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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste...

2

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both radioactive materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both as noted on the list, you do not have a mixed waste and it may be managed as a normal radioactive waste radioactive waste after initially dating the container, the hold for decay time is extended, but you cannot

Straight, Aaron

4

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

5

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

7

Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Methane generation from waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

In-situ vitrification of waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed. 7 figs.

Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

10

EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

On Closure Success On Closure Success 1 EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Chicago, Illinois May 26, 2010 Frank Marcinowski Acting Chief Technical Officer and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technical and Regulatory Support Office of Environmental Management DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities * Continue to manage waste inventories in a safe and compliant manner * Address high risk waste in a cost- ff ti effective manner * Maintain and optimize current disposal capability for future generations * Develop future disposal capacity in a complex environment * Promote the development of treatment and disposal alternatives in the 2 and disposal alternatives in the

11

Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

Michalske, T.A. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Method for recovering materials from waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Waste and Materials Disposition Information | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste and Materials Disposition Waste and Materials Disposition Information Waste and Materials Disposition Information Waste and Materials Disposition Information As the Office of Environmental Management (EM) fulfills its mission, waste and materials disposition plays a vital role in the cleanup of radioactive waste and the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production and nuclear energy research. Disposal of waste frequently falls on the critical path of cleanup projects. Significant planning resources are spent to identify alternatives and find a path that is cost-effective and in the best interest of the Federal government. In many instances, waste disposition, (processing, treatment and disposal) is part of cleanup agreements and is of interest to stakeholders and requires the oversight of regulators.

14

Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2014 Accomplishments Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Develop advanced nuclear fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion.

Lori Braase

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review A consensus peer review of the current technical basis and the planned experimental and modeling program for the prediction of the long-term performance of waste package materials being considered for use in a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review A Compilation of Special Topic Reports Wastepackagematerials_PPRP_final.pdf Evaluation of the Final Report: Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel Multi-Purpose_Canister_System_Evaluation.pdf More Documents & Publications Preliminary Report on Dual-Purpose Canister Disposal Alternatives (FY13) A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water

16

Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

17

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

OFFICE WASTE DATA 2010 Recyclable Materials 1680 tons / 62%  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is used to stabilise temperatures within conventional Energy from Waste incineration plants as well materials and to produce a combustible product. This involves the removal of inert and compostable materials

Guillas, Serge

19

Estimating heat of combustion for waste materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Describes a method of estimating the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon waste (containing S,N,Q,C1) in various physical forms (vapor, liquid, solid, or mixtures) when the composition of the waste stream is known or can be estimated. Presents an equation for predicting the heat of combustion of hydrocarbons containing some sulfur. Shows how the method is convenient for estimating the heat of combustion of a waste profile as shown in a sample calculation.

Chang, Y.C.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Use of Thermal Solar Energy to Treat Waste Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The processes employed in the various production sectors of trade and industry give rise to waste materials containing substances that can harm the environment to a greater or lesser extent. The volume of such...

H. Effelsberg; B. Barbknecht

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Material Recycling and Waste Disposal Document Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of pollution, compliance with legislative requirements and continual improvement. The list of parties involved managers. Legislation referenced by this document. Environmental protection Act 1990 (EPA 1990). Waste. The clear bag bin liners are removed by the O&G Cleaners, tied closed, and taken to the building

Guillas, Serge

22

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

23

Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal. 40 figs.

Murray, H. Jr.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

24

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (assets) to worthless (wastes). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or in the case of high level waste awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Sites (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as waste include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest.

Magoulas, V.

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

28

Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

EVALUATION OF THE FINAL REPORT: WASTE PACKAGE MATERIALS PERFORMANCE PEER  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EVALUATION OF THE FINAL REPORT: WASTE EVALUATION OF THE FINAL REPORT: WASTE PACKAGE MATERIALS PERFORMANCE PEER REVIEW PANEL B00000000-01717-5700-00005 REV 00 August 2002 This document is not an official copy and is for informational purposes only. QA: QA B00000000-01717-5700-00005 REV 00 August 2002 Evaluation of the Final Report: Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel Prepared by: Jack N. Bailey, Jack D. Cloud, Thomas E. Rodgers, and Tammy S.E. Summers Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office P.O. Box 364629 North Las Vegas, Nevada 89036-8629 Prepared by: Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC 1180 Town Center Drive Las Vegas, Nevada 89144 Under Contract Number DE-AC28-01RW12101 Disclaimer Signature Page Change History Acknowledgments

31

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Landfill Disamenities And Better Utilization of Waste Resources Presented to the Wisconsin Governor's Task Force on Waste Materials Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Landfill Disamenities And Better Utilization of Waste Resources Presented to the Wisconsin on Waste Materials Recovery and Disposal who have invited me to address you today on landfill disamenities in New York State in the 1960's. We had many problems with polluting solid waste dumps, landfill fires

Columbia University

33

Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The deploymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on deploymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380--600{degrees}C and 70--280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

1990-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

35

Assessment and evaluation of a safety factor with respect to ocean disposal of waste materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the oceans is essential if ocean dumping is to be continued. The author has surveyed the available literature, bioassay studies, and pertinent research concerning chronic effects and the risk they impose on the marine ecosystem. The main purpose... OPERATIONS 10 History of Ocean Dumping Corps of Engineers' Letters of No Objection 10 12 Types of Materials Dumped Dredge Spoils Industrial Wastes Municipal Wastes Radioactive Wastes Solid Wastes Military Wastes Construction Debris 13 13 15 15...

Zapatka, Thomas Francis

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Nuclear Waste Storage in Gel-Derived Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For long life nuclear wastes (essentially actinides) research is in progress ... a process to prepare silica glass embedding the nuclear waste. Porous silica (gel) is used as a host matrix for nuclear waste. Neod...

T. Woignier; J. Reynes; J. Phalippou

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Overview of design, fabrication, integration, and test of working prototype TEG for engine waste heat recovery on Suburban test vehicle, and continuing investigation of skutterudite materials systems

38

GRR/Section 18 - Waste and Hazardous Material Assessment Process | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

- Waste and Hazardous Material Assessment Process - Waste and Hazardous Material Assessment Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 18 - Waste and Hazardous Material Assessment Process 18 - WasteAndHazardousMaterialAssessmentProcess.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Environmental Protection Agency Regulations & Policies RCRA CERCLA 40 CFR 261 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 18 - WasteAndHazardousMaterialAssessmentProcess.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative The use of underground and above ground storage tanks, discovery of waste

39

MATERIAL FLUX ANALYSIS (MFA) FOR PLANNING OF DOMESTIC WASTES AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i MATERIAL FLUX ANALYSIS (MFA) FOR PLANNING OF DOMESTIC WASTES AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: CASE nutrient management, organic waste, wastewater and septage that contained high concentration of nutrients area. The nitrogen fluxes in relation to organic waste and wastewater were chosen as indicators

Richner, Heinz

40

FINAL REPORT WASTE PACKAGE MATERIALS PERFORMANCE PEER REVIEW PANEL  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

REPORT REPORT WASTE PACKAGE MATERIALS PERFORMANCE PEER REVIEW PANEL FEBRUARY 28, 2002 This document is not an official copy and is for informational purposes only. Signature Page Preface Executive Summary TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Organization of the Peer Review 1.2 Objectives of the Review 1.3 Content of the Final Report 2. MAIN FINDINGS 2.1 Perspective 2.2 Overall Findings 2.3 Corrosion Degradation Modes 2.4 Higher or Lower Temperature Operating Modes 2.5 Long-Term Uniform Corrosion of Passive Metal 2.6 Alloy Specification and Comparison 2.7 Technical Issues to be Resolved 2.8 Organizational-Managerial Issues 3. SUMMARY OF DEGRADATION MODES AND CONTRIBUTING FACTORS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Repository Conditions: Overview of Time, Temperature, Environment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

State-of-the-art review of materials properties of nuclear waste forms.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) was established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assemble a standardized nuclear waste materials data base for use in research, systems and facility design, safety analyses, and waste management decisions. This centralized data base will be provided through the means of a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The first issue of the Handbook will be published in the fall of 1981 in looseleaf format so that it can be updated as additional information becomes available. To ensure utmost reliability, all materials data appearing in the Handbook will be obtained by standard procedures defined in the Handbook and approved by an independent Materials Review Board (MRB) comprised of materials experts from Department of Energy laboratories and from universities and industry. In the interim before publication of the Handbook there is need for a report summarizing the existing materials data on nuclear waste forms. This review summarizes materials property data for the nuclear waste forms that are being developed for immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to be a good representation of the knowledge concerning the properties of HLW forms as of March 1981. The table of contents lists the following topics: introduction which covers waste-form categories, and important waste-form materials properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; chemical durability; vaporization; radiation effects; and thermal phase stability.

Mendel, J. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Turcotte, R. P.; Gray, W. J.; Merz, M. D.; Roberts, F. P.; Weber, W. J.; Westsik, Jr., J. H.; Clark, D. E.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Yucel Guney1 ; Savas in municipal solid waste landfills. However, natural clays may not always provide good contaminant sorption necessitates addition of kaolinite before being used as a landfill material. The valence of the salt solutions

Aydilek, Ahmet

43

Assessment of Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Transfer to EM  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Transfer to EM Assessment of Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Transfer to EM In December 2007 the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM-1) invited the DOE Program Secretarial Offices (PSOs) of Nuclear Energy (NE), Science (SC), and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to propose facilities and legacy waste for transfer to Environmental Management (EM) for final disposition or deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). Assessment of Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Transfer to EM More Documents & Publications Assessment of the Integrated Facility Disposition Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory & Y-12 for Transfer of Facilities & Materials to EM

44

Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Waste Form Degradation Model Integration for Engineered Materials Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The collaborative approach to the glass and metallic waste form degradation modeling activities includes process model development (including first-principles approaches) and model integrationboth...

46

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

none,

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Plasmatron gasification of biomass lignocellulosic waste materials derived from municipal solid waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this work is to study the feasibility and operational performance of plasmatron (plasma torch) gasification of municipal solid waste mixed with raw wood (MSW/RW) derived from the pretreatment of Steam Mechanical Heat Treatment (SMHT), as the target material (MRM). A 10kW plasmatron reactor is used for gasification of the MRM. The production of syngas (CO and H2) is the major component, and almost 90% of the gaseous products appear in 2min of reaction time, with relatively high reaction rates. The syngas yield is between 88.59 and 91.84vol%, and the recovery mass ratio of syngas from MRM is 45.19 down to 27.18wt% with and without steam with the energy yields of 59.07111.89%. The concentrations of gaseous products from the continuous feeding of 200g/h are stable and higher than the average concentrations of the batch feeding of 10g. The residue from the plasmatron gasification with steam is between 0 and 4.52wt%, with the inorganic components converted into non-leachable vitrified lava, which is non-hazardous. The steam methane reforming reaction, hydrogasification reaction and Boudouard reaction all contribute to the increase in the syngas yield. It is proved that MSW can be completely converted into bioenergy using SMHT, followed by plasmatron gasification.

Je-Lueng Shie; Li-Xun Chen; Kae-Long Lin; Ching-Yuan Chang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

49

Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions.

Wiersma, B.J.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

50

Radioactive Material Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radioactive Material Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM) 12/5/2013 (form Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM) 12/5/2013 (form date) SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001 (RWM date) SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001 (RWM number) Page 1 of 2 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DECLARATION FORM For RP use

Wechsler, Risa H.

51

Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

Not Listed

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Comment on Solid Recovered Fuel: Materials Flow Analysis and Fuel Property Development during the Mechanical Processing of Biodried Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comment on Solid Recovered Fuel: Materials Flow Analysis and Fuel Property Development during the Mechanical Processing of Biodried Waste ... Validated material flow models of waste treatment systems form a sound basis to evaluate system performance in view of environmental pollution as well as with respect to resource recovery. ... characteristics of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) that are processed from residual household waste by mech. ...

David Laner; Oliver Cencic

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

54

Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Performance analysis of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal wastes. Leading this approach is the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). It has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power by burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of two power plants rated at 250 MWe and 150 MWe were developed. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant along with environmental issues. With the PFBC`s operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Alternatives for the disposal of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) wastes in Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the Texas wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been disposed of in a uranium mill tailings impoundment. There is currently no operating disposal facility in Texas to accept these wastes. As a result, some wastes containing extremely small amounts of radioactivity are sent to elaborate disposal sites at extremely high costs. The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has sponsored a study to investigate lower cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents the results of a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of NORM in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse wastes (coal fly ash, phosphogypsum). The purpose of the safety analysis is to define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM that will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios.

Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C. (Rogers Associates Engineering Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Pollard, C.G. (Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

58

Utilizing New Binder Materials for Green Building has Zero Waste by Recycling Slag and Sewage Sludge Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

binding material to save energy and to produce new innovative zero materials waste . The current research aims to investigate new binder materials as alternative of Portland cement. Alkali activated slag (AAS) blended with sewage sludge ash (SSA...

Zeedan, S. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an over-pack container, similar to the pipe component, called the criticality control over-pack, which will significantly enhance the efficiency of disposal. Hundreds of shipments of transuranic SNM, suitably packaged to meet WIPP waste acceptance criteria and with safeguards terminated have been successfully emplaced at WIPP (primarily from the Rocky Flats site clean-up) since WIPP opened. DOE expects that thousands more may eventually result from SNM consolidation efforts throughout the weapons complex. (authors)

Hayes, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Operations Group (United States); Nelson, Roger [Department Of Energy, Carlsbad Operations Office (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

Hakonson, T.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO{sub x} vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200{degrees}C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time.

Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Development of High-efficiency Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Utililization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this . CRADA are: 1) Investigation of atomistic structure and nucleation of nanoprecipitates in (PbTe){sub I-x}(AgSbTe2){sub x} (LAST) system; and 2) Development of non-equilibrium synthesis of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. We have made significant accomplishment in both areas. We studied the structure of LAST materials using high resolution imaging, nanoelectron diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, arid electron energy loss spectrum, and observed a range of nanoparticles The results, published in J. of Applied Physics, provide quantitative structure information about nanoparticles, that is essential for the understanding of the origin of the high thermoelectric performance in this class of materials. We coordinated non-equilibrium synthesis and characterization of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery application. Our results, published in J. of Electronic Materials, show enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit and robust mechanical properties in bulk . filled skutterudites.

Li, Qiang

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

Keiser, D.D.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Assessment of Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Transfer to EM  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Non-Integrated Facilities Disposition Non-Integrated Facilities Disposition Project Technical Assistance Page 1 of 2 Complex-Wide Multi-State Assessment of Facilities, Materials, and Wastes Proposed for Transfer to EM Challenge In December 2007 the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM-1) invited the DOE Program Secretarial Offices (PSOs) of Nuclear Energy (NE), Science (SC), and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to propose facilities and legacy waste for transfer to Environmental Management (EM) for final disposition or deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). Transfers of facilities, materials, and waste to EM will generate liabilities that are currently unfunded. For purposes of overall planning, it is important to understand the impacts of proposed transfers with regard to technical

65

Economics of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of three power plants rated at 250 MWe, 150 MWe and 4 MWe were developed. The 4 MWe facility was chosen to represent a distributed power source for a remote location and designated to co-fire coal with MSW, TDF and sewage sludge while producing electricity for a small town. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant and costs determined including capital costs, operating costs and cost of electricity. With the PFBCs operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Since PFBCs have not been tested co-firing wastes, other critical performance factors were addressed and recommendations were provided for resolving potential technical issues. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center; DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Direct conversion of surplus fissile materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other materials to high-level-waste glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the end of the cold war the United States, Russia, and other countries have excess plutonium and other materials from the reductions in inventories of nuclear weapons. The United States Academy of Sciences (NAS) has recommended that these surplus fissile materials (SFMs) be processed so they are no more accessible than plutonium in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This spent fuel standard, if adopted worldwide, would prevent rapid recovery of SFMs for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. The NAS recommended investigation of three sets of options for disposition of SFMs while meeting the spent fuel standard: (1) incorporate SFMs with highly radioactive materials and dispose of as waste, (2) partly burn the SFMs in reactors with conversion of the SFMs to SNF for disposal, and (3) dispose of the SFMs in deep boreholes. The US Government is investigating these options for SFM disposition. A new method for the disposition of SFMs is described herein: the simultaneous conversion of SFMs, SNF, and other highly radioactive materials into high-level-waste (HLW) glass. The SFMs include plutonium, neptinium, americium, and {sup 233}U. The primary SFM is plutonium. The preferred SNF is degraded SNF, which may require processing before it can be accepted by a geological repository for disposal.

Forsberg, C.W.; Elam, K.R.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Conversion of an aluminosilicate-based waste material to high-value efficient adsorbent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) has become one of the global challenges in the technological era. The colossal volume of waste PCB generated annually coupled with its toxic nature and the existence of highly-precious metals in its composition intensifies the problems associated with waste PCB management and recycling. The two prevalent waste management options, landfill disposal and incineration, are being phased out for this special waste as a result of public health concerns. Hence, in the past few decades, several PCB recycling schemes are being introduced. The most efficient and environmentally-sound practice for waste PCB recycling has been the separation of metallic and nonmetallic fraction of \\{PCBs\\} by extensively-studied physico-mechanical approaches. Although the metallic fraction can be directly rendered into the market due to its high value, the nonmetallic fraction (NMF) is either disposed of in landfills causing secondary pollution or used as a low-value filler with the sole purpose of its safe disposal. This study presents a brief overview of the utilization of NMF as a filler in various industries. The main objective of the present review is to thoroughly examine the novel, highly efficient application of NMF as precursor for the production of a mesoporous structured adsorbent and its application in the removal of a myriad of heavy metals in single- and multi-component systems. In addition, the effects of the operational parameters on the adsorption behavior of the adsorbent material have been provided. Moreover, a comprehensive overview of the adsorption system modelling for single and binary-component systems for this novel material has been compiled.

Pejman Hadi; Chao Ning; Weiyi Ouyang; Carol Sze Ki Lin; Chi-Wai Hui; Gordon McKay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.

Font Vivanco, David, E-mail: font@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Puig Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell Durany, Xavier [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Radcalc: An Analytical Tool for Shippers of Radioactive Material and Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ships radioactive materials in support of its research and development, environmental restoration, and national defense activities. The Radcalc software program assists personnel working on behalf of DOE in packaging and transportation determinations (e.g., isotopic decay, decay heat, regulatory classification, and gas generation) for shipment of radioactive materials and waste. Radcalc performs: - The U.S. Department of Transportation determinations and classifications (i.e., activity concentration for exempt material Type A or B, effective A1/A2, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled quantity, fissile quantity, fissile excepted, reportable quantity, list of isotopes required on shipping papers) - DOE calculations (i.e., transuranic waste, Pu-239 equivalent curies, fissile-gram equivalents) - The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission packaging category (i.e., Category I, II, or III) - Dose-equivalent curie calculations - Radioactive decay calculations using a novel decay methodology and a decay data library of 1,867 isotopes typical of the range of materials encountered in DOE laboratory environments - Hydrogen and helium gas calculations - Pressure calculations. Radcalc is a validated and cost-effective tool to provide consistency, accuracy, reproducibility, timeliness, quality, compliance, and appropriate documentation to shippers of radioactive materials and waste at DOE facilities nationwide. Hundreds of shippers and engineers throughout the DOE Complex routinely use this software to automate various determinations and to validate compliance with the regulations. The effective use of software by DOE sites contributes toward minimizing risk involved in radioactive waste shipments and assuring the safety of workers and the public. (authors)

Kapoor, A.K. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States); Stuhl, L.A. [EnergySolutions Federal Services, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Progress with heat resistant materials for waste incineration -- Alloy 45TM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat resistant materials are used in a wide variety of modem industries such as metallurgical, chemical, petrochemical, heat treatment, heat recovery and waste incinerators and many others. The huge quantities of both municipal and industrial waste generated in the Western world has made ``controlled high temperature incineration`` a necessary technology for managing this problem. The evolution of this technology has not been without its cost. High temperature corrosion problems have led to many failures and unscheduled shutdowns. Proper materials of construction are vitally important for reliable, safe and cost effective operation of these systems. This paper describes the development of a new nickel based alloy, which combines the beneficial effects of high chromium and high silicon in combating these various corrosive environments encountered in incineration.

Agarwal, D.C. [VDM Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Brill, U.; Kloewer, J. [Krupp-VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low, especially in buildings constructed with materials containing uranium TENORM mine wastes. In the Grand the wastes from uranium mines have been removed from mining sites and used in local and nearby communities

80

Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material stream. Streams of heavy fraction and fine fraction mainly contained non-combustible material (such as stone/rock, sand particles and gypsum material).

Muhammad Nasrullah; Pasi Vainikka; Janne Hannula; Markku Hurme; Janne Krki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fluid flow through very low permeability materials: A concern in the geological isolation of waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geological isolation of waste usually involves the selection of sites where very low permeability materials exist, but there are few earth materials that are truly impermeable. Regulatory concerns for the containment of radioactive material extend for geologic periods of time (i.e., 10,000 years or more), and it becomes nearly impossible to ``assure`` the behavior of the site for such long periods of time. Experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shows that very slow movements of fluid can take place through materials that may, in fact, have no intrinsic permeability in their undisturbed condition. Conventional hydrologic models may not be appropriate to describe flow, may provide modeling results that could be in significant variance with reality, and may not be easy to defend during the compliance process. Additionally, the very small volumes of fluid and very slow flow rates involved are difficult to observe, measure, and quantify. The WIPP disposal horizon is excavated 655 m below the surface in bedded salt of Permian age. Salt has some unique properties, but similar hydrologic problems can be expected in site investigations were other relatively impermeable beds occur, and especially in deep sites where significant overburden and confining pressures may be encountered. Innovative techniques developed during the investigations at the WIPP may find utility when investigating other disposal sites. Ongoing work at the WIPP is expected to continue to advance understanding of flow through very low permeability materials. The study of flow under these conditions will become increasingly important as additional waste disposal sites are designed that require assurance of their safety for geological periods of time.

Deal, D.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing materials. Transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials (NM), and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOEs Environmental Management (EM) organization to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a "program level" roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This "program level" roadmapping involves linking technology development (and deployment) efforts to the programs needs and requirements for dispositioning the material/waste that generates combustible gas through radiolysis and chemical decomposition. The roadmapping effort focused on needed technical & programmatic support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (i.e., high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (i.e., high programmatic risk). A second purpose for roadmapping was to provide the basis for coordinating sharing of "lessons learned" from research and development (R&D) efforts across DOE programs to increase efficiency and effectiveness in addressing gas generation issues.

Luke, Dale Elden; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Hamp, S.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Treatment of nitrate-rich water in a baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) employing waste derived materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nitrate removal in submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is limited as intensive aeration (for maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels and for membrane scouring) deters the formation of anoxic zones essential for biological denitrification. The present study employs baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) to overcome this constraint. Treatment of nitrate rich water (synthetic and real groundwater) was investigated. Sludge separation was achieved using ceramic membrane filters prepared from waste sugarcane bagasse ash. A complex external carbon source (leachate from anaerobic digestion of food waste) was used to maintain an appropriate C/N ratio. Over 90% COD and 95% NO3N reduction was obtained. The bagasse ash filters produced a clear permeate, free of suspended solids. Sludge aggregates were observed in the reactor and were linked to the high extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. Lower sludge volume index (40mL/g compared to 150mL/g for seed sludge), higher settling velocity (47m/h compared to 10m/h for seed sludge) and sludge aggregates (0.7mm aggregates compared to <0.2mm for seed sludge) was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of waste-derived materials viz. food waste leachate and bagasse ash filters in water treatment.

Subhankar Basu; Saurabh K. Singh; Prahlad K. Tewari; Vidya S. Batra; Malini Balakrishnan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

CORROSION STUDY OF REPLACEMENT MATERIALS FOR HAZARDOUS LOW LEVEL WASTE PROCESSING TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New waste tanks are to be constructed in H-area to store hazardous low level wastes. AISI Type 304L (304L) stainless steel was recommended as a suitable material of construction for these tanks. Cyclic polarization and coupon tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of 304L over a wide range of waste tank environments. The results of both tests indicated that 304L was not susceptible to attack under any of these conditions. Comparison tests were also performed with ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537) and Incoloy 825. The carbon steel corroded severely in some of the environments, while Incoloy 825 did not corrode. These tests, along with those for 304L, verified the correlation between cyclic polarization and coupon tests. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was performed to monitor the breakdown of the protective oxide film on the surface of the material as a function of time and temperature. These results also correlated with those from the cyclic polarization and coupon tests.

Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.

1991-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

Materials performance in a high-level radioactive waste vitrification system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy Facility designed to vitrify highly radioactive waste. An extensive materials evaluation program has been completed on key components in the DWPF after twelve months of operation using nonradioactive simulated wastes. Results of the visual inspections of the feed preparation system indicate that the system components, which were fabricated from Hastelloy C-276, should achieve their design lives. Significant erosion was observed on agitator blades that process glass frit slurries; however, design modifications should mitigate the erosion. Visual inspections of the DWPF melter top head and off gas components, which were fabricated from Inconel 690, indicated that varying degrees of degradation occurred. Most of the components will perform satisfactorily for their two year design life. The components that suffered significant attack were the borescopes, primary film cooler brush, and feed tubes. Changes in the operation of the film cooler brush and design modifications to the feed tubes and borescopes is expected to extend their service lives to two years. A program to investigate new high temperature engineered materials and alloys with improved oxidation and high temperature corrosion resistance will be initiated.

Imrich, K.J.; Chandler, G.T.

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

87

Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables.

McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Ion implantation effects in insulators and the long-term stability of radioactive waste storage materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most insulator materials so far proposed for storing high-level radioactive wastes, such as glass and and the constituent minerals of ceramics are nuclear track detectors. Lead ion implantation experiments show that such materials should be transformed into giant nuclear tracks, when the internal fluence of heavy recoils emitted during the ?-decay of actinide elements stored in them exceeds a critical value, which corresponds to an equivalent storage period of a few thousand years for the wastes expected from a pressurized water reactor. In contrast, actinide bearing minerals are much more stable against ?-recoil damage. As nuclear tracks are extremely chemical reactive, ?-recoil damage is expected to shorten the lifetime of storage materials such as glass and ceramics against dissolution in ground waters. Fortunately new nuclear track concepts are already yielding guidelines for predicting and improving the long-term stability of storage materials. The results of the present studies also bear on the physics of ion implantation phenomena an insulator targets exposed to high fluences of low energy ions.

J.C. Dran; Y. Langevin; M. Maurette; J.C. Petit; B. Vassent

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

No Name

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cerro Prieto geothermal field generates 620 MW of electric power and in the process produces 11,000 tonnes of brine per hour that is disposed of in surface ponds. Approximately 1300 tonnes of silica waste is the residual product from this hourly production of brine. At present, there is no use for this waste silica. Some experimental work has been undertaken by CFE to utilize this waste silica such as for surfacing roads with a cement-silica mixture and making bricks with various additives. However, none of this research has been documented. Approximately two years ago, a joint USDOE/CFE research project was proposed to investigate the use of the waste silica. The proposal included using the silica mixed with asphalt and cement to produce a suitable road surfacing material, and to combine the silica with various additives to be used as bricks for low cost housing. It was thought, that the low specific gravity of the silica and the proposed mixtures would give the bricks a high insulating value (low-thermal conductivity), thus protecting the residents from high solar heating, typical of Baja California and the area around Mexicali. Finally, since the geothermal fields of the area extend into the Imperial Valley of California where 420 MW of geothermal power is generated, it was hoped that this research would also be applicable to the U.S. side of the border. Some attempt has been made by UNOCAL at their Imperial Valley plant (now owned by Magma Power) to use the waste silica stabilized with cement for roads and dikes around the plant.

Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.; Monnie, D.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A.J.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging systema system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

Rodney M. Shurtliff

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Application of a passive electrochemical noise technique to localized corrosion of candidate radioactive waste container materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the key engineered barriers in the design of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is the waste canister that encapsulates the spent fuel elements. Current candidate metals for the canisters to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain include cast iron, carbon steel, Incoloy 825 and titanium code-12. This project was designed to evaluate passive electrochemical noise techniques for measuring pitting and corrosion characteristics of candidate materials under prototypical repository conditions. Experimental techniques were also developed and optimized for measurements in a radiation environment. These techniques provide a new method for understanding material response to environmental effects (i.e., gamma radiation, temperature, solution chemistry) through the measurement of electrochemical noise generated during the corrosion of the metal surface. In addition, because of the passive nature of the measurement the technique could offer a means of in-situ monitoring of barrier performance.

Korzan, M.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Imaging and Characterizing the Waste Materials Inside an Underground Storage Tank Using Seismic Normal Modes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is necessary to know something about the nature of the wastes in a Hanford underground storage tank (UST) so that the correct hardware can be inserted into a tank for sampling, sluicing, or pumping operations. It is also important to know if a layer of gas exists beneath solid and liquid layers of waste. Given that the tank will have only one liquid observation well (LOW), the authors examined the information that could be obtained from the natural seismic vibrations of a tank as a whole; that is, the normal modes of that tank. As in the case of a bell, the natural vibration, or normal modes, of a tank depend on many things, including the construction of the tank, the kinds of waste materials in the tank, the amount of each material in the tank, and where the energy is placed that excites the vibrations (i.e., where you will ''hit'' the tank). The nature of a normal mode of vibration can be given by its frequency and amplitude. For any given frequency, the amplitude of vibration can be given as a function of position in and around the tank. Since they assumed that one would be ''listening'' to a tank from locations along a LOW, they show their computed amplitudes as a function of position inside and around the tank, and in the case of the physical models they display the observations along various lines inside the tank model. This allowed us to see the complex geometry of each mode of oscillation as a function of increasing frequency.

M. N. Toksoz; R. M. Turpening

1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.

K.G. Mon; F. Hua

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

100

Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Phillips, Rhiannon, E-mail: rhiannon.jones@environment-agency.gov.uk [Strategy Unit, Welsh Assembly Government, Ty Cambria, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP (United Kingdom); Coleman, Terry, E-mail: terry.coleman@erm.com [Environmental Resources Management Ltd, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, North Hinksey Lane, Oxford OX2 0QS (United Kingdom); Rampling, Terence, E-mail: twa.rampling@hotmail.com [7 Thurlow Close, Old Town Stevenage, Herts SG1 4SD (United Kingdom)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to not only produce environmentally friendly products, but also forms that are proliferation resistant. All of these waste forms as well as others, are designed to take advantage of the unique properties of the ceramic systems.

Wicks, G.G.

2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Destruction of Plutonium and Other Nuclear Waste Materials Using the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Waste Concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Each large nuclear power plant produces about 300 kilograms of ... about 120 kilograms of long-lived fission product wastes per year, with major constituents in terms ... humans either directly or by clandestine ...

F. Venneri

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of special compliance conditions Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

106

Mr. Donald II. Simpson Uranium and Special Projects Unit Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AUG 0 3 1998 AUG 0 3 1998 Mr. Donald II. Simpson Uranium and Special Projects Unit Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment 4300 Cherry Creek Dr. S. Denver, Colorado 80222-1530 _,l ' 7. ,;:""" I,!._ -~~ . Dear Mr. Simpson: We have reviewed your letter of July 10, 1998, requesting that the Department of Energy (DOE) reconsider its decision to exclude the Marion Millsite in Boulder County, Colorado, from remediation under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). As you may know, FUSRAP is no longer administered and executed by DOE as Congress transferred the program to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers beginning.in fiscal year 1998. Nonetheless, we weighed the information included in your letter against the

107

Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream.

Muhammad Nasrullah; Pasi Vainikka; Janne Hannula; Markku Hurme; Janne Krki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D`Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program.

Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R. [eds.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Wicks, G.G. [ed.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (US)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Novel Problems Associated with Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material from Decontamination and Decommissioning and in Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract The reduction in nuclear arms and the production facilities that supported the weapons programs have produced some unique problems for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A). Many of these problems are not limited to the weapons complex, but have the potential to appear in many legacy facilities as they undergo dismantlement and disposal. Closing facilities find that what was previously defined as product has become a waste stream bringing regulatory, human, and technological conflict. The sometimes unique compositions of these materials produce both storage and measurement problems. The nuclear material accounting and control programs have had to become very adaptive and preemptive to ensure control and protection is maintained. This paper examines some of the challenges to Safeguards generated by deinventory, decontamination decommissioning, dismantlement, demolition, and waste site remediation from predictable sources and some from unpredictable sources. 1.0 Introduction The United States is eliminating many facilities that support the nuclear weapons program. With the changing political conditions around the world and changes in military capabilities, the decreased emphasis on nuclear weapons has eliminated the need for many of the aging facilities. Additionally, the recovery of plutonium from dismantled weapons and reuse of components has eliminated the need to produce more plutonium for the near future. Because the nuclear weapons program and commercial applications generally do not mix in the United States, the facilities in the DOE complex that no longer have a weapon mission are being deinventoried, decontaminated, decommissioned, and dismantled/demolished. The materials from these activities are then disposed of in various ways but usually in select waste burial sites. Additionally, the waste in many historical burial sites associated with the weapons complex are being recovered, repackaged if necessary, and disposed of in either geological sites or low-level waste sites. The type of waste from the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities varies from uncontaminated construction materials to nuclear weapon components. This variety of forms, types, and composition of nuclear material presents many challenges to MC&A. It requires the creative application of regulations, but current regulations are adequate to ensure the security and control of the nuclear material. This paper examines some of the approaches used to meet regulatory requirements and problems that occurred during D&D. Experiences are drawn for the Hanford site and elsewhere in the DOE complex.

Schlegel, Steven C.

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

THE PERFORMANCE AND MODIFICATION OF RECYCLED ELECTRONIC WASTE PLASTICS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT MATERIALS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Bulk electric waste plastics were recycled and reduced in size into plastic chips before pulverization or cryogenic grinding into powders. Two major types of (more)

Colbert, Baron W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Use of Waste Materials from the Production of Synthetic Rubber for Preparing Aluminosilicate Ceramics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An aluminum-silicon-chromium powder (ASC) extracted from waste gases in synthetic rubber production is used as an addition to kaolin-...

V. N. Antsiferov; T. S. Golodnova; S. E. Porozova

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Molecular environmental science using synchrotron radiation: Chemistry and physics of waste form materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for radiation resistance in these materials. The ratio ofradiation resistance [4] of these same pyrochlore materials

Lindle, Dennis W.; Shuh, David K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of Alloy 22 (used for the waste package outer barrier) and Titanium Grade 7 (used for the drip shield) that are subjected to the effects of stress corrosion cracking. The use of laser peening or other residual stress mitigation techniques is considered as a means of mitigating stress corrosion cracking in the waste package final closure lid weld.

G. Gordon

2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

114

Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

116

Potential for Materials and Energy RecoveryPotential for Materials and Energy Recovery the Municipal Solid Wastes (the Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWMSW) of Beograd) of Beograd  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Materials and Energy RecoveryPotential for Materials and Energy Recovery fromfrom;26.2World total 1.30.255.2Developing world 0.380.550.7 EU, Japan, Canada, Australia 0.331.10.3U.S.A. Tons MSW generated, billions Tons MSW per capita Population, billion Global generation of MSW Estimated SCG

Columbia University

117

Syngas Production by Thermochemical Gasification of Carbonaceous Waste Materials in a 150 kWth Packed-Bed Solar Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbonaceous feedstocks experimentally investigated included coal,(9-11) petcoke,(12, 13) cellulose,(14, 15) biochar,(11, 16) and waste materials such as scrap tire chips and powders, dried sewage sludge, industrial sludges, and fluff. ... reactor for the steam-gasification of petcoke, carried out in a high-flux solar furnace. ... A petcoke-water slurry was continuously injected into a solar cavity-receiver to create a vortex flow directly exposed to concd. ...

Christian Wieckert; Albert Obrist; Peter von Zedtwitz; Gilles Maag; Aldo Steinfeld

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

118

Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A novel solidification technique for fluorine-contaminated bassanite using waste materials in ground improvement applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates the development of solidification technology, based on the formation of ettringite, for fluorine-contaminated bassanite using waste and ... B in varying proportions to obtain the optimal ettringite

Takeshi Kamei; Aly Ahmed; Hideto Horai

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A data base and a standard material for use in acceptance testing of low-activity waste products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have conducted replicate dissolution tests following the product consistency test (PCT) procedure to measure the mean and standard deviation of the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si at various combinations of temperature, duration, and glass/water mass ratio. Tests were conducted with a glass formulated to be compositionally similar to low-activity waste products anticipated for Hanford to evaluate the adequacy of test methods that have been designated in privatization contracts for use in product acceptance. An important finding from this set of tests is that the solution concentrations generated in tests at 20 C will likely be too low to measure the dissolution rates of waste products reliably. Based on these results, the authors recommend that the acceptance test be conducted at 40 C. Tests at 40 C generated higher solution concentrations, were more easily conducted, and the measured rates were easily related to those at 20 C. Replicate measurements of other glass properties were made to evaluate the possible use of LRM-1 as a standard material. These include its composition, homogeneity, density, compressive strength, the Na leachability index with the ANSI/ANS 16.1 leach test, and if the glass is characteristically hazardous with the toxicity characteristic leach procedure. The values of these properties were within the acceptable limits identified for Hanford low-activity waste products. The reproducibility of replicate tests and analyses indicates that the glass would be a suitable standard material.

Wolf, S.F.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.; Strachan, D.M.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Fundamental properties of monolithic bentonite buffer material formed by cold isostatic pressing for high-level radioactive waste repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methods of fabrication, handling, and emplacement of engineered barriers used in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste should be planned as simply as possible from the engineering and economic viewpoints. Therefore, a new concept of a monolithic buffer material around a waste package have been proposed instead of the conventional concept with the use of small blocks, which would decrease the cost for buffer material. The monolithic buffer material is composed of two parts of highly compacted bentonite, a cup type body and a cover. As the forming method of the monolithic buffer material, compaction by the cold isostatic pressing process (CIP) has been employed. In this study, monolithic bentonite bodies with the diameter of about 333 mm and the height of about 455 mm (corresponding to the approx. 1/5 scale for the Japanese reference concept) were made by the CIP of bentonite powder. The dry densities: {rho}d of the bodies as a whole were measured and the small samples were cut from several locations to investigate the density distribution. The swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity as function of the monolithic body density for CIP-formed specimens were also measured. High density ({rho}d: 1.4--2.0 Mg/m{sup 3}) and homogeneous monolithic bodies were formed by the CIP. The measured results of the swelling pressure (3--15 MPa) and hydraulic conductivity (0.5--1.4 x 10{sup {minus}13} m/s) of the specimens were almost the same as those for the uniaxial compacted bentonite in the literature. It is shown that the vacuum hoist system is an applicable handling method for emplacement of the monolithic bentonite.

Kawakami, S.; Yamanaka, Y.; Kato, K.; Asano, H.; Ueda, H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Exergy analysis of the Chartherm process for energy valorization and material recuperation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Chartherm process (Thermya, Bordeaux, France) is a thermochemical conversion process to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. The process aims at maximum energy valorization and material recuperation by combining the principles of low-temperature slow pyrolysis and distillation in a smart way. The main objective of the exergy analysis presented in this paper is to find the critical points in the Chartherm process where it is necessary to apply some measures in order to reduce exergy consumption and to make energy use more economic and efficient. It is found that the process efficiency can be increased with 2.3-4.2% by using the heat lost by the reactor, implementing a combined heat and power (CHP) system, or recuperating the waste heat from the exhaust gases to preheat the product gas. Furthermore, a comparison between the exergetic performances of a 'chartherisation' reactor and an idealized gasification reactor shows that both reactors destroy about the same amount of exergy (i.e. 3500 kW kg{sub wood}{sup -1}) during thermochemical conversion of CCA-treated wood. However, the Chartherm process possesses additional capabilities with respect to arsenic and tar treatment, as well as the extra benefit of recuperating materials.

Bosmans, A., E-mail: anouk.bosmans@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Auweele, M. Vanden; Govaerts, J.; Helsen, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center ( a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year. In addition, there are vast energetic materials demilitarization inventories world-wide, including those in the former Soviet Union and eastern Bloc countries. Although recycling and reusing is the preferred method of dealing with these surplus materials, there will always be the necessity of destroying intractable or unusable energetic materials. Traditionally, open bum/open detonation (OB/OD) has been the method of choice for the destruction of energetic materials. Public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations have made open burning and open detonation of energetic materials increasingly costly and nearly unacceptable. Thus, the impetus to develop environmentally sound alternatives to dispose of energetic materials is great.

Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

126

Infectious waste feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

Coulthard, E. James (York, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Production and characterization of a composite insulation material from waste polyethylene teraphtalates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pollution of polyethylene teraphtalate (PET) is in huge amounts due to the most widely usage as a packaging material in several industries. Regional pumice has several desirable characteristics such as porous structure, low-cost and light-weight. Considering the requirements approved by the Ministry of Public Works on isolation, composite insulation material consisting of PET and pumice was studied. Sheets of composites differing both in particle size of pumice and composition of polymer were produced by hot-molding technique. Characterization of new composite material was achieved by measuring its weight, density, flammability, endurance against both to common acids and bases, and to a force applied, heat insulation and water adsorption capacity. The results of the study showed that produced composite material is an alternative building material due to its desirable characteristics; low weight, capability of low heat conduction.

Kurtulmus, Erhan; Karaboyac?, Mustafa; Yigitarslan, Sibel [Chemical Engineering Department of Suleyman Demirel University, 32200, Isparta (Turkey)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1983-March 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Molten Salt Destruction of Energetic Material Wastes as an Alternative to Open Burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center (a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and envi...

Ravindra S. Upadhye; Csar O. Pruneda

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Characterization by XRD and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of waste materials from 'Cerro Matoso' Mine (Colombia)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials from a mining process, in which ferronickel metal extraction is the principal aim, were studied. The residual solid (scum) obtained in this process leads to large-scale accumulation of a vitreous material (pollutant) which creates an environmental problem. These materials were characterized by EPR, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The results indicate that the analyzed solids are rich in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO among other oxides. The scum material shows diffraction signals corresponding to the minerals enstatite (pyroxene) and {alpha}-alumina. Moreover, the scum EPR analysis showed a broad line around g = 2.1 corresponding to Fe{sup 3+} clusters in a complex glassy matrix. An analysis of EPR at different temperatures was also performed. The objective of this work, as a first exploratory stage, is to develop a better understanding of the residual solids in order to identify potential applications.

Hernandez, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Monteria (Colombia); Carriazo, J.G. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Almanza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)]. E-mail: oaalmanzam@unal.edu.co

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

STD-5507-2013 STD-5507-2013 February 2013 DOE STANDARD Standard for Communicating Waste Characterization and DOT Hazard Classification Requirements for Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects [This Standard describes acceptable, but not mandatory means for complying with requirements. Standards are not requirements documents and are not to be construed as requirements in any audit or appraisal for compliance with associated rule or directives.] U.S. Department of Energy SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 Distribution Statement: A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services,

132

Development of a Fuel Containing Material Removal and Waste Management Strategy for the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed to develop a strategy for the removal of fuel-containing material (FCM) from the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter and for the related waste management. This study was performed during Phase 1 of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) and was funded by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. The main objective for Phase 2 of the SIP is to stabilize the Shelter and to construct a New Confinement (NC) by the year 2007. In addition, the SIP includes studies on the strategy and on the conceptual design implications of the removal of FCM from the Shelter. This is considered essential for the ultimate goal, the transformation of the Shelter into an environmentally safe system.

Tokarevsky, V. V.; Shibetsky, Y. A.; Leister, P.; Davison, W. R.; Follin, J. F.; McNair, J.; Lins, W.; Edler, G.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

133

Response to Comment on Solid Recovered Fuel: Materials Flow Analysis and Fuel Property Development during the Mechanical Processing of Biodried Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Response to Comment on Solid Recovered Fuel: Materials Flow Analysis and Fuel Property Development during the Mechanical Processing of Biodried Waste ... treatment-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery. ... Velis, C. A.; Cooper, J.Are solid recovered fuels resource-efficient? ...

Costas A. Velis; Stuart Wagland; Phil Longhurst; Bryce Robson; Keith Sinfield; Stephen Wise; Simon Pollard

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

134

Nuclear Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear waste is radioactive material no longer considered valuable...238U, 235U, and 226Ra (where the latter decays to 222Rn gas by emitting an alpha particle) or formed through fission of fissile radioisotopes ...

Rob P. Rechard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the add a source basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay. The platform with the source is placed under the measurement chamber. The platform with the source material is moved under the measurement chamber. The design allows one to move the platform with the source in and out, thus moving the drum. The CDAS system and radioactive waste containers have been built. For each drum filled with waste two individual measurements (passive/active) will be made. This paper briefly describes the work carried out to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the nuclear materials contained in high-level waste at the SHELTER facility. These efforts substantially increased nuclear safety and security at the facility.

Cherkas, Dmytro

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Nuclear Waste Disposal: Amounts of Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The term nuclear waste...embraces all residues from the use of radioactive materials, including uses in medicine and industry. The most highly radioactive of these are the spent fuel or reprocessed wastes from co...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

138

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste"means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

139

Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Recovering Americium and Curium from Mark-42 Target Materials- New Processing Approaches to Enhance Separations and Integrate Waste Stream Disposition - 12228  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and to address waste streams associated with recovery of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) from Mark-42 (Mk-42) target materials stored at ORNL. The objective of this work was to identify the most effective flowsheet with which to process the 104 Mk-42 oxide capsules holding a total of 80 g of plutonium (Pu), 190 g of Cm, 480 g of Am, and 5 kg of lanthanide (Ln) oxides for the recovery and purification of the Am/Cm for future use as feedstock for heavy actinide production. Studies were also conducted to solidify the process flowsheet waste streams for disposal. ORNL is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and address waste streams associated with recovery of Am and Cm from Mk-42 target materials stored at ORNL. A series of small-scale runs are being performed to demonstrate an improved process to recover Am/Cm and to optimize the separations of Ln fission products from the Am/Cm constituents. The first of these runs has been completed using one of the Am/Cm/Ln oxide capsules stored at ORNL. The demonstration run showed promising results with a Ln DF of 40 for the Am/Cm product and an Am/Cm DF of 75 for the Ln product. In addition, the total losses of Am, Cm, and Ln to the waste solvents and raffinates were very low at <0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.04%, respectively. However, the Ln-actinide separation was less than desired. For future Reverse TALSPEAK demonstration runs, several parameters will be adjusted (flow rates, the ratio of scrub to strip stages, etc.) to improve the removal of Ln from the actinides. The next step will also include scale-up of the processing flowsheet to use more concentrated solutions (15 g/L Ln versus 5 g/L) and larger volumes and to recycle the HDEHP solvent. This should improve the overall processing efficiency and further reduce losses to waste streams. Studies have been performed with simulated wastes to develop solidification processes for disposal of the secondary waste streams generated by this flowsheet. Formulations were successfully developed for all the waste simulants. Additional tests with actual waste will be the next step in this effort. Future plans are to process all of the remaining 103 capsules in storage at ORNL. A nine-capsule test is now under way to provide additional information to scale-up the process to a target 20-capsule batch size for future processing runs. (authors)

Patton, Brad D.; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Robinson, Sharon M.; Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

WasteTraining Booklet Waste & Recycling Impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WasteTraining Booklet #12;Waste & Recycling Impacts Environment: The majority of our municipal jobs while recycling 10,000 tons of waste creates 36 jobs. Environment: Recycling conserves resources. It takes 95% less energy to make aluminum from recycled aluminum than from virgin materials, 60% less

Saldin, Dilano

142

Nuclear waste solids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Glass and polycrystalline materials for high-level radioactive waste immobilization are discussed. Borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for defence high-level radwaste in the US. Since releas...

L. L. Hench; D. E. Clark; A. B. Harker

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Technical basis for performance goals, design requirements, and material recommendations for the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Repository Sealing Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives are to develop performance goals, to assess the need for seals, to define design requirements, and to recommend potential sealing materials for the sealing system. Performance goals are the allowable amounts of water that can enter the waste disposal areas directly from the rock mass above the repository and indirectly from shafts and ramps connecting to the underground facility. These goals are developed using a numerical model that calculates radionuclide releases. To determine the need for sealing, estimates of water flow into shafts, ramps, and the underground facility under anticipated conditions are developed and are compared with the performance goals. It is concluded that limited sealing measures, such as emplacement of shaft fill, are sufficient to properly isolate the radioactive waste in the repository. A broad range of sealing design options and associated hydrologic design requirements are proposed to provide a greater degree of assurance that the hydrologic performance goals can be met even if unanticipated hydrologic flows enter the waste disposal areas. The hydrologic design requirements are specific, hydraulic conductivity values selected for specific, seal design options to achieve the performance goals. Using these hydrologic design requirements and additional design requirements, preferred materials are identified for continued design and laboratory analyses. In arriving at these preferred materials, results from previous laboratory testing are briefly discussed. 96 refs., 48 figs., 28 tabs.

Fernandez, J.A.; Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Underground waste barrier structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

ELLEFSON, M.D.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

Mike lewis

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Contamination of Soil by Crude Oil and Drilling Muds. Use of Wastes by Production of Road Construction Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermal method of separating wastes into organic and mineral parts is proposed for processing crude oil sludges and oil-contaminated soils accumulated in operation of oil fields and oil pipelines. After expo...

Z. A. Mansurov; E. K. Ongarbaev

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Cellulosic materials recovered from steam classified municipal solid wastes as feedstocks for conversion to fuels and chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A process has been developed for the treatment of municipal solid waste to separate and recover the cellulosic biomass from the nonbiomass components. ... highly suitable as a feedstock for conversion to fuel, fe...

Michael H. Eley; Gerald R. Guinn; Joyita Bagchi

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials for harvesting waste heat. International Journala way to convert waste heat directly into electricity. Ita novel way to harvest waste heat by combining pyroelectric

Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

151

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, April 1984-September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; and supporting studies. 33 figures, 13 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

154

Waste disposal package  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

Smith, M.J.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

155

Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

156

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

Alfred Wickline

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Sandia National Laboratories: radiation waste cleanup  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

waste cleanup ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

158

A decision analysis method for selection of waste minimization process options for TRU mixed material at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When plutonium production operations were halted at the Rocky Flats Plant, there remained a volume of material that was retained in order that its plutonium content could be reclaimed. This material, known as residue, is transuranic and mixed transuranic material with a plutonium content above what was called the ``economic discard limit,`` or EDL. The EDL was defined in terms of each type of residue material, and each type of material is given an Item Description Code, or IDC. Residue IDCs have been grouped into general category descriptions which include plutonium (Pu) nitrate solutions, Pu chloride solutions, salts, ash, metal, filters, combustibles, graphite, crucibles, glass, resins, gloves, firebrick, and sludges. Similar material exists both below and above the EDL, with material with the (previous) economic potential for reclamation of plutonium classified as residue.

Williams, R.E.; Dustin, D.F.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Energy and materials savings from gases and solid waste recovery in the iron and steel industry in Brazil: An industrial ecology approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper attempts to investigate, from an entropic point of view, the role of selected technologies in the production, transformation, consumption and release of energy and materials in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. In a quantitative analysis, the potential for energy and materials savings with recovery of heat, gases and tar are evaluated for the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. The technologies for heat recovery of gases include Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), applied only in one of the five Brazilian coke integrated steel plants, Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbines (TPRT), recovery of Coke Oven Gas (COG), recovery of Blast Furnace Gas (BFG), recovery of BOF gas, recovery of tar, and thermal plant. Results indicate that, in a technical scenario, some 5.1 TWh of electricity can be generated if these technologies are applied to recover these remaining secondary fuels in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil, which is equivalent to some 45% of current total electricity consumption in the integrated plants in the country. Finally, solid waste control technologies, including options available for collection and treatment, are discussed. Estimates using the best practice methodology show that solid waste generation in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil reached approximately 18 million metric tons in 1994, of which 28% can be recirculated if the best practice available in the country is applied thoroughly.

Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

ELLEFSON, M.D.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

162

DOE/EIS-0026-SA-03: Supplement Analysis for The Disposal of Certain Rocky Flats Plutonium-Bearing Materials at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (11/08/02)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Supplement Analysis For Disposal of Certain Rocky Flats Supplement Analysis For Disposal of Certain Rocky Flats Plutonium-Bearing Materials at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PURPOSE The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to revise its approach for managing approximately 0.97 metric tons (MT) of plutonium-bearing materials (containing about 0.18 MT of surplus plutonium) located at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). DOE is proposing to repackage and transport these materials for direct disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Several DOE environmental impact statements (EISs) discuss the potential impacts from different proposed alternatives for the storage and disposition of surplus plutonium and waste containing surplus plutonium. These EISs evaluated and presented the potential impacts for

163

New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

K. E. Archibald

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Waste Management | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Management Management Waste Management Nuclear Materials Disposition In fulfilling its mission, EM frequently manages and completes disposition of surplus nuclear materials and spent nuclear fuel. These are not waste. They are nuclear materials no longer needed for national security or other purposes, including spent nuclear fuel, special nuclear materials (as defined by the Atomic Energy Act) and other Nuclear Materials. Read more Tank Waste and Waste Processing The Department has approximately 88 million gallons of liquid waste stored in underground tanks and approximately 4,000 cubic meters of solid waste derived from the liquids stored in bins. The current DOE estimated cost for retrieval, treatment and disposal of this waste exceeds $50 billion to be spent over several decades.

165

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the landfill boundaries. (3) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-19-02. (4) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-02 identified 13 railroad cars that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Six railroad cars were below these limits and therefore met the free-release criteria. (5) An In-Situ Object Counting System survey taken at CAS 25-23-02 identified two railroad cars possibly containing fuel fragments; both exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual free release criteria. (6) Corrective Action Site 25-23-18 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics, Aroclor-1260, uranium-234, uranium-235, strontium-90, and cesium-137 that exceed PALs. (7) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-01 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (8) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-02 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (9) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-13 identified six pieces of equipment that exceed the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (10) Corrective Action Site 25-99-16 was not investigated. A review of historical documentation and current site conditions showed that no further characterization was required to select the appropriate corrective action. (11) Corrective Action Site 26-08-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (12) Corrective Action Site 26-17-01 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics and Aroclor-1260 exceeding the PALs. (13) Radiological surveys at CAS 26-19-02 identified metallic debris that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Concentrations of radiological or chemical constituents in soil did not exceed PALs.

Wickline, Alfred

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 7591 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 75­91 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching

Florida, University of

167

6 - Nuclear Waste Regulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most influential national and international bodies providing recommendations on radiation protection are described, including the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Protection philosophies and the ICRP general principles of radiation protection are discussed. Radioactive material regulations and sources of radiation are explained. Criteria of exemption from regulatory control are discussed with examples of exemption levels for naturally occurring and radioactive waste radionuclides. Clearance of both moderate and bulk amounts of materials from regulatory control is also explained, including examples of EU and the UK regulations. Dose limits recommended by the ICRP are given, as well as the main principles of control of radiation hazards. Nuclear waste classification schemes are outlined, including the IAEA classification scheme. A brief explanation of nuclear waste classes including exempt waste, very short-lived waste, very low-level waste, low-level waste, intermediate-level waste and high-level waste is given. Examples of waste classification schemes are given, including that of the UK.

M.I. Ojovan; W.E. Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES&H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial! Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing ''lessons learned'' from R&D efforts across DOE programs to increase efficiency and effectiveness in addressing gas generation issues. The gas generation roadmap identified pathways that have significant risk, indicating where more emphasis should be placed on contingency planning. Roadmapping further identified many opportunities for sharing of information and collaboration. Roadmapping will continue to be useful in keeping focused on the efforts necessary to mitigate the risk in the disposition pathways and to respond to the specific needs of the sites. Other areas within NM programs, including transportation and disposition of orphan and other nuclear materials, are prime candidates for additional roadmapping to assure achievement of timely and cost effective solutions for the processing, packaging, shipping, and/or final disposition of nuclear materials.

Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of {approx}34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to precipitate from solution, while the U remains in solution throughout the remaining processes, including pH adjustment to 1 M free hydroxide. The Ti is likely forming a peroxotitanate material, which can then resorb the leached Pu from solution, but has a low affinity for U. Since Pu was not detected in the SEMEDS studies, it cannot be conclusively determined in what form the Pu returns to the solids; however, the Pu likely resorbed onto the peroxotitanate material. Based on the results of this experiment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends the following experiments to further examine the fate of fissile material in CCPO processing of Tank 48H: (1) Repeat with full simulant matrix (organic and Cu catalyst present along with simulated radioactive sludge); and (2) Repeat of the above test after selection of final conditions (i.e., pH, temperature) if they differ from conditions tested.

Taylor-Pashow, K.

2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

170

Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Services » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet Nuclear material production operations at SRS resulted in the generation of liquid radioactive waste that is being stored, on an interim basis, in 49 underground waste storage tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms. SWPF Fact Sheet More Documents & Publications EIS-0082-S2: Amended Record of Decision Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report EIS-0082-S2: Record of Decision Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing Waste Disposition Packaging and Transportation Site & Facility Restoration Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D)

171

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Waste Confidence Discussion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Long-Term Long-Term Waste Confidence Update Christine Pineda Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission National Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 2012 ♦ Knoxville, Tennessee Long-Term Update Draft Report, "Background and Preliminary Assumptions for an Environmental Impact Statement- Long-Term Waste Confidence Update" Elements of the Long-Term Update - Draft environmental impact statement - Draft Waste Confidence Decision - Proposed Waste Confidence Rule based on the EIS and Decision, if applicable 2 Overview of Draft Report Background and assumptions report is first step in process. Basic topics in the report are:

173

Vitrification of waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

Wicks, G.G.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

174

Vitrification of waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Waste minimization assessment procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative.

Kellythorne, L.L. (Centerior Energy, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Hazardous Waste Generator Treatment Permit by Rule | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the Hazardous Waste Generator Treatment by Rule. Authors Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment and Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division Published...

180

Ferrocyanide tank waste stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove [sup 137]CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

Fowler, K.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

Bernardi, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Nuclear Waste: Knowledge Waste?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...4). Although disposal of HLW remains...for long-term disposal is through deep...successful waste-disposal program has eluded...geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Authorized...Administration withdrew funding for Yucca Mountain...

Eugene A. Rosa; Seth P. Tuler; Baruch Fischhoff; Thomas Webler; Sharon M. Friedman; Richard E. Sclove; Kristin Shrader-Frechette; Mary R. English; Roger E. Kasperson; Robert L. Goble; Thomas M. Leschine; William Freudenburg; Caron Chess; Charles Perrow; Kai Erikson; James F. Short

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

183

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Converter waste disposal study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of waste management and disposal issues to the converting and print industries is demonstrated by the high response rate to a survey of US and Canadian converters and printers. The 30-item questionnaire measured the impact of reuse, recycling, source reduction, incineration, and landfilling on incoming raw-material packaging, process scrap, and waste inks, coatings, and adhesives. The results indicate that significant amounts of incoming packaging materials are reused in-house or through supplier take-back programs. However, there is very little reuse of excess raw materials and process scrap, suggesting the need for greater source reduction within these facilities as the regulatory climate becomes increasingly restrictive.

Schultz, R.B. (RBS Technologies, Inc., Skokie, IL (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

186

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the effects of changing pH (57) and temperature (T..., 4060C) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (SOM) in wastewater from food waste recycling (FWR) and...

Man Deok Kim; Minkyung Song; Minho Jo

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Impact of the deployment schedule of fast breeding reactors in the frame of French act for nuclear materials and radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the frame of the French Act of June 28, 2006 on 'a sustainable management of nuclear materials and radioactive waste' EDF R and D assesses various research scenarios of transition between the actual French fleet and a Generation IV fleet with a closed fuel cycle where plutonium is multi-recycled. The basic scenarios simulate a deployment of 60 GWe of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in two steps: one third from 2040 to 2050 and the rest from 2080 to 2100 (scenarios 2040). These research scenarios assume that SFR technology will be ready for industrial deployment in 2040. One of the many sensitivity analyses that EDF, as a nuclear power plant operator, must evaluate is the impact of a delay of SFR technology in terms of uranium consumptions, plutonium needs and fuel cycle utilities gauging. The sensitivity scenarios use the same assumptions as scenarios 2040 but they simulate a different transition phase: SFRs are deployed in one step between 2080 and 2110 (scenarios 2080). As the French Act states to conduct research on minor actinides (MA) management, we studied different options for 2040 and 2080 scenarios: no MA transmutation, americium transmutation in heterogeneous mode based on americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB) in SFRs and all MA transmutation in heterogeneous mode based on MA Bearing Blankets (MABB). Moreover, we studied multiple parameters that could impact the deployment of these reactors (SFR load factor, increase of the use of MOX in Light Water Reactors, increase of the cooling time in spent nuclear fuel storage...). Each scenario has been computed with the EDF R and D fuel cycle simulation code TIRELIRE-STRATEGIE and optimized to meet various fuel cycle constraints such as using the reprocessing facility with long period of constant capacity, keeping the temporary stored mass of plutonium and MA under imposed limits, recycling older assemblies first... These research scenarios show that the transition from the current PWR fleet to an equivalent fleet of Generation IV SFR can follow different courses. The design of SFR-V2B that we used in our studies needs a high inventory of plutonium resulting in tension on this resource. Several options can be used in order to loosen this tension: our results lead to favour the use of axial breeding blanket in SFR. Load factor of upcoming reactors has to be regarded with attention as it has a high impact on plutonium resource for a given production of electricity. The deployment of SFRs beginning in 2080 instead of 2040 following the scenarios we described creates higher tensions on reprocessing capacity, separated plutonium storage and spent fuel storage. In the frame of the French Act, we studied minor actinides transmutation. The flux of MA in all fuel cycle plants is really high, which will lead to decay heat, a and neutron emission related problems. In terms of reduction of MA inventories, the deployment of MA transmutation cycle must not delay the installation of SFRs. The plutonium production in MABB and AmBB does not allow reducing the use of axial breeding blankets. The impact of MA or Am transmutation over the high level waste disposal is more important if the SFRs are deployed later. Transmutation option (americium or all MA) does not have a significant impact on the number of canister produced nor on its long-term thermal properties. (authors)

Le Mer, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lemasson, D. [Electricite de France R and D, 1, Avenue du General De Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates.

Sexton, R.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for characterizing materials in waste containers. The first of these is gamma emission tomography, commonly called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rather than using an external radiation source, SPECT uses the emission of radioactive materials within the object of interest for imaging. In this case, emission from actual nuclear waste within a container will provide a three-dimensional image of the radioactive substances in the container. The second emission technique will use high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. This technique, called nondestructive assay (NDA), can identify the emitting isotopic species and strength. Work in emission tomography and assay of nuclear waste has been undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a technique called Passive Tomography. Results from a process development unit are presented.

Bernardi, R.T.; Han, K.S.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

22 - Radioactive waste disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the disposal of radioactive wastes that arise from a great variety of sources, including the nuclear fuel cycle, beneficial uses of isotopes, and radiation by institutions. Spent fuel contains uranium, plutonium, and highly radioactive fission products. The spent fuel is accumulating, awaiting the development of a high-level waste repository. It is anticipated that a multi-barrier system involving packaging and geologic media will provide protection of the public over the centuries. The favored method of disposal is in a mined cavity deep underground. In some countries, reprocessing the fuel assemblies permits recycling of materials and disposal of smaller volumes of solidified waste. Transportation of wastes is done by casks and containers designed to withstand severe accidents. Low-level wastes come from research and medical procedures and from a variety of activation and fission sources at a reactor site. They generally can be given near-surface burial. Isotopes of special interest are cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Transuranic wastes are being disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Decommissioning of reactors in the future will contribute a great deal of low-level radioactive waste.

Raymond L. Murray

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Radioactive waste storage issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

Kunz, D.E.

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization |...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue...

194

Nuclear Waste: Knowledge Waste?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...06520, USA. Nuclear power is re-emerging...proclaiming a nuclear renaissance...example, plant safety...liabilities, terrorism at plants and in transport...high-level nuclear wastes (HLW...factor in risk perceptions...supporting nuclear power in the abstract...

Eugene A. Rosa; Seth P. Tuler; Baruch Fischhoff; Thomas Webler; Sharon M. Friedman; Richard E. Sclove; Kristin Shrader-Frechette; Mary R. English; Roger E. Kasperson; Robert L. Goble; Thomas M. Leschine; William Freudenburg; Caron Chess; Charles Perrow; Kai Erikson; James F. Short

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

195

Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waste (i.e, mixture of biohazardous and chemical or radioactive waste), call Environment, Health2/2009 Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (619

Tsien, Roger Y.

196

Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste heat. subramanian.pdf More Documents &...

197

Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Assuring Access to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities for Non-DOE Users of Radioactive Materials: Solutions -Outside the Box  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper proposes both near-term and long-term solutions for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) Classes B and C generated by non-DOE organizations in thirty-six states that will lose access to the Barnwell, SC disposal facility on July 1, 2008. The solutions proposed here call for the federal government, specifically the US Department of Energy (DOE), to play a key role and are outside the existing interstate compact framework established by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (amended in 1985) and subsequent state ratification and Congressional consent statutes. (authors)

Pasternak, A.D. [Ph.D. California Radioactive Materials Management Forum, Lafayette, CA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Multi-parametric study of the effect of materials substitution on life cycle energy use and waste generation of passenger car structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aluminium and fibre reinforced plastics have been put forward as alternatives for steel to reduce passenger car weight and save energy during use. Often-reported drawbacks are increased energy for production and reduced recyclability, and hence, increased waste generation. This study considers the merits of the alternatives by making a multi-parametric comparison of the life cycle energy use and waste generation of three lightweight alternatives to todays all-steel car structure. The development level, captured as the percentage of high strength steel in todays car structure, is identified as an important new variable in the analysis of automotive life cycle energy use.

E. Tempelman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Trash or treasure? Putting coal combustion waste to work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of coal combustion wastes from power plants in construction materials, leaching and the impact of regulations are discussed.

Tenenbaum, D.J.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Method for processing aqueous wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

Pickett, John B. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Martin, Hollis L. (Rt. 1, Box 188KB, McCormick, SC 29835); Langton, Christine A. (455 Sumter St. SE., Aiken, SC 29801); Harley, Willie W. (110 Fairchild St., Batesburg, SC 29006)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Sandia National Laboratories: radioactive waste solution cleanup  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy, Partnership, Research & Capabilities Radiation waste cleanup was in the public eye...

203

Hanford Tank Waste Residuals  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hanford Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - ~27 million gallons of waste* - 149 SSTs located in 12 SST Farms - Grouped into 7 Waste Management Areas (WMAs) for RCRA closure purposes: 200 West Area S/SX T TX/TY U 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) - ~26 million gallons of waste* - 28 DSTs located in 6 DST Farms (1 West/5 East) * 17 Misc Underground Storage Tanks (MUST) * 43 Inactive MUST (IMUST) 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Volumes fluctuate as SST retrievals and 242-A Evaporator runs occur. Major Regulatory Drivers * Radioactive Tank Waste Materials - Atomic Energy Act - DOE M 435.1-1, Ch II, HLW - Other DOE Orders * Hazardous/Dangerous Tank Wastes - Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (TPA) - Retrieval/Closure under State's implementation

204

Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis (eds.)

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

206

Chapter 22 - Radioactive Waste Disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses safe disposal of radioactive waste in order to provide safety to workers and the public. Radioactive wastes arise from a great variety of sources, including the nuclear fuel cycle, and from beneficial uses of isotopes and radiation by institutions. Spent fuel contains uranium, plutonium, and highly radioactive fission products. In the United States spent fuel is accumulating, awaiting the development of a high-level waste repository. A multi-barrier system involving packaging and geological media will provide protection of the public over the centuries the waste must be isolated. The favored method of disposal is in a mined cavity deep underground. In other countries, reprocessing the fuel assemblies permits recycling of materials and disposal of smaller volumes of solidified waste. Transportation of wastes is by casks and containers designed to withstand severe accidents. Low-level wastes (LLWs) come from research and medical procedures and from a variety of activation and fission sources at a reactor site. They generally can be given near-surface burial. Isotopes of special interest are cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Transuranic wastes are being disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Establishment of regional disposal sites by interstate compacts has generally been unsuccessful in the United States. Decontamination of defense sites will be long and costly. Decommissioning of reactors in the future will contribute a great deal of low-level radioactive waste.

Raymond L. Murray

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOEEE-0844 February 2013 Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste. For more information eere.energy.gov...

208

Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Waste gas combustion in a Hanford radioactive waste tank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been observed that a high-level radioactive waste tank generates quantities of hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen that are potentially well within flammability limits. These gases are produced from chemical and nuclear decay reactions in a slurry of radioactive waste materials. Significant amounts of combustible and reactant gases accumulate in the waste over a 110- to 120-d period. The slurry becomes Taylor unstable owing to the buoyancy of the gases trapped in a matrix of sodium nitrate and nitrite salts. As the contents of the tank roll over, the generated waste gases rupture through the waste material surface, allowing the gases to be transported and mixed with air in the cover-gas space in the dome of the tank. An ignition source is postulated in the dome space where the waste gases combust in the presence of air resulting in pressure and temperature loadings on the double-walled waste tank. This analysis is conducted with hydrogen mixing studies HMS, a three-dimensional, time-dependent fluid dynamics code coupled with finite-rate chemical kinetics. The waste tank has a ventilation system designed to maintain a slight negative gage pressure during normal operation. We modeled the ventilation system with the transient reactor analysis code (TRAC), and we coupled these two best-estimate accident analysis computer codes to model the ventilation system response to pressures and temperatures generated by the hydrogen and ammonia combustion.

Travis, J.R.; Fujita, R.K.; Spore, J.W.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Catalytic Air Gasification of Plastic Waste (Polypropylene) in a Fluidized Bed. Part II: Effects of Some Operating Variables on the Quality of the Raw Gas Produced Using Olivine as the In-Bed Material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic Air Gasification of Plastic Waste (Polypropylene) in a Fluidized Bed. ... Wu et al.(11) reported a process involving pyrolysis combined with catalytic steam gasification for postconsumer plastic wastes, mixed plastics, and real-world plastic wastes. ... In this case, the plastic waste was composed of a mixture of PE and PP (50 wt %) from the car industry. ...

Jos M. Toledo; Mara P. Aznar; Jess A. Sancho

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

211

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Cancels DOE M 460.2-1.

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

212

ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

213

Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 3 T he journey to the WIPP began nearly 60 years before the first barrels of transuranic waste arrived at the repository. The United States produced the world's first sig- nificant quantities of transuranic material during the Manhattan Project of World War II in the early 1940s. The government idled its plutonium- producing reactors and warhead manu- facturing plants at the end of the Cold War and scheduled most of them for dismantlement. However, the DOE will generate more transuranic waste as it cleans up these former nuclear weapons facilities. The WIPP is a cor- nerstone of the effort to clean up these facilities by providing a safe repository to isolate transuranic waste in disposal rooms mined out of ancient salt beds, located 2,150 feet below ground. The need for the WIPP

214

Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Solid waste disposal options: an optimum disposal model for the management of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and compostable material was generally burned in backyards. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed restricting the burning of leaves and other yard waste. ' These wastes were then disposed in landfills. As landfills reached capacity, commu- nities composted... separation pro- grams because of their "throw-away" mentality. " ~ln in r ttgtt Incineration is the controlled burning of the combustible fraction of solid waste. The first electrical generating station in the United States that was fueled by solid waste...

Haney, Brenda Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs Ranking of programs or activities by risk Ranking of wastes/materials by risk Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

WIMS - Waste Information Management System  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Welcome To WIMS Welcome To WIMS Waste Information Management System WIMS new web address: http://www.emwims.org WIMS is developed to provide DOE Headquarters and site waste managers with the tools necessary to easily visualize, understand, and manage the vast volumes, categories, and problems of forecasted waste streams. WIMS meets this need by providing a user-friendly online system to gather, organize, and present waste forecast data from DOE sites. This system provides a method for identification of waste forecast volumes, material classes, disposition pathways, and potential choke points and barriers to final disposition. Disclaimer: Disposition facility information presented is for planning purposes only and does not represent DOE's decisions or commitments. Any selection of disposition facility will be made after technical, economic, and policy considerations.

218

Process for remediation of plastic waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of about 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically carbon nanotubes having a partially filled core (encapsulated) adjacent to one end of the nanotube. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Pol, Vilas G; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

219

Process for remediation of plastic waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Pol, Vilas G. (Westmont, IL); Thiyagarajan, Pappannan (Germantown, MD)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R&D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R&D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R&D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Waste Hoist  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Primary Hoist: 45-ton Rope-Guide Friction Hoist Completely enclosed (for contamination control), the waste hoist at WIPP is a modern friction hoist with rope guides. With a 45-ton...

223

Two-stage air gasification of mixed plastic waste: Olivine as the bed material and effects of various additives and a nickel-plated distributor on the tar removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Air gasification of mixed plastic waste was conducted in a two-stage gasifier. The effects of the combination of olivine as the fluidized bed material and activated carbon with or without other additives for tar cracking, as well as a Ni-plated distributor, the use of steam as a gasifying agent, and the calcination of olivine on the producer gas compositions and tar production, were also investigated. The maximum H2 concentration (27.3vol%) was obtained with 900g of activated carbon in the tar-cracking zone, and through the use of calcined olivine as the bed material. In the experiments, the maximum tar removal efficiency calculated using a base case reached 98.2%. The \\{LHVs\\} of the producer gases were in the range of 6.19.0MJ/Nm3. The increase in the activated carbon amount led to an enhanced H2 production, as well as a decrease in tar production. The Ni-plated distributor was found to be effective for tar removal. In the application of dolomite in the tar-cracking zone and the use of steam as a fluidizing medium resulted in a high rate of \\{HCl\\} removal. The minimum \\{HCl\\} concentration in the producer gases was under 1ppm.

Min-Hwan Cho; Tae-Young Mun; Young-Kon Choi; Joo-Sik Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Integration of Advanced Materials and Interfaces for Durable...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advanced Materials and Interfaces for Durable Thermoelectric Automobile Exhaust Waste Heat Harvesting Devices Integration of Advanced Materials and Interfaces for Durable...

227

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Allen, Todd R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke [Osaka University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

WASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource! energy forum Case Studies from Estonia, Switzerland, Germany Bossart,· ABB Waste-to-Energy Plants Edmund Fleck,· ESWET Marcel van Berlo,· Afval Energie Bedrijf From Waste to Energy To Energy from Waste #12;9.00-9.30: Registration 9.30-9.40: Chairman Ella Stengler opens

Columbia University

229

EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste at Idaho  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste at Idaho Site EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste at Idaho Site December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers treat sludge-bearing, transuranic waste from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project. Workers treat sludge-bearing, transuranic waste from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project. A tank at the Materials and Fuels Complex containing residual sodium is moved prior to waste treatment. A tank at the Materials and Fuels Complex containing residual sodium is moved prior to waste treatment. Distillation equipment is shown prior to transport to the Idaho site. Distillation equipment is shown prior to transport to the Idaho site. In these 2010 photographs, unexploded ordnance were collected and then detonated onsite at the Mass Detonation Area.

230

EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste at Idaho  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste at Idaho Site EM Makes Significant Progress on Dispositioning Transuranic Waste at Idaho Site December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers treat sludge-bearing, transuranic waste from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project. Workers treat sludge-bearing, transuranic waste from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project. A tank at the Materials and Fuels Complex containing residual sodium is moved prior to waste treatment. A tank at the Materials and Fuels Complex containing residual sodium is moved prior to waste treatment. Distillation equipment is shown prior to transport to the Idaho site. Distillation equipment is shown prior to transport to the Idaho site. In these 2010 photographs, unexploded ordnance were collected and then detonated onsite at the Mass Detonation Area.

231

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Experiences with treatment of mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

1996-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of (In, Ce)-based Skutterudite Materials for Automotive Energy Recovery Proactive Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling High-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery...

235

High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2009 -- Washington D.C. lmp06wang.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success...

236

Radiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quarterly · Radioactive waste retrieval, storage, disposal · Dosimetry exchange · Leak tests of sealedRadiation Awareness TrainingRadiation Awareness Training Radioactive Material &Radioactive Material, Chemistry, Physics, Applied Physiology · Radioactive Material ­ Sealed Sources, Unsealed Sources (liquid

Sherrill, David

237

Microsoft PowerPoint - 9_ANDY_IMBODEN_NMMSS_2014_Powerpoint_Waste...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

NRC's Waste Confidence Rulemaking Andy Imboden, NRC, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards Outline Schedule Completed Activities Public Participation ...

238

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash waste encapsulated Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for By-Products Utilization Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science 49 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: ......

239

GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require ultimate disposal when it is put to use. Each task three waste was evaluated for utilization potential based on its physical properties, bulk chemical composition, and mineral composition. Only one of the thirteen materials studied might be suitable for use as a pozzolanic concrete additive. However, many wastes appeared to be suitable for other high-volume uses such as blasting grit, fine aggregate for asphalt concrete, road deicer, structural fill material, soil stabilization additives, waste stabilization additives, landfill cover material, and pavement base course construction.

Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » 12/2000 Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 The purpose of this Report is to assess whether U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) disposal facilities have sufficient volumetric and radiological capacity to accommodate the low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MLLW) that the Department expects to dispose at these facilities. 12/2000 Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report Version 2 More Documents & Publications EIS-0243: Record of Decision EIS-0200: Record of Decision EIS-0286: Record of Decision Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing Waste Disposition Packaging and Transportation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

COZZI, ALEX

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

242

Managing America`s solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

Not Available

1998-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

243

Waste Disposal (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article lays an outline of waste disposal regulations, permits and fees, hazardous waste management and underground storage tank requirements.

244

DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

environmental and health risks posed by the material. Stored in forty-nine underground tanks, approximately 36 million gallons of radioactive waste is left over from plutonium...

245

Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Waste Heat Recovery Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites...

246

DOE Chooses Idaho Treatment Group, LLC to Disposition Waste at...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

facility. The waste includes DOE laboratory and processing materials from the former Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant in Colorado and various other DOE facilities in Idaho...

247

TRU waste-sampling program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

251

Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,7792,074kJkg?1 wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290gkg?1 VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas.

F. Tambone; B. Scaglia; S. Scotti; F. Adani

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1983, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 37 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) or projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. 48 figures, 107 tables.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Industrial Wastes as a Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

point where a conveyor can conveniently handle it. for further transport. Apron feeders transport waste material by means of chain mounted overlapping steel pans that carry, rather than drag or scrape, the material. Normally, the maximum angle... Portable conveyors Lift trucks Feeders 4 TRANSFER Bucket elevator Belt conveyors Flight convPy'Ors Mass-Flow conveyors Stacking conveyors Crushers Sizers Dryers 3 PREP ARATION 6 COVERED STORAGE Bins 5 OUTDOOR STORAGE...

Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 361: Siting of Industrial Hazardous  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1: Siting of Industrial 1: Siting of Industrial Hazardous Waste Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 361: Siting of Industrial Hazardous Waste Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations describe the siting of new industrial hazardous waste facilities located wholly or partially within the State. Industrial hazardous waste facilities are defined as facilities used for the purpose of treating, storing, compacting, recycling, exchanging or disposing of industrial hazardous waste materials, including treatment, compacting,

255

Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility Full Document and Summary Versions...

257

Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE January 2010 Prepared for the Interagency left intentionally blank.] #12;Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy PNNL-SA-69994 under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Waste Disposal Workshops: Anthrax-Contaminated Waste AM Lesperance JF Upton SL

259

Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

Korenberg, Jacob (York, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Solid waste recycling programs at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rocky Flats (RFP) recycling programs for solid waste materials have been in place for over ten years. Within the last three years, the programs were centralized under the direction of the Rocky Flats Waste Minimization department, with the assistance of various plant organizations (e.g., Trucking, Building Services, Regulated Waste Operations, property Utilization and Disposal and Security). Waste Minimization designs collection and transportation systems for recyclable materials and evaluates recycling markets for opportunities to add new commodities to the existing programs. The Waste Minimization department also promotes employee participation in the Rocky Flats Recycling Programs, and collects all recycling data for publication. A description of the program status as of January 1994 is given.

Millette, R.L.; Blackman, T.E.; Shepard, M.D. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

TRINER, G.C.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Categorical Exclusion 4565, Waste Management Construction Support  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FornI FornI Project Title: Waste Management Construction Support (4565) Program or Program Office: Y -12 Site Office Location: Oak Ridge Tennessee Project Description: This work scope is an attempt to cover the general activities that construction would perform in support of Waste Management activities. Work includes construction work performed in support of Waste Management Sustainability and Stewardship projects and programs to include: load waste into containers; open, manipulate containers; empty containers; decommission out-of-service equipment (includes removal of liquids, hazardous, and universal wastes); apply fabric and gravel to ground; transport equipment; transport materials; transport waste; remove vegetation; place barriers; place erosion controls; operate wheeled and tracked equipment; general carpentry. Work will be performed on dirt, vegetated, graveled, or paved surfaces in

264

Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a study on thermal treatment of TRU waste to develop a removal technology for materials that are forbidden for disposal. The thermal pretreatment in which hot nitrogen and/or air is introduced to the waste is a process of removing combustibles, liquids, and low melting point metals from PVC wrapped TRU waste. In this study, thermal pretreatment of simulated waste was conducted using a desktop thermal treatment vessel and a laboratory scale thermal pretreatment system. Combustibles and low melting point metals are effectively separated from wastes by choosing appropriate temperature of flowing gases. Combustibles such as papers, PVC, oil, etc. were removed and low melting point metals such as zinc, lead, and aluminum were separated from the simulated waste by the thermal pretreatment. (authors)

Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Solid Waste Program (Alabama) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Program (Alabama) Program (Alabama) Solid Waste Program (Alabama) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer General Public/Consumer Industrial Residential Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Alabama Program Type Environmental Regulations This article states the authority of the department, regulations for the control of unauthorized dumping, disposal fees, violations and penalties. Solid waste refers to any garbage, rubbish, construction or demolition debris, ash, or sludge from a waste treatment facility, water supply plant, or air pollution control facility, and any other discarded materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting

266

Transuranic Waste Tabletop | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transuranic Waste Tabletop Transuranic Waste Tabletop Transuranic Waste Tabletop OBJECTIVES Given a simulated radioactive materials transportation accident, applicable procedures, and map references, demonstrate through participatory discussion a working knowledge of the following emergency response and concept of operations elements: „ Concept of operations for the emergency response to a radioactive materials transportation accident, including the Unified Incident Command System utilized in the field. „ Initial and extended response of emergency personnel and the interface between these organizations and Federal and State Regulatory agencies (i.e., Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], Department of Transportation [DOT], and the appropriate State agency). „ Communications between the Incident Commander (IC) and the

267

Waste Processing | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Processing Waste Processing Workers process and repackage waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Centers Cask Processing Enclosure. Workers process and repackage waste at...

268

Ferrocyanide tank waste stability. Supplement 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove {sup 137}CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

Fowler, K.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Waste Hoist  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Primary Hoist: 45-ton Rope-Guide Friction Hoist Largest friction hoist in the world when it was built in 1985 Completely enclosed (for contamination control), the waste hoist at WIPP is a modern friction hoist with rope guides (uses a balanced counterweight and tail ropes). With a 45-ton capacity, it was the largest friction hoist in the world when it was built in 1986. Hoist deck footprint: 2.87m wide x 4.67m long Hoist deck height: 2.87m wide x 7.46m high Access height to the waste hoist deck is limited by a high-bay door at 4.14m high Nominal configuration is 2-cage (over/under), with bottom (equipment) cage interior height of 4.52m The photo, at left, shows the 4.14m high-bay doors at the top collar of the waste hoist shaft. The perpendicular cross section of the opening is 3.5m x 4.14m, but the bottom cage cross section is 2.87m x 4.5m (and 4.67m into the plane of the photo).

270

Combinatorial Measurement Methods for Inorganic Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) devices, or the Seebeck coefficients of thermoelectric materials for vehicular waste heat recovery devices such as Intel and Micron, as well as GM and Honda for the use of thermoelectrics for vehicular waste heat will be generated for materials systems identified as high priority by the microelectronics industry. In addition

271

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

272

Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

Colburn, R.P.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Investigation of benefit of using coal wastes in cement production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Waste disposal in coal preparation plants leads to serious environmental problems. These wastes usually contain about 20% carbon, and the composition of the remaining ash is similar to clay. Addition of these wastes to cement clinker raw material utilises carbon as a source of energy. In this investigation, the effect of addition of these waste materials to the raw materials used in cement manufacture is studied. Ordinary type II cement and sulphoaluminate cement may be produced from the wastes. Mechanical strength, chemical and phase analysis, setting time and particle size distribution of the cement were studied. The results of the experiments show that an addition of about 3% of the coal wastes to the raw materials used in cement manufacture produces cements with good quality. Further, energy consumption may be reduced by up to 15%.

A. Sarrafi; M.R. Izadpanah; A. Ebrahimi; A.I. Mansouri

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Savannah River Site's liquid radioactive waste operations involves the man  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Site's liquid radioactive waste operations involves the management of space in the Site's Site's liquid radioactive waste operations involves the management of space in the Site's 49 underground waste tanks, including the removal of waste materials. Once water is removed from the waste tanks, two materials remain: salt and sludge waste. Removing salt waste, which fills approximately 90 percent of the tank space in the SRS tank farms, is a major step toward closing the Site's waste tanks that currently contain approximately 38 million gallons of waste. Due to the limited amount of tank space available in new-style tanks, some salt waste must be dispositioned in the interim to ensure sufficient tank space for continued sludge washing and to support the initial start-up and salt processing operations at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF).

275

Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

276

Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for CY04: Battelle Contributions to the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), Battelle conducted tests on mixing specific wastes within the plant, removing troublesome materials from the waste before treatment, and determining if the final waste forms met the established criteria. In addition, several Battelle experts filled full-time positions in WTP's Research and Testing and Process and Operations departments.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

277

Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Medical waste treatment and decontamination system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Nuclear Waste and the Distant Future Nuclear Waste and the Distant Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Waste and the Distant Future 1 Nuclear Waste and the Distant Future PER F. PETERSON WILLIAM://www.issues.org/22.4/peterson.html Regulation of nuclear hazards must be consistent with rules governing other of the radioactive material generated by nuclear energy decays away over short times ranging from minutes to several

Kammen, Daniel M.

280

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

282

Sustainable Materials Course Outline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, embodied energy; environmental footprint, waste recycling and pollution minimization, life cycle assessment Science and Engineering (Building E8) Phone: 9385 5025 j.q.zhang@unsw.edu.au Consultation hours: by appointment To be advised School of Materials Science and Engineering (Building E8) Consultation hours

New South Wales, University of

283

Radioactive and nonradioactive waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the handling of plutonium in research on or production of US nuclear weapons will be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the physical and radiological properties of the TRU waste that will be deposited in the WIPP. This geologic repository will accommodate up to 175,564 m{sup 3} of TRU waste, corresponding to 168,485 m{sup 3} of contact-handled (CH-) TRU waste and 7,079 m{sup 3} of remote-handled (RH-) TRU waste. Approximately 35% of the TRU waste is currently packaged and stored (i.e., legacy) waste, with the remainder of the waste to be packaged or generated and packaged in activities before the year 2033, the closure time for the repository. These wastes were produced at 27 US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the course of generating defense nuclear materials. The radionuclide and nonradionuclide inventories for the TRU wastes described in this paper were used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) performance assessment calculations by Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM).

SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; DREZ,P.E.; RATH,JONATHAN S.; TRELLUE,H.R.

2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

Radioactive Waste Management (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section regulates the transportation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Minnesota, and establishes a Nuclear Waste Council to monitor the federal high-level radioactive waste...

287

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

Jantzen, C

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

Vitrification of organics-containing wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

Bickford, D.F.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

Langton, C

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1995-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

291

Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality A hazardous waste facility permit from the Department of Environmental Quality is required to store, treat or dispose of hazardous waste materials, or to construct, own or operate any facility engaged in the operation of storing, treating or disposing of hazardous waste or storing recyclable materials. The Department shall not issue a permit for the treatment, disposal or temporary storage of any liquid hazardous waste in a

292

West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DRAFT_19507_1 DRAFT_19507_1 High-Level Waste Management Bryan Bower, DOE Director - WVDP DOE High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Savannah River Site April 1, 2008 West Valley Demonstration Project West Valley Demonstration Project DRAFT_19507_2 West Valley High-Level Waste To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification system/process were designed. To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification system/process were designed.

293

Radioactive Waste Management  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

1984-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

294

Transuranic Waste Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The guide provides criteria for determining if a waste is to be managed in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter III, Transuranic Waste Requirements.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

295

Waste?to?Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Waste?to?Energy Roadmapping Workshop Waste?to?Energy Presentation by Jonathan Male, Director of the Bioenery Technolgies Office, Department of Energy

296

Waste minimization in semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US semiconductor industry uses 5--7 thousand pounds of arsine annually. Fifty to eighty percent of the arsine used becomes a waste product, which requires abatement. Traditional methods of abatement are reviewed with an emphasis on dry chemical scrubbing. A variety of dry chemical scrubbing materials were evaluated for arsine capacity, using activated carbon as the baseline for comparison. Of the available technologies, dry chemical scrubbing is the most effective means of minimizing arsenic containing waste generated from semiconductor effluents. A copper oxide based media has been identified which has high capacity, high efficiency and treats the spectrum of gases used in MOCVD processes. Reclaim and recovery of spent scrubber media has the potential to drastically reduce arsenic waste from semiconductor manufacturing.

Hardwick, S.J.; Mailloux, J.C. [Novapure Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Monitoring of a RCRA Mixed Waste Management Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1953, solid radioactive waste materials have been disposed of in a centrally located facility known as the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. These burial grounds comprise three distinct disposal sites which include the original set of burial trenches for solid low level radioactive wastes (643-G), the currently operating Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (643-7G), and the Mixed Waste Management Facility (643-28G) located within 643-7G. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) has been used to dispose of various low level radioactive waste materials just as the other portions of the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Some of the waste materials in the MWMF have been classified as mixed waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Because the MWMF contains mixed wastes, a closure plan for the facility was developed and submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to comply with RCRA requirements. This paper discusses the various aspects of the groundwater monitoring program developed to satisfy regulatory requirements for post-closure care and provides some initial results on groundwater quality.

Gordon, D.E.; Stevens, C.B.; Tuckfield, R.C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Monitoring of a RCRA Mixed Waste Management Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1953, solid radioactive waste materials have been disposed of in a centrally located facility known as the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. These burial grounds comprise three distinct disposal sites which include the original set of burial trenches for solid low level radioactive wastes (643-G), the currently operating Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (643-7G), and the Mixed Waste Management Facility (643-28G) located within 643-7G. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) has been used to dispose of various low level radioactive waste materials just as the other portions of the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Some of the waste materials in the MWMF have been classified as mixed waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Because the MWMF contains mixed wastes, a closure plan for the facility was developed and submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to comply with RCRA requirements. This paper discusses the various aspects of the groundwater monitoring program developed to satisfy regulatory requirements for post-closure care and provides some initial results on groundwater quality.

Gordon, D.E.; Stevens, C.B.; Tuckfield, R.C.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Closed Single-Shell Tanks and Other Waste Forms Associated with the Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter describes the release of contaminants from the various waste forms that are anticipated to be associated with closure of the single-shell tanks. These waste forms include residual sludge or saltcake that will remain in the tanks after waste retrieval. Other waste forms include engineered glass and cementitious materials as well as contaminated soil impacted by previous tank leaks. This chapter also describes laboratory testing to quantify contaminant release and how the release data are used in performance/risk assessments for the tank waste management units and the onsite waste disposal facilities. The chapter ends with a discussion of the surprises and lessons learned to date from the testing of waste materials and the development of contaminant release models.

Deutsch, William J.

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rutgers Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits Through WM's Recycling Program, our company saved energy and reduced Greenhouse Gases through recycling. Recycling uses less energy, preserves from recycled material than from virgin, raw material. RESOURCE SAVINGS 4203 Metric Tons (MTCO2E

Delgado, Mauricio

302

Nondestructive radioassay for waste management: an assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nondestructive Assay (NDA) for Transuranic Waste Management is used to mean determining the amount of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in crates, drums, boxes, cans, or other containers without having to open the container. It also means determining the amount of TRU in soil, bore holes, and other environmental testing areas without having to go through extensive laboratory wet chemistry analyses. it refers to radioassay techniques used to check for contamination on objects after decontamination and to determine amounts of TRU in waste processing streams without taking samples to a laboratory. Gednerally, NDA instrumentation in this context refers to all use of radioassay which does not involve taking samples and using wet chemistry techniques. NDA instruments have been used for waste assay at some sites for over 10 years and other sites are just beginning to consider assay of wastes. The instrumentation used at several sites is discussed in this report. Almost all these instruments in use today were developed for special nuclear materials safeguards purposes and assay TRU waste down to the 500 nCi/g range. The need for instruments to assay alpha particle emitters at 10 nCi/g or less has risen from the wish to distinguish between Low Level Waste (LLW) and TRU Waste at the defined interface of 10 nCi/g. Wastes have historically been handled as TRU wastes if they were just suspected to be transuranically contaminated but their exact status was unknown. Economic and political considerations make this practice undesirable since it is easier and less costly to handle LLW. This prompted waste generators to want better instrumentation and led the Transuranic Waste Management Program to develop and test instrumentation capable of assaying many types of waste at the 10 nCi/g level. These instruments are discussed.

Lehmkuhl, G.D.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Program Exceeds Planned  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Program Exceeds Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Program Exceeds Planned Shipping Goal Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Program Exceeds Planned Shipping Goal May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Program is looking at another record-setting month for the amount of TRU waste leaving Material Disposal Area G, headed to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal. LANL exceeded its planned removal of TRU waste from Area G in April, shipping more than 91 cubic meters of waste to WIPP - more than the Lab has ever shipped there in a single month. The Lab is headed for an even more successful May, with 99 cubic meters shipped to WIPP as of May 22. "Our shipping performance reflects the acceleration that began last

304

November 8, 1983: Defense Waste Processing Facility | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

November 8, 1983: Defense Waste Processing Facility November 8, 1983: Defense Waste Processing Facility November 8, 1983: Defense Waste Processing Facility November 8, 1983: Defense Waste Processing Facility November 8, 1983 The Department begins construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. DWPF is designed to make high-level nuclear waste into a glass-like substance, which will then be shipped to a repository. DWPF will mix borosilicate glass with the waste, heat it to 2000 degrees F, and pour the mixture into stainless steel canisters. The mixture will cool into solid glass that can be permanently stored. DWPF will immobilize the more than 34 million gallons of liquid high-level waste that have accumulated from producing defense-related nuclear materials

305

Summary of research on waste minimization studies by Japan Waste Research Foundation (JWRF)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan is trying to provide a qualitatively better environment and the treatment of incinerator gas emissions is an indispensable part of pollution prevention programs. Therefore, a large part of incinerator wastes will be disposed of in landfills for municipal solid waste, and volume reduction and stabilization are major items on the technology agenda. For these reasons, the purpose of this research is waste minimization, namely reducing the volume of wastes that must be disposed of in landfills. This is being done by studying ways to use heat treatment to reduce the volume of incinerator ash, to develop technology for the effective use of treated material and to render fly ash and fused salts harmless. In addition, the author seeks to establish more advanced municipal solid waste treatment systems that reduce (slim) waste by using space efficiently and recovering metals in incinerator residue and fly ash for recycling.

Nabeshima, Yoshiro [Tamagawa Univ., Machida City, Tokyo (Japan)] [Tamagawa Univ., Machida City, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Waste Management Update by Frank Marcinowski  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. DOE Environmental Management U.S. DOE Environmental Management Update on Waste Management (and other EM Mission Units) Frank Marcinowski Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SITE-SPECIFIC ADVISORY BOARD CHAIRS MEETING APRIL 18-19, 2012 PADUCAH, KENTUCKY www.em.doe.gov 2  Compliance update  Recent program accomplishments  FY 12 waste management priorities  FY 13 waste management priorities  Strategic goals related to waste and materials disposition  Update on Blue Ribbon Commission Related Activities  Update on DOE 435.1 revision  Update on Asset Revitalization Initiative Discussion Outline www.em.doe.gov 3  Office of Site Restoration (EM-10) o Soil and Ground Remediation o D&D & Facility Engineering

311

Method for treating waste containing stainless steel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (1819 Princeton, Butte, MT 59701); Battleson, Daniel M. (2606 Hancock, Butte, MT 59701); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (3321 Keokuk, Butte, MT 59701); Cashell, Patrick V. (730 West Park, Butte, MT 59701); Filius, Krag D. (1806 B St., Butte, MT 59701); Flannery, Philip A. (P.O. Box 128, Ramsey, MT 59478); Whitworth, Clarence G. (4646 Utah Ave., Butte, MT 59701)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method for treating waste containing stainless steel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Development of a research methodology to study lumber waste due to design causes in residential construction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Construction faces problems regarding inefficiencies of material usage. Builders pay twice for the lumber that is wasted. Once when it is purchased and once when it is disposed. Part of the lumber waste is generated due to the design...

Vyas, Ashok Madhusudan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Revaluing waste in New York City : planning for small-scale compost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One-third of the municipal solid waste stream is organic material that, when processed in landfills, produces methane, a highly potent greenhouse gas. Composting is a proven strategy for organic waste management, which ...

Neilson, Sarah (Sarah Jane)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Analysis of Influencing Factor on Fracture Energy of Concrete Containers for Nuclear Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anti-fracture property of concrete container for nuclear waste was investigated to ensure its long-time ... the materials used to make concrete containers for nuclear waste.

Li Yi; Zhao Wen; Qujie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Coal/waste cofiring: International survey of combustion practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is an abundant fuel resource worldwide with an historically stable price. The use of coal is expected to increase, particularly in developing countries; and, as industrialization increases, so will the amount of various waste materials and the environmental problems associated with their disposal. Therefore, coal/waste cofiring can offer an environmentally sound, economic approach to both waste remediation and energy production. This paper highlights the results of an international survey of coal/waste cofiring by describing the principal wastes used and the combustion technologies employed. Also provided are examples of cofiring and areas where cofired fuel parameters will have an effect on boiler performance.

Harding, N.S.; Smouse, S.M.; Ekmann, J.M.; Winslow, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Ramezan, M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Robust Solution to Difficult Hydrogen Issues When Shipping Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been open, receiving, and disposing of transuranic (TRU) waste since March 26, 1999. The majority of the waste has a path forward for shipment to and disposal at the WIPP, but there are about two percent (2%) or approximately 3,020 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of the volume of TRU waste (high wattage TRU waste) that is not shippable because of gas generation limits set by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste includes plutonium-238 waste, solidified organic waste, and other high plutonium-239 wastes. Flammable gases are potentially generated during transport of TRU waste by the radiolysis of hydrogenous materials and therefore, the concentration at the end of the shipping period must be predicted. Two options are currently available to TRU waste sites for solving this problem: (1) gas generation testing on each drum, and (2) waste form modification by repackaging and/or treatment. Repackaging some of the high wattage waste may require up to 20:1 drum increase to meet the gas generation limits of less than five percent (5%) hydrogen in the inner most layer of confinement (the layer closest to the waste). (This is the limit set by the NRC.) These options increase waste handling and transportation risks and there are high costs and potential worker exposure associated with repackaging this high-wattage TRU waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is pursuing a twofold approach to develop a shipping path for these wastes. They are: regulatory change and technology development. For the regulatory change, a more detailed knowledge of the high wattage waste (e.g., void volumes, gas generation potential of specific chemical constituents) may allow refinement of the current assumptions in the gas generation model for Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging for Contact-Handled (CH) TRU waste. For technology development, one of the options being pursued is the use of a robust container, the ARROW-PAK{trademark} System. (1) The ARROW-PAK{trademark} is a macroencapsulation treatment technology, developed by Boh Environmental, LLC, New Orleans, Louisiana. This technology has been designed to withstand any unexpected hydrogen deflagration (i.e. no consequence) and other benefits such as criticality control.

Countiss, S. S.; Basabilvazo, G. T.; Moody, D. C. III; Lott, S. A.; Pickerell, M.; Baca, T.; CH2M Hill; Tujague, S.; Svetlik, H.; Hannah, T.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Recycling of sodium waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycling of sodium waste ... Methods for handling and recycling a dangerous and costly chemical. ...

Bettina Hubler-Blank; Michael Witt; Herbert W. Roesky

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate and electrolyzing the leachate to separate Cd from Te, wherein the Te is deposits onto a cathode while the Cd remains in solution.

Goozner, Robert E. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

Coyne, Martin J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fiscus, Gregory M. (McMurray, PA); Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

324

International waste management fact book  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

Amaya, J.P.; LaMarche, M.N.; Upton, J.F.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

326

Waste Segregation Based on Derived Clearance Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the methodology and results of a radiological modeling in support of an application to release very low level radiologically contaminated waste from regulatory control and allow its haulage and disposal in a hazardous waste landfill. The Canadian regulatory body responsible for licensing operations involving nuclear materials (the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission), has not yet formally defined clearance levels for free release of low level radiologically contaminated waste. The IAEA clearance levels have been derived for certain situations and receptor characteristics, which might be too conservative for an actual case. A site-specific pathways analysis was therefore completed to define conditional clearance levels using the concept of de minimis dose limit. Derived Conditional Clearance Levels were calculated for each radionuclide based on the maximally exposed hypothetical individuals to determine whether each waste stream can be 'cleared' from regulatory controls. The results showed that haulage of the waste from the station to the haulage/processing facility and transportation of waste or sludge from the haulage/processing facility to the disposal facility, handling of the waste or sludge at the haulage/processing facility, and incineration and/or disposal of waste or sludge at the disposal facility would not expose the workers to doses above 0.1 {mu}Sv/yr., which is less than the de minimis dose limit of 10 {mu}Sv/yr. (authors)

Garisto, N.C.; Parhizgari, Z. [SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, ON (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Multi-discipline Waste Acceptance Process at the Nevada National Security Site - 13573  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nevada National Security Site low-level radioactive waste disposal facility acceptance process requires multiple disciplines to ensure the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. These disciplines, which include waste acceptance, nuclear criticality, safety, permitting, operations, and performance assessment, combine into the overall waste acceptance process to assess low-level radioactive waste streams for disposal at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Four waste streams recently highlighted the integration of these disciplines: the Oak Ridge Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project material, West Valley Melter, and classified waste. (authors)

Carilli, Jhon T. [US Department Of Energy, Nevada Site Office, P. O. Box 98518, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8518 (United States)] [US Department Of Energy, Nevada Site Office, P. O. Box 98518, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8518 (United States); Krenzien, Susan K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC, P. O. Box 98952, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8952 (United States)] [Navarro-Intera, LLC, P. O. Box 98952, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8952 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Hazardous Materials Environmental Health & Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Hazardous Materials Environmental Health & Safety Design Guide Fluorescent are hazardous waste, so take care to ensure the tubes remain intact during removal and storage. Fluorescent

Wilcock, William

329

Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New p-type and n-type multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste heat.

330

Studies on fish waste management practices in Aroor Seafood Industrial Belt, Kerala and conversion of seafood waste into a liquid plant growth supplement.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study was materialized to analyze the management issues regarding the seafood processing waste generated including its impact on the coastal community in one of (more)

Abhilash, S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

332

Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which includes oxidizing the organic waste materials at an elevated temperature not less than about 500 C with a gas having an oxygen content in the range of from about 20% to about 70% to produce an oxidation product containing CO{sub 2} gas. The gas is then filtered to remove particulates, and then contacted with an aqueous absorbent solution of alkali metal carbonates or alkanolamines to absorb a portion of the CO{sub 2} gas from the particulate-free oxidation product. The CO{sub 2} absorbent is thereafter separated for further processing. A process and system are also disclosed in which the waste materials are contacted with a reactive medium such as lime and product treatment as described. 8 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

333

Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which includes oxidizing the organic waste materials at an elevated temperature not less than about 500.degree. C. with a gas having an oxygen content in the range of from about 20% to about 70% to produce an oxidation product containing CO.sub.2 gas. The gas is then filtered to remove particulates, and then contacted with an aqueous absorbent solution of alkali metal carbonates or alkanolamines to absorb a portion of the CO.sub.2 gas from the particulate-free oxidation product. The CO.sub.2 absorbent is thereafter separated for further processing. A process and system are also disclosed in which the waste materials are contacted with a reactive medium such as lime and product treatment as described.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Swift, William M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Bacteria eats radioactive waste  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bacteria eats radioactive waste Bacteria eats radioactive waste Name: deenaharper Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: In my studies, I have found that everything in this world is balanced. When something dies it is converted into life. Is there anything out there that could convert radioactive material into a harmless substance? Some sort of bacteria that consumes radiation? Replies: The reason why radiation is so harmful is that is produces free radicals in living tissue, that is, it de-stabilizes molecules by tearing off electrons due to intense energies. These free radicals start a chain reaction of destruction, de-stabilizing neighboring molecules. If this continues unchecked, cells die, genetic material are mutated, and tissue aging accelerates. It is somewhat like being burned. Fire oxidizes by a similar free radical reaction. (Hence the term "sun burn.") The natural defenses against free radical reactions in biological systems are antioxidants, which are enzymes, nutrients, and other chemicals, which quench free radical reactions. Without them, life would very quickly cease. To my knowledge, no microorganism has an antioxidant capacity great enough to withstand even minimal exposure to any type of radiation. Microorganisms are actually very susceptible to radiation, which is why heat and gamma irradiation are used to sterilize food, instruments, etc. However, you raise an interesting possibility in that perhaps one can be genetically engineered to have super- antioxidant capacity, but that may be beyond current technology. Plus, if any got loose, given the exponential rate of reproduction, they may become an uncontrollable health hazard, as it would be very difficult to destroy them!

335

Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not appreciably change the pH of the waste; Organics are typically reductants and could impact glass REDOX if not accounted for in the reductant addition calculations; Stability of the modifiers in a caustic, radioactive environment is not known, but some of the modifiers tested were specifically designed to withstand caustic conditions; These acids will add to the total organic carbon content of the wastes. Radiolytic decomposition of the acids could result in organic and hydrogen gas generation. These potential impacts must be addressed in future studies with simulants representative of real waste and finally with tests using actual waste based on the rheology differences seen between SRS simulants and actual waste. The only non-organic modifier evaluated was sodium metasilicate. Further evaluation of this modifier is recommended if a reducing modifier is a concern.

Pareizs, J. M.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

10/2/2006 SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001-R002 Mixed Waste Generation Checklist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a radioactive waste (i.e., activation or radioactive contamination of a material/substance)? Yes No Is the work if a work operation will generate a radioactive waste, contact RPFO Group). If the work operation does not have the potential for generating a radioactive waste, then STOP. A mixed waste will not be generated

Wechsler, Risa H.

337

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - 019  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - 019 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - 019 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (019) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world¿s first underground repository licensed to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste left from the research and production of nuclear weapons. Transuranic waste consists primarily of clothing, tools, rags, and other disposable items contaminated with small amounts of radioactive elements, mostly plutonium. After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP began operations on March 26, 1999. Located in the remote

340

Hazardous Waste: Resource Pack for Trainers and Communicators | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hazardous Waste: Resource Pack for Trainers and Communicators Hazardous Waste: Resource Pack for Trainers and Communicators Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Hazardous Waste: Resource Pack for Trainers and Communicators Agency/Company /Organization: International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Sector: Energy, Land, Water Focus Area: Renewable Energy, - Waste to Energy Phase: Evaluate Options Topics: Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Guide/manual, Training materials Website: www.trp-training.info/ Cost: Paid Language: English References: Training Resource Pack[1] "The new TRP+ provides a structured package of notes, technical summaries, visual aids and other training material concerning the (hazardous) waste

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that all the waste forms had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium; (2) Rhenium diffusivity: Cast Stone 2M specimens, when tested using EPA 1315 protocol, had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium based on rhenium as a surrogate for technetium. All other waste forms tested by ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 test methods had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 9 for Tc based on rhenium release. These studies indicated that use of Re(VII) as a surrogate for 99Tc(VII) in low temperature secondary waste forms containing reductants will provide overestimated diffusivity values for 99Tc. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use Re as a surrogate 99Tc in future low temperature waste form studies. (3) Iodine diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that the three waste forms had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 11 for iodine. Therefore, it may be necessary to use a more effective sequestering material than silver zeolite used in two of the waste forms (Ceramicrete and DuraLith); (4) Sodium diffusivity: All the waste form specimens tested by the three leach methods (ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315) exceeded the target LI value of 6; (5) All three leach methods (ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308 and EPA 1315) provided similar 99Tc diffusivity values for both short-time transient diffusivity effects as well as long-term ({approx}90 days) steady diffusivity from each of the three tested waste forms (Cast Stone 2M, Ceramicrete and DuraLith). Therefore, any one of the three methods can be used to determine the contaminant diffusivities from a selected waste form.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Waste management project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposition of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project (SW), Liquid Effluents Project (LEP), and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible. The paper tabulates the major facilities that interface with this Project, identifying the major facilities that generate waste, materials, or infrastructure for this Project and the major facilities that will receive waste and materials from this Project.

Slaybaugh, R.R.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

343

Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Application of microwave solidification technology to radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPA has declared vitrification to be the Best Available Demonstrated Technology (BDAT) for High Level Radioactive Waste (40 CFR 268.42). Vitrification has been chosen as the method of choice for treating a number of radioactive residues and wastes in the DOE complex. Vitrification offers advantages of waste volume reduction, the ability to handle changing waste forms, and a stable, nonleachable final waste form. Microwave heating is a superior method for vitrification of radioactive wastes. Advantages of microwave heating include: (1) direct waste heating, eliminates need for electrodes, refractories and other consumables; (2) ``in-can`` processing allows for treatment of the material in its final container, (3) a mechanically simple system where the microwaves are generated away from the treatment area and transmitted to the treatment applicator by a wave guide, thus minimizing worker exposure to radiation; (4) easier equipment maintenance; and (5) a high degree of public acceptance.

Harris, M.; Sprenger, G.; Roushey, B.; Fenner, G.; Nieweg, R.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

345

Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities July 24, 2014 9:00AM to 3:30PM EDT U.S....

346

Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. - Allentown, PA A microbial reverse electrodialysis...

347

Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(ex: organic Rankine cycle) High installed KW capital Low temperature waste heat (<100C) is not practicable Further efficiency loss in electrolytic conversion to...

348

Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ENERGY IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL RECYCLING AND WASTE EXCHANGE W. CURTIS PHILLIPS, SYSTEMS ENGINEER/INDUSTRIAL PROJECT MANAGER, N.C. ENERGY DIVISION, RALEIGH, NC ABSTRACT Recycling and waste exchange, particularly in the industrial sector, has a... products from virgin materials. Process energy reduction possible by recycling is estimated to be as high is 95% for aluminum and 88% for plastics. Industrial waste exchange is facilit~ted by having an independent agency to publicize and coordinate...

Phillips, W. C.

350

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Metalworkers clean up their waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes how using methods such as chemical precipitation, filtration, and ion exchange, metal parts manufacturers are reducing the pollutants in their wastewater so it can be reused or safely discharged. Metalworking manufacturer are recovering useful materials, lowering their disposal costs, and reducing pollution by treating their wastewater with methods such as chemical precipitation and ion exchange so that it can be reused or safely discharged. They are also reducing wastes by recycling metalworking coolants. The major wastewater treatment technologies identified by the Environmental Protection Agency are chemical precipitation, or adding flocculants to bind waste particles together; membrane ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, in which waste is trapped when the water passes through a membrane; and ion exchange, in which specially formulated resins capture dissolved metal salts. Other treatment techniques cited by Elwood Forsht, chief of the chemicals and metals branch at the EPA, include electrowinning, which uses electrolysis to concentrate metallic ions in wastewater, and coolant recycling, a method that removes metal particles by centrifugal force and kills bacteria by pasteurization. Many metalworking operations create wastewater, including drilling, welding, soldering, surface finishing, electroplating, acid treatment, anodizing, assembly, and machining. Companies use wastewater treatment technologies to recycle their wastewater or clean it so that it meets EPA standards and can be discharged into a municipal waste system, thus avoiding high disposal costs.

Valenti, M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Materialism and materiality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accountants and auditors in recent financial scandals have been pictured as materialistic, simply calculating consequences and ignoring duties. This paper potentially explains this apparently materialistic behaviour in what has historically been a truthtelling profession. Materiality, which drives audit priorities, has been institutionalised in accounting and auditing standards. But a materiality focus inherently implies that all amounts that are not 'materially' misstated are equally true. This leads to habitual immaterial misstatements and promotes the view that auditors do not care about truth at all. Auditors' lack of commitment to truth undermines their claim to be professionals in the classic sense.

Michael K. Shaub

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Integrated municipal solid waste scenario model using advanced pretreatment and waste to energy processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste scenario model (IMSW-SM) with a potential practical application in the waste management sector is analyzed. The model takes into account quantification and characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) streams from different sources, selective collection (SC), advanced mechanical sorting, material recovery and advanced thermal treatment. The paper provides a unique chain of advanced waste pretreatment stages of fully commingled waste streams, leading to an original set of suggestions and future contributions to a sustainable IMSWS, taking into account real data and EU principles. The selection of the input data was made on MSW management real case studies from two European regions. Four scenarios were developed varying mainly SC strategies and thermal treatment options. The results offer useful directions for decision makers in order to calibrate modern strategies in different realities.

Gabriela Ionescu; Elena Cristina Rada; Marco Ragazzi; Cosmin M?rculescu; Adrian Badea; Tiberiu Apostol

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is collected by the RSO. 2. Dry radioactive waste must be segregated by isotope. 3. Liquid radioactive waste must be separated by isotope. 4. Liquid frequently and change them if contaminated. 5. Use radioactive waste container to collect the waste. 6. Check

Jia, Songtao

355

Method for recovering metals from waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from tank waste. * Decreases the volume of water to create room in double-shell tanks, allowing them to accept waste from noncompliant single- shell tanks. * Treats up to 1...

358

Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trucks for scale. The DSTs have limited capacity and are aging. Maintaining these tanks is important to ensure that waste is ready to supply the Waste Treatment Plant. The...

359

Hazardous Waste Management (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste. It also provides information about permit requirements for the transport, treatment and storage of such waste. It also mentions...

360

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha contaminated wastes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and solid radioactively contaminated wastes in unlined... that uses electrical power to heat and melt contaminated soil, fusing the ... Source: Pint, Bruce A. - Materials...

367

DOE/LX/07-0057&D1 Secondary Document DMSA-331-18 Solid Waste...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for this SWMU, since no hazardous wastes were stored in this unit, per the 2003 Agreed Order. SITEPROCESS DESCRIPTION: An inside DOE material storage area located on the...

368

Transuranic waste: long-term planning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Young, K.C.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radioactive waste management in the former USSR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage. Using removable PDP radioactive standards, isotopic activities in the simulated waste containers are varied to the extent possible over the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization situations. Manufactured matrices simulate expected waste matrix conditions and provide acceptable consistency in the sample preparation process at each measurement facility. Analyses that are required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and that are included in the PDP may only be performed by measurement facilities that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes in this document.

DOE Carlsbad Field Office

2001-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

371

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The nuclear material type, mass and associated alpha activity of the NDA PDP radioactive standard sets have been specified and fabricated to allow assembly of PDP samples that simulate TRU alpha activity concentrations, radionuclidic/isotopic distributions and physical forms typical of the DOE TRU waste inventory. The PDP matrix drum waste matrix types were derived from an evaluation of information contained in the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) to ensure representation of prevalent waste types and their associated matrix characteristics in NDA PDP testing. NDA drum analyses required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) may only be performed by measurement facilities that comply with the performance criteria as set forth in the NDA PDP Plan. In this document, these analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes.

Carlsbad Field Office

2005-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

372

Accelerated chemical aging of crystalline nuclear waste forms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear waste disposal is a significant technological issue, and the solution of this problem (or lack thereof) will ultimately determine whether nuclear energy is deemed environmentally friendly, despite significantly lower carbon emissions than fossil fuel energy sources. A critical component of any waste disposal strategy is the selection of the waste form that is tasked with preventing radionuclides from entering the environment. The design of robust nuclear waste forms requires consideration of several criteria, including: radiation tolerance, geological interaction and chemical durability; all of these criteria ensure that the radionuclides do not escape from the waste form. Over the past 30years, there have been numerous and thorough studies of these criteria on candidate waste forms, including radiation damage and leaching. However, most of these efforts have focused on the performance of the candidate waste form at t=0, with far less attention paid to the phase stability, and subsequent durability, of candidate waste forms during the course of daughter product formation; that is, the chemical aging of the material. Systematic understanding of phase evolution as a function of chemistry is important for predictions of waste form performance as well as informing waste form design. In this paper, we highlight the research challenges associated with understanding waste form stability when attempting to systematically study the effects of dynamic composition variation due to in situ radionuclide daughter production formation.

C.R. Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; B.L. Scott; R.K. Feller; N.A. Marks

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Materials Transportation Testing & Analysis at Sandia National Laboratories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Characterization Materials Characterization Paul McConnell, (505) 844-8361 The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials, i.e., mixed waste, packaging is to enable this waste type to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this goal, regulations have been written establishing general design requirement for such packagings. Based on these regulatory requirements, a Mixed Waste Chemical Compatibility Testing Program is intended to assure regulatory bodies that the issue of packaging compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. Such a testing program has been developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories. Materials Characterization Capabilities

374

44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

375

Carbon Sequestration Kinetic and Storage Capacity of Ultramafic Mining Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mineral carbonation of ultramafic rocks provides an environmentally safe and permanent solution for CO2 sequestration. In order to assess the carbonation potential of ultramafic waste material produced by industrial processing, we designed a laboratory-...

Julie Pronost; Georges Beaudoin; Joniel Tremblay; Faal Larachi; Jose Duchesne; Rjean Hbert; Marc Constantin

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Modelling of long-term diffusionreaction in a bentonite barrier for radioactive waste confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling of long-term diffusion­reaction in a bentonite barrier for radioactive waste confinement in geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. This material is expected to fill up by swelling transformations; Solute diffusion 1. Introduction The radioactive waste confinement in deep geolo- gical laye

Montes-Hernandez, German

377

Investigations to site a radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigations to site a radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4 Radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4 s the UK radioactive waste legacy comprises difficult material which is complex, of mixed origin

378

Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

DOE

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

379

Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Concept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

Norman T. Raczka

2001-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radioactive Waste Management Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, cancels DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

382

Production of iron from metallurgical waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

383

A changing e-waste equation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A changing e-waste equation ... Informal recycling practices documented in China and other developing nations over the past decade include burning plastic computer materials and using crude methods to recover precious metals such as copper and gold by using acids and cyanide. ...

Kellyn Betts

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

384

Garbology 101: Getting a Grip on Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Technology Assessment, decided to try...hides, and tools until they wore out.) CREDITS...comprehensive, integrated system...mid-size recycling system that accepts waste...plastic to produce steam, which can be used to turn turbines...potentially powerful tool to manage materials...

Jeffrey Mervis

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

UK waives nuclear waste rule for Georgia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Only hours before the government's announcement, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), part of the UK government's Health and Safety Executive, ... material for reprocessing until a complete safety audit and an assessment of the plant's waste-management capability had been carried out. The other contract is with the Australian ...

Alison Abbott

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Characterization of past and present waste streams from the 325 Radiochemistry Building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to characterize, as far as possible, the solid waste generated by the 325 Radiochemistry Building since its construction in 1953. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) activities at Building 325 have generated approximately 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Waste reduction assistance program (WRAP) on-site consultation audit report: Seafood processing plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current practices include use of fish waste, burning of used oil and solvents, and water conservation. Additional opportunities include microfiltration of solvents and oils, recycling of used batteries, inventory control and formation of a waste reduction team. Appendices include a summary of state regulations, a fact sheet on used oil, and a list of vendors and services.

Not Available

1989-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

388

Record of Decision on Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DOE/EIS-0305) (8/9/00)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

83 83 Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 154 / Wednesday, August 9, 2000 / Notices 1 TRU waste is waste containing alpha-emitting radionuclides with an atomic number greater than 92 and half-lives greater than 20 years, at concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram of waste. 2 Alpha low-level waste is low-level waste that contains alpha-emitting isotopes. 3 Mixed waste contains radioactive waste regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and a hazardous component subject to RCRA regulation. 4 Low-level waste is any radioactive waste that is not classified as high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, TRU waste, byproduct material, or mixed waste. 5 Remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste contains alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting isotopes with a surface dose rate greater than 200 millirem

389

Device Assembly Facility (DAF) Glovebox Radioactive Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) provides programmatic support to the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility in the form of target assembly. The target assembly activities are performed in a glovebox at DAF and include Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Currently, only activities with transuranic SNM are anticipated. Preliminary discussions with facility personnel indicate that primarily two distributions of SNM will be used: Weapons Grade Plutonium (WG-Pu), and Pu-238 enhanced WG-Pu. Nominal radionuclide distributions for the two material types are included in attachment 1. Wastes generated inside glove boxes is expected to be Transuranic (TRU) Waste which will eventually be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Wastes generated in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA), outside of the glove box is presumed to be low level waste (LLW) which is destined for disposal at the NTS. The process knowledge quantification methods identified herein may be applied to waste generated anywhere within or around the DAF and possibly JASPER as long as the fundamental waste stream boundaries are adhered to as outlined below. The method is suitable for quantification of waste which can be directly surveyed with the Blue Alpha meter or swiped. An additional quantification methodology which requires the use of a high resolution gamma spectroscopy unit is also included and relies on the predetermined radionuclide distribution and utilizes scaling to measured nuclides for quantification.

Dominick, J L

2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

390

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle-necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)] [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda More Documents &...

393

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security More Documents &...

394

Upgrading the Radioactive Waste Management Infrastructure in Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide uses in Azerbaijan are limited to peaceful applications in the industry, medicine, agriculture and research. The Baku Radioactive Waste Site (BRWS) 'IZOTOP' is the State agency for radioactive waste management and radioactive materials transport. The radioactive waste processing, storage and disposal facility is operated by IZOTOP since 1963 being significantly upgraded from 1998 to be brought into line with international requirements. The BRWS 'IZOTOP' is currently equipped with state-of-art devices and equipment contributing to the upgrade the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Azerbaijan in line with current internationally accepted practices. The IAEA supports Azerbaijan specialists in preparing syllabus and methodological materials for the Training Centre that is currently being organized on the base of the Azerbaijan BRWS 'IZOTOPE' for education of specialists in the area of safety management of radioactive waste: collection, sorting, processing, conditioning, storage and transportation. (authors)

Huseynov, A. [Baku Radioactive Waste Site IZOTOP, Baku (Azerbaijan); Batyukhnova, O. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M. [Sheffield Univ., Immobilisation Science Lab. (United Kingdom); Rowat, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security, Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Waste management policy revisions: lessons learned from the Katrina disaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to identify debris and waste management policies that need to be changed based on the lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina. Policy issues addressed include fragmented jurisdictional problems, issues related to types of debris, burning of house hold debris, wood infestation with Formosan termites and banning of yard wastes from landfills. Current practices and trends in the building material waste management following disasters are examined from a building life cycle standpoint or cradle to cradle concept. Completing the proper planning before the disaster is critical. Having a plan in place can allow for maximum, integrated recycling, resource optimisation, waste reduction and deconstruction. Examination of the waste management hierarchy and life cycle management of material is used to improve the understanding of reuse and recycle opportunities. Based on the lessons learnt from Hurricane Katrina proposed changes in debris management policy following natural disasters.

William E. Roper

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

398

Building 251 Radioactive Waste Characterization by Process Knowledge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Building 251 is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Elements Facility. Operations that involved heavy elements with uncontained radioisotopes including transuranic elements took place inside of glove boxes and fume hoods. These operations included process and solution chemistry, dissolutions, titrations, centrifuging, etc., and isotope separation. Operations with radioactive material which presently take place outside of glove boxes include storage, assaying, packing and unpacking and inventory verification. Wastes generated inside glove boxes will generally be considered TRU or Greater Than Class C (GTCC). Wastes generated in the RMA, outside glove boxes, is presumed to be low level waste. This process knowledge quantification method may be applied to waste generated anywhere within or around B251. The method is suitable only for quantification of waste which measures below the MDA of the Blue Alpha meter (i.e. only material which measures as Non-Detect with the blue alpha is to be characterized by this method).

Dominick, J L

2002-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

399

DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site January 18, 2006 - 10:49am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued the waste determination for the treatment and stabilization of low activity salt-waste at the Savannah River Site allowing for significant reductions in environmental and health risks posed by the material. Stored in forty-nine underground tanks, approximately 36 million gallons of radioactive waste is left over from plutonium production during the Cold War. In addition, the department issued an amended Record of Decision and Implementation Plan to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. "Today's announcement clears the way for the removal and treatment of this

400

Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance.

Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "waste materials wastepaper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: An International Center of Excellence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is responsible for the successful management of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) in the United States. TRUW is a long-lived radioactive waste/material (LLRM). CBFO's responsibilities includes the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a deep geologic repository for the safe disposal of U.S. defense-related TRUW and is located 42 kilometers (km) east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP is the only deep-geological disposal site for LLRM that is operating in the world today. CBFO also manages the National Transuranic Waste Program (NTP), which oversees TRU waste management from generation to disposal. As of February 2003, approximately 1500 shipments of waste have been safely transported to the WIPP, which has been operating since March 1999.

Matthews, Mark

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

402

Grid composite for backfill barriers and waste applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A grid composite for protecting men and longwall mining equipment during longwall shield recovery includes a regular polymer geogrid structure formed by biaxially drawing a continuous sheet of select polypropylene material which is heat bonded to a polyester fabric. The grid composite is secured over caving shields of longwall mining equipment during a longwall mining operation. The polymer grid composite is ideal for waste containment structures, backfill barriers, and silt barriers in construction and mining applications. In waste containment and backfill barriers, the grid composite is used to form a containment structure. It principle function is to contain waste material usually consisting of a liquid with some percentage of solids. 10 figs.

Travis, B.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

403

Tank Waste and Waste Processing | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tank Waste and Waste Processing Tank Waste and Waste Processing Tank Waste and Waste Processing Tank Waste and Waste Processing The Defense Waste Processing Facility set a record by producing 267 canisters filled with glassified waste in a year. New bubbler technology and other enhancements will increase canister production in the future. The Defense Waste Processing Facility set a record by producing 267 canisters filled with glassified waste in a year. New bubbler technology and other enhancements will increase canister production in the future. A Savannah River Remediation employee uses a manipulator located inside a shielded enclosure at the Defense Waste Processing Facility where the melter is pouring molten glass inside a canister. A Savannah River Remediation employee uses a manipulator located inside a

404

Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

electrolytic cell, designed to integrate waste heat recovery (i.e a microbial heat recovery cell or MHRC), can operate as a fuel cell and convert effluent streams into...

405

Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

NONE

1995-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

406

Waste Confidence Discussion | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Confidence Discussion Waste Confidence Discussion Long-Term Waste Confidence Update. Waste Confidence Discussion More Documents & Publications Status Update: Extended Storage...

407

Transuranic (TRU) Waste | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transuranic (TRU) Waste Defined by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act as "waste containing more than 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting...

408

Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Hanford Tank Waste Information Enclosure 1 Hanford Tank Waste Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hanford Tank Waste Information Enclosure 1 1 Hanford Tank Waste Information 1.0 Summary This information demonstrates the wastes in the twelve Hanford Site tanks meet the definition of transuranic (TRU. The wastes in these twelve (12) tanks are not high-level waste (HLW), and contain more than 100 nanocuries

411

Energy from Waste UK Joint Statement on Energy from Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy from Waste UK Joint Statement on Energy from Waste Read more overleaf Introduction Energy from waste provides us with an opportunity for a waste solution and a local source of energy rolled,itcan onlyaddressaportionofthewastestream andisnotsufficientonitsown. Energy obtained from the combustion of residual waste (Energy from

412

Stabilization of compactible waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction.

Kniazewycz, B.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are solid and semi-solid wastes. Known as salt-cakes, they have the consistency of wet beach sand. Some of the waste resembles small broken ice, or whitish crystals. Because the original pumps inside the tanks were designed to remove only liquid waste, other methods have been developed to reach the remaining waste. Access to the tank waste is through long, typically skinny pipes, called risers, extending out of the tanks. It is through these pipes that crews are forced to send machines and devices into the tanks that are used to break up the waste or push it toward a pump. These pipes range in size from just a few inches to just over a foot in diameter because they were never intended to be used in this manner. As part of the agreement regulating Hanford cleanup, crews must remove at least 99% of the material in every tank on the site, or at least as much waste that can be removed based on available technology. To date, seven single-shell tanks have been emptied, and work is underway in another 10 tanks in preparation for additional retrieval activities. Two barriers have been installed over single-shell tanks to prevent the intrusion of surface water down to the tanks, with additional barriers planned for the future. Single and double-shell tank integrity analyses are ongoing. Because the volume of the waste generated through plutonium production exceeded the capacity of the single-shell tanks, between 1968 and 1986 Hanford engineers built 28 double-shell tanks. These tanks were studied and made with a second shell to surround the carbon steel and reinforced concrete. The double-shell tanks have not leaked any of their waste. (authors)

Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

Hsu, Chia-lin W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Modeling and Design of Material Separation Systems with Applications to Recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Material separation technology is critical to the success of the material recycling industry. End-of-life products, post-consumer waste, industrial excess, or otherwise collected materials for reuse are typically mixed ...

Wolf, Malima Isabelle, 1981-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Materials Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

418

Engineering-Scale Demonstration of DuraLith and Ceramicrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from the Hanford Waste Immobilization and Treatment Plant, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing on four candidate waste forms. Two of the candidate waste forms have not been developed to scale as the more mature waste forms. This work describes engineering-scale demonstrations conducted on Ceramicrete and DuraLith candidate waste forms. Both candidate waste forms were successfully demonstrated at an engineering scale. A preliminary conceptual design could be prepared for full-scale production of the candidate waste forms. However, both waste forms are still too immature to support a detailed design. Formulations for each candidate waste form need to be developed so that the material has a longer working time after mixing the liquid and solid constituents together. Formulations optimized based on previous lab studies did not have sufficient working time to support large-scale testing. The engineering-scale testing was successfully completed using modified formulations. Further lab development and parametric studies are needed to optimize formulations with adequate working time and assess the effects of changes in raw materials and process parameters on the final product performance. Studies on effects of mixing intensity on the initial set time of the waste forms are also needed.

Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Pires, Richard P.; Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin W.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

419

Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

18 18 19 T he WIPP's first waste receipt, 11 years later than originally planned, was a monumental step forward in the safe management of nuclear waste. Far from ending, however, the WIPP story has really just begun. For the next 35 years, the DOE will face many challenges as it manages a complex shipment schedule from transuranic waste sites across the United States and continues to ensure that the repository complies with all regulatory requirements. The DOE will work to maintain the highest level of safety in waste handling and trans- portation. Coordination with sites Disposal operations require coordination with sites that will ship transuranic waste to the WIPP and include periodic certification of waste characterization and handling practices at those facilities. During the WIPP's

420

SRS - Programs - Waste Solidification  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waste Solidification Waste Solidification The two primary facilities operated within the Waste Solidification program are Saltstone and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Each DWPF canister is 10 feet tall and 2 feet in diameter, and typically takes a little over a day to fill. Each DWPF canister is 10 feet tall and 2 feet in diameter, and typically takes a little over a day to fill. The largest radioactive waste glassification plant in the world, DWPF converts the high-level liquid nuclear waste currently stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) into a solid glass form suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Scientists have long considered this glassification process, called "vitrification," as the preferred option for immobilizing high-level radioactive liquids into a more stable, manageable form until a federal

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421

High level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

Crandall, J L

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Milestone reached: Waste shipment leaves Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waste shipment leaves LANL Waste shipment leaves LANL Milestone reached: Waste shipment leaves Los Alamos National Laboratory The material, known as "remote-handled transuranic waste" (RH-TRU), has been stored at the Laboratory since 1995. June 2, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

423

Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Secondary waste form testing : ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3}, and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3} filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was {approx}5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted binder components from the waste form surface. Waste forms for ANS 16.1 leach testing contained appropriate amounts of rhenium and iodine as radionuclide surrogates, along with the additives silver-loaded zeolite and tin chloride. The leachability index for Re was found to range from 7.9 to 9.0 for all the samples evaluated. Iodine was below detection limit (5 ppb) for all the leachate samples. Further, leaching of sodium was low, as indicated by the leachability index ranging from 7.6-10.4, indicative of chemical binding of the various chemical species. Target leachability indices for Re, I, and Na were 9, 11, and 6, respectively. Degradation was observed in some of the samples post 90-day ANS 16.1 tests. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that all the hazardous contaminants were contained in the waste, and the hazardous metal concentrations were below the Universal Treatment Standard limits. Preliminary scale-up (2-gal waste forms) was conducted to demonstrate the scalability of the Ceramicrete process. Use of minimal amounts of boric acid as a set retarder was used to control the working time for the slurry. Flexibility in treating waste streams with wide ranging compositional make-ups and ease of process scale-up are attractive attributes of Ceramicrete technology.

Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division); ( ES)

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste</