, as well as letters to other stakeholders on EPA's perspectives on the disposition of radioactive waste outside of the NRC licensed disposal facility system. This will also look at Superfund's historical practices, and emerging trends in the NRC and agreement states on waste disposition. (author)

  15. Subseabed Radioactive Waste Disposal Feasibility Program: ocean engineering challenges for the 80's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbert, D. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program is to assess the feasibility of disposing of high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuel in suitable geologic formations beneath the deep ocean floor. The program is entering a phase which will address engineering feasibility. While the current phase of the program to determine the scientific and environmental feasibility of the concept is not yet complete, activities to assess the engineering aspects are being initiated in parallel to facilitate the development of the concept on a time scale commensurate with other related programs both in the United States and abroad. It is anticipated that engineering aspects will become the central focus of the program during the early 80's and will continue so through the establishment of a pilot-plant level activity which could occur by the mid-90's.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  17. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  18. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  19. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (40 CFR parts 264/265, subparts A-E) updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module presents an overview of the general treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) standards found in 40 CFR parts 264/265, subparts A through E. It identifies and explains each exclusion from parts 264/265, and provides definitions of excluded units, such as wastewater treatment unit and elementary neutralization unit. It locates and describes the requirements for waste analysis and personnel training. It also describes the purpose of a contingency plan and lists the emergency notification procedures. It describes manifest procedures and responsibilities, and lists the unmanifested waste reporting requirements.

  20. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Successful Opening and Disposal to-Date of Mixed CERCLA Waste at the ORR-EMWMF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corpstein, P.; Hopper, P.; McNutt, R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 28, 2002, the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) opened for operations on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The EMWMF is the centerpiece in the DOE's strategy for ORR environmental cleanup. The 8+ year planned project is an on-site engineered landfill, which is accepting for disposal radioactive, hazardous, toxic and mixed wastes generated by remedial action subcontractors. The opening of the EMWMF on May 28, 2002 marked the culmination of a long development process that began in mid-1980. In late 1999 the Record of Decision was signed and a full year of design for the initial 400, 000-yd3 disposal cell began. In early 2000 Duratek Federal Services, Inc. (Federal Services) began construction. Since then, Federal Services and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) have worked cooperatively to complete a required DOE readiness evaluation, develop all the Safety Authorization Basis Documentation (ASA's, SER, and UCD's) and prepare procedures and work controlling documents required to safely accept waste. This paper explains the intricacies and economics of designing and constructing the facility.

  2. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts associated with the proposed development, operation, and long-term management of a disposal facility or facilities for Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste and GTCC-like waste. The Environmental Protection Agency is a cooperating agency in the preparation of this EIS.

  3. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  4. Final disposal options for mercury/uranium mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorin, A.H.; Leckey, J.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory testing was completed on chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation methods that are applicable (to comply with federal and state regulations) to the final disposal of both hazardous and mixed hazardous elemental mercury waste that is in either of the following categories: (1) waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on mercury-contaminated buildings, such as Building 9201-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, or (2) waste stored and regulated under either the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement or the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Methods were used that produced copper-mercury, zinc-mercury, and sulfur-mercury materials at room temperature by dry mixing techniques. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results for mercury on batches of both the copper-mercury and the sulfur-mercury amalgams consistently produced leachates with less than the 0.2-mg/L Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory limit for mercury. The results clearly showed that the reaction of mercury with sulfur at room temperature produces black mercuric sulfide, a material that is well suited for land disposal. The results also showed that the copper-mercury and zinc-mercury amalgams had major adverse properties that make them undesirable for land disposal. In particular, they reacted readily in air to form oxides and liberate elemental mercury. Another major finding of this study is that sulfur polymer cement is potentially useful as a physical encapsulating agent for mercuric sulfide. This material provides a barrier in addition to the chemical stabilization that further prevents mercury, in the form of mercuric sulfide, from migrating into the environment.

  5. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  6. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  7. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  8. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  13. Significance of the microstructure of Pacific red clays to nuclear waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkett, Patti Jo

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Tieh (member) Richard H. Bennett (member) Rober t O. Reid (Head oi' Department) Richard Rezak (member) August 1987 ABSTRACT The Significance of' the Micr ostr uctur e of Pacif'ic Red Clays to Nuclear Waste Disposal. (August 1987) Patti Jo..., 1966) B and C:"Stepped (FF) face-to -face" (Smalley and Cabrera, 1969). V' Chain of stepped face-to- face and (EE) edge-to-edge particles (O' Brien, 1971). "Turbostratic" structure (Aylmore and Quirked 1960). /7 Figure 2, Particle r le ar...

  14. The effects of hazardous waste taxes on generation and disposal of chlorinated solvent waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, 30 states levied taxes on e generation or management of hazardous waste. These taxes constitute one of the broadest applications of an emissions tax in U.S. environmental policy and provide a natural experiment ...

