National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for waste heat municipal

  1. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

  3. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. The results were compared with earlier international studies. The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (5060%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  4. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  5. Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  7. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  8. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  9. Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  10. Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3.

  11. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  12. Municipal waste to vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henrich, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of water as a scrubbing agent for biogas from wastewater treatment plants and landfills is described. The purified gas containing 98% CH/sub 4/ is a viable and potentially cost-effective fuel for traction. A biogas-purification process (the Binax system), delivery of the gas, quality and economics of the purified gas, the Binax design specifications, and a vehicle-conversion system to operate on gasoline or CH/sub 4/ are discussed. Biogas manufacture from wastewater-treatment plants is generally approximately 0.25 -3 cubic ft/capita-day depending on digester design and operating efficiency, solid removal efficiency (primary treatment vs. secondary treatment), and on the amount of industrial and agricultural waste flowing into the facilities. A treatment facility serving a population of 100,000 might produce 50,000-300,000 cubic ft digester gas/day.

  13. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  14. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  15. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  16. Summary of Interim Policy on CERCLA Settlements Involving Municipalities and Municipal Wastes. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet addresses a consistent agency-wide approach for addressing municipalities and municipal wastes in the Superfund settlement process. The policy also addresses settlements with private generators and transporters of hazardous waste trash derived from a commercial, institutional, or industrial process or activity.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  18. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  19. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were...

  20. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for...

  1. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  2. Waste heat: Utilization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving this heat and energy is covered, including technical aspects and potential applications. Illustrations demonstrate that recovery methods have become economical due to recent refinements. The book includes theory and practice concerning waste heat management and utilization.

  3. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. > Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. > Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  4. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  5. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  9. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  10. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  11. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  12. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  13. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  14. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, D.; Hill, K.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  15. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  17. Waste utilization as an energy source: Municipal wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of municipal wastes as an energy source. Articles discuss energy derived from incineration/combustion, refuse-derived fuels, co-firing municipal waste and standard fuels, landfill gas production, sewage combustion, and other waste-to-energy technologies. Citations address economics and efficiencies of various schemes to utilize municipal waste products as energy sources. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems | Department of Energy presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. PDF icon Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) More Documents & Publications Energy Systems Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Seven Ways to Optimize Your Process Heat System

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  20. Waste Heat Utilization System Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste heat utilization systems arefacilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elect...

  1. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  2. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  3. Batteries called primary source of lead, cadmium in municipal waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency reports that lead-acid batteries, such as those used in automobiles, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in consumer electronics equipment, are the primary sources of lead and cadmium in municipal trash and garbage. A report prepared for EPA analyzed existing data from 1970 to 1986 and made projections to the year 2000. Lead-acid batteries continue to constitute a major source of lead in garbage even though 80 percent of them are now recycled. As a result, EPA is calling for additional recycling of batteries. This study is an important step in implementing EPA's strategy for helping states and cities achieve the national goal of recycling and reducing 25 percent of all municipal garbage by 1992. The findings on batteries are the result of a study conducted for EPA because of concern over the levels of lead and cadmium found n ash (residue) from municipal waste incinerators. Lead and cadmium are two metals of particular concern in the solid waste stream. The metals can contaminate soil and groundwater when landfilled. They also may be found in some incinerator emissions.

  4. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santibaez-Aguilar, Jos Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, Jos Mara; Betzabe Gonzlez-Campos, J.; Serna-Gonzlez, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  5. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases -

  6. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  8. USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management: Theory vs. practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matar, G. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper will address USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management (MSWM), which places source reduction and recycling above combustion and landfilling. Many have read this to mean that combustion and landfilling should only be considered after all recycling and reduction efforts have been explored. This mentality has not only left many communities in a MSWM capacity crisis, but also created planning problems for many others. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, it will be shown that the last two methods on the hierarchy should be considered from the beginning when planning for MSWM. It will also be shown that these methods are not antithetical to the first two methods, but are actually complimentary.

  9. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Youngs modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the Cozzo Vuturo landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for fresh and degraded waste have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  10. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for integration into selected waste heat recovery applications. PDF icon fleurial.pdf More Documents & Publications High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

  11. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  12. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces;...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. ... Less heat is wasted. * Higher flame temperatures. Combustion air preheating heats furnaces ...

  13. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  15. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  16. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  17. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fate of 55 metals during shredding and separation of WEEE was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most metals were mainly distributed to the small-grain fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Much of metals in WEEE being treated as municipal waste in Japan end up in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-sorting of small digital products reduces metals to be landfilled at some level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of metal recovery from other middle-sized WEEE is still important. - Abstract: In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment.

  18. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification March 2010 Adapted from reports prepared by: C Valkenburg Y Zhu CW Walton BL Thompson MA Gerber SB Jones DJ Stevens of the Pacifc Northwest National Laboratory A two volume report "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology" & "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evalua- tion of the Production of Mixed Alcohols" is available

  19. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  20. An economic evaluation of waste flow control policies in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greco, J.

    1995-12-01

    The transport of municipal solid waste through legal means is commonly known as waste flow control. Flow control ordinances prohibit the export of locally generated solid waste to disposal sites outside of a jurisdiction, requiring delivery to a locally designated facility for disposal or processing. Local governments use flow control to support public facilities and to comply with federal and state mandates. A decision by Supreme Court in May, 1994 invalidated the use of flow control by local governments raising important policy questions concerning balances between providing low-cost service to rate-payers, the value of conserving disposal capacity be developing expensive waste management programs, and the protection of the environment from the dangers of poor solid waste management. Since Congress is currently considering passage of federal legislation which would restore flow control authority to local government, there is a need to evaluate waste flow control from economic, environmental, political and social perspectives. This analysis attempts to evaluate flow control policies within an interdisciplinary framework. It examines not only the economic consequences of flow control policies, but also the social and environmental objectives that local governments claim are achieved via use of flow control. The analysis reveals that flow control introduces economic distortions into a highly competitive market for solid waste services, a market which consistently produces lower costs than flow-controlled, publicly-sponsored facilities. Important questions are raised concerning the allocation of risk in capital investments made by municipalities that use flow control to insulate investors and themselves from financial liability. Controlling waste flow helps local governments fulfill regulatory responsibilities that may not be met by reliance on competitive market forces.

  1. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette sample composition was similar to biomass fuels but had significant advantages due to addition of waste plastics that have high energy content compared to other waste types. Addition of PP and HDPE presented better benefits than addition of PET due to lower softening temperature and lower oxygen content. It should be noted that while harmful emissions such as dioxins, furans and mercury can result from burning plastics, WTE facilities have been able to control these emissions to meet US EPA standards. This research provides a drop-in coal replacement that reduces demand on landfill space and replaces a significant fraction of fossil-derived fuel with a renewable alternative.

  2. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained.

  3. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  4. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  5. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  6. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers...

  7. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for...

  8. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  9. An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An overview presentation of R&D...

  10. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most...

  11. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  12. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty ...

  13. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  14. Using Waste Heat for External Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat for External Processes Using Waste Heat for External Processes This tip sheet describes the potential savings resulting from using waste heat from high-temperature process heating for lower temperature processes, like oven-drying. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #10 PDF icon Using Waste Heat for External Processes (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions

  15. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Cummins Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Cummins Waste Heat Recovery Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_nelson.pdf More Documents & Publications Exhaust Energy Recovery Exhaust Energy Recovery Exhaust Energy Recovery

  17. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles | Department of Energy High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon

  18. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-15

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  19. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  20. [Waste water heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  1. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. PDF icon 2003_deer_algrain.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

  2. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  3. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and...

  4. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  5. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace080_lagrandeur_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

  6. Waste Heat Utilization System Income Tax Deduction (Personal)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Waste heat utilization system means facilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elec...

  7. Waste Heat Utilization System Income Tax Deduction (Corporate)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Waste heat utilization system means facilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elec...

  8. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  9. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  10. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-06-30

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  11. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-07-16

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  12. List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  13. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  17. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Geothermal Heat Pump Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Maximum Rebate 1,000ton Program Info...

  18. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  19. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  20. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  1. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.72.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcys equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.72.88-fold.

  2. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  3. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005...

  4. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. PDF icon...

  5. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion to Electricity | Department of Energy Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working to expand the usage of thermoelectric technology beyond seat heating and cooling and in doing so reduce CO2 emissions and conserve energy. PDF icon lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste

  6. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery This tip sheet on feedwater economizers for waste heat recovery provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer Considerations When Selecting a Condensing Economizer

  7. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Overview and status of project to develop thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery and achieve at least 10% fuel economy improvement. PDF icon deer08_gundlach.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry Develop Thermoelectric

  8. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM

  9. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat

  10. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy 2 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. PDF icon 2002_deer_hopmann.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

  11. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Applications | Department of Energy Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed PDF icon fluerial.pdf More Documents &

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  13. Municipal geothermal heat utilization plan for Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    A study has been made of the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing the geothermal resource underlying Glenwood Springs Colorado, to heat a group of public buildings. The results have shown that the use of geothermal heat is indeed feasible when compared to the cost of natural gas. The proposed system is composed of a wellhead plate heat exchanger which feeds a closed distribution loop of treated water circulated to the buildings which form the load. The base case system was designed to supply twice the demand created by the seven public buildings in order to take advantage of some economies of scale. To increase the utilization factor of the available geothermal energy, a peaking boiler which burns natural gas is recommended. Disposal of the cooled brine would be via underground injection. Considerable study was done to examine the impact of reduced operating temperature on the existing heating systems. Several options to minimize this problem were identified. Economic analyses were completed to determine the present values of heat from the geothermal system and from the present natural gas over a 30 year projected system life. For the base case savings of over $1 million were shown. Sensitivities of the economics to capital cost, operating cost, system size and other parameters were calculated. For all reasonable assumptions, the geothermal system was cheaper. Financing alternatives were also examined. An extensive survey of all existing data on the geology of the study has led to the prediction of resource parameters. The wellhead temperature of produced fluid is suspected to lie between 140 and 180/sup 0/F (60 and 82/sup 0/C). Flowrates may be as high as 1000 gpm (3800 liters per minute) from a reservoir formation that is 300 ft (90 m) thick beginning about 500 ft (150 m) below the suggested drill site in the proposed Two Rivers Park.

