National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for waste msw source

  1. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  2. Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market Assessment 2007, Key Note Publications Ltd ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market analyses the global waste market, with particular reference to municipal solid waste (MSW). Key Note. Industrial waste generally has a greater tonnage than MSW, but its management is the responsibility

  3. An overview of renewable energy utilization from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    An overview of renewable energy utilization from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Taiwan by imported fuels. In this regard, renewable energy like waste-to-energy is become attractive. The objective, incineration treatment and its energy utilization status. The energy policy relating to MSW-to-energy is also

  4. 2014 ENERGY AND ECONOMIC VALUE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) AND NON-RECYCLED PLASTICS (NRP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 2014 ENERGY AND ECONOMIC VALUE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) AND NON-RECYCLED PLASTICS) AND NON-RECYCLED PLASTICS (NRP) CURRENTLY LANDFILLED IN THE FIFTY STATES EXECUTIVE (EEC) Report to the Plastics Division of the American Chemistry Council

  5. Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW)!in!the!United!States!A!National!Survey!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of solid wastes and advance sustainable waste management in the U.S. to the level of several leading! 1! ! Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generation and Disposition in the U.S., in collaboration with Ms. Nora Goldstein

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    exempt, small quantity hazardous waste, and industrial solid waste. It includes food waste, residential rubbish, commercial and industrial wastes, and construction and...

  7. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  8. Reconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock For many years, opposition to the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy resource has been nearly universal among

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    as an energy source with the potential to provide renewable energy while reducing greenhouse gas emissionsReconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock July 2009 For many years, opposition to the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy resource has been nearly universal among

  9. Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW)!in!the!United!States!A!National!Survey!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of solid wastes and advance sustainable waste management in the U.S. to the level of several leading! 1! ! Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW on data provided by the waste management agencies of the fifty states. The SOG survey was not carried out

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  11. CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world of CCA-treated wood, it has been relatively difficult to manage as a solid waste. Under US EPA and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate

  12. future science group 133ISSN 1758-300410.4155/CMT.12.11 2012 Future Science Ltd Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a ubiquitous byprod-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    state. We then calculate the energy penalty and cost of CO2 capture from t [101]. Landfills also contain considerable unused energy in the form of MSW. Even when landfill-gas-to-energy- monly known as waste-to-energy (WTE). This method reduces the land requirement for waste disposal

  13. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to: (a) serve 113 Municipalities and Communities that generate nearly 2 million t/y of comingled MSW with distinctly different waste collection patterns, (b) take into consideration several existing waste transfer stations (WTS) and optimize their use within the overall plan, (c) select the most appropriate sites among the potentially suitable (new and in use) ones, (d) generate the optimal profile of each WTS proposed, and (e) perform sensitivity analysis so as to define the impact of selected sets of constraints (limitations in the availability of sites and in the capacity of their installations) on the design and cost of the ensuing optimal waste transfer system. The results show that optimal planning offers significant economic savings to municipalities, while reducing at the same time the present levels of traffic, fuel consumptions and air emissions in the congested Athens basin.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  15. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problematic for landfill operations by generating undesirable heat, liquid leachate, and gases reactions. Another source of water in a MSW landfill is leachate recirculation, which is not recommended: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  16. The renewable energy contribution from waste across Europe.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Energy Plants incineration,gasification Collected & sorted waste wood BEP Steam -> Electr. & Heat from waste is a much cheaper source of RE than from most other RE sources (solar, wind, biomass (LFG) For dedicated Biomass Energy Plants (BEP) (waste wood) For WtE thermally treating MSW

  17. Solid Waste as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlandsson, K. I.

    1979-01-01

    The cost history of conventional fuels over the past several years has forced a hard search for alternate energy sources. One alternate energy source that has gained more and more acceptance is solid waste. This is the case particularly...

  18. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper describes the potential near source treatment and waste disposition options as well as the impact these options could have on reducing infrastructure requirements, project cost and mission schedule.

  19. An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menell, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    Food Wastes Yard Wastes Other Wastes Total MSW Generated * includes recovery of paper for compostingFood Wastes Yard Wastes Other Wastes Total MSW Generated * includes recovery of paper for composting

  20. MSW without matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McKellar, B.H.J. [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia). School of Physics; Stephneson, G.J. Jr. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics & Astronomy

    1996-09-01

    We examine the effects of a scalar field, coupled only to neutrinos, on oscillations among weak interaction current eigenstates. The existence of a real scalar field is manifested as effective masses for the neutrino mass3 eigenstates, the same for F, as for v. Under some conditions, this can lead to a vanishing of {delta}m{sup 2}, giving rise to MSW-like effects. We present an idealized example and show that it may be possible to resolve the apparent discrepancy in spectra required by reprocess nucleosynthesis in the mantles of supernovae and by Solar neutrino solutions.

  1. Source Term Analysis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Source Term Analysis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Release Quantity Source Term Analysis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Release Quantity This document was...

  2. 2014 Course Description Solid Waste Engineering -CE 477

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    on course web site http://people.engr.ncsu.edu/barlaz/ Solid Waste Technology & Management by Christensen et al (eBook available through NCSU libraries) Solid waste management must be addressed by virtually aspects of municipal solid waste (MSW) management including refuse generation, source reduction

  3. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ? The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ? At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ? At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ? At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term.

  4. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    MSW to fuel 24 Non-biogenic waste transformation .. 25 Incineration (add citations) . 25 Incomplete combustion: pyrolysis and gasification ..

  5. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    as MSW, commercial waste, and construction and demolitionfuel injection system and construction of waste-receivingpercent for construction and demolition waste by 2020 (EC,

  7. WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate recovery and long-term recovery management plans that can address contaminated waste through the entire life cycle of the waste. Through Demonstration LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MSW Municipal Solid Waste OSHA Occupational Safety

  8. Waste utilization as an energy source: Municipal wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of municipal wastes as an energy source. Articles discuss energy derived from incineration/combustion, refuse-derived fuels, co-firing municipal waste and standard fuels, landfill gas production, sewage combustion, and other waste-to-energy technologies. Citations address economics and efficiencies of various schemes to utilize municipal waste products as energy sources. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  10. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.

  11. Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coerper, P.

    1992-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-24.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9908 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-24.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ALTERNATE FUELS...: IS YOUR WASTE STREAM A FUEL SOURCE? PHn, COERPER. MANAGER ALTERNATE FUEL SYSTEMS. CLEAVER-BROOKS. Mn,WAUKEE. WI ABSTRACT Before the year 2000. more than one quarter of u.s. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels in their boiler systems. And...

  12. Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India Mufeed Sharholy a , Kafeel parameters of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) problem such as the generation rate of MSW and rise in community living standard accelerates the generation rate of muni- cipal solid waste (MSW

  13. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-15

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  14. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  15. Proceedings of NAWTEC16 16th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    used globally for energy recovery from municipal solid wastes is combustion of "as received" MSW of thermal treatment of MSW in the world (40 million tonnes) and some of the newest plants use stoker require pre-processing of the MSW, combust the resulting syngas to generate steam, and produce a vitrified

  16. Conversion of Waste Biomass into Useful Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, M.

    1998-01-01

    Waste biomass includes municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal sewage sludge (SS), industrial biosludge, manure, and agricultural residues. When treated with lime, biomass is highly digestible by a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms. Lime...

  17. Energy from Waste November 4, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Waste Combustion (MWC) · Power plant that combusts MSW and other non-hazardous wastes as fuel gas to energy facilities · 2 Hydro electric facilities · Recently broke ground on Durham / York

  18. Waste Management and WasteWaste Management and Waste--toto--EnergyEnergy Status in SingaporeStatus in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ;20031970 The Solid Waste Challenge Waste Explosion 1,200 t/d1,200 t/d 6,900 t/d6,900 t/d #12;Waste ManagementWaste Management and WasteWaste Management and Waste--toto--EnergyEnergy Status in Singapore #12;Singapore's Waste Management · In 2003, 6877 tonnes/day (2.51 M tonnes/year) of MSW collected

  19. Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  1. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ? Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ? Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ? Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ? Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about odour and environmental pollution because the municipality received economic compensation for their presence.

  2. Development of a Segregated Municipal Solid Waste Gasification System for Electrical Power Generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maglinao, Amado Latayan

    2013-04-11

    Gasification technologies are expected to play a key role in the future of solid waste management since the conversion of municipal and industrial solid wastes to a gaseous fuel significantly increases its value. Municipal solid waste (MSW...

  3. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.; Fedrizzi, P.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  4. Food processing wastes as nutrient sources in algal growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, M-H; Chan, W-C; Chu, L-M

    1983-03-01

    Utilization of food processing wastes for biological production will ease part of the disposal problem, especially the potential hazards of eutrophication, andat the same time recycle the inherently rich plant nutrients in the waste materials. The present investigation is an attempt to study the feasibility of using five food processing wastes, including carrot, coconut, eggshell, soybean, and sugarcane, for culturing Chlorella pyrenoidosa (a unicellular green alga).

  5. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for...

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 |DepartmentMultimedia and Photos MultimediaAvailability

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  8. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  9. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-06-03

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ``source term`` means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  12. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ITALY L. Rigamonti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of the North of Italy are those that send to WTE facilities the largest quantity of MSW and RDF (Refuse Derived.5%, the Center 18.3% and the South 8.1%. The tonnage of MSW combusted at waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities more Fuel). In 2004, the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) facilities managed about 9 million tonnes

  13. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained.

  14. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  15. Putting Peru's waste policies into practice - an analysis of implementation, constraints and delays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Julia

    2011-11-24

    In Peru, since 2000 a group of laws and institutions have been created to regulate, manage and monitor the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. These measures suppose political will to reach an integrated and sustainable (solid) waste...

  16. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  17. Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -combustion is a waste-to-energy technology that can use MSW and coal as co-fuels, offering potential energy recoveryEnvironmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content ABSTRACT: Use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as fuel for electricity generation reduces landfill disposal

  18. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  19. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  20. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  1. Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

  2. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Hasse, S.; Warren, A.

    2011-08-01

    This NREL technical report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. In particular, it considers life-cycle impacts of WTE as compared to landfill disposal and various forms of electrical generation, as well as WTE impacts on source reduction or recycling programs. In addition, it evaluates the economics and potential environmental impact of WTE in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) based on existing USVI waste stream characterization data, recycling challenges unique to the USVI, and the results of cost and environmental modeling of four municipal solid waste (MSW) management options, including landfill, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production, recycling, and gassification plus RDF.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  7. by PSPVolume 23 No 11. 2014 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin THE IMPACT FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF "WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    number of studies and reports presenting the positive impact of WTE facilities in the waste management, external, etc), it becomes clear that the devotion in waste manage- ment is likely to offer considerable author from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and non-hazardous industrial wastes [1, 3-5]. Waste to Energy

  8. Determining the Impact of MSW as a Feedstock Blending Agent Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    screen additional MSW blends with other terrestrial feedstocks, specifically pulp and paper mill residuals and dedicated energy crops, that meet the 80ton cost targets -...

  9. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  11. Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -combustion is a waste-to-energy technology that can use MSW and coal as co-fuels, offering potential energy recovery derived by a reduction of plastics, organics, paper, or a combination thereof, as compared to the national is preferred for MSW with paper reduction, organics reduction, and plastics reduction. The results

  12. QUALITY OF COMPOSTS FROM MUNICIPAL BIODEGRADABLE WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUALITY OF COMPOSTS FROM MUNICIPAL BIODEGRADABLE WASTE OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS I. ZDANEVITCH AND O countries. One of the outputs of this treatment is a compost prepared from the organic matter of the waste the total MSW in the plant. Unlike in Germany or Austria, where only the compost from selective collection

  13. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is a porous medium of varying height and is made up of spherical particles of solid waste. The solid moves Me´tallurgie (LSG2M) Nancy, France T he incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributes occurring during waste combustion. Second, results from the bed model were taken as boundary conditions

  14. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  15. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Comparative analysis of composting as a municipal solid waste treatment process in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    A study of composting municipal solid waste (MSW) in India compared a specific facility in Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India to existing standards and practices documented in literature globally and in other facilities ...

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  18. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  19. PART I. THERMAL BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPONENTS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ENVIRONMENTS AND PART II. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHINA Alexander P. Whitworth Advisor: Prof. Marco of Municipal Solid Waste Components in Varying Oxygen Environments and Municipal Solid Waste Management Management (MSW) in China In 2004, China surpassed the USA as the world's leading producer of solid waste

  20. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [DOE

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  1. Heavy metal characterization of municipal solid waste compost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worsham, Michael Craig

    1992-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Bill Batchelor Dr. Kirk W. Brown Waste incineration and composting create solid residues which are later applied to or buried under soils. Although incinerator ash has been studied extensively for heavy metal content, much less is known... Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils does not fully recover all heavy metals in MSW compost. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) of undigested solid residues remaining after Method 3050 digestion of MSW compost showed that residues contained...