  15. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  16. Determination of the Porosity Surfaces of the Disposal Room Containing Various Waste Inventories for WIPP PA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Byoung; Hansen, Francis D.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report develops a series of porosity surfaces for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The concept of a porosity surface was developed for performance assessment and comprises calculation of room closure as salt creep processes are mitigated by gas generation and back stress created by the waste packages within the rooms. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the waste packaging that has already been disposed--such as the pipe overpack--and new waste packaging--such as the advanced mixed waste compaction--are appreciably different than the waste form upon which the original compliance was based and approved. This report provides structural analyses of room closure with various waste inventories. All of the underlying assumptions pertaining to the original compliance certification including the same finite element code are implemented; only the material parameters describing the more robust waste packages are changed from the certified baseline. As modeled, the more rigid waste tends to hold open the rooms and create relatively more void space in the underground than identical calculations run on the standard waste packages, which underpin the compliance certification. The several porosity surfaces quantified within this report provide possible ranges of pressure and porosity for performance assessment analyses.3 Intentionally blank4 AcknowledgementsThis research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the U.S. Department of Energy. The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions to this work provided by others. Dr. Joshua S. Stein helped explain the hand off between these finite element porosity surfaces and implementation in the performance calculations. Dr. Leo L. Van Sambeek of RESPEC Inc. helped us understand the concepts of room closure under the circumstances created by a rigid waste inventory. Dr. T. William Thompson and Tom W. Pfeifle provided technical review and Mario J. Chavez provided a Quality Assurance review. The paper has been improved by these individuals.Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94Al850005 Intentionally Blank6

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous waste sites Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 43 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: -disposal site in the U.S. accepting...

  18. Politics and promises of nuclear waste disposal: the view from Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, R.H.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE`s betrayal of the principles and standards of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) has distorted the agency`s repository-siting decisions. Leadership is needed to make midcourse corrections and to return to the promise of state-federal cooperation on which the act was built. NWPA managed to incorporate the interests of diverse factions into a decision-making process that was viewed as an equitable and workable solution to the nation`s nuclear waste disposal dilemma. The House of Representatives subcommittees report documents conclusively a substantial and pervasive bias in favor of the selection of sites at Yucca Mountain and Hanford and a politization of the siting process.

  19. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented.

  20. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  1. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Saripalli, Prasad; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, P. F.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Reed, Lunde R.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses; LAWA44, LAWB45, and LAWC22. This data will be used for Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) simulations of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in July 2005. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali (Na+)-hydrogen (H+) ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and product consistency (PCT) tests where used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses in order to determine a chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form. The majority of the thermodynamic data used in this data package were extracted from the thermody-namic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6, version 8.0. Because of the expected importance of 129I release from secondary waste streams being sent to IDF from various thermal treatment processes, parameter estimates for diffusional release and solubility-controlled release from cementitious waste forms were estimated from the available literature.

  2. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

  3. Modeling approaches for concrete barriers used in low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, R.R.; Walton, J.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of three NUREGs and several papers addressing different aspects of modeling performance of concrete barriers for low-level radioactive waste disposal have been prepared previously for the Concrete Barriers Research Project. This document integrates the information from the previous documents into a general summary of models and approaches that can be used in performance assessments of concrete barriers. Models for concrete degradation, flow, and transport through cracked concrete barriers are discussed. The models for flow and transport assume that cracks have occurred and thus should only be used for later times in simulations after fully penetrating cracks are formed. Most of the models have been implemented in a computer code. CEMENT, that was developed concurrently with this document. User documentation for CEMENT is provided separate from this report. To avoid duplication, the reader is referred to the three previous NUREGs for detailed discussions of each of the mathematical models. Some additional information that was not presented in the previous documents is also included. Sections discussing lessons learned from applications to actual performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities are provided. Sensitive design parameters are emphasized to identify critical areas of performance for concrete barriers, and potential problems in performance assessments are also identified and discussed.

  4. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  5. THERMAL IMPACT OF WASTE EMPLACEMENT AND SURFACE COOLING ASSOCIATED WITH GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cnalk R i v e r , Ontar o, AECL-b308, 46 p . Tnomas, R. K. ,with a radioactive waste vault. AECL--6308, Atomic Energys t u d y . P a r t 2. AECL-6188-2, Atomic Energy of Canada,

  6. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  7. Evaluation of food waste disposal options by LCC analysis from the perspective of global warming: Jungnang case, South Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yul-Eum, E-mail: yesong0724@dongguk.edu [Department of Philosophy, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Han-Byul, E-mail: kuackyang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Sangdo-Ro 369, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sun-Jin, E-mail: sjhwang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Various food waste disposal options were evaluated from the perspective of global warming. > Costs of the options were compared by the methodology of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis. > Carbon price and valuable by-products were used for analyzing environmental credits. > The benefit-cost ratio of wet feeding scenario was the highest. - Abstract: The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle cost was analyzed through the entire disposal process, which included discharge, separate collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal stages, all of which were included in the system boundary. Costs and benefits were estimated by an avoided impact. Environmental benefits of each system per 1 tonne of food waste management were estimated using carbon prices resulting from CO{sub 2} reduction by avoided impact, as well as the prices of by-products such as animal feed, compost, and electricity. We found that the cost of landfilling was the lowest, followed by co-digestion. The benefits of wet feeding systems were the highest and landfilling the lowest.