  14. Design of a large-scale anaerobic digestion facility for the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayhanian, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-12-31

    The California Prison Industry Authority, in conjunction with the City of Folsom, operates a 100 ton/d municipal solid waste (MSW) recovery facility using inmate labor. Through manual sorting, all useful organic and inorganic materials are recycled for marketing. The remaining organic material will be further processed to remove hazardous and inert material and prepared as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion process. The clean organic waste (approximately 78 ton/d) will then be shredded and completely mixed with sewage water prior feeding to the digester. Off gas from the digester will be collected as a fuel for the steam boiler or combusted in a waste gas burner. Steam will be injected directly into the digester for heating. The anaerobically digested material will be moved to compost area where it will be mixed with wood faction of yard waste and processed aerobically for the production of compost material as a soil amendment. Anaerobic digesters will be constructed in two phases. The first phase consists of the construction of one 26 ton/d digester to confirm the suitability of feeding and mixing equipment. Modifications will be made to the second and third digesters, in the second phase, based on operating experience of the first digester. This paper discusses important design features of the anaerobic digestion facility.

  15. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of U.S. Department of Energy contractor reports through 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports Through 1994 (NREL/TP-430-7886). The original bibliography, entitled Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, was published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes--an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis expected process scale required for favorable economics the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols | Department of Energy 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S.

  18. LCA of local strategies for energy recovery from waste in England, applied to a large municipal flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunesi, Simonetta

    2011-03-15

    An intense waste management (WM) planning activity is currently undergoing in England to build the infrastructure necessary to treat residual wastes, increase recycling levels and the recovery of energy from waste. From the analyses of local WM strategic and planning documents we have identified the emerging of three different energy recovery strategies: established combustion of residual waste; pre-treatment of residual waste and energy recovery from Solid Recovered Fuel in a dedicated plant, usually assumed to be a gasifier; pre-treatment of residual waste and reliance on the market to accept the 'fuel from waste' so produced. Each energy recovery strategy will result in a different solution in terms of the technology selected; moreover, on the basis of the favoured solution, the total number, scale and location of thermal treatment plants built in England will dramatically change. To support the evaluation and comparison of these three WM strategy in terms of global environmental impacts, energy recovery possibilities and performance with respect to changing 'fuel from waste' market conditions, the LCA comparison of eight alternative WM scenarios for a real case study dealing with a large flow of municipal wastes was performed with the modelling tool WRATE. The large flow of waste modelled allowed to formulate and assess realistic alternative WM scenarios and to design infrastructural systems which are likely to correspond to those submitted for approval to the local authorities. The results show that all alternative scenarios contribute to saving abiotic resources and reducing global warming potential. Particularly relevant to the current English debate, the performance of a scenario was shown to depend not from the thermal treatment technology but from a combination of parameters, among which most relevant are the efficiency of energy recovery processes (both electricity and heat) and the calorific value of residual waste and pre-treated material. The contribution and relative importance of recycling and treatment/recovery processes change with the impact category. The lack of reprocessing plants in the area of the case study has shown the relevance of transport distances for recyclate material in reducing the efficiency of a WM system. Highly relevant to the current English WM infrastructural debate, these results for the first time highlight the risk of a significant reduction in the energy that could be recovered by local WM strategies relying only on the market to dispose of the 'fuel from waste' in a non dedicated plant in the case that the SRF had to be sent to landfill for lack of treatment capacity.

  19. Simplified method to characterize municipal solid waste properties under seismic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Deepankar Savoikar, Purnanand

    2009-02-15

    The response of municipal solid waste landfills during earthquakes is gaining worldwide attention due to the devastating nature of earthquakes on landfills. Safety code provisions and regulations of various countries require the incorporation of safety measures against seismic hazards in the design of new landfills, as well as for extensions of existing landfills in seismic zones. Determination of dynamic properties is the first step for the analysis of municipal solid waste materials under seismic conditions. Landfill composition and properties, like unit weight, shear wave velocity, shear strength, normalized shear modulus, and material damping, are the most important dynamic properties that have direct impact on the seismic behaviour of landfills, and need to be evaluated carefully. In the present study, based on the extensive data provided by various researchers, the dynamic properties of landfill materials are analyzed using curve-fitting techniques, and simple mathematical equations are proposed. The resulting profiles are compared with laboratory and field data wherever possible. These properties are difficult to generalize and may vary from landfill to landfill. Hence, the proposed simple mathematical models for these landfill properties can be used to design municipal solid waste landfills in the absence of landfill-specific field data under seismic conditions.

  20. Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer | Department of Energy Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer A hybrid heat exchanger is designed to keep highly stressed materials around the working fluid at a moderate temperature so that it can operate at higher working fluid

  1. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  2. Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Industry | Department of Energy and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste

  3. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 1580 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.043.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 1580 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 47. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.043.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  4. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  5. Municipal solid waste combustion: Waste-to-energy technologies, regulations, and modern facilities in USEPA Region V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    Table of Contents: Incinerator operations (Waste preprocessing, combustion, emissions characterization and emission control, process monitoring, heat recovery, and residual ash management); Waste-to-energy regulations (Permitting requirements and operating regulations on both state and Federal levels); Case studies of EPA Region V waste-to-energy facilities (Polk County, Minnesota; Jackson County, Michigan; La Crosse, Wisconsin; Kent County, Michigan; Elk River, Minnesota; Indianapolis, Indiana); Evaluation; and Conclusions.

  6. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrot, Laurent Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-02-15

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  8. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation`s landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

  10. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  11. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief | Department of Energy This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat losses associated with process heating equipment. PDF icon Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief (November 2004) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a

  12. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  13. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Johannes G.

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  15. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-08-15

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  16. Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_bass.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Recent Progress in

  17. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were fabricated and assembled into prototype thermoelectric generators (TEGs), then installed on a standard GM production vehicle and tested for performance PDF icon meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of

  18. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe

  19. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most promising classes of the new materials, the skutterudites, into a working automotive TEG prototype and test results on its performance PDF icon deer11_meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric

  20. Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

  1. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery | Department of Energy Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Discusses progress of thermoelectric generator development at BSST and assessment of potential to enter commercial operation in vehicles PDF icon crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Development of a 100-Watt

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery Along with high efficiency engine technologies and emission control, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting research and development to increase vehicle fuel economy by recovering energy from engine waste heat. In current gasoline vehicles, only about 25 percent of the fuel's energy is used to drive the wheels; in contrast, more than 70 percent is lost

  3. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.20.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  4. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caterpillar Inc. PDF icon 2002deerhopmann.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine...

  5. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  6. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermoelectrics on a OTR truck PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  7. An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summarizes progress in design, analysis, and testing of individual component building blocks of waste heat recovery system for a 10% improvement in heavy-duty diesel engine.

  8. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of ...

  9. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1982-01-01

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  11. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing; Keat, Tan Soon; Gersberg, Richard M.

    2010-05-15

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  12. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. {yields} Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. {yields} Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  13. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  14. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. > Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. > Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. > Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. > Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35{sup o} for fresh MSW to 28{sup o} for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1{sup o} to 9{sup o}, respectively, while the effective strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle varied from 18 to 56 kPa and from 1{sup o} to 11{sup o}, respectively. Similar to direct shear test results, as the waste degrades an increase in cohesion and slight decrease in friction angle was observed. Decreased friction angle and increased cohesion with increased degradation is believed to be due to the highly cohesive nature of the synthetic MSW. Variation of synthetic MSW properties from this study also suggests that significant changes in geotechnical properties of MSW can occur due to enhanced degradation induced by leachate recirculation.

  16. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? The isotopic signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ? Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ? In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ? The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ? ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of ?{sup 13}C, ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (?{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of ?20 to ?25. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in ?{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10 and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of about ?20. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidationreduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  17. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_47_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

  18. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace050_meisner_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity

  19. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy 4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Caterpillar/U.S. Department of Energy PDF icon 2004_deer_hopmann.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011

  20. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  1. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  2. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corvellec, Herve; Bramryd, Torleif

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  3. Integrated municipal solid waste management: Six case studies of system cost and energy use. A summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of integrated municipal solid waste management systems in six cities: Minneapolis, NW; Springfield, MA; Seattle, WA; Scottsdale, AZ; Palm Beach County, CA; and Sevierville, TN. The primary objective of these case studies was to develop and present consistent cost, resource use (especially energy), and environmental regulator information on each operating IMSWM system. The process is defined as using two or more alternative waste management techniques. Detailed reports on each system are available.

  4. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  6. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  7. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-04-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

  8. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  9. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  10. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  11. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  13. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ov, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline acid leaching. The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  14. Evolution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste during bio-drying and implications of their subsequent transfer during combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing; Zhang Hua; Wu Changlin; Shao Liming; He Pinjing

    2011-08-15

    Bio-drying has been applied to improve the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to combustion. In the present study, evolution of heavy metals in MSW during bio-drying and subsequent combustion was studied using one aerobic and two combined hydrolytic-aerobic scenarios. Heavy metals were concentrated during bio-drying and transformed between different metal fractions, namely the exchangeable, carbonate-bound, iron- and manganese-oxides-bound, organic-matter-bound and residual fractions. The amounts of heavy metals per kg of bio-dried MSW transferred into combustion flue gas increased with bio-drying time, primarily due to metals enrichment from organics degradation. Because of their volatility, the partitioning ratios of As and Hg in flue gas remained stable so that bio-drying and heavy metal speciation had little effect on their transfer and partitioning during combustion. In contrast, the partitioning ratios of Pb, Zn and Cu tended to increase after bio-drying, which likely enhanced their release potential during combustion.

  15. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  16. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  17. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-15

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy.

  18. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    estimated to be 500 oC PDF icon deer09schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  19. Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-05cook.pdf More Documents & Publications Dual Loop ParallelSeries Waste Heat Recovery System CNG-Hybrid: A Practical Path to "Net Zero Emissions" in Commuter Rail ...

  20. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Presentation given at DEER...

  1. An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An overview presentation of R&D projects on thermoelectric power generation technology in Europe. PDF icon rowe.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicular Applications of Thermoelectrics Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in

  2. Identification of existing waste heat recovery and process improvement technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Dodge, R.E.; Smith, S.A.; Ames, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    General information is provided on waste heat recovery opportunities. The currently available equipment for high- and low-temperature applications are described. Other equipment related to wasteheat recovery equipment such as components, instruments and controls, and cleaning equipment is discussed briefly. A description of the microcomputer data base is included. Suppliers of waste heat equipment are mentioned throughout the report, with specific contacts, addresses, and telephone numbers provided in an Appendix.

  3. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry On Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Skutterudites Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

  4. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace050_meisner_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power

  5. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  6. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  7. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bareither, Christopher A.; Wolfe, Georgia L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Benson, Craig H.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ? Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ? Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ? Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ? Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents supported growth of larger methanogen populations that resulted in higher methane yield.

  8. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  9. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Model developed provides effective guidelines to designing thermoelectric generation systems for automotive waste heat recovery applications

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  11. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  12. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  13. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  14. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan; Li Xiangzhi; Zhaojie Cui

    2010-11-15

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  16. Control strategies for an expert system at a municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockrill, P.; Zheng, L.; Clements, B.; Ram, K.; Boatwright, K.

    1997-12-31

    Optimal burning of municipal waste is challenging due to the unknown variability of the garbage and the strict limits on the emission streams. Proper operation relies upon procedures that are, to a certain extent, based upon previous experience. Therefore this is an excellent application for an expert system since they are designed to initiate operator actions before actual operator intervention is necessary. This paper briefly discusses the rationale for developing an expert system at the Burnaby Incinerator, Burnaby, British Columbia and how it was implemented. The Burnaby Incinerator, owned by the Greater Vancouver Regional District and operated by Montenay, Inc., was a test location for an expert system jointly funded by Environment Canada and the Panel for Energy Research and Development and developed by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. The expert system was designed to perform a number of functions: identification of boiler upsets due to fuel variations, prediction of stack emissions and control of lime injection for SO{sub 2} emissions. These particular functions were chosen to smooth the boiler operation and reduce the cost of plant operation. The expert system is a PC based system using both commercial and developed software. It incorporates rule based and model based techniques and neural network technology. The results of the expert system project are presented.

  17. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  18. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process heat from the tank during operation.

  19. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  1. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  2. Assessing the credibility of the calorific value of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.; Ledford, A.E.; Colbert, J.C.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Paule, R.C.; Reilly, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards to establish the limits of reliability of the calorific value of municipal solid waste (MSW) determined by the bomb calorimetric procedure currently used in commercial test laboratories. This procedure involves using gram-size samples derived from MSW that has been processed down to a particle size of 2 mm or less. Critics of the procedure argue that gram-size samples are too small to be representative of such a large quantity of so heterogeneous a material, and that processing MSW may also alter its composition. To test the bomb calorimetric procedure, a 2.5 kg capacity combustion flow calorimeter was designed and constructed for the determination of the enthalpies of combustion of kilogram-size samples of MSW in flowing oxygen near atmospheric pressure. Calorimetric data on processed MSW were obtained using both the kilogram-size flow and a gram-size bomb calorimeter. Intercomparison of results shows that the calorific value (on a dry basis) of gram-size test samples agrees, within the uncertainty of our experiments, with the corresponding values for their kilogram-size parent samples provided that the sample division technique used to obtain the gram-size samples is that described in this work. The average difference of the parent minus gram-size sample values (on a dry basis) is -0.1% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-1.1% of the mean calorific value. The effects of processing on sample composition were determined by intercomparison of flow calorimetric results on kilogram-size samples of processed and minimally processed MSW (150 mm or less particle size) that are nominally identical. The average difference of the unprocessed minus processed values (on a dry basis) is -0.5% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-2.9% of the mean calorific value. 7 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  4. Design considerations for the cross jet air mixing in the municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Choi, S.

    1995-12-31

    In the mass-burning municipal solid waste incinerators, overfire air injection plays a key role in the improvement of mixing and reaction between oxygen and incomplete combustion products and/or pollutants. However, design parameters of overfire air nozzles are not well understood and sometimes confusing. In this paper, major design parameters of the cross jet air nozzles are discussed along with flow simulation results for the simplified furnace geometry. The overall performance of the jet air mixing and the effects of design parameters are quantitatively evaluated. The flow simulation results are interpreted in terms of the penetration depth of the jet into the main flow, the size of the recirculation zone and the ratio of the unmixed portion of the gas flow. The momentum flux ratio(J) of the jet to the cross flow strongly affects the penetration depth of the jet and the mixing of two flow streams. As the inter-nozzle distance (S in non-dimensional form) decreases, the penetration depth decreases but the size of recirculation zone increases and the resultant mixing deteriorates. The degree of mixing of the jet with the cross gas stream is evaluated in terms of the mass-averaged probability distribution of the relative concentration. Fresh air disperses more efficiently into the gas stream as J and S increase. The momentum flux ratio and the inter-nozzle distance are considered as important design parameters, and optimum values of these variables can be chosen for the given furnace conditions. This numerical evaluation also provides the basis of the similarity consideration for the cold flow model tests and the validity of the 2-dimensional idealization.

  5. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GMs shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  6. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  7. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali; El-Zein, Abbas

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

  8. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace051_lagrandeur_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

  9. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy improvement without increasing emissions. PDF icon deer09_yang_2.pdf More Documents & Publications Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites

  10. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

  11. H. R. 2670: A bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 18, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 18, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste. When garbage is burned, toxic materials are concentrated in the ash. If the ash is disposed of in a landfill, these toxic materials can contaminate the ground water or surface water by leaching toxic materials from the ash. In addition, disposing of contaminated ash improperly can pose a health hazard. New authority is provided for regulating incinerator ash as a hazardous waste.

  12. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

  13. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamberini, R. Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  14. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Substantial increases in engine efficiency of a ...

  15. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. E.g. climate change impact ranges from ?58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of ?58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  16. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.; Fedrizzi, P.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  17. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Purdue ? GM Partnership on Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews results in developing commercially viable thermoelectric generators for efficient conversion of automotive exhaust waste heat to electricity

  18. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  19. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Ilona; Choate, William T.; Davidson, Amber

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  20. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

  1. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  2. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  4. The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-15

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

  5. Methodology for modeling the devolatilization of refuse-derived fuel from thermogravimetric analysis of municipal solid waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsky, K.J.; Miller, D.L.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology was introduced for modeling the devolatilization characteristics of refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in terms of temperature-dependent weight loss. The basic premise of the methodology is that RDF is modeled as a combination of select municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Kinetic parameters are derived for each component from thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) data measured at a specific set of conditions. These experimentally derived parameters, along with user-derived parameters, are inputted to model equations for the purpose of calculating thermograms for the components. The component thermograms are summed to create a composite thermogram that is an estimate of the devolatilization for the as-modeled RFD. The methodology has several attractive features as a thermal analysis tool for waste fuels. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via ...

  7. Port Graham Woody Biomass Community Waste Heat Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Woody Biomass Community Waste Heat Project Charlie Sink, Chugachmiut For Port Graham Tribal Council U.S. of Energy Tribal Energy Program Annual Tribal Energy Conference 2012 November 13-16, 2012 Nanwalek Nanwalek Port Graham, Alaska Approximately 134 people Annual fuel consumption 53,100 gallons diesel fuel for heat Annual electrical usage 1,340,000 kWh/yr Funding Agencies US Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (DOE/TEP) http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/ Alaska Energy Authority

  8. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_45_yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites

  9. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP technical progress report {number_sign}6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-08

    The ground carbonized RDF slurry from the grinding trials at IKA Works at approximately 50 wt.% solids was sealed in drums and shipped to the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) for the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion tests. In addition, a fuel characterization and trace component analysis was completed for this final carbonized RDF slurry fuel. This final fuel was a blend of several fuels from the pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments. As can be seen from the data, the final carbonized RDF has an exceptional heating value and volatile matter content. In addition, trace components are significantly lower than the raw RDF pellets. The report summarizes results from combustion tests and air pollution monitoring of these tests. For the upcoming time period 10/96--01/97, it is anticipated that the analysis of the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion test will be completed. This analysis includes rheology and particle size distribution analysis of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, carbon content and TCLP of the combustion ash, trace heavy metal balances around combustor, and dioxin/furan emissions. Finally, the slurry carbonization computer model and computer simulations will be completed in the next reporting period (including the waste water treatment subsystem). Based upon this computer model, initial economic estimates and optimizations of the slurry carbonization process will be completed in the next reporting period.

  10. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  11. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  12. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Jose M.; Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo; Plante, Alain F.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO{sub 2} respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic matter, showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Results obtained support the hypothesis of a potential link between the thermal and biological stability of the studied organic materials, and consequently the ability of thermal analysis to characterize the maturity of municipal organic wastes and composts.

  13. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Substantial increases in engine efficiency of a light-duty diesel engine, which require utilization of the waste energy found in the coolant, EGR, and exhaust streams, may be increased through the development of a Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system PDF icon deer09_briggs.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance of an Organic

  14. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  15. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  16. Ultramizer®: Waste Heat Recovery System for Commercial and Industrial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boilers | Department of Energy Ultramizer®: Waste Heat Recovery System for Commercial and Industrial Boilers Ultramizer®: Waste Heat Recovery System for Commercial and Industrial Boilers Heat Recovery System Reduces Steam Production Costs and Energy Consumption The majority of combustible fuels consumed in U.S. industry are for process heating. For natural gas combustion, 18% of the waste stream is water vapor, which contributes to a 10% loss of the energy input. Over 35% of all the energy

  17. Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System This system captures all the jacket water, intercooler, and exhaust heat from the engine by utilizing a single condenser to reject leftover heat to the atmosphere. PDF icon p-04_cook.pdf More Documents & Publications Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer CNG-Hybrid: A Practical Path to "Net Zero

  18. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    John Cirucci Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Develop a novel system that produces electricity or hydrogen from waste heat conversion and waste effluent oxidation waste water effluent treated effluent dual benefit process waste heat electricity or hydrogen Issues with existing,

  19. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MHRC System Concept ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes Advancing a Novel Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Electrolytic System. Many current manufacturing processes produce both low-grade waste heat and wastewater effuents which contain organic materials. A microbial reverse electrodialysis electrolytic cell, designed to integrate

  20. Haul trash or haul ash: Local government decision-making for municipal solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeler, A.G.; Renkow, M. )

    1992-12-01

    A model of local government choice of solid waste disposal strategies is developed. The conditions under which incineration is an optimal strategy is derived. The effects of mandatory recycling legislation and extra-local policies that reduce the cost of recycling and the size of the waste stream are investigated.

  1. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  2. Using Waste Heat for External Processes; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #10 (Fact Sheet).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 * January 2006 Industrial Technologies Program Using Waste Heat for External Processes The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes

  3. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Control | Department of Energy Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control Overview of progress in TE waste heat recovery from sedan gasoline-engine exhaust, TE HVAC system in hybrid sedan, and establishing targets for cost, power density, packaging, durability, and systems integration PDF icon maranville.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Fords

  4. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Diesel Engines | Department of Energy Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-04_briggs.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light

  5. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation | Department of Energy High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_krommenhoek.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Recent Progress in the Development of High

  6. Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery System for Military Vehicles | Department of Energy an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Hi-Z Technology, Inc. PDF icon 2004_deer_bass.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation

  7. Paraguay industrial and municipal waste-water project definitional mission. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meenahan, J.G.

    1992-04-20

    The Ministry of Agriculture of Paraguay and the Municipality of Asuncion (MA) requested the assistance of the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) in the form of a grant to support an Engineering/Economic Feasibility Study. The study would address the requirements for the collection and treatment of wastewaters generated from municipal and industrial sources within the greater Asuncion area. The feasibility study would be contracted to a U.S. firm. The Definitional Mission (DM) recommends that TDP finance the requested Feasibility Study (FS) for the implementation of an adequate wastewater collection and treatment system for Paraguay. The recommended TDP investment is justifiable because this is a project that has strong popular and government support. Treating wastewaters will benefit the public health and environment of all the people within a vast geographical region and will promote economic growth. This recommendation is consistent and supportive of the U.S. foreign policy as well as providing significant opportunities for the export of U.S. goods and services.

  8. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  9. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed

  10. High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery Systems on ... Test Cell Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power Cycles

  11. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of progress in TE waste heat recovery from sedan gasoline-engine exhaust, TE HVAC system in hybrid sedan, and establishing targets for cost, power density, packaging, ...

  12. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of design, fabrication, integration, and test of working prototype TEG for engine waste heat recovery on Suburban test vehicle, and continuing investigation of skutterudite materials systems

  13. Establishing the Technical Basis for Disposal of Heat-generating Waste in

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Salt | Department of Energy Establishing the Technical Basis for Disposal of Heat-generating Waste in Salt Establishing the Technical Basis for Disposal of Heat-generating Waste in Salt The report summarizes available historic tests and the developed technical basis for disposal of heat-generating waste in salt, and the means by which a safety case for disposal of heat generating waste at a generic salt site can be initiated from the existing technical basis. Though the basis for a salt

  14. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  15. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  16. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

  17. Municipal solid waste to electricity recommendations for project in Bangkok, Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) is charged with the responsibility of public cleansing and waste disposal in the metropolitan area. BMA operates 600 trucks which collect the waste twice a day and dump it at its three sites located in the Huai Kwong, Bangkok Noi and Rataburana districts. Presently these trucks collect 3,000 metric tons of garbage per day. At the waste dump sites, which are rapidly overflowing, BMA presently operates four compost plants, three with input capacity of 320 tons per day each and a fourth which uses about 160 tons of garbage per day--thus utilizing about 1,120 tons of garbage per day. Creation of new sites would require going even farther away from the city, resulting in excessive transportation costs.

  18. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; Voet, Ester van der

    2011-06-15

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  19. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  20. Capturing the Invisible Resource. Analysis of Waste Heat Potential in Chinese Industry and Policy Options for Waste Heat to Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hongyou

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the theoretical maximum potential and practical potential of waste heat in the cement, iron, and steel, and glass sectors in China, based on thermal energy modeling, expert interviews, and literature reviews.

  1. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  2. Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat-to-Power ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Waste Heat-to- Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle Development of an Efficient, Cost- Effective System to Recover Medium- Grade Industrial Waste Heat. There is a signifcant opportunity to recover waste heat that is exhausted in various manufacturing industries, including food processing. A large portion of unrecovered industrial waste heat is considered to be low temperature, which has less recovery

  3. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  4. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  5. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP Technical progress report No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1995-10-02

    Progress for the period July 1995 -- October 1995 for the slurry carbonization plant is described. Topics addressed include analytical results of carbonization of RDF, regression analysis of reactor temperature versus heating value of RDF fuel, and progress on reducing chlorine content of the fuels.

  6. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Salt | Department of Energy Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that

  7. Improved energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in sanitary landfills by two-phase digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onu, Chukwu.

    1990-01-01

    The concept under investigaton was the separation of the acidogenic and the methanogenic phases of anaerobic fermentation, converting the sanitary landfill into an acid reactor and using a separate upflow fixed-film anaerobic reactor for methanogenesis. Acidic leachate from the landfill simulator was used as the influent substrate to the anaerobic reactor. The goal of the study was to improve both methane yield and concentration through nutrient addition and two-phase digestion of MSW. Sewage sludge was utilized to provide moisture, buffering capacity, nutrients, and an adequate microbial population. Single-phase systems with other enhancement techniques were also compared to the two-phase with sludge addition. Data from this study indicated that gas produced in the anaerobic reactor had methane concentration as high as 80 Mole % at the fixed-bed reactor (FBR) hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The system reached a cumulative methane production rate of 78.6 {ell}/kg dry waste at an estimated cumulative production rate of approximately 270 {ell}/kg/yr. This performance was better than that reported in the literature for a similar type of feed. This study has also indicated that sewage sludge addition appears to be a successful enhancement technique for methane gas production from municipal solid waste. The addition of mineral nutrients and buffer solutions appears to have influenced the development of a dominant population of methanogenic bacteria in the FBR as indicated by the COD removal efficiency of 90% and 100% conversion of all influent organic acids. In terms of the overall system performance, the two-phase system was superior to the one-phase technique currently in use for methane generation.

  8. Strategic planning for and implementation of reclaimed municipal waste water as make-up to a refinery cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, W.R.; Mazur, J.J.; Rao, N.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses the successful use of treated municipal plant waste water effluent (Title 22) in a refinery cooling water system. Conversion from well water to this make-up water source was preceded by developing a carefully crafted transition plan. Steps were taken to identify key system performance indicators, establish desired performance goals, and implement stringent monitoring and control protocols. In addition, all possible contingencies were considered and solutions developed. Treating Title 22 waters is very challenging and entails risks not associated with normal makeup waters. Several novel on-line monitoring and control tools are available which help minimize these risks while enhancing tower operation. Performance monitoring of critical system parameters is essential in order to provide early warning of problems so that corrective measures can be implemented. In addition, a high level of system automation enhances reliable operation. Corrosion, scaling and microbiological performance of the system with Title 22 water is discussed in comparison to previous well water make-up.

  9. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, L.; Batlle, F.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > A quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis method was proposed. > The proposed method is a good engineering tool for 3D slope stability analysis. > Factor of safety from 3D analysis is higher than from 2D analysis. > 3D analysis results are more sensitive to cohesion than 2D analysis. - Abstract: Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The 'equivalent' three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also investigated in this paper. These sensitivity analyses serve as the guidelines of construction practices and operating procedures for the MSW landfill under study.

  10. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  11. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  12. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Maxey, L Curt; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Beshears, David L; Ward, Christina D; Parks, James Edgar

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible light pipes and are connected to hybrid light fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the light in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid light fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the light needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural light produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared light-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.

  13. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thekdi, Arvind; Nimbalkar, Sachin U.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  14. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Gioannis, G.; Muntoni, A.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ? Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ? More than 80 publications on H{sub 2} production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ? Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ? For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H{sub 2} production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is strictly required, claiming for more systematic and comprehensive studies on the subject.

  15. Alteration of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash focusing on the evolution of iron-rich constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yunmei; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2011-09-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains a considerable amount of Fe-rich constituents. The behaviors of these constituents, such as dissolution and precipitation, are quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of ions between the liquid (percolated fluid) and solid (ash deposit) phases. This paper studied both fresh and weathered MSWI bottom ash from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint by utilizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and powder X-ray diffraction. The analysis results revealed that for the fresh bottom ash, iron preferentially existed in the chemical forms of spinel group (mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and a series of Al- or Ti- substituted varieties), metallic inclusions (including Fe-P, Fe-S, Fe-Cu-Pb), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and unburned iron pieces. In the 1-20 years weathered bottom ash collected from a landfill site, interconversions among these Fe-rich constituents were identified. Consequently, numerous secondary products were developed, including goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), hematite, magnetite, wustite (FeO), Fe-Si-rich gel phase. Of all these transformation products, hydrous iron oxides were the most common secondary minerals. Quantitative chemical analysis of these secondary products by SEM/EDX disclosed a strong association between the newly formed hydrous iron oxides and heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu). The results of this study suggest that the processes of natural weathering and secondary mineralization contribute to reduction of the potential risks of heavy metals to the surrounding environments.

  16. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by GenTherm at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermoelectric waste heat recovery...

  18. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery - Steam Tip Sheet #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on feedwater economizers for waste heat recovery provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Did you know 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat? What scientists are doing to take advantage of this opportunity to save money and new developments in harvesting fuel through photosynthesis.

  20. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

  1. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of progress in TE waste heat recovery from sedan gasoline-engine exhaust, TE HVAC system in hybrid sedan, and establishing targets for cost, power density, packaging, durability, and systems integration

  2. Waste Heat-to-Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Waste Heat - - to to - - Power Using Scroll Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Expander for Organic Rankine Rankine Bottoming Cycle Bottoming Cycle DE DE - - EE0005767 EE0005767 Green Mountain Coffee (field test site) Green Mountain Coffee (field test site) July 1, 2013 July 1, 2013 - - June 30, 2016 June 30, 2016 John Dieckmann, TIAX LLC, Principal Investigator (Presenter) U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation

  3. High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems on Combustion Engines | Department of Energy Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery Systems on Combustion Engines High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery Systems on Combustion Engines This poster reports on recent developments, achievements, and capabilities within a virtual environment to predict the dynamic behavior of the Rankine cycle within real driving cycles. PDF icon p-11_janssens.pdf More Documents & Publications Biodiesel

  4. Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery Discusses development of a composite that transfers energy between thermal, electrical, magnetic, and mechanical types and a composite material that improves performance through in situ strengthening PDF icon deer11_liang.pdf More Documents & Publications Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of

  5. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy MSU has developed and demonstrated a 5-couple module which produced 5.4 watts at an average ∆T estimated to be ~500 oC PDF icon deer09_schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate

  