  2. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations, such as from mill tailings piles, are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. For power reactors, only VVER-440 reactor fuel has been reprocessed in any significant amount, and a decision on the disposition of RBMK reactor fuel has been postponed indefinitely. Soviet reprocessing efforts are falling behind schedule; thus longer storage times for spent fuel will be required, primarily at multiple reactor stations. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledged by the Soviets. A 400-metric ton (MT) per year reprocessing facility, located at Kyshtym, has been operational since 1949 for reprocessing production reactor fuel. This facility is reported to have been reprocessing VVER-440 and naval reactor fuel since 1978, with about 2000 MT of VVER-440 fuel being reprocessed by July 1989. A second facility, located near Krasnoyarsk and having a 1500 MT per year capacity as the first of several modules, was about 30% completed by July 1989. The completion of this plant was subsequently "indefinitely postponed." The initial reprocessing scheme at the Kyshtym site used sodium uranyl acetate precipitation from fuel dissolved in nitric acid solutions. The basic method~ ology now appears to be based on the conventional PUREX process. Dry reprocessing on a pilot or laboratory scale has been under way in Dimitrovgrad since 1984, and a larger unit is now being built, according to the French CEA. Perhaps significantly, much research is being done on partitioning high-level waste into element fractions. The Soviets appear to have the technology to remove radioactive noble gases released during reprocessing operations; however, there are no indications of its implementation. Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations. In addition, 35 shallow-land burial sites have been alluded to by the Soviets for disposal of industrial, medical, and research low-level wastes as well as ionization sources. Research on tritium-bearing and other gaseous wastes is mentioned, as well as a waste minimization program aimed at reducing the volume of waste streams by 30%. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to 1) store liquid wastes for 3-5 years; 2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass volume of 100-150 liters/MT of fuel reprocessed); 3) set it aside in air-cooled storage

  3. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  4. Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hays, David C. [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, 64106 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

  5. Identification of the source of methane at a hazardous waste treatment facility using isotopic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackley, K.C.; Liu, C.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Peabody, IL (United States)); Trainor, D.P. (Dames and Moore, Madison, WI (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Isotopic analyses have been used to determine the source of methane in subsurface sediments at a hazardous waste treatment facility in the Lake Calumet area of Chicago, Illinois. The study area is surrounded by landfills and other waste management operations and has a long history of waste disposal. The facility property consists of land constructed of approximately 15 feet of fill placed over lake sediments. The fill is underlain by successively older lacustrine and glacial till deposits to a maximum depth of approximately 80 feet. During a subsurface investigation of the site performed for a RCRA Facility Investigation of former solid waste management units (SWMUs) in the fill, significant quantities of methane were encountered in the natural deposits. Gas samples were collected from the headspace of 11 piezometers screened at depths of approximately 30, 40, and 50 feet beneath the surface. Methane concentrations up to 75% by volume were observed in some of the piezometers. Stable isotope analyses were completed on methane and associated CO[sub 2] separated from the gas samples. Radiocarbon (C-14) analyses were also completed on several of the samples. The delta C-13 results for the intermediate and deep zones are indicative of methane produced by microbial reduction of CO[sub 2]. The methane occurring in the shallow zone appears to be a mixture of methane from the intermediate zone and methane produced by microbial fermentation of naturally (nonanthropogenic) buried organic matter within the shallow lacustrine sediments. According to the isotopic and chemical results, the methane does not appear to be related to gas generation from nearby landfills or from organic wastes previously placed in the former facility SWMUs.

  6. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  7. Assessment of factors affecting boiler tube lifetime in waste-fired generators: New opportunities for research and technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, I.; Krause, H.H.

    1996-07-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem in numerous communities in the United States. In this country, approximately 195.7 million tons of MSW were produced in 1990 of which 17 percent was recovered for recycling or composting, 16 percent was combusted, and about 67 percent was disposed of in landfills. This paper discusses the combustion of refuse derived fuels and municipal wastes. The corrosion of the alloys used in boilers is described.

  8. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Alexander

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  9. The renewable energy contribution from waste across Europe.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    The renewable energy contribution from waste across Europe. Jan Manders Deputy President CEWEP 3rd of the Study Demonstrate amount of Renewable Energy generated by various Waste Processing Routes across Europe of the EU Binding Renewable Energy Targets 2020 in the Renewable Energy Directive 3 #12;Treatment of MSW

  10. STATUS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN KERALA AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    STATUS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN KERALA AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Dr. R. Ajayakumar the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kerala beyond the assimilative of capacity of our environment and management capacity of the existing waste management systems. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity

  11. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete.

  12. Proceedings of the 17th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference May 18-20, 2009, Chantilly, Virginia, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    MSW is transported to a central WTE from a number of Waste Transfer Stations (WTS), pre-shredding may take place at the WTS, thus increasing density and decreasing transportation costs

  13. P. Ulloa, "Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S." Internal Report, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, July 2008.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    P. Ulloa, "Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S." Internal Report, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, July 2008. 1 Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S. According to the State Solid Waste (MSW) generated in the U.S. (387 million tons). Food Waste in the United States Residential

  14. The feasibility of source segregation as the first step for a municipal solid waste disposal scheme 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiedler, Charles Walter

    1982-01-01

    ) In later years the history of Great Britain, in particular London, documents the progress of waste disposal in the growing urban environment. In recent years the problems of waste disposal have been compounded by the migration of the majority..., plastics, cardboard, etc. , and less combustible or non-combustible items, i. e. , the remaining wastes like cans, bottles, food wastes, etc. The project was strictly voluntary even though it took place in a military environment. The study period lasted...

  15. Development of a purpose built landfill system for the control of methane emissions from municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ) has been attempted for munici- pal solid waste management. Methane mitigation and energy generating solid waste Sudhakar Yedla*, Jyoti K. Parikh Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Vaidya (PBLF) has been proposed for the control of methane emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW

  16. THERMAL TREATMENT REVIEW . WTE I THERMAL TREATMENT Since the beginning of this century, global waste-to-energy capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of new waste-to gasification process at an industrial scale The Waste-To-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT), headquartered at Columbia University in New York City, keeps a close watch on the thermal waste-to-energy capacity has increased steadily at the rate of about four million tonnes of MSW per year

  17. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupa, Christopher J.; Ricketts, Lois J.; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M.J.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Commercial and industrial waste samples collected. > Samples analysed for calorific value, moisture, ash and elemental composition. > Values similar to those of municipal solid waste and refuse derived fuel. > Sampled waste could be used in current energy recovery systems with minimal retrofitting. > Sampled waste could account 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target if all qualifying waste is used. - Abstract: With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C and IW). In this study, samples of C and IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C and IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47 MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C and IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9 GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000 tpa. This value rose to 27.0 GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C and IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6 TWh, 1.9% of the national demand thereby contributing 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target.

  18. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  19. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  20. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  1. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  2. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  3. Asit Nema\\Foundation Green-Ensys 1 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLID WASTE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    to closure of the facilities within a rather short period after commissioning. Key Words MSW treatment, waste to energy/wealth, entropy, risk factors, landfill. INTRODUCTION A case study of 11 municipal solid waste landfill facility. Among the composting plants three were running at varying levels of capacity utilisation

  4. Sudhakar Yedla* and Sarika Kansal Economic insight into municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Sudhakar Yedla* and Sarika Kansal Economic insight into municipal solid waste management in Mumbai approach and market instruments have been proved to st: '~ngthen waste management [4]. Mumbai, the largest study examines various reasons for the failure of the MSW management system in Mumbai. Further, it gives

  5. Municipal Solid Waste as an Energy Source by Roller-Grate Incineration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karnoski, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    . Since 1965, water wall boilers equipped with roller-grates have been transforming a variety of municipal wastes into energy in Europe and Japan. The system and its capabilities are explained. Application of this technology to a United States site...

  6. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  7. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 2, Exhibits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  9. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant.

  10. Current MSW Management and Waste-to-Energy Status in the Republic of Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    plants, most in metropolitan areas, are supplying energy, mostly in the form of heat. The rest to the nation in the form of district heat and electricity, corresponding to only 0.24% of the total primary energy supply. Since the Republic of Korea is ranked tenth in energy consumption worldwide and over 95

  11. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 |DepartmentMultimedia and Photos

  12. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    the inlet of a function- ing plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals cab- bage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor. Introduction Micro-scale biomethanation (0.1­1.0 ton per day, tpd) is increasingly being tried

  13. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-12-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal.

  14. Copyright 2009 by ASME Proceedings of the 17th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , New York, NY 10027 ABSTRACT The dominant waste-to-energy technology is combustion of "asCopyright © 2009 by ASME Proceedings of the 17th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference and environmentally benign disposal of MSW, with energy recovery being a secondary consideration. There have been

  15. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  16. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  18. Three-Neutrino Mixing and Combined Vacuum Oscillations and MSW Transitions of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Y. Liu; S. T. Petcov

    1997-02-22

    Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar nu_e take part in MSW transitions in the Sun due to Delta m^2_{31} from 10^{-7} eV^2 to 10^{-4} eV^2, followed by long wave length vacuum oscillations on the way to the Earth, triggered by Delta m^2_{21} (or Delta m^2_{32}) from 10^{-12} eV^2 to 10^{-10} eV^2, Delta m^2_{31} and Delta m^2_{21} (Delta m^2_{32}) being the corresponding neutrino mass squared differences. The solar nu_e survival probability is shown to be described in this case by a simple analytic expression. Depending on whether the vacuum oscillations are due to Delta m^2_{21} or Delta m^2_{32} there are two very different types of interplay between the MSW transitions and the vacuum oscillations of the solar nu_e. Performing an analysis of the most recently published solar neutrino data we have found several qualitatively new solutions of the solar neutrino problem of the hybrid MSW transitions + vacuum oscillations type. The solutions differ in the way the pp, 7Be and 8B neutrino fluxes are affected by the transitions in the Sun and the oscillations in vacuum. The specific features of the new solutions are discussed.

  19. Three-Neutrino Mixing and Combined Vacuum Oscillations and MSW Transitions of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Q Y

    1997-01-01

    Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar nu_e take part in MSW transitions in the Sun due to Delta m^2_{31} from 10^{-7} eV^2 to 10^{-4} eV^2, followed by long wave length vacuum oscillations on the way to the Earth, triggered by Delta m^2_{21} (or Delta m^2_{32}) from 10^{-12} eV^2 to 10^{-10} eV^2, Delta m^2_{31} and Delta m^2_{21} (Delta m^2_{32}) being the corresponding neutrino mass squared differences. The solar nu_e survival probability is shown to be described in this case by a simple analytic expression. Depending on whether the vacuum oscillations are due to Delta m^2_{21} or Delta m^2_{32} there are two very different types of interplay between the MSW transitions and the vacuum oscillations of the solar nu_e. Performing an analysis of the most recently published solar neutrino data we have found several qualitatively new solutions of the solar neutrino problem of the hybrid MSW transitions + vacuum oscillations type. The solutions ...

  20. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  1. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  2. Workshop on the source term for radionuclide migration from high-level waste or spent nuclear fuel under realistic repository conditions: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, T.O.; Muller, A.B. (eds.)

    1985-07-01

    Sixteen papers were presented at the workshop. The fourteen full-length papers included in the proceedings were processed separately. Only abstracts were included for the following two papers: Data Requirements Based on Performance Assessment Analyses of Conceptual Waste Packages in Salt Repositories, and The Potential Effects of Radiation on the Source Term in a Salt Repository. (LM)

  3. WASTE/BY-PRODUCT HYDROGEN DOE/DOD Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; 6 Waste/Byproduct HydrogenWaste/By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: Waste biomass: biogas Waste/Byproduct Hydrogen Waste/By product Hydrogen Fuel FlexibilityFuel Flexibility Biogas: generated

  4. Hybrid MSW + VO Solution of the Solar Neutrino Problem in String-Motivated Unified Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Petcov, S T

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the hybrid MSW + VO solution of the solar neutrino problem, according to which the solar nu_e undergo matter-enhanced transitions into nu_mu, nu_tau in the Sun followed by long wave length (about 1.5 10^8 km) nu_e -> nu_mu, nu_tau oscillations in vacuum between the Sun and the Earth, can occur naturally in string-motivated grand unified theories. We consider the supersymmetric version of a string-type SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R theory with U(1)_X family symmetry, which was shown to successfully describe the charged fermion masses and the quark mixing, and extend the earlier fermion mass analysis to the neutrino sector. We show that the four oscillation parameters Delta m_31^2, Delta m_21^2 and sin^2 2 theta_12, sin^2 2 theta_13, characterising the combined matter-enhanced transitions and vacuum oscillations of the solar nu_e, naturally get values in the ranges of the hybrid MSW + VO solutions found recently.

  5. Hybrid MSW + VO Solution of the Solar Neutrino Problem in String-Motivated Unified Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. C. Allanach; G. K. Leontaris; S. T. Petcov

    1997-12-19

    It is shown that the hybrid MSW + VO solution of the solar neutrino problem, according to which the solar nu_e undergo matter-enhanced transitions into nu_mu, nu_tau in the Sun followed by long wave length (about 1.5 10^8 km) nu_e -> nu_mu, nu_tau oscillations in vacuum between the Sun and the Earth, can occur naturally in string-motivated grand unified theories. We consider the supersymmetric version of a string-type SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R theory with U(1)_X family symmetry, which was shown to successfully describe the charged fermion masses and the quark mixing, and extend the earlier fermion mass analysis to the neutrino sector. We show that the four oscillation parameters Delta m_31^2, Delta m_21^2 and sin^2 2 theta_12, sin^2 2 theta_13, characterising the combined matter-enhanced transitions and vacuum oscillations of the solar nu_e, naturally get values in the ranges of the hybrid MSW + VO solutions found recently.

  6. Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01

    The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

  7. Contaminant Sources are Known

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources are Known Historical contaminant sources from liquid discharges and solid waste management units are known. August 1, 2013 Contaminant source map LANL contaminant...

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  9. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oxygen demand (COD) and availability of low-grade waste heat sources. The pulp and paper industry and other industries are also potential MHRC users. Project Description This...

  10. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  11. ENERGY CONSERVATION: POLICY ISSUES AND END-USE SCENARIOS OF SAVINGS POTENTIAL PT.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Potential Alternative Fuels Derivatives from Municipal Solid Waste. In EnergyPotential Energy Savings -- Source Separation Table 15. Comparative Energy Savings For Newsprint Recovery and MSW Fuel

  12. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    solid waste (MSW), and hydropower vary considerably acrossconsisting of existing hydropower, biomass, and MSWthese sources, may use hydropower to qualify for up to 30%

  13. Hazardous Waste Management (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The act authorizes the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environment Control (DNREC) to regulate hazardous waste and create a program to manage sources of hazardous waste. The act...

  14. An Introduction to Virginia Tech's Waste Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Waste Management Program · Montgomery Regional Solid Waste Authority (MRSWA): · Provides integrated solid waste management for the New River Valley Region · Located in Christiansburg, VA · Materials;Waste Management Program · Non-Municipal Solid Waste Recycled MATERIAL DESCRIPTION SOURCE RESPONSIBLE

  15. Hazardous Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Department of Environmental...

  16. Solid Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

  17. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  18. Technical Report for the MVB (MSW & Biomass) Waste to Energy Plants and the AVG Hazardous WTE Plant in Hamburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    is equipped with SNCR technology, baghouse filters, HCl & SO2 scrubbers Power Plant: Coal and Gas MVB Unit 3

  19. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  20. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  1. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  2. The effect of moisture regimes on the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste from Metepec (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Berriel, Ma.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Calz. La Virgen S/N, Metepec, Edo. Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico); Marquez-Benavides, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico)], E-mail: lili.marquez@gmail.com; Gonzalez-Perez, D.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Calz. La Virgen S/N, Metepec, Edo. Mexico (Mexico); Buenrostro-Delgado, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The State of Mexico, situated in central Mexico, has a population of about 14 million, distributed in approximately 125 counties. Solid waste management represents a serious and ongoing pressure to local authorities. The final disposal site ('El Socavon') does not comply with minimum environmental requirements as no liners or leachate management infrastructure are available. Consequently, leachate composition or the effects of rain water input on municipal solid waste degradation are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to monitor the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW), simulating the water addition due to rainfall, under two different moisture content regimes (70% and 80% humidity). The study was carried out using bioreactors in both laboratory and pilot scales. The variation of organic matter and pH was followed in the solid matrix of the MSW. The leachate produced was used to estimate the field capacity of the MSW and to determine the pH, COD, BOD and heavy metals. Some leachate parameters were found to be within permitted limits, but further research is needed in order to analyze the leachate from lower layers of the disposal site ('El Socavon')

  3. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C.; Dibari, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  4. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  5. Waste management units - Savannah River Site. Volume 1, Waste management unit worksheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  6. Behavior of an MBT waste in monotonic triaxial shear tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandari, Athma Ram Powrie, William

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We studied the stress–strain–strength characteristics of an MBT waste. ? Rate of mobilization of strength with strain depends on initial density. ? Image analysis technique was used to determine whole-specimen displacement fields. ? Initial mode of deformation of a loose specimen is one-dimensional compression. ? Reinforcing elements enhance the resistance to lateral and volumetric deformation. - Abstract: Legislation in some parts of the world now requires municipal solid waste (MSW) to be processed prior to landfilling to reduce its biodegradability and hence its polluting potential through leachate and fugitive emission of greenhouse gases. This pre-processing may be achieved through what is generically termed mechanical–biological-treatment (MBT). One of the major concerns relating to MBT wastes is that the strength of the material may be less than for raw MSW, owing to the removal of sheet, stick and string-like reinforcing elements during processing. Also, the gradual increase in mobilized strength over strains of 30% or so commonly associated with unprocessed municipal solid waste may not occur with treated wastes. This paper describes a series of triaxial tests carried out to investigate the stress–strain–strength characteristics of an MBT waste, using a novel digital image analysis technique for the determination of detailed displacement fields over the whole specimen. New insights gained into the mechanical behavior of MBT waste include the effect of density on the stress–strain response, the initial 1-D compression of lightly consolidated specimens, and the likely reinforcing effect of small sheet like particles remaining in the waste.

  7. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

  8. Copenhagen Waste Management and Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ownership of treatment facilities · Incineration plants · Land fill · Disposal of hazardous waste · Source waste prevention · Focus areas · Changes in behaviour among consumers and producers · City schemes almost fully developed · Collection of hazardous substances, paper, cardboard, gardening and bulky

  9. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  10. WASTE DESCRIPTION CONTACT PHONE RECYCLED OR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    eliminates potential environmental impact of storing waste bricks. Waste Oil Roland Baillargeon, ext.3261 Source Reduction 3,500 Hazardous Waste $6,000 $0 $20,000 350 gallons of waste oil contaminated contamination was identified and replaced with non-chlorinated substitute. Waste oil is now removed free

  11. DOE Releases Request for Information/Sources Sought for Savannah...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Request for InformationSources Sought for Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Services DOE Releases Request for InformationSources Sought for Savannah River Site Liquid Waste...

  12. A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djokic, Denia

    2013-01-01

    m source, special nuclear, and waste   byproduct directly  United   States   Nuclear   Waste   Technical   Review  12,  2009.   NWPA  1982   Nuclear  Waste  Policy  Act  of  

  13. Improving medical waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, L.

    1994-05-01

    This article describes the use of electron-beam irradiation, steam detoxification, and microwave disinfection systems rather than incineration to rid the waste stream of medical scraps. The topics of the article include biological waste stream sources and amounts, pyrolysis and oxidation, exhaust gas cleanup, superheated steam sterilization and detoxification.

  14. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  16. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  17. Waste Steam Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally...

  18. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. {yields} Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. {yields} Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  19. Formation of deposits on the surfaces of superheaters and economisers of MSW incinerator plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichelt, J.; Pfrang-Stotz, G.; Bergfeldt, B.; Seifert, H.; Knapp, P.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of deposits depends on the temperature profile and boiler geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mineralogy of deposits defines critical and uncritical zones in the boiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical zones in boilers can be characterised by a classification systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific measures to enhance energy efficiency can be defined. - Abstract: Mineralogical and chemical investigations of deposits from superheaters and economisers from a MSWI plant in Mannheim, Germany, lead to a classification system which provides information about the most critical parameters leading to fouling and corrosion. With the help of this classification system parameters like the geometry of boilers and the waste input can be changed in order to prolong run times between revisions and enhance energy efficiency of MSWI plants.

  20. Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

  1. Waste remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  2. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  3. A STUDY OF REGIONAL TEMPERATURE AND THERMOHYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AN UNDERGROUND REPOSITORY FOR NUCLEAR WASTES IN HARD ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management. Subground reportfor the isolation of nuclear waste. TID-28818, October 1978.and J. E. Vath. Nuclear waste projections and source-term

  4. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    waste  or  MSW  gasification  and  energy  production.   waste gasification for power generation.  Although the MSW gasification  technology  relies  on  chemical  reactions  that  breakdown  cellulosic  green  waste,  or  more  broadly,  municipal  solid  waste  (MSW

  5. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  6. An environmental assessment of recovering methane from municipal solid waste by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of an experimental process which produces synthetic natural gas (SNG) or biogas by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is evaluated. This technology, if implemented, would be utilized in lieu of incineration or directly landfilling waste. An environmental assessment describing the principal impacts associated with operating the MSW anaerobic digestion process is presented. Variations in process configurations provide for SNG or electricity production and digester residue incineration, composting, or landfilling. Four process configuration are compared to the conventional solid waste disposal alternative of mass burn incineration and landfilling. Emissions are characterized, effluents quantified, and landfill areas predicted. The quantity of SNG and electricity recovered, and aluminum and ferrous metals recycled is predicted along with the emissions and effluents avoided by recovering energy and recycling metals. Air emissions are the primary on-site concern with the anaerobic digestion process. However, when compared to mass burn incineration, the projected particulate emissions for the anaerobic digestion process range from 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.6 {times} {sup 10{minus}5} pounds per ton of waste vs. 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} pounds per ton for mass burn. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and PCCD emissions have a similar relationship.

  7. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  8. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  9. An Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darby, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The recovery of waste heat energy is one element of a complete energy conservation plan. In addition to contributing to the goal of saving energy, utilization of waste heat is also an important source of cost savings. This presentation details...

  10. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bareither, Christopher A.; Wolfe, Georgia L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Benson, Craig H.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ? Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ? Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ? Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ? Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents supported growth of larger methanogen populations that resulted in higher methane yield.

  11. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1992-01-01

    HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants, refineries... stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-42.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11937 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-42.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SPECIFYING WASTE...

  12. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, L.; Batlle, F.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > A quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis method was proposed. > The proposed method is a good engineering tool for 3D slope stability analysis. > Factor of safety from 3D analysis is higher than from 2D analysis. > 3D analysis results are more sensitive to cohesion than 2D analysis. - Abstract: Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The 'equivalent' three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also investigated in this paper. These sensitivity analyses serve as the guidelines of construction practices and operating procedures for the MSW landfill under study.

  13. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  14. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments.

  15. Ferrocyanide waste simulant characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Wong, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide waste simulants were prepared and characterized to help assess safety concerns associated with the ferrocyanide sludges stored in underground single-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Simulants were prepared to represent the variety of ferrocyanide sludges stored in the storage tanks. Physical properties, chemical compositions, and thermodynamic properties of the simulants were determined. The simulants, as produced, were shown to not sustain propagating reactions when subjected to a strong ignition source. Additional testing and evaluations are recommended to assess safety concerns associated with postulated ferrocyanide sludge dry-out and exposure to external ignition sources.

  16. Waste IncIneratIon and Waste PreventIon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    replace fossil energy sources such as coal or oil and prevent about 9.75 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in recent years would withdraw these from material recovery. Regarding this point, the UBA would emphasise-/Abfallgesetz) continues to hold: Waste prevention has priority over recovery and disposal. Nevertheless, the use of waste

  17. 1828 L Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    quality of technologies used in all aspects of waste management. Municipal solid waste (MSW.asme.org Waste-to-Energy: A Renewable Energy Source from Municipal Solid Waste EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ASME SWPD Supports WTE - The Solid Waste Processing Division (SWPD) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

  18. Montana Integrated Waste Management Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation sets goals for the reduction of solid waste generated by households, businesses, and governments, through source reduction, reuse, recycling, and composting. The state aims to...

  19. Remediation of Highland Drive Landfill: Technical Challenges of Segregating Co-Mingled LLRW and Municipal Solid Waste in an Urbanized Area - 13319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Jeff; Lawrence, Dave; Case, Glenn; Fergusson Jones, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Highland Drive Landfill is an inactive Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill which received waste from the 1940's until its closure in 1991. During a portion of its active life, the Landfill received low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) which currently exists both in a defined layer and co-mingled with MSW. Remediation of this site to remove the LLRW to meet established cleanup criteria, forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The total volume of LLRW and co-mingled LLRW/MSW estimated to require removal from the Highland Drive Landfill is approximately 51,900 cubic metres (m{sup 3}). The segregation and removal of LLRW at the Highland Drive Landfill presents a number of unique technical challenges due to the co-mingled waste and location of the Landfill in an urbanized area. Key challenges addressed as part of the design process included: delineation of the extent of LLRW, development of cut lines, and estimation of the quantity of co-mingled LLRW in a heterogeneous matrix; protection of adjacent receptors in a manner which would not impact the use of adjacent facilities which include residences, a recreational facility, and a school; coordination and phasing of the work to allow management of six separate material streams including clean soil, MSW, co-mingled LLRW/MSW, LLRW, un-impacted water, and impacted water/leachate within a confined environment; and development of a multi-tiered and adaptive program of monitoring and control measures for odour, dust, and water including assessment of risk of exceedance of monitoring criteria. In addition to ensuring public safety and protection of the environment during remedy implementation, significant effort in the design process was paid to balancing the advantages of increased certainty, including higher production rates, against the costs of attaining increased certainty. Many of these lessons may be applicable to other projects. (authors)

  20. Generating Steam by Waste Incineration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

  1. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  2. Waste audit study: Automotive paint shops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a waste-audit study of automotive paint shops. The study focuses on the types and quantities of wastes generated, treatment and disposal alternatives, and the potential for reducing the amount and/or toxicity of waste generated. The analysis of solvent waste minimization focused primarily on in-plant modifications (e.g., source reduction) to reduce the generation of solvent waste. Strict inventory control is the most-readily implementable approach. While in-house recycling is viable, it is usually only cost-effective for larger firms. Specific recommendations for waste reduction were made.

  3. Waste management units: Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molen, G.

    1991-09-01

    This report indexes every waste management unit of the Savannah River Site. They are indexed by building number and name. The waste units are also tabulated by solid waste units receiving hazardous materials with a known release or no known release to the environment. It also contains information on the sites which has received no hazardous waste, and units which have received source, nuclear, or byproduct material only. (MB)

  4. Transuranic waste disposal in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The United States is unique in having created a special class of radioactive waste disposal based on the concentration of transuranic elements in the waste. Since 1970, the US has been placing newly generated transuranic waste in retrievable storage. It is intended that these wastes will be placed in a permanent deep geologic repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP opening for a demonstration emplacement period is set for October, 1988. Transuranic wastes derive from some of the manufacturing and research activities carried out by DOE. The bulk of this waste is generated in plutonium parts fabrication activities. A variety of plutonium contaminated materials ranging from glove boxes, HEPA filters, and machine tools, to chemical sludges derived from plutonium recovery streams are stored as TRU wastes. Other processes that generate TRU waste are plutonium production operations, preparation for and cleanup from fuel reprocessing, manufacturing of plutonium heat sources, and nuclear fuel cycle research activities.

  5. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Waste Analysis Plan The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Waste Analysis Plan This...

  6. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  7. REGIONAL THERMOHYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AN UNDERGROUND REPOSITORY FOR NUCLEAR WASTES IN HARD ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    underground repository for nuclear waste in hard rock, LBL-and Vath, J.E. , Nuclear waste projections and source-termthe Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, Material

  8. Renewable Natural Gas - Producer Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capital Partner with Commercial Technology Providers Anaerobic digester Food Waste Animal Waste Sludge Gasification Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)...

  9. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

  10. CEWEP -Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    energy from waste Waste-to-Energy A cost effective and reliable sustainable energy source Waste waste represent a relatively low cost source of sustainable energy. The EU 27's renewable energy gap demand per capita equals 1.62 MWh/capita/yr and heat demand per capita equals 5.03 MWh/capita/yr. #12

  11. Utilization of Agricultural WasteUtilization of Agricultural Waste for Composite Panelsfor Composite Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utilization of Agricultural WasteUtilization of Agricultural Waste for Composite Panelsfor. The benefits of utilizing agricultural residues for woodbenefits of utilizing agricultural residues for wood a fiber source that is currentlyadded product from a fiber source that is currently not well utilized

  12. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    with MSW can produce toxic leachate when the acids producedMSW lower the pH of the leachate, which increases thefrom escaping. Fit with liners, leachate collection and gas

  13. Neutrino detection at a spallation source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Ming-Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the detection of accelerator neutrinos and supernova (SN) neutrinos at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). Firstly, by using the code FLUKA, the processes of accelerator neutrinos production during the proton beam hitting on the tungsten target can be simulated, and the yield efficiency, numerical flux, average energy of different flavor neutrinos are given. Secondly, the detection of accelerator neutrinos through two reaction channels: the neutrino-electron reactions and the neutrino-carbon reactions, is studied, and the neutrino event numbers can be calculated. Finally, while considering the SN shock effects, the MSW effects, the neutrino collective effects, and the Earth matter effects, the detection of SN neutrinos on the Earth is studied. Then, the event numbers of SN neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are given.

  14. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borglin, S.

    2010-01-01

    gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSWgasification is the latest development in pyrolysis of MSW

  15. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  16. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    Mixed Waste Before generating mixed waste (i.e, mixture of biohazardous and chemical or radioactive waste), call Environment, Health & Safety: (858) 534-2753. * Disinfectants other than bleach mustBiohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Human

  17. Hazardous waste minimization. Part 3. Waste minimization in the paint and allied products industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorton, G.A.

    1988-04-01

    This paper looks at waste minimization practices available to the paint and coatings industry. The paper begins with an introduction to the industry and a description of the products. The steps involved in the manufacture of paints and coatings are then described. The paper then identifies the wastes generated. Source reduction and recycling techniques are the predominant means of minimizing waste in this industry. Equipment cleaning wastes are the largest category of wastes, and the paper concentrates on equipment and techniques available to reduce or eliminate these wastes. Techniques are described to reduce the other wastes from manufacturing operations. The paper concludes with a discussion of changing industry product trends and the effect that these trends will have on the generation of waste.

  18. WASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    WASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource! energy forum Case Studies from Estonia, Switzerland, Germany Bossart,· ABB Waste-to-Energy Plants Edmund Fleck,· ESWET Marcel van Berlo,· Afval Energie Bedrijf From Waste to Energy To Energy from Waste #12;9.00-9.30: Registration 9.30-9.40: Chairman Ella Stengler opens

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladale, R.

    2010-01-01

    Incentives • MSW • Small Wind Systems. -u- Page Industrialelectricity or gas Small wind power Low-head hydroelectricsolid waste (MSW); 2) small wind power; 3) industrial

  20. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  1. Methodology for modeling the devolatilization of refuse-derived fuel from thermogravimetric analysis of municipal solid waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsky, K.J.; Miller, D.L.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology was introduced for modeling the devolatilization characteristics of refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in terms of temperature-dependent weight loss. The basic premise of the methodology is that RDF is modeled as a combination of select municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Kinetic parameters are derived for each component from thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) data measured at a specific set of conditions. These experimentally derived parameters, along with user-derived parameters, are inputted to model equations for the purpose of calculating thermograms for the components. The component thermograms are summed to create a composite thermogram that is an estimate of the devolatilization for the as-modeled RFD. The methodology has several attractive features as a thermal analysis tool for waste fuels. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-08-31

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available.

  3. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. HAZARDOUS WASTE [Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    HAZARDOUS WASTE MANUAL [Written Program] Cornell University [10/7/13 #12;Hazardous Waste Program................................................... 8 3.0 MINIMIZING HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION.........................................................10 4.0 HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATOR REQUIREMENTS.....................................................10

  5. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  6. Transuranic waste disposal in the United State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The US is unique in having created a special class of radioactive waste disposal based on the concentration of transuranic (TRU) elements in the waste. Since 1970, the US has been placing newly generated TRU waste in retrievable storage. It is intended that these wastes will be placed in a permanent deep geologic repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP opening for a demonstration emplacement period is set for October 1988. Transuranic wastes derive from some of the manufacturing and research activities carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The bulk of this waste is generated in plutonium parts fabrication activities. A variety of plutonium-contaminated materials ranging from glove boxes, high-efficiency particulate air filters, and machine tools, to chemical sludges derived from plutonium recovery streams are stored as TRU wastes. Other processes that generate TRU waste are plutonium production operations, preparation for and cleanup from fuel reprocessing, manufacturing of plutonium heat sources, and nuclear fuel cycle research activities. Extensive procedures will be used to examine and prepare waste before it is placed in the WIPP for disposal. After the WIPP opens, certified waste will be transported to it and emplaced in the repository.

  7. Waste Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nergFeet)DepartmentWasteWaste

  8. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    and for e?ective use of industrial exhaust heat is describedto scale up the process to industrial production levels.Waste Disassembly with Industrial Waste Heat Mengjun

  9. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    term of biomass and MSW gasification which have a restrictedscale biomass or MSW gasification have not been provenMSW), sewage sludge, animal and food wastes, etc. Usually, gasification

  10. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    of biohazardous and chemical or radioactive waste), call Environment, Health & Safety: (858) 534Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Human Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (858

  11. ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE DIVISION FY2008 SELF-ASSESSMENT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE DIVISION FY2008 SELF-ASSESSMENT REPORT November 7, 2008 Prepared by....................................................................3 E4. Division participates in pollution prevention, energy conservation, recycling, and waste); and environmental permits and management criteria (resource conservation, pollution prevention and waste

  12. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

  13. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  15. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  16. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  17. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  18. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  19. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives 2...

  20. Hanford Tank Waste Retrieval,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tank Waste Retrieval, Treatment, and Disposition Framework September 24, 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 Hanford Tank Waste Retrieval, Treatment, and...

  1. Transuranic Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides criteria for determining if a waste is to be managed in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter III, Transuranic Waste Requirements.

  2. Waste-to-Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    into renewable energy, thereby enabling a national network of distributed power and biofuel production sites. Image courtesy of Iona Capital Waste-to-Energy Cycle Waste...

  3. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  4. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization.

  5. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  6. Microsoft Word - MSW Part I

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the BillDepartmentSites |StridesBRC Charter MicrosoftofHUMAN RELIABILITY0 of

  7. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  8. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  9. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coyne, Martin J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fiscus, Gregory M. (McMurray, PA); Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

  10. Method and apparatus for conserving waste energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldifrawi, A.A.

    1981-05-12

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conserving waste energy by transferring waste heat from an internal combustion engine, solar energy or from any other source of waste heat energy of a temperature of 200/sup 0/F or above, to a carrier liquid includes conveying the heated carrier liquid to a heat exchanger, pressurizing a refrigerant by heating the refrigerant with heat energy extracted from the heated carrier liquid and performing work with the pressurized refrigerant. The preferred embodiments include a modified Rankine-Sterling cycle engine and a dual absorption generator system.

  11. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

    1998-10-06

    A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

  12. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  14. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, J. D.; Collins, E. D.; Crum, J. V.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Garn, T. G.; Gombert, D.; Jones, R.; Jubin, R. T.; Maio, V. C.; Marra, J. C.; Matyas, J.; Nenoff, T. M.; Riley, B. J.; Sevigny, G. J.; Soelberg, N. R.; Strachan, D. M.; Thallapally, P. K.; Westsik, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form with encapsulated nano-sized AgI crystals; Carbon-14 immobilized as a CaCO3 in a cement waste form; Krypton-85 stored as a compressed gas; An aqueous reprocessing high-level waste (HLW) raffinate waste immobilized by the vitrification process; An undissolved solids (UDS) fraction from aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel either included in the borosilicate HLW glass or immobilized in the form of a metal alloy or titanate ceramics; Zirconium-based LWR fuel cladding hulls and stainless steel (SS) fuel assembly hardware super-compacted for disposal or purified for reuse (or disposal as low-level waste, LLW) of Zr by reactive gas separations; Electrochemical process salt HLW incorporated into a glass bonded Sodalite waste form; and Electrochemical process UDS and SS cladding hulls melted into an iron based alloy waste form. Mass and volume estimates for each of the recommended waste forms based on the source terms from a representative flowsheet are reported. In addition to the above listed primary waste streams, a range of secondary process wastes are generated by aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel, metal SFR fuel fabrication, and electrochemical reprocessing of SFR fuel. These secondary wastes have been summarized and volumes estimated by type and classification. The important waste management data gaps and research needs have been summarized for each primary waste stream and selected waste process.

  15. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office@caltech.edu http://safety.caltech.edu #12;Hazardous Waste Management Reference Guide Page 2 of 36 TABLE OF CONTENTS Satellite Accumulation Area 9 Waste Accumulation Facility 10 HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINER MANAGEMENT Labeling

  16. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear Waste Glass Batch Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Alumina Source on...

  17. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

  1. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport.

  2. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-08-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage.

  3. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ? More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ? The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ? Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ? There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ.

  4. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    process streams. Handb. Bioethanol:395-415. 10. Ehrman T.solid waste used as bioethanol sources and its relatedof cellulosic biomass into bioethanol as an alternative

  5. Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01

    LBNL/PUB-5352, Revision 6 Waste Management QualityAssurance Plan Waste Management Group Environment, HealthRev. 6 WM QA Plan Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

  6. Smart Bin for Incompatible Waste Items Arnab Sinha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the context of waste management, where considerable volume of waste is present collectively and there may are performed based on the knowledge available locally without looking up from any external sources. Since, the global identification of objects is avoided, preservation of privacy is ensured, which is a concern

  7. Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities July 24, 2014 9:00AM to 3:30PM EDT U.S....

  8. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    equipment for automatic dismantling of electronic componentsthe technology acceptance for dismantling of waste printedR. Research on with dismantling of PCB mounted electronic

  9. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Allentown, PA A microbial reverse electrodialysis technology will be combined with waste heat recovery to convert effluents into electricity and chemical products, including...

  10. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

  12. CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, lead-acid and all other types. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) batteries must be removed from the UPS casing

  13. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  14. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  15. Copenhagen Waste Management and Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Copenhagen Waste Management and Incineration Florence, April 24 2009 Julie B. Svendsen 24 20092 Presentation · General introduction to Copenhagen Waste Management System · National incentives · Waste Management plan 2012 · Incineration plants #12;Florence, April 24 20093 Copenhagen Waste

  16. A system analysis of converting non-recyclable plastic waste into value-added products in a paper industry cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desam, Padmabhushana R

    2013-01-01

    Waste plastic, both industrial and municipal sources, is posing a major environmental challenges in developing countries such as India due to improper disposal methods. Large quantities of non-recyclable plastic waste get ...

  17. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  18. Composting Waste Alternatives University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1 Composting ­ Waste Alternatives M.J. Depaz University of Florida Soil and Water Science, municipal solid waste, animal manure, and vegetable and yard waste have proven by research to be suitable for land application, especially after composting these source materials (Muchovej and Obreza, 2001

  19. Hanford Tank Waste Residuals

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - 27...

  20. Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Report from the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review March 17-27, 2015 U.S. Department of...

  1. Pet Waste Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    About 1 million pounds of dog waste is deposited daily in North Texas alone. That's why proper disposal of pet waste can make a big difference in the environment. 5 photos, 2 pages...