  8. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  9. Standard test method for static leaching of monolithic waste forms for disposal of radioactive waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method provides a measure of the chemical durability of a simulated or radioactive monolithic waste form, such as a glass, ceramic, cement (grout), or cermet, in a test solution at temperatures radioactive waste forms in various leachants under the specific conditions of the test based on analysis of the test solution. Data from this test are used to calculate normalized elemental mass loss values from specimens exposed to aqueous solutions at temperatures <100°C. 1.3 The test is conducted under static conditions in a constant solution volume and at a constant temperature. The reactivity of the test specimen is determined from the amounts of components released and accumulated in the solution over the test duration. A wide range of test conditions can be used to study material behavior, includin...

  10. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  11. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  12. Norfolk Southern boxcar blocking/bracing plan for the mixed waste disposal initiative project. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seigler, R.S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs will dispose of mixed waste no longer deemed useful. This project is one of the initial activities used to help meet this goal. The project will transport the {approximately}46,000 drums of existing stabilized mixed waste located at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and presently stored in the K-31 and K-33 buildings to an off-site commercially licensed and permitted mixed waste disposal facility. Shipping and disposal of all {approximately}46,000 pond waste drums ({approximately}1,000,000 ft{sup 3} or 55,000 tons) is scheduled to occur over a period of {approximately}5--10 years. The first shipment of stabilized pond waste should transpire some time during the second quarter of FY 1994. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., proposes to line each of the Norfolk Southem boxcars with a prefabricated, white, 15-mm low-density polyethylene (LDPE) liner material. To avoid damaging the bottom of the polyethylene floor liner, a minimum .5 in. plywood will be nailed to the boxcars` nailable metal floor. At the end of the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project workers at the Envirocare facility will dismantle and dispose of all the polyethylene liner and plywood materials. Envirocare of Utah, Inc., located in Clive, Utah, will perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Energy Systems. Energy Systems will also perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Norfolk Southem Railroad.

  13. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  14. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

  15. TRU waste certification compliance requirements for acceptance of contact-handled wastes retrieved from storage to be shipped to the WIPP. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compliance requirements are presented for certifying that unclassified, contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) solid defense wastes retrieved from storage at DOE sites meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). All applicable DOE orders must continue to be met. The compliance requirements for certified waste retrieved from certified storage are addressed in another document. The compliance requirements are divided into four sections, primarily determined by the general feature that the requirements address. These sections are General Requirements, Waste Container Requirements, Waste Form Requirements, and Waste Package Requirements. The waste package is the combination of waste container and waste. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Dispose of it Properly! Use the following guide to determine what must be considered medical waste. Sharps must go into designated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    in designated sharps containers (needle boxes, rigid plastic lab containers) Dispose of as trash Ampoules. Sharps must go into designated sharps containers. Chemotherapy wastes can only go into designated black chemotherapy waste containers. Regulated Medical Waste Not Medical Waste Place in red bags in designated

  17. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  18. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  19. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  20. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pianka, E.W. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1995-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs.

  1. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Chambers Works, Deepwater, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastas, M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess control technology for hazardous wastes disposal operations at du Pont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2800), Deepwater, New Jersey in November 1981. Hazardous wastes generated at the facility were disposed of by incineration, wastewater and thermal treatment, and landfilling. Engineering controls for the incineration process and at the landfill were noted. At the landfill, water from a tank trailer was sprayed periodically to suppress dust generation. Vapor control devices, such as spot scrubbers, were used during transfer of organic wastes from trailers and drums to storage prior to incineration. Wastes were also recirculated to prevent build up of grit in the strainers. The company conducted area monitoring for nitrobenzene (98953) and amines at the landfill and personal monitoring for chloramines at the incinerator. Half mask dust respirators were worn by landfill operators. Operators who unloaded and emptied drums at the incinerator were required to wear face masks, rubber gloves, and boots. The author concludes that disposal of hazardous wastes at the facility is state of the art. An in depth survey is recommended.

  2. Appraisal of a cementitious material for waste disposal: Neutron imaging studies of pore structure and sorptivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlinn, Peter J., E-mail: pjm@ansto.gov.a [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Beer, Frikkie C. de [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), Church Street West Extension, Pelindaba, Brits District, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Aldridge, Laurence P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Radebe, Mabuti J.; Nshimirimana, Robert [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), Church Street West Extension, Pelindaba, Brits District, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Brew, Daniel R.M.; Payne, Timothy E.; Olufson, Kylie P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cementitious materials are conventionally used in conditioning intermediate and low level radioactive waste. In this study a candidate cement-based wasteform has been investigated using neutron imaging to characterise the wasteform for disposal in a repository for radioactive materials. Imaging showed both the pore size distribution and the extent of the cracking that had occurred in the samples. The rate of the water penetration measured both by conventional sorptivity measurements and neutron imaging was greater than in pastes made from Ordinary Portland Cement. The ability of the cracks to distribute the water through the sample in a very short time was also evident. The study highlights the significant potential of neutron imaging in the investigation of cementitious materials. The technique has the advantage of visualising and measuring, non-destructively, material distribution within macroscopic samples and is particularly useful in defining movement of water through the cementitious materials.

  3. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  4. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND CERTIFICATION OF REMOTE-HANDLED TRANSURANIC WASTE GENERATOR/STORAGE SITES FOR SHIPMENT TO THE WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spangler, L.R.; Most, Wm.A.; Kehrman, R.F.; Gist, C.S.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is operating to receive and dispose of contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is seeking approval from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) of the remote-handled (RH) TRU characterization plan to allow disposal of RH TRU waste in the WIPP repository. In addition, the DOE-CBFO has received approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use two shipping casks for transporting RH TRU waste. Each regulatory agency (i.e., EPA, NMED, and NRC) has different requirements that will have to be met through the use of information collected by characterizing the RH TRU waste. Therefore, the DOE-CBFO has developed a proposed characterization program for obtaining the RH TRU waste information necessary to demonstrate that the waste meets the applicable regulatory requirements. This process involved the development of a comprehensive set of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) comprising the various regulatory requirements. The DOE-CBFO has identified seven DQOs for use in the RH TRU waste characterization program. These DQOs are defense waste determination, TRU waste determination, RH TRU determination, activity determination, RCRA physical and chemical properties, prohibited item determination, and EPA physical and chemical properties. The selection of the DQOs were based on technical, legal and regulatory drivers that assure the health and safety of the workers, the public, to protect the environment, and to comply with the requirements of the regulatory agencies. The DOE-CBFO also has the responsibility for the certification of generator/storage sites to ship RH TRU mixed waste to the WIPP for disposal. Currently, thirteen sites across the DOE complex are generators of RH TRU waste or store the waste at their location for other generators. Generator/storage site certification involves review and approval of site-specific programmatic documents that demonstrate compliance with the WIPP waste characterization and transportation requirements. Additionally, procedures must be developed to implement programmatic requirements and adequacy of those procedures determined. Finally, on-site audits evaluate the technical and administrative implementation and effectiveness of the operating procedures.

  6. Development of Risk Insights for Regulatory Review of a Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esh, D.W.; Ridge, A.C.; Thaggard, M. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T7J8, Washington, DC 20555 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) about non-High Level Waste (HLW) determinations. In its consultative role, NRC performs technical reviews of DOE's waste determinations but does not have regulatory authority over DOE's waste disposal activities. The safety of disposal is evaluated by comparing predicted disposal facility performance to the performance objectives specified in NRC regulations for the disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart C). The performance objectives contain criteria for protection of the public, protection of inadvertent intruders, protection of workers, and stability of the disposal site after closure. The potential radiological dose to receptors typically is evaluated with a performance assessment (PA) model that simulates the release of radionuclides from the disposal site, transport of radionuclides through the environment, and exposure of potential receptors to residual contamination for thousands of years. This paper describes NRC's development and use of independent performance assessment modeling to facilitate review of DOE's non-HLW determination for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site. NRC's review of the safety of near-surface disposal of radioactive waste at the SDF was facilitated and focused by risk insights developed with an independent PA model. The main components of NRC's performance assessment model are presented. The development of risk insights that allow the staff to focus review efforts on those areas that are most important to satisfying the performance objectives is discussed. Uncertainty analysis was performed of the full stochastic model using genetic variable selection algorithms. The results of the uncertainty analysis were then used to guide the development of simulations of other scenarios to understand the key risk drivers and risk limiters of the SDF. Review emphasis was placed on those aspects of the disposal system that were expected to drive performance: the physical and chemical performance of the cementitious wasteform and concrete vaults. Refinement of the modeling of the degradation and release from the cementitious wasteform had a significant effect on the predicted dose to a member of the public. (authors)

  7. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  8. The low-low-level mixed waste regulatory gap: A disposal and recycle impasse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, S.E. [S.E. Logan and Associates, Inc., Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Small steel mills in the United States receive and melt scrap steel in electric arc furnaces. The off-gas from these furnaces carries dust to the bag house where the dust is trapped and recovered. The EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) dust contains hazardous components lead, cadmium and chromium, causing it to be designated as U.S. EPA hazardous waste K061. The dust also carries about 20% zinc, a valuable byproduct for recovery. The EAF dust is normally either disposed of at a landfill licensed for hazardous wastes, or sent to a High Temperature Metal Recovery (HTMR) facility for recycle processing. During the past few years, there have been a number of incidents in which an industrial gauge source, containing the radioisotope Cs-137, has been inadvertently included in a load of scrap steel charged to an arc furnace. In each incident, the cesium and its encapsulation and holder melted, releasing the cesium into the off-gas system where it became distributed in hundreds of tons of EAF dust in the ducts and in the bag house. The contaminated dust, having both hazardous and radioactive components is a mixed waste. A regulatory gap exists that prevents disposition of this material, through it has only a low-low-level of radioactivity. A risk assessment was conducted for a midwest steel company that experienced a cesium meltdown incident. Most of the stored dust from this incident has an activity level less than the limit for the lowest category of LLW by a factor of 5,800, and some is only slightly above background. The significant pathways calculated include direct exposure to masses of the dust, ingestion of leachate and groundwater at a hazardous waste landfill, and potential releases to air and water during HTMR recycle processing.

  9. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  10. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  11. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  12. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  13. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  14. EIS-0063: Waste Management Operations, Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the existing tank design and consider additional specific design and safety feature alternatives for the thirteen tanks being constructed for storage of defense high-level radioactive liquid waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This statement supplements ERDA-1538, "Final Environmental Statement on Waste Management Operation."

  15. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  16. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  17. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  18. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  20. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  1. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here. Parameters necessary for estimating surface contaminant flux due to native plants expected to inhabit the NTS RWMSS are developed in this report. The model is specific to the plant communities found at the NTS and is designed for both short-term (<1,000 years) and long-term (>1,000 years) modeling efforts. While the model has been crafted for general applicability to any NTS PA, the key radionuclides considered are limited to the transuranic (TRU) wastes disposed of at the NTS.

  2. TRU (transuranic) waste certification compliance requirements for acceptance of contact-handled wastes retrieved from storage to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compliance requirements are presented for certifying that unclassified, contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) solid defense wastes retrieved from storage at DOE sites meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). All applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders must continue to be met. The compliance requirements for acceptance of newly generated CH waste to be shipped to the WIPP are addressed in another document. The compliance requirements are divided into four sections, primarily determined by the general feature that the requirements address. These sections are General Requirements, Waste Container Requirements, Waste Form Requirements, and Waste Package Requirements. The waste package is the combination of waste container and waste. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  4. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  5. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose during the 1) institutional control period (0-100 years), compliance period (0-1000 years) and post-compliance period (>1000 years). Evaluation of the all pathway dose included the dose from ingestion and irrigation of contaminated groundwater extracted from a well 100 meters downgradient, in addition to the dose received from direct contact of radionuclides deposited near the surface resulting from facility overflow. Depending on the disposal facility radionuclide inventory, facility design, cover performance, and the location and environment where the facility is situated, the dose from exposure via direct contact of near surface deposited radionuclides can be much greater than the dose received via transport to the groundwater and subsequent ingestion.

  6. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION & PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT & EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  7. Progress and Status of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's New Solid Waste Management and Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, J.; Henderson, R.W. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Penkov, V. [State Enterprise Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Visaginas (Lithuania)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A considerable amount of dry radioactive waste from former NPP operation has accumulated up to date and is presently stored at the Ignalina NPP site, Lithuania. Current storage capacities are nearly exhausted and more waste is to come from future decommissioning of the two RMBKtype reactors. Additionally, the existing storage facilities does not comply to the state-of-the-art technology for handling and storage of radioactive waste. In 2005, INPP faced this situation of a need for waste processing and subsequent interim storage of these wastes by contracting NUKEM with the design, construction, installation and commissioning of new waste management and storage facilities. The subject of this paper is to describe the scope and the status of the new solid waste management and storage facilities at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In summary: The turnkey contract for the design, supply and commission of the SWMSF was awarded in December 2005. The realisation of the project was initially planned within 48 month. The basic design was finished in August 2007 and the Technical Design Documentation and Preliminary Safety Analyses Report was provided to Authorities in October 2007. The construction license is expected in July 2008. The procurement phase was started in August 2007, start of onsite activities is expected in November 2007. The start of operation of the SWMSF is scheduled for end of 2009. (authors)

  8. EA-0981: Solid Waste Retrieval Complex, Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility, Infrastructure Upgrades, and Central Waste Support Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to retrieve transuranic waste (TRU), provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3, and mixed...

  9. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, J.E.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 29, 1988, the Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE). The closure activities described in the closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal (CRSDB). The closure of CRSDB is a final closure. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB), Unit D-025, was an unlined, man-made sediment disposal facility on Chestnut Ridge, south of New Hope Pond (NHP). The CRSDB was constructed during 1972--73 for the disposal of sediments hydraulically dredged from NHP. It was designed to hold approximately 30,000 cubic yards of sediments. Since 1973, the basin had been used for the periodic disposal of sediments excavated from NHP and its appurtenant structures. NHP has previously received discharges form RCRA-related waste streams. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

  12. EA-0820: Construction of Mixed Waste Storage RCRA Facilities, Buildings 7668 and 7669, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate two mixed (both radioactive and hazardous) waste storage facilities (Buildings 7668 and 7669) in accordance with...

  13. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  14. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1991. This report does not include solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms, or backlog wastes. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  15. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  16. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  17. Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform From the Strategic Research Agenda to its Deployment - 12015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouzounian, P. [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Palmu, Marjatta [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland); Eng, Torsten [SKB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several European waste management organizations (WMOs) have initiated a technology platform for accelerating the implementation of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Europe. The most advanced waste management programmes in Europe (i.e. Finland, Sweden, and France) have already started or are prepared to start the licensing process of deep geological disposal facilities within the next decade. A technology platform called Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) was launched in November 2009. A shared vision report for the platform was published stating that: 'Our vision is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe'. In 2011, the IGD-TP had eleven WMO members and about 70 participants from academia, research, and the industry committed to its vision. The IGD-TP has started to become a tool for reducing overlapping work, to produce savings in total costs of research and implementation and to make better use of existing competence and research infrastructures. The main contributor to this is the deployment of the IGD-TP's newly published Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The work undertaken for the SRA defined the pending research, development and demonstration (RD and D) issues and needs. The SRA document describing the identified issues that could be worked on collaboratively was published in July 2011. It is available on the project's public web site (www.igdtp.eu). The SRA was organized around 7 Key Topics covering the Safety Case, Waste forms and their behaviour, Technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components, Development strategy of the repository, Safety of construction and operations, Monitoring, and Governance and stakeholder involvement. Individual Topics were prioritized within the Key Topics. Cross-cutting activities like Education and Training or Knowledge Management as well as activities remaining specific for the WMOs were as well identified in the document. For example, each WMO has to develop their own waste acceptance rules, and plan for the economics and the funding of their waste management programmes. The challenge at hand for the IGD-TP is to deploy the SRA. This is carried out by agreeing on a Deployment Plan (DP) that guides organizing the concrete joint activities between the WMOs and the other participants of the IGD-TP. The first DP points out the coordinated RD and D projects and other activities that need to be launched to produce these results over the next four to five years (by the end of 2016). The DP also describes general principles for how the joint work can be organised and funded. (authors)

  18. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  19. Waste segregation procedures and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, J.D.; Massey, C.D.; Ward, S.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Segregation is a critical first step in handling hazardous and radioactive materials to minimize the generation of regulated wastes. In addition, segregation can significantly reduce the complexity and the total cost of managing waste. Procedures at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque require that wastes be segregated, first, by waste type (acids, solvents, low level radioactive, mixed, classified, etc.). Higher level segregation requirements, currently under development, are aimed at enhancing the possibilities for recovery, recycle and reapplication; reducing waste volumes; reducing waste disposal costs, and facilitating packaging storage, shipping and disposal. 2 tabs.

  20. Enhancing RESRAD-OFFSITE for Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abstract: The RESRAD-OFFSITE code was developed to evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The primary contamination, which is the source of all releases modeled by the code, is assumed to be a layer of soil. The code considers the release of contamination from the source to the atmosphere, to surface runoff, and to groundwater. The radionuclide leaching was modeled as a first order (without transport) release using radionuclide distribution coefficient and infiltration rate calculated from water balance (precipitation, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, etc.). Recently, a new source term model was added the RESRAD-OFFSITE code so that it can be applied to the evaluation of Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility performance assessment. This new improved source term model include (1) first order with transport, (2) equilibrium desorption (rinse) release, and (3) uniform release (constant dissolution). With these new source release options, it is possible to simulate both uncontainerized (soil) contamination and containerized (waste drums) contamination. A delay time in the source release was also added to the code. This allows modeling the LLW container degradation as a function of time. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code also allows linking to other codes using improved flux and concentration input options. Additional source release model such as diffusion release may be added later. In addition, radionuclide database with 1252 radionuclides (ICRP 107) and the corresponding dose coefficients (DCFPAK 3.02) and the Department of Energy’s new gender- and age-averaged Reference Person dose coefficients (DOE-STD-1196-2011) which is based on the US census data will be added to the next version of RESRAD-OFFSITE code

  1. Environmental regulations and technology: use and disposal of municipal waste-water sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document describes the five major sludge use/disposal options currently available--land application, distribution and marketing of sludge products, land-filling, incineration, and ocean disposal--and factors influencing their selection and implementation. It also provides an initial framework for evaluating sludge use/disposal alternatives, and describes accepted and proven use/disposal technologies and Federal regulations pertinent to sludge management.

  2. Taxes In, Garbage Out The Need for Better Solid Waste Disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................................... 8 THE FISCAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CURRENT DISPOSAL PRACTICES.....................9 Fiscal..................................................................................... 2 History of the Municipal System Impact

  3. Hazardous Waste Management Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Hazardous Waste Management Training Persons (including faculty, staff and students) working with hazardous materials should receive annual training that addresses storage, use, and disposal of hazardous before handling hazardous waste. Departments are re- quired to keep records of training for as long

  4. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others] [and others

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  5. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  6. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  7. Geothermal reservoir simulation to enhance confidence in predictions for nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs is useful and necessary in understanding and evaluating reservoir structure and behavior, designing field development, and predicting performance. Models vary in complexity depending on processes considered, heterogeneity, data availability, and study objectives. They are evaluated using computer codes written and tested to study single and multiphase flow and transport under nonisothermal conditions. Many flow and heat transfer processes modeled in geothermal reservoirs are expected to occur in anthropogenic thermal (AT) systems created by geologic disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. We examine and compare geothermal systems and the AT system expected at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and their modeling. Time frames and spatial scales are similar in both systems, but increased precision is necessary for modeling the AT system, because flow through specific repository locations will affect long-term ability radionuclide retention. Geothermal modeling experience has generated a methodology, used in the AT modeling for Yucca Mountain, yielding good predictive results if sufficient reliable data are available and an experienced modeler is involved. Codes used in geothermal and AT modeling have been tested extensively and successfully on a variety of analytical and laboratory problems.

  8. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  9. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  10. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  11. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  12. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  13. Evaluation of the capabilities of the Hanford Reservation and Envirocare of Utah for disposal of potentially problematic mixed low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, W.C.; Gruebel, M.M.; Wheeler, T.A.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area is developing a program to address and resolve issues associated with final waste form performance in treating and disposing of DOE`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) inventory. A key issue for the program is identifying MLLW streams that may be problematic for disposal. Previous reports have quantified and qualified the capabilities of fifteen DOE sites for MLLW disposal and provided volume and radionuclide concentration estimates for treated MLLW based on the DOE inventory. Scoping-level analyses indicated that 101 waste streams identified in this report (approximately 6,250 m{sup 3} of the estimated total treated MLLW) had radionuclide concentrations that may make their disposal problematic. The radionuclide concentrations of these waste streams were compared with the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for a DOE disposal facility at Hanford and for Envirocare`s commercial disposal facility for MLLW in Utah. Of the treated MLLW volume identified as potentially problematic, about 100 m{sup 3} exceeds the WAC for disposal at Hanford, and about 4,500 m{sup 3} exceeds the WAC for disposal at Envirocare. Approximately 7% of DOE`s total MLLW inventory has not been sufficiently characterized to identify a treatment process for the waste and was not included in the analysis. In addition, of the total treated MLLW volume, about 30% was associated with waste streams that did not have radionuclide concentration data and could not be included in the determination of potentially problematic waste streams.

  14. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  16. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Arnold, Bill Walter [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  17. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. Staiger

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  18. ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    L ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and treatment structures. In a lagoon, organic waste is diluted with water and bacteria decompose the organic as fertilizer. Effluent also can be recycled for manure handling in a flush system. Efficiency To be efficient

  19. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal: Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results reported here establish the relevance and propose a method for including biotic transport in the assessment and licensing process for commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Earlier work identified the biotic transport mechanisms and process scenarios linking biotic transport with dose to man, and developed models for assessment of impacts. Model modification and improvement efforts in enhancing the ability to represent soil erosion and soil transport within the trench cover. Two alternative hypotheses on plant root uptake were incorporated into the model to represent transport of radionuclides by roots that penetrate the buried waste. Enhancements were also made to the scenario for future site intruder activities. Representation of waste package decomposition in the model was confirmed as the best available alternative. Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that additional information is needed to evaluate the alternative hypotheses for plant root uptake of buried wastes. Site-specific evaluations of the contribution from biotic transport to the potential dose to man establish the relevance in the assessment process. The BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package is proposed for dose assessments of commercial low-level waste disposal sites.

  20. Ground-water flow and transport modeling of the NRC-licensed waste disposal facility, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. (HydroGeoLogic, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a simulation study of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport from disposal at the NRC licensed waste disposal facility in West Valley, New York. A transient, precipitation driven, flow model of the near-surface fractured till layer and underlying unweathered till was developed and calibrated against observed inflow data into a recently constructed interceptor trench for the period March--May 1990. The results suggest that lateral flow through the upper, fractured till layer may be more significant than indicated by previous, steady state flow modeling studies. A conclusive assessment of the actual magnitude of lateral flow through the fractured till could however not be made. A primary factor contributing to this uncertainty is the unknown contribution of vertical infiltration through the interceptor trench cap to the total trench inflow. The second part of the investigation involved simulation of the migration of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239 from the one of the fuel hull disposal pits. A first-order radionuclide leach rate with rate coefficient of 10{sup {minus}6}/day was assumed to describe radionuclide release into the disposal pit. The simulations indicated that for wastes buried below the fractured till zone, no significant migration would occur. However, under the assumed conditions, significant lateral migration could occur for radionuclides present in the upper, fractured till zone. 23 refs., 68 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Hazardous Waste Management Act (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the public policy of the state of South Dakota to regulate the control and generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes. The state operates a comprehensive...

  2. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  4. EA-1793: Replacement Capability for Disposal of Remote-handled Low-level Waste Generated at the Department of Energy's Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of replacement capability for disposal of remote-handled low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site beginning in October 2017.

  5. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: IMPACT OF NEW INFORMATION SINCE 2008 PA ON CURRENT LOW-LEVEL SOLID WASTE OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: ? New K{sub d} values for iodine, radium and uranium ? Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors ? Updated radionuclide data ? Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides ? Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025 ? Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0 of this UDQE has rendered the projected final SOF for SLIT9 less than the WITS Admin Limit. With respect to future disposal unit operations in the East Slit Trench Group, consideration of new information for Slit Trench#14 (SLIT14) reduced the current SOF for the limiting All-Pathways 200-1000 year period (AP2) by an order of magnitude and by one quarter for the Beta-Gamma 12-100 year period (BG2) pathway. On the balance, updates to K{sub d} values and dose factors and elimination of CDP factors (generally favorable) more than compensated for the detrimental impact of a more rigorous treatment of plume dispersion. These observations suggest that future operations in the East Slit Trench Group can be conducted with higher confidence using current inventory limits, and that limits could be increased if desired for future low-level waste disposal units. The same general conclusion applies to future ST’s in the West Slit Trench Group based on the Impacted Final SOFs for existing ST’s in that area.

  6. EIS-0212: Safe Interim Storage of Hanford Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, WA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental impact statement asseses Department of Energy and Washington State Department of Ecology maintanence of safe storage of high-level radioactive wastes currently stored in the older single-shell tanks, the Watchlist Tank 101-SY, and future waste volumes associated with tank farm and other Hanford facility operations, including a need to provide a modern safe, reliable, and regulatory-compliant replacement cross-site transfer capability. The purpose of this action is to prevent uncontrolled releases to the environment by maintaining safe storage of high-level tank wastes.

  7. Stakeholder Engagement on the Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste -12565

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, Christine; Joyce, James; Edelman, Arnold [Office of Environmental Management, Office of Disposal Operations-EM-43 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Disposal Operations is responsible for developing a permanent disposal capability for a small volume, but highly radioactive, class of commercial low-level radioactive waste, known as Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. DOE has issued a draft environmental impact statement (EIS) and will be completing a final EIS under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that evaluates a range of disposal alternatives. Like other classes of radioactive waste, proposing and evaluating disposal options for GTCC waste is highly controversial, presents local and national impacts, and generates passionate views from stakeholders. Recent national and international events, such as the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, have heighten stakeholder awareness of everything nuclear, including disposal of radioactive waste. With these challenges, the Office of Disposal Operations recognizes that informed decision-making that will result from stakeholder engagement and participation is critical to the success of the GTCC EIS project. This paper discusses the approach used by the Office of Disposal Operations to engage stakeholders on the GTCC EIS project, provides advice based on our experiences, and proffers some ideas for future engagements in today's open, always connected cyber environment. (authors)

  8. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  9. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  10. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  11. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Operating Experience and Lessons Learned in the Use of Soft-Sided Packaging for Transportation and Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, A. [DOE; Gordon, S. [NSTec; Goldston, W. [Energy Solutions

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the operating experience and lessons learned at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a result of an evaluation of potential trailer contamination and soft-sided packaging integrity issues related to the disposal of low-level and mixed low-level (LLW/MLLW) radioactive waste shipments. Nearly 4.3 million cubic meters of LLW/MLLW will have been generated and disposed of during fiscal year (FY) 2010 to FY 2015—either at commercial disposal sites or disposal sites owned by DOE. The LLW/MLLW is packaged in several different types of regulatory compliant packaging and transported via highway or rail to disposal sites safely and efficiently in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and DOE orders. In 1999, DOE supported the development of LLW containers that are more volumetrically efficient, more cost effective, and easier to use as compared to metal or wooden containers that existed at that time. The DOE Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), working in conjunction with the plastic industry, tested several types of soft-sided waste packaging systems that meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements for transport of low specific activity and surface contaminated objects. Since then, soft-sided packaging of various capacities have been used successfully by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects to package, transport, and dispose D&D wastes throughout the DOE complex. The joint team of experts assembled by the Energy Facility Contractors Group from DOE waste generating sites, DOE and commercial waste disposal facilities, and soft-sided packaging suppliers conducted the review of soft-sided packaging operations and transportation of these packages to the disposal sites. As a result of this evaluation, the team developed several recommendations and best practices to prevent or minimize the recurrences of equipment contamination issues and proper use of soft-sided packaging for transport and disposal of waste.

  14. Use and disposal of waste-water sludge in Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, S.F.; Kane, D.N.; Hinesly, T.D.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) proposed Part 503 Rules on sludge were first published in February 1989. Part 503 proposed sludge regulations address five categories of sludge use or disposal: land application, distribution and marketing, monofills, surface disposal sites, and incineration. The report on sludge management in Illinois examines the probable effects that the proposed federal rules on use and disposal of sewage sludge will have on current practices by Illinois publicly owned treatment works outside the City of Chicago.

  15. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the Berea sandstone aquiver over time and does not conform to standard private water well construction practices. The bottom-line is that all predicted doses from the base case and five sensitivity cases fall well below the DOE all-pathways 25 mrem/yr Performance Objective.

  16. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  17. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  18. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [Nuclear Waste Dispositions, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States); Dials, George E. [B and W Conversion Services, LLC, Lexington, Kentucky 40513 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

  19. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

  20. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.