  2. Name ________________________________ Lab 11. Solid Waste Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    clippings to old sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. It does not include industrial, hazardous;2 Looking at Figure 2, what percent of MSW was recycled in 2006? Has the general trend been toward more or less recycling since 1985? #12;3 Looking at Figure 3, what is the most recycled material? Why

  3. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  4. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  5. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  6. Doing the impossible: Recycling nuclear waste

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    A Science Channel feature explores how Argonne techniques could be used to safely reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power?the most plentiful carbon-neutral energy source. Read more at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/ArgonneNow/Fall_2009/nuclear.html

  7. Turning waste into energy beats landfilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , not incineration. Miller and others also refer to incineration as a source of dioxins, and they're right. But let that the landfills throughout Ontario and Michigan release fewer dioxins than that, he needs to hire better advisers-to-waste plants generate heat and electricity, This incinerator in Malmo, Sweden, supplies electricity and heat

  8. Waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  9. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Morgan, J.

    1997-01-07

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data th at was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview.

  10. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamberini, R. Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  11. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  12. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills have been found to contain many of the same hazardous constituents as found in hazardous waste landfills. Because of the large number of MSW landfills, these sites pose a serious environmental threat...

  13. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

  14. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Akinwale [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cokerwale@yahoo.com; Sangodoyin, Abimbola [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Sridhar, Mynepalli [Division of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix [School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  15. Call for Nominations to the WTERT/SUR 2010 Awards -February 22, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    electricity from LFG: MWh of district/other heating from LFG: Additional information: The definition of "city of MSW composted: Tons MSW to Waste-to-Energy (WTE or EfW): MWh electricity from WTE/EfW: MWh of district/other heating from WTE/EfW: Tons of MSW landfilled: Tons of MSW landfilled with Landfill Gas Recovery: MWh

  16. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  17. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, supersedes DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

  19. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  20. ENERGY CONSERVATION: POLICY ISSUES AND END-USE SCENARIOS OF SAVINGS POTENTIAL PT.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    in the resource stream where energy recovery from materialsMSW Derived Energy Table 10. Recyclables in the Waste Stream

  1. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kilowatt LCOE levelized cost of energy MECO Maui Electric Company MSW municipal solid waste MW megawatt MWh

  2. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ``unpackaged`` volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste.

  4. Transuranic (TRU) Waste | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transuranic (TRU) Waste Defined by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act as "waste containing more than 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting...

  5. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  6. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove [sup 137]CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

  7. www.d-waste.com info@d-waste.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    management data available". According to David Newman, president of the International Solid Waste Association collection services, according to the first global survey of waste management. The Waste Atlas 2013 Report marketplace, about 47 grams of waste is produced-- with worldwide municipal solid waste generation totaling

  8. Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    of Containers p.8 o E. Disposal of Empty Containers p.8 o F. Storage of Waste Chemicals p.8,9 o G. Chemical Compatibility p.9 Radioactive Waste Disposal p.10 Bio Hazard Waste chemical and radioactive waste, and Biohazardous waste. This document contains university procedures

  9. 8-Waste treatment and disposal A. Responsibility for waste management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8- Waste treatment and disposal A. Responsibility for waste management 1. Each worker is responsible for correctly bagging and labeling his/her own waste. 2. A BSL3 technician will be responsible for transporting and autoclaving the waste. Waste will be autoclaved once or twice per day, depending on use

  10. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from ?58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of ?58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  11. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  12. CARD No. 24 Waste Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARD No. 24 Waste Characterization 24.A.1 BACKGROUND DOE must provide waste inventory information Report (TWBIR), Revisions 2 and 3, which provides waste characterization information specific to DOE solidified waste forms was included. Waste described in TWBIR Revision 3 was primarily characterized through

  13. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

  14. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E. (comps.)

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described.

  15. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  16. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  17. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

  18. Norcal Waste Systems, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-12-01

    Fact sheet describes the LNG long-haul heavy-duty trucks at Norcal Waste Systems Inc.'s Sanitary Fill Company.

  19. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  20. Waste Confidence Discussion

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Long-Term Waste Confidence Update Christine Pineda Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission National Transportation Stakeholders Forum...

  1. Vitrification of waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  2. Vitrification of waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-04-06

    A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  3. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  4. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  5. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LLC. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan for identified nitrate salt bearing waste...

  7. Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act provides for planning for the processing and disposal of municipal waste; requires counties to submit plans for municipal waste management systems within their boundaries; authorizes...

  8. Report: EM Tank Waste Subcommittee Full Report for Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    meeting, enclosed please find the Environmental Management Advisory Board EM Tank Waste Subcommittee Report for Waste Treatment Plant; Report Number EMAB EM-TWS WTP-001,...

  9. Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW Waste Vitrification Facility L. Holton D. Alexander C. Babel H. Sutter J. Young August...

  10. Waste Loading Enhancements for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WASTE LOADING ENHANCEMENTS FOR HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE GLASSES Albert A. Kruger, Glass Scientist DOE-WTP Project Office Engineering Division US Department of Energy Richland,...

  11. Sources Sought Announcement

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    will include waste acceptance services to be performed at the NNSS and at waste generator sites across the DOE Complex. The Statements of Capabilities will assist the...

  12. Virginia Waste Management Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solid waste and hazardous waste are regulated under a number of programs at the Department of Environmental Quality. These programs are designed to encourage the reuse and recycling of solid waste...

  13. HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 5-4170 Corrosive Non- Hazardous Ignitable Reactive Toxic Oxidizer Other ( explain ) Generator Building Dept. HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 5-4170 HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY

  14. Title 20, California Code of Regulations Article 5. Electricity Generation Source Disclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    operations and food processing, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, municipal liquid waste treatment that is converted to electrical energy in boilers an/or turbines. (3) Small hydroelectric. For purposes of these regulations, "solar" means the power source created by movement of air that is converted to electrical energy

  15. Radionuclide inventory for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report updates the information previously submitted in the draft report DOE/WIPP 88-005, Radionuclide Source Term for the WIPP, dated 1987 (reference 1). The information in this report provides the projected radionuclide inventory at the WIPP based on the projected waste receipts through the year 2013. The information is based on the 1991 TRU Program Data submittals for the Integrated Data Base (DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 7) from each of the DOE sites generating or storing TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. The data is based on existing characterization data on the waste in interim storage, waste estimates based on projected programs during the 1991 through 2013 time period, projected treatment processes required to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), and a projection of the waste that will be declared low level waste when it is assayed as part of the certification program for waste shipments to WIPP. This data will serve as a standard reference for WIPP programs requiring radionuclide data, including safety programs, performance assessment, and regulatory compliance. These projections will continue to be periodically updated as the waste data estimates are refined by the generator sites as they participate in the annual update of the Integrated Data Base (IDB).

  16. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  17. SHIELDING ANALYSIS FOR PORTABLE GAUGING COMBINATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. TOMPKINS; L. LEONARD; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Radioisotopic decay has been used as a source of photons and neutrons for industrial gauging operations since the late 1950s. Early portable moisture/density gauging equipment used Americium (Am)-241/Beryllium (Be)/Cesium (Cs)-137 combination sources to supply the required nuclear energy for gauging. Combination sources typically contained 0.040 Ci of Am-241 and 0.010 Ci of CS-137 in the same source capsule. Most of these sources were manufactured approximately 30 years ago. Collection, transportation, and storage of these sources once removed from their original device represent a shielding problem with distinct gamma and neutron components. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project is planning to use a multi-function drum (MFD) for the collection, shipping, and storage of AmBe sources, as well as the eventual waste package for disposal. The MFD is an approved TRU waste container design for DOE TRU waste known as the 12 inch Pipe Component Overpack. As the name indicates, this drum is based on a 12 inch ID stainless steel weldment approximately 25 inch in internal length. The existing drum design allows for addition of shielding within the pipe component up to the 110 kg maximum pay load weight. The 12 inch pipe component is packaged inside a 55-gallon drum, with the balance of the interior space filled with fiberboard dunnage. This packaging geometry is similar to the design of a DOT 6M, Type B shipping container.

  18. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, S.; Shore, J.; Worden, H.; Jain, R.

    2009-08-15

    Sustainable municipal solid waste management at military solutions necessitates a combined approach that includes waste reduction, alternative disposal techniques, and increased recycling. Military installations are unique because they often represent large employers in the region in which they are located, thereby making any practices they employ impact overall waste management strategies of the region. Solutions for waste sustainability will be dependent on operational directives and base location, availability of resources such as water and energy, and size of population. Presented in this paper are descriptions of available waste strategies that can be used to support sustainable waste management. Results presented indicate source reduction and recycling to be the most sustainable solutions. However, new waste-to-energy plants and composting have potential to improve on these well proven techniques and allow military installations to achieve sustainable waste management.

  19. Waste Specification Records - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specification Records About Us Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program What's New Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Process Becoming a new Hanford Customer Annual Waste Forecast...

  20. Hazardous Waste Management (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Hazardous Waste Bureau is responsible for the management of hazardous waste in the state. The Bureau enforces the rules established by the Environmental...

  1. Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

  2. Solid Waste Management (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling...

  3. Attachment C ? Waste Analysis Plan

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PLAN 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Permit December 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES 2 WASTE ANALYSIS PLAN......

  4. Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01

    Waste Management group organization chart. Revised to updatecurrent practices. New organization chart, roles, andManagement Group organization chart. EH&S Waste Management

  5. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  6. Waste Description Pounds Reduced,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,320 $5,817 Installation of motion detector lighting in common areas of Buildings 490 and 463. "Bio Circle Cleaner" parts washer Substitution 640 Hazardous waste $10,000 $4,461 $10,000 Eliminates the need disposal system Recycling 528 Hazardous waste $12,000 $0 $12,000 Empty aerosol cans are recycled as scrap

  7. Hazardous Waste Management Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Hazardous Waste Management Training Persons (including faculty, staff and students) working with hazardous materials should receive annual training that addresses storage, use, and disposal of hazardous before handling hazardous waste. Departments are re- quired to keep records of training for as long

  8. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  9. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  10. Managing America's solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J. A.

    1998-09-15

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  11. Vitrification of NORM wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, C.

    1994-05-01

    Vitrification of wastes is a relatively new application of none of man`s oldest manufacturing processes. During the past 25 years it has been developed and accepted internationally for immobilizing the most highly radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel. By the year 2005, there will be nine operating high-level radioactive vitrification plants. Many of the technical ``lessons learned`` from this international program can be applied to much less hazardous materials such as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). With the deployment of low capital and operating cost systems, vitrification should become a broadly applied process for treating a large variety of wastes. In many situations, the wastes can be transformed into marketable products. This paper will present a general description of waste vitrification, summarize some of its key advantages, provide some test data for a small sample of one NORM, and suggest how this process may be applied to NORM.

  12. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Phase 1 High Level Waste Feed Tanks Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD, T.W.

    1999-08-16

    A recent revision of the US. Department of Energy privatization contract for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) at Hanford necessitates the investigation of alternative waste feed sources to meet contractual feed requirements. This analysis identifies wastes to be considered as HLW feeds and develops and conducts alternative analyses to comply with established criteria. A total of 12,426 cases involving 72 waste streams are evaluated and ranked in three cost-based alternative models. Additional programmatic criteria are assessed against leading alternative options to yield an optimum blended waste feed stream.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix H: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report develops and presents estimates for a set of three values that represent a reasonable range for the packaging factors for several waste streams that are potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level waste disposal container divided by the original, as-generated or ``unpackaged,`` volume of the wastes loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors take into account any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. The three values developed represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated volume of waste for disposal, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. Three categories of greater-than-Class C low-level waste are evaluated in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other wastes. Estimates of reasonable packaging factors for the low, base, and high cases for the specific waste streams in each category are shown in Table H-1.

  14. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  15. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-29

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source documents from the U.S. Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for acomprehensive and detailed listing of the requirements.This CH-WAC does not address the subject of waste characterization relating to adetermination of whether the waste is hazardous; rather, the sites are referred to theWaste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit fordetails of the sampling and analysis protocols to be used in determining compliance withthe required physical and chemical properties of the waste. Requirements andassociated criteria pertaining to a determination of the radiological properties of thewaste, however, are addressed in appendix A of this document. The collectiveinformation obtained from waste characterization records and acceptable knowledge(AK) serves as the basis for sites to certify that their CH-TRU waste satisfies the WIPPwaste acceptance criteria listed herein.

  16. Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Thuot, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily research- oriented and as such affect the amount and type of source reduction that can be achieved at this facility. The objective of ANL's waste minimization program is to cost-effectively reduce all types of wastes, including hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous wastes. The ANL Waste Minimization Plan uses a waste minimization audit as a systematic procedure to determine opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste. To facilitate these audits, a computerized bar-coding procedure is being implemented at ANL to track hazardous wastes from where they are generated to their ultimate disposal. This paper describes the development of the ANL Waste Minimization Plan and a pilot demonstration of the how the ANL Plan audited the hazardous waste generated within a selected divisions of ANL. It includes quantitative data on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste at ANL and describes potential ways to minimize hazardous wastes. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Waste Management & Research290 Waste Manage Res 2002: 20: 290301

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Waste Management & Research290 Waste Manage Res 2002: 20: 290­301 Printed in UK ­ all rights reserved Copyright © ISWA 2002 Waste Management & Research ISSN 0734­242X Introduction Chromated copper of sorting technologies for CCA treated wood waste Monika Blassino Helena Solo-Gabriele University of Miami

  18. Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veilleux, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanfield, Sean B [CCP; Wachter, Joe [CCP; Ceo, Bob [CCP

    2009-01-01

    Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are more realistic and accurate. To do so, measurements of standards and waste drums were performed with High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The data were analyzed for multiplication effects and new estimates of the multiplication error were computed. A concluding section will present alternatives for reducing the number of rejections of TRU waste containers due to neutron multiplication error.

  19. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapitany, Sandor

    2013-07-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A waste retrieval campaign was fulfilled in 2008 to retrieve the sealed sources. The paper demonstrates the conditions of sealed sources after twenty-year disposal period. As a summary, the paper will share the main experiences of a 35-year old facility, managing radioactive sealed sources in Central Europe. (authors)

  20. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  1. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Yasser T. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  2. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  3. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  4. INTERSTATE WASTE TECHNOLOGIES THERMOSELECT TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 INTERSTATE WASTE TECHNOLOGIES THERMOSELECT TECHNOLOGY AN OVERVIEW Presented to the DELAWARE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP January 10, 2006 #12;2 INTERSTATE WASTE MANAGEMENT ALLIANCE and maintenance (30 years) ­ Will guarantee performance and Operation and Maintenance ­ Serves solid waste

  5. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  6. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  7. Contained recovery of oily waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., Lyle A. (Laramie, WY); Sudduth, Bruce C. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for recovering oily waste from oily waste accumulations underground comprising sweeping the oily waste accumulation with hot water to recover said oily waste, wherein said area treated is isolated from surrounding groundwater hydraulically. The hot water may be reinjected after the hot-water displacement or may be treated to conform to any discharge requirements.

  8. Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, N.

    1993-11-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

  9. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from 231-Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Berkwitz, D.E.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium Metallurgy Laboratory (231-Z) Facility. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by 231-Z using process knowledge, existing records and oral history interviews. Since 1944 research and development programs utilizing plutonium have been conducted at 231-Z in the fields of physical metallurgy, property determination, alloy development, and process development. The following are sources of solid waste generation at the 231-Z Facility: (1) General Weapons Development Program, (2) process waste from gloveboxes, (3) numerous classified research and development programs, (4) advanced decontamination and decommissioning technologies, including sectioning, vibratory finishing, electropolishing, solution process, and small bench-scale work, (5) general laboratory procedures, (6) foundry area, (7) housekeeping activities, and (8) four cleanout campaigns. All solid wastes originating at 231-Z were packaged for onsite-offsite storage or disposal. Waste packaging and reporting requirements have undergone significant changes throughout the history of 231-Z. Current and historical procedures are provided in Section 4.0. Information on the radioactive wastes generated at 231-Z can be found in a number of documents and databases, most importantly the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System database and Solid Waste Burial Records. Facility personnel also provide excellent information about past waste generation and the procedures used to handle that waste. Section 5.0 was compiled using these sources.

  10. Solid Waste Management (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct,...

  11. Waste and Recycling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2013-05-28

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy talks about nuclear energy, the challenge of nuclear waste and the research aimed at solutions. For more information about nuclear energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWEFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070 - Document number changed to HNF-0918 at revision 1 - 1/7/97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-10-03

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed at Hanford`s Solid Waste (SW) Program from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the SW Program; program- level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and Li comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. The focus of this web site is on low- level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this site is reporting data current as of 9/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program`s life cycle.

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report. Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report dangerous waste: Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, weight, waste description, and waste designation.

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report. Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report dangerous waste: Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, weight, waste description, and waste designation.

  15. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Witkowski, Ioana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, A [NNSA

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources meeting the DOE definition of 'transuranic,' OSRP has achieved many milestones, including defense determinations for various isotopes, a WIPP RCRA permit modification to accommodate headspace gas sampling requirements, and approval of a peer-reviewed non-assay radiological characterization methodology. For non-transuranic sources, which OSRP began to recover in 2004, OSRP has achieved NEP A coverage for storage and implemented consolidated storage at both DOE and commercial locations, as well as completing several specific disposal operations. The closure of the Barnwell low-level waste disposal site in 2008 has left 36 states with absolutely no commercial disposal pathway for most sealed sources, increasing the demands on OSRP. This and other current challenges and future work will also be discussed.

  16. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    sewage sludge, higher fossil fuel prices, carbon taxes, andsludge, increasing fossil fuel prices, enacting a carboncoal or other fossil fuels (Murray and Price 2008). MSW and

  17. Documentation of acceptable knowledge for LANL Plutonium Facility transuranic waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, A.J.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Foxx, C.; Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1998-07-01

    Characterization of transuranic waste from the LANL Plutonium Facility for certification and transportation to WIPP includes the use of acceptable knowledge as specified in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan. In accordance with a site-specific procedure, documentation of acceptable knowledge for retrievably stored and currently generated transuranic waste streams is in progress at LANL. A summary overview of the transuranic waste inventory is complete and documented in the Sampling Plan. This document also includes projected waste generation, facility missions, waste generation processes, flow diagrams, times, and material inputs. The second part of acceptable knowledge documentation consists of assembling more detailed acceptable knowledge information into auditable records and is expected to require several years to complete. These records for each waste stream must support final assignment of waste matrix parameters, EPA hazardous waste numbers, and radionuclide characterization. They must also include a determination whether waste streams are defense waste streams for compliance with the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The LANL Plutonium Facility`s mission is primarily plutonium processing in basic special nuclear material (SNM) research activities to support national defense and energy programs. It currently has about 100 processes ranging from SNM recovery from residues to development of plutonium 238 heat sources for space applications. Its challenge is to characterize and certify waste streams from such diverse and dynamic operations using acceptable knowledge. This paper reports the progress on the certification of the first of these waste streams to the WIPP WAC.

  18. Documentation of acceptable knowledge for Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility TRU waste stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, A.J.; Gruetzmacher, K.M.; Foxx, C.L.; Rogers, P.Z.

    1998-03-01

    Characterization of transuranic waste from the LANL Plutonium Facility for certification and transportation to WIPP includes the use of acceptable knowledge as specified in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan. In accordance with a site specific procedure, documentation of acceptable knowledge for retrievably stored and currently generated transuranic waste streams is in progress at LANL. A summary overview of the TRU waste inventory is complete and documented in the Sampling Plan. This document also includes projected waste generation, facility missions, waste generation processes, flow diagrams, times, and material inputs. The second part of acceptable knowledge documentation consists of assembling more detailed acceptable knowledge information into auditable records and is expected to require several years to complete. These records for each waste stream must support final assignment of waste matrix parameters, EPA hazardous waste numbers, and radionuclide characterization. They must also include a determination whether waste streams are defense waste streams for compliance with the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The LANL Plutonium Facility`s mission is primarily plutonium processing in basic special nuclear material (SNM) research activities to support national defense and energy programs. It currently has about 100 processes ranging from SNM recovery from residues to development of plutonium 238 heat sources for space applications. Its challenge is to characterize and certify waste streams from such diverse and dynamic operations using acceptable knowledge. This paper reports the progress on the certification of the first of these waste streams to the WIPP WAC.

  19. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  20. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  1. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - October 2013 Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility...

  2. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 More Documents & Publications Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Analytical Laboratory...

  3. Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Jill; Rausser, Gordon C.

    2000-01-01

    WORKING PAPER NO. 906 HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES AND HOUSINGEconomics January 2000 Hazardous Waste Sites and Housingand RF. Anderson, Hazardous waste sites: the credibility

  4. Savannah River Site Waste Disposition Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Terrel J. Spears Assistant Manager Waste Disposition Project DOE Savannah River Operations Office Savannah River Site Savannah River Site Waste Disposition Project Waste...

  5. EIS-0200: Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    00: Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Managing Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste EIS-0200: Waste Management...

  6. Biochar: A Solution to Oakland's Green Waste?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villar, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    as an alternative waste management solution. Biochar is asequestration and alternative green waste management. For5 years, Alameda County Waste Management’s (WM) residential

  7. EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste inventories in a safe and compliant...

  8. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan, fiscal year 1994. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A was promulgated in final form on September 26, 1988. The order requires heads of field organizations to prepare and to submit updates on the waste management plans for all operations under their purview according to the format in Chap. 6, {open_quotes}Waste Management Plan Outline.{close_quotes} These plans are to be submitted by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) in December of each year and distributed to the DP-12, ES&H-1, and other appropriate DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ) organizations for review and comment. This document was prepared in response to this requirement for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management mission is reduction, collection, storage, treatment, and disposal of DOE wastes, generated primarily in pursuit of ORNL missions, in order to protect human health and safety and the environment. In carrying out this mission, waste management staff in the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) will (1) guide ORNL in optimizing waste reduction and waste management capabilities and (2) conduct waste management operations in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of this document is compilation and consolidation of information on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what activities are planned for FY 1994, and how all of the activities are documented.

  10. This document details how to manage hazardous waste with multiple hazards. Waste Management Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    This document details how to manage hazardous waste with multiple hazards. Waste Management Procedures · Always manage hazardous waste as the highest ranked waste in the hazardous waste hierarchy Waste Solids Place in solid radioactive waste box. Radioactive Waste Liquids Place in liquid radioactive

  11. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

  12. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  13. Regulatory Control of Sealed Sources in Germany including Regulations Regarding Spent and Disused Sources - 13176

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollan, Ralph; Haeusler, Uwe; Czarwinski, Renate

    2013-07-01

    Effective regulatory control is essential to ensure the safe and secure use of radioactive material and the appropriate management of radioactive waste. To ensure a sustainable control of high radioactive sources, the European Commission published the Council Directive 2003/122/EURATOM on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, which had to be transferred into national legislation by all member states of the European Union. Major requirement of the Directive is a system to ensure traceability of high-activity sealed sources from 'cradle to grave' as well as the provision to take back disused sources by the supplier or manufacturer. With the Act on high-activity sealed radioactive sources Germany implemented the requirements of the Directive 2003/122/EURATOM and established a national registry of high-activity sealed sources in 2006. Currently, about 27.000 high-activity sealed sources are recorded in this national registry. (authors)

  14. MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    . Keywords: ammonia, emission, mass transfer, modelling, swine waste storage and treatment system 1MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE of ammonia are approximately 75 Tg N/yr (1 Tg = 1012g). The major global source is excreta from domestic

  15. Gas generation from Tank 241-SY-103 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Forbes, S.V.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating mechanisms by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-SY-103. The objective of this work is to establish the identity and stoichiometry of degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The focus of the gas generation tests on Tank 241-SY-103 samples is first the effect of temperature on gas generation (volume and composition). Secondly, gas generation from irradiation of Tank 241-SY-103 samples at the corresponding temperatures as the thermal-only treatments will be measured in the presence of an external radiation source (using a {sup 137}Cs capsule). The organic content will be measured on a representative sample prior to gas generation experiments and again at the termination of heating and irradiation. The gas generation will be related to the extent of organic species consumption during heating. Described in this report are experimental methods used for producing and measuring gases generated at various temperatures from highly radioactive actual tank waste, and results of gas generation from Tank 241-SY-103 waste taken from its convective layer. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates from actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from the convective layer of Tank 241-SY-103, a waste tank listed on the Flammable Gas Watch List due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  16. Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2013-02-24

    Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source.

  17. Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste - 13532

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States)] [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States); Bryan, Samuel; Lines, Amanda; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source. (authors)

  18. Resource recovery potential from secondary components of segregated municipal solid wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for decentralized biogas plants to be operated in the vicinity. We characterized the fermen- tation potential of six of the above MSW fractions for their suitability to be converted to biogas and anaerobic compost using

  19. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  20. Using wastes as resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakasam, T.B.S.; Lue-Hing, C. )

    1992-09-01

    The collection, treatment, and disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater, garbage, and other wastes present considerable problems in urban and semiurban areas of developing countries. Major benefits of using integrated treatment and resource recovery systems include waste stabilization, recovering energy as biogas, producing food from algae and fish, irrigation, improved public health, and aquatic weed control and use. Information and research are needed, however, to assesss the appropriateness, benefits, and limitations of such technology on a large scale. System configuration depends on the types and quantities of wastes available for processing. There must be enough collectable waste for the system to be viable. Information should be gathered to asses whether there is a net public health benefit by implementing a waste treatment and resource recovery system. Benefits such as savings in medical expenses and increased worker productivity due to improved health may be difficult to quantify. The potential health risks created by implementing a resource recovery system should be studied. The most difficult issues to contend with are socioeconomic in nature. Often, the poor performance of a proven technology is attributed to a lack of proper understanding of its principles by the operators, lack of community interest, improper operator training, and poor management. Public education to motivate people to accept technologies that are beneficial to them is important.

  1. ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerdes, J. Christian

    ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES PLASTICS, METALS & GLASS pleaseemptyandflatten COMPOSTABLES kitchenandyardwasteonly LANDFILL ONLY ifallelsefails All Plastic Containers Metal Material All Food Paper Plates & Napkins *including pizza & donut boxes Compostable & Biodegradable

  2. Tank Waste and Waste Processing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    waste stored in underground tanks and approximately 4,000 cubic meters of solid waste derived from the liquids stored in bins. The current DOE estimated cost for retrieval,...

  3. Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Did you know 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat? What scientists are doing to take advantage of this opportunity to save money and new developments in harvesting fuel through photosynthesis.

  4. Production of biofuels and biodegradable plastics from common waste substrates in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jingnan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha, a Gram-negative proteobacterium, is capable of utilizing a plethora of simple and complex carbon sources derived from common waste streams. When experiencing nutrient stress in the presence of high ...

  5. Risk-informing decisions about high-level nuclear waste repositories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchandra Tina, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) are important sources of information for societal decisions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management, particularly in evaluating safety cases for proposed HLW repository development. ...

  6. Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.F.

    2012-07-01

    Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckman, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Tang, W.R. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-08-04

    This Program Plan document describes the background of the Waste Minimization field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and refers to the significant studies that have impacted on legislative efforts, both at the federal and state levels. A short history of formal LLNL waste minimization efforts is provided. Also included are general findings from analysis of work to date, with emphasis on source reduction findings. A short summary is provided on current regulations and probable future legislation which may impact on waste minimization methodology. The LLN Waste Minimization Program Plan is designed to be dynamic and flexible so as to meet current regulations, and yet is able to respond to an everchanging regulatory environment. 19 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air.

  10. Transuranic waste form characterization and data base. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    The Transuranic Waste Form Characterization and Data Base (Volume 1) provides a wide range of information from which a comprehensive data base can be established and from which standards and criteria can be developed for the present NRC waste management program. Supplementary information on each of the areas discussed in Volume 1 is presented in Appendices A through K (Volumes 2 and 3). The structure of the study (Volume 1) is outlined and appendices of Volumes 2 and 3 correlate with each main section of the report. The Executive Summary reviews the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. Due to the variety of potential treatment processes for transuranic wastes, the end products for long-term storage may have corresponding variations in quantities and characteristics.

  11. Waste generator services implementation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  13. Radioactive Waste Storage Facility at the Armenian NPP - 12462

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A.; Gondakyan, Y. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NRSC), 4 Tigran Mets, 375010 Yerevan (Armenia); Stepanyan, A. [Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority(ANRA), 4 Tigran Mets, 375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed contaminant transfer dynamics model for radionuclide in geosphere and biosphere medium. The model describes the transport of radionuclides using full equation for the processes of advection, diffusion, decay and sorption. The overall objective is to establish, from a post-closure radiological safety point of view, whether it is practical to convert an existing radioactive waste storage facility at Armenian NPP, to a waste disposal facility. The calculation includes: - Data sources for: the operational waste-source term; options for refurbishment and completion of the waste storage facility as a waste disposal facility; the site and its environs; - Development of an assessment context for the safety assessment, and identification of waste treatment options; - A description of the conceptual and mathematical models, and results calculated for the base case scenario relating to the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway and also precipitation especially important for this site. The results of the calculations showed that the peak individual dose is < 7 E-8 Sv/y arising principally from I-129 after 700 years post closure. Other significant radionuclides, in terms of their contribution to the total dose are I-129, Tc-99 and in little C-14 (U- 234 and Po-210 are not relevant). The study does not explore all issues that might be expected to be presented in a safety case for a near surface disposal facility it mainly focuses on post- closure dose impacts. Most emphasis has been placed on the development of scenarios and conceptual models rather than the presentation and analyses of results and confidence building (only deterministic results are presented). The calculations suggest that, from a perspective the conversion of the waste-storage facility is feasible such that all the predicted doses are well below internationally recognized targets, as well as provisional Armenian regulatory objectives. This conclusion applies to the disposal of the ANPP present and future arising of L/ILW operating wastes. (authors)

  14. Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity ORSSAB's recommendations encourage DOE to...

  15. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were...

  16. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for...

  17. Waste Management Assistance Act (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section promotes the proper and safe storage, treatment, and disposal of solid, hazardous, and low-level radioactive wastes in Iowa, and calls on Iowans to assume responsibility for waste...

  18. Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid...

  19. Low-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as low-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV.

  20. High-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

  1. Reducing Waste in Memory Hierarchies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Yingying

    2015-05-01

    power consumption by dynamically bypassing zero-reuse blocks. This dissertation exploits waste of data redundancy at the block-level granularity and finds that conventional cache design wastes capacity because it stores duplicate data. This dissertation...

  2. Eating Disorders: Body Wasting Away

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    can begin with the waste of food, and end in the waste ofwaste in eating, regurgitating, and then flushing a box of Cheez-its down the toilet, or in tossing untouched food

  3. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  4. Zero Waste, Renewable Energy & Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Zero Waste, Renewable Energy & Environmental Stewardship - Connecting loose ends: Thermal Recycling Party, Berlin · Research Institute Karlsruhe, Germany · Oekoinstitut, Freiburg, Germany · BASF, Germany business, namely "zero waste" and "clean production." #12;Arguments given against WTE: People who think we

  5. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  6. Hazardous waste site characterization (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    Site characterization is one facet of hazardous waste site investigations. Environmental scientists and engineers within and outside the regulated community are becoming overwhelmed by the increasing number of guidance manuals, directives, documents and software products relating to the characterization of hazardous waste sites. People in the private sector, academia, and government are looking for convenient, definitive sources for this information. This CD-ROM combines into a single source a collection of useful references. The CD-ROM contains over 3,200 pages of EPA`s RCRA and Superfund Directives and Manuals that may be searched by key words or printed. It also contains a compilation of EPA-developed computer programs and documents to aid environmental professionals in the characterization of hazardous waste sites.

  7. Heat Recovery From Solid Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, O. W.

    1981-01-01

    areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc....

  8. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for reduction in mixed waste generation Pump Oil Substitution 51 Hazardous Waste / Industrial Waste $3,520 $6 with the subsequent clean up costs ($15,000). Hydraulic Oil Product Substitution 3,000 Industrial Waste $26,000 $0 $26WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2003 WASTE TYPE

  9. Hazardous Waste Management Overview The Five L's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Hazardous Waste Management Overview The Five L's CoLLect CoLLect all hazardous chemical waste are unsure if your chemical waste is a Hazardous Waste, consult EH&S at hazmat@columbia.edu. DO NOT - Dispose of Hazardous Waste inappropriately or prior to determining its hazards. Hazardous Waste must never

  10. RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services.6.1/1 Recycling & General Waste Management Department: Estates & Facilities Management Site: Swansea University waste through waste hierarchy and managing the waste in-house for final disposal. To explain the waste

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  12. ALARA Analysis of Radiological Control Criteria Associated with Alternatives for Disposal of Hazardous Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Bilyard, Gordon R.; Branch, Kristi M.; Lavender, Jay C.; Miller, Peter L.

    2002-05-15

    This ALARA analysis of Radiological Control Criteria (RCC) considers alternatives to continued storage of certain DOE mixed wastes. It also considers the option of treating hazardous wastes generated by DOE facilities, which have a very low concentration of radionuclide contaminants, as purely hazardous waste. Alternative allowable contaminant levels examined correspond to doses to an individual ranging from 0.01 mrem/yr to 10 to 20 mrem/yr. Generic waste inventory data and radionuclide source terms are used in the assessment. Economic issues, potential health and safety issues, and qualitative factors relating to the use of RCCs are considered.

  13. MARSHALL UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanyal, Suman

    /16/2005 1 #12;Marshall University Hazardous Waste Program POLICY STATEMENT- Hazardous Materials Management of the Hazardous Waste Management Program is to ensure that proper handling and legal disposal of hazardous wastes Management Program will apply to the following: 1. Any liquid, semi-solid, solid or gaseous substance defined

  14. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  15. Waste Management Coordinating Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    10 Waste Management Coordinating Lead Authors: Jean Bogner (USA) Lead Authors: Mohammed Abdelrafie Ahmed, C. Diaz, A. Faaij, Q. Gao, S. Hashimoto, K. Mareckova, R. Pipatti, T. Zhang, Waste Management University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. #12;586 Waste Management Chapter 10 Table

  16. Pharmaceutical Waste Management Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Pharmaceutical Waste Management Under Uncertainty Andreas A. Linninger and Aninda Chakraborty of their benefits and costs constitutes a formidable task. Designing plant-wide waste management policies assuming this article addresses the problem of finding optimal waste management policies for entire manufacturing sites

  17. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process heat from the tank during operation.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Source Term Attribution Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  19. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Supersedes DOE O 5820.2A. Chg 1 dated 8-28-01. Certified 1-9-07.

  20. Final Report Waste Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment of the waste streams, or as fuel in an incineration facility generating heat and pos- sibly electricity for export that is economical and technical efficient. The aim of this project is to make a long

  1. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The objective of this Order is to ensure that all Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste is managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety and the environment. Cancels DOE O 5820.2A

  2. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  3. Focus Sheet | Hazardous Waste Checklist How to be ready for state hazardous waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    storage cabinet. Avoid accumulating a lot of waste ­ keep areas clear. EPO ­ Hazardous Waste Checklist 07Focus Sheet | Hazardous Waste Checklist How to be ready for state hazardous waste inspectors. See a hazardous waste inspection. ons, rrosive. n hemicals? ical waste. Waste-like chemicals have als Are you

  4. Sealed Source Security and Disposition: Progress and Prospects - 13515

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennison, Meaghan [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC (United States)] [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Martin, David W. [National Nuclear Security Administration/Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)] [National Nuclear Security Administration/Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Cuthbertson, Abigail [US DOE, Washington, DC (United States)] [US DOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Due to their high activity and portability, unsecured or abandoned sealed sources could cause significant health or environmental damage. Further, some of these sources could be used either individually or in aggregate in radiological dispersal devices commonly referred to as 'dirty bombs', resulting in significant social disruption and economic impacts in the billions of dollars. Disposal access for disused sealed sources, however, has been a serious challenge. From 2008 to 2012, sealed source disposal was available to only 14 states; additionally, waste acceptance criteria for sealed sources at the low-level waste disposal facilities in operation both prior to and after 2012 exclude some common yet potentially dangerous sealed sources. Recent developments, however, suggest that significant improvement in addressing this challenge is possible, although challenges remain. These developments include 1) the initiation of operations at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility in Andrews County, Texas; 2) the potential for significant revisions of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) 1995 'Final Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (1995 BTP); and 3) the Utah Department of Environmental Quality's (UDEQ) approval of a license variance for sealed source disposal at the EnergySolutions LLRW disposal facility near Clive, Utah. (authors)

  5. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  6. TRU waste characterization chamber gloveboxes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D. S.

    1998-07-02

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Transuranic Waste Program in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Laboratory's support currently consists of intrusive characterization of a selected population of drums containing transuranic waste. This characterization is performed in a complex of alpha containment gloveboxes termed the Waste Characterization Gloveboxes. Made up of the Waste Characterization Chamber, Sample Preparation Glovebox, and the Equipment Repair Glovebox, they were designed as a small production characterization facility for support of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This paper presents salient features of these gloveboxes.

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

  8. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Lee, William E.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate wastes are also discussed. The various processing technologies are cross-referenced to the various types of wasteforms since often a particular type of wasteform can be made by a variety of different processing technologies.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 3. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This report consists of information related to the waste forms at the WIPP facility from the waste originators. Data for retrievably stored, projected and total wastes are given.

  10. Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction,...

  11. The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , insufficient accountability, and improper disposal of radioactive materials. The US Environmental Protection end up in municipal waste disposal facilities. Scrap metal handlers and some landfill operators have1 The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference

  12. Radioactive waste management treatments: A selection for the Italian scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locatelli, G. [Univ. of Lincoln, Lincoln School of Engineering, Brayford Pool - Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Mancini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Via Lambruschini 4/B, Milano (Italy); Sardini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Via Lambruschini 4, Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    The increased attention for radioactive waste management is one of the most peculiar aspects of the nuclear sector considering both reactors and not power sources. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-art of treatments for radioactive waste management all over the world in order to derive guidelines for the radioactive waste management in the Italian scenario. Starting with an overview on the international situation, it analyses the different sources, amounts, treatments, social and economic impacts looking at countries with different industrial backgrounds, energetic policies, geography and population. It lists all these treatments and selects the most reasonable according to technical, economic and social criteria. In particular, a double scenario is discussed (to be considered in case of few quantities of nuclear waste): the use of regional, centralized, off site processing facilities, which accept waste from many nuclear plants, and the use of mobile systems, which can be transported among multiple nuclear sites for processing campaigns. At the end the treatments suitable for the Italian scenario are presented providing simplified work-flows and guidelines. (authors)

  13. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  14. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  15. Plasma destruction of North Carolina`s hazardous waste based on hazardous waste generated between the years of 1989 and 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the applicability of the plasma waste destruction technology to North Carolina hazardous waste streams. This study outlines the current regulations, existing technologies, and innovative technologies being considered as hazardous waste treatment alternatives. From this foundation, the study proceeds to identify the superiority of the plasma waste destruction technology. Specific areas of discussion include: temperature capabilities, waste residence time requirements, destruction removal efficiencies, operational efficiencies, economic issues, safety, and maintenance. This study finds the plasma destruction technology to be fully effective and superior to conventional facilities. The technology completely destroys hydrocarbons and can reduce the volume of many other hazardous wastes on the order of one part per million. The required residence time of waste in a plasma facility for effective destruction is a fraction of a second, while the rotary kiln incinerator maintains an average residence time of approximately 5 seconds. Also mass and heat balance calculations are performed to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of this technology. It is found that one day`s average amount of hazardous waste generated in the state of North Carolina can be destroyed in approximately thirty seconds using a standard one megawatt power source. Yet, before this technology is adopted as North Carolina`s primary hazardous waste destruction technology, further study is needed so that all issues considered in this research can be conducted in great detail.

  16. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  17. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  18. Tritium waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  19. Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved in February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Drum Breach Event Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes...

  20. Radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  1. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Langton, C.A.; Harley, W.W.

    1993-12-28

    A method is presented for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply. 4 figures.

  2. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickett, John B. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Martin, Hollis L. (Rt. 1, Box 188KB, McCormick, SC 29835); Langton, Christine A. (455 Sumter St. SE., Aiken, SC 29801); Harley, Willie W. (110 Fairchild St., Batesburg, SC 29006)

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

  3. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  4. UC Irvine Construction Related Hazardous Waste Some construction related wastes are hazardous and require special handling. Examples of such wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    UC Irvine Construction Related Hazardous Waste Scope Some construction related wastes are hazardous the hazardous waste manifest. Process 1. When a construction project will generate hazardous wastes, the project and require special handling. Examples of such wastes include: · Asbestos Containing Materials · Mercury

  5. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  6. Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System Advances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patch, K. D.; Cole, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-09.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 23561 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-09.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FLUIDIZED-BED WASTE-HEAT... RECOVERY SYSTEM ADVANCES Keith D. Patch William E. Cole Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is a combustion air preheater designed for existing unrecuperated...

  7. Waste Management Fault Tree Data Bank (WM): 1992 status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baughman, D.F.; Hang, P.; Townsend, C.S.

    1993-08-30

    The Risk Assessment Methodology Group (RAM) of the Nuclear Process Safety Research Section (NPSR) maintains a compilation of incidents that have occurred in the Waste Management facilities. The Waste Management Fault Tree Data Bank (WM) contains more than 35,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with significant potential for injury or contamination of personnel. This report documents the status of the WM data bank including: availability, training, source of data, search options, and usage, to which these data have been applied. Periodic updates to this memorandum are planned as additional data or applications are acquired.

  8. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Trace elements and alkaliTrace elements and alkali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    mg/m³STPSTP @ 11 % O22, dry Power plant Finland (1990+) MSW incinerator Finland (1994) MSW incinerator EU * (2000) Power plant Germany (1999) MSW incinerator Germany (1999) Waste incinerator USA (1995 UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Gas turbine inlet specifications for trace elementsGas turbine inlet

  9. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, soot, tar, CO, soot, tar, CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of tar (from biomass gasificationbiomass gasification)) ·· COCO see: www.hut.fi/~see: www, TOCEmission standards: CO and THC, TOC Power plant Finland (1990+) MSW incinerator Finland (1994) MSW incinerator EU (2000) Power plant Germany (1999) MSW incinerator Germany (1999) Hazardou s waste incinerator

  10. Characterization and reaction behavior of ferrocyanide simulants and Hanford Site high-level ferrocyanide waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-02-01

    Nonradioactive waste simulants and initial ferrocyanide tank waste samples were characterized to assess potential safety concerns associated with ferrocyanide high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). Chemical, physical, thermodynamic, and reaction properties of the waste simulants were determined and compared to properties of initial samples of actual ferrocyanide wastes presently in the tanks. The simulants were shown to not support propagating reactions when subjected to a strong ignition source. The simulant with the greatest ferrocyanide concentration was shown to not support a propagating reaction that would involve surrounding waste because of its high water content. Evaluation of dried simulants indicated a concentration limit of about 14 wt% disodium mononickel ferrocyanide, below which propagating reactions could not occur in the ambient temperature bulk tank waste. For postulated localized hot spots where dried waste is postulated to be at an initial temperature of 130 C, a concentration limit of about 13 wt% disodium mononickel ferrocyanide was determined, below which propagating reactions could not occur. Analyses of initial samples of the presently stored ferrocyanide waste indicate that the waste tank ferrocyanide concentrations are considerably lower than the limit for propagation for dry waste and that the water content is near that of the as-prepared simulants. If the initial trend continues, it will be possible to show that runaway ferrocyanide reactions are not possible under present tank conditions. The lower ferrocyanide concentrations in actual tank waste may be due to tank waste mixing and/or degradation from radiolysis and/or hydrolysis, which may have occurred over approximately 35 years of storage.

  11. ww.biocycle.net Curbside Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    municipal solid waste stream (MSW) were also requested, filling out the picture of waste management, Nickolas J. Themelis and James Thompson, Jr. 26 BroCYCLE 15th NATIONWIDE SURVEY OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE, providing a picture on how municipal solid waste (MSW) is handled throughout the United States. For this 15

  12. Pharmaceutical waste may be a hazardous chemical waste, controlled substance or biomedical waste. Proper classification is necessary to be in compliance with the laws regulating each waste type.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    Pharmaceutical waste may be a hazardous chemical waste, controlled substance or biomedical waste. Hazardous Chemical Pharmaceutical Waste: A number of common pharmaceuticals are regulated as hazardous or more of the EPA characteristics of a hazardous chemical waste are also regulated as a hazardous

  13. University of Sussex Waste Management Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    University of Sussex Waste Management Policy May 2007 #12;1 University of Sussex Waste Management Policy May 2007 University of Sussex Waste Management Policy Contents 1. Introduction 2. Policy Statement;2 University of Sussex Waste Management Policy May 2007 Waste Management Policy 1. Introduction Due

  14. Hazardous Waste Management Overview The Five L's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Hazardous Waste Management Overview The Five L's CoLLect CoLLect all hazardous chemical waste and submit a chemical waste pick-up request form for proper disposal. Periodically evaluate your chemical are unsure if your chemical waste is a Hazardous Waste, consult EH&S at hazmat@columbia.edu. DO

  15. 10 years and 20,000 sources: the offsite source recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia R; Abeyta, Cristy L; Pearson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources. This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Sealed source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity, as evidenced by its initial organization under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) program. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, however, the interagency community began to recognize the threat posed by excess and unwanted radiological material, particularly those that could not be disposed at the end of their useful life. After being transferred to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) when it became waste, but also any other materials that might be a 'national security consideration.' This paper discusses OSRP's history, recovery operations, expansion to accept high-activity beta-gamma-emitting sealed sources and devices and foreign-possessed sources, and more recent efforts such as cooperative projects with the Council on Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) and involvement in GTRI's Search and Secure project. Current challenges and future work will also be discussed.

  16. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of up-gradation of these nuclear objectives before starting the decommissioning plan is revealed. A short presentation of the up-grading needs is also presented.

  17. Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim. The harvested Li metal could then be an energy source for Li-Liquid flow batteries by using water as the cathode in a Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) flow battery that can be used in a stationary energy storage application. Li

  18. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  20. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Melamed, Dan (Gaithersburg, MD); Patel, Bhavesh R (Elmhurst, NY); Fuhrmann, Mark (Babylon, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  1. Progress Update: TRU Waste Shipping

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cody, Tom

    2012-06-14

    A progress update at the Savannah River Site. A continued effort on shipping TRU waste to WIPP in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  2. Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

  3. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  4. Enhanced Tank Waste Strategy Update

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to maintain a safe, secure, and compliant posture in the EM complex Radioactive tank waste stabilization, treatment, and disposal Spent (used) nuclear fuel storage, receipt, and...

  5. Nuclear Waste Partnership Contract Modifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste Partnership Contract DE-EM0001971 Modifications NWP Modification Index Description Modification 001 Modification 002 Modification 003 Modification 004 Modification 005...

  6. Reporting Fraud, Waste, and Abuse

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-09-15

    This Notice reminds all DOE employees of their duty to report allegations of fraud, waste, and abuse to the Office of Inspector General. No cancellation.

  7. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  8. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  9. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  10. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  11. SYNERGIA Forum Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    2nd SYNERGIA Forum «Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling and Energy Change and Solid Waste Management" Anthony Mavropoulos President, Scientific Technical Committee, Chairman, SYNERGIA "Where Greece stands on the Ladder of Sustainable Waste Management " *Nikolaos

  12. Hazardous Waste Management Standards and Regulations (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act states the standards and regulations for the management of hazardous waste. No person shall construct, modify or operate a hazardous waste facility or otherwise dispose of hazardous waste...

  13. Columbia University Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Storage Area Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report Location: Bldg. Room: Date: Inspected ByColumbia University Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report Flammable Storage Area Lack Pack always closed while holding hazardous wastes? Comment: 12. Are containers labeled? Date

  14. Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy October 2006 The University is committed to sustainable waste management through reducing our consumption of materials, encouraging re-use where possible information in all future waste management contracts For further information see www

  15. Biochar: A Solution to Oakland's Green Waste?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villar, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    maize stover, is the food waste which differs from stoverfor simplicity, since food waste accounts for only 1/3 ofof Oakland. This waste consists of food scraps as well as

  16. Coolside waste management research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Objective was to produce sufficient information on physical and chemical nature of Coolside waste (Coolside No.1, 3 at Edgewater power plant) to design and construct stable, environmentally safe landfills. Progress during this period was centered on analytical method development, elemental and mineralogical analysis of samples, and field facilities preparation to receive lysimeter fill. Sample preparation techniques for thick target PIXE/PIGE were investigated; good agreement between measured and actual values for standard fly ash were obtained for all elements except Fe, Ba, K (PIXE).

  17. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

  18. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

  19. Tank Waste Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. Coal StocksSuppliers Tag:Take ActionPermitB3/15 Tank Waste

  20. Thermal valorization of post-consumer film waste in a bubbling bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martínez-Lera, S., E-mail: susanamartinezlera@gmail.com; Torrico, J.; Pallarés, J.; Gil, A.

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Film waste from packaging is a common waste, a fraction of which is not recyclable. • Gasification can make use of the high energy value of the non-recyclable fraction. • This waste and two reference polymers were gasified in a bubbling bed reactor. • This experimental research proves technical feasibility of the process. • It also analyzes impact of composition and ER on the performance of the plant. - Abstract: The use of plastic bags and film packaging is very frequent in manifold sectors and film waste is usually present in different sources of municipal and industrial wastes. A significant part of it is not suitable for mechanical recycling but could be safely transformed into a valuable gas by means of thermal valorization. In this research, the gasification of film wastes has been experimentally investigated through experiments in a fluidized bed reactor of two reference polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene, and actual post-consumer film waste. After a complete experimental characterization of the three materials, several gasification experiments have been performed to analyze the influence of the fuel and of equivalence ratio on gas production and composition, on tar generation and on efficiency. The experiments prove that film waste and analogue polymer derived wastes can be successfully gasified in a fluidized bed reactor, yielding a gas with a higher heating value in a range from 3.6 to 5.6 MJ/m{sup 3} and cold gas efficiencies up to 60%.

  1. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  2. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  3. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  4. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  5. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutt, W.M.

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of options for the management of radioactive waste. There is a variety of alternatives for processing waste and for short term or long term storage prior to disposal. Likewise, there are various alternatives currently in use across the globe for the safe disposal of waste, ranging from near surface to geological disposal, depending on the specific classification of the waste. At present, there appears to be a clear and unequivocal understanding that each country is ethically and legally responsible for its own wastes, in accordance with the provisions of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Therefore the default position is that all nuclear wastes will be disposed of in each of the 40 or so countries concerned with nuclear power generation or part of the fuel cycle. To illustrate the global distribution of radioactive waste now and in the near future, Table 1 provides the regional breakdown, based on the UN classification of the world in regions illustrated in Figure 1, of nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction worldwide. In summary, 31 countries operate 433 plants, with a total capacity of more than 365 gigawatts of electrical energy (GW[e]). A further 65 units, totaling nearly 63 GW(e), are under construction across 15 of these nations. In addition, 65 countries are expressing new interest in, considering, or actively planning for nuclear power to help address growing energy demands to fuel economic growth and development, climate change concerns, and volatile fossil fuel prices. Of these 65 new countries, 21 are in Asia and the Pacific region, 21 are from the Africa region, 12 are in Europe (mostly Eastern Europe), and 11 in Central and South America. However, 31 of these 65 are not currently planning to build reactors, and 17 of those 31 have grids of less than 5 GW, which is said to be too small to accommodate most of the reactor designs available. For the remaining 34 countries actively planning reactors, as of September 2010: 14 indicate a strong intention to precede w

  6. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  7. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Johannes G.

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  8. Solid low-level radioactive waste radiation stability studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Arnold Andre?

    1989-01-01

    MANAGEMENT . . . Historical background Characteristics of radioactive wastes Classification of radioactive wastes Disposal methodology and criteria Handling and storage of radioactive wastes SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES Historical background... Characteristics of the solidified wastes Storage and handling of solid radioactive wastes Shipment of solid radioactive wastes Solidification of waste solutions MATERIALS AND METHODS Ion-exchange methods. High integrity containers (HIC). . tv tx 15 15...

  9. Production and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waste has been investigated in order to utilize abundant organic compounds in waste water. Since PHA

  10. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2013 March 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction...

  11. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2012 March 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project...

  12. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 2011 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality...

  13. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - October 2012 October 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  14. Enterprise Assessments Review, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant -...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Enterprise Assessments Review, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - December 2014 Enterprise Assessments Review, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - December 2014 December, 2014 Review of the...

  15. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2013 January 2013 Review of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    May 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - May 2013 May 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction...

  17. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - August 2012 August 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  18. Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) Reports and Records of Decision Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS)...

  19. Independent Oversight Assessment, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2012 Independent Oversight Assessment, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2012 January 2012 Assessment of the...

  20. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - October 2013 October 2013 Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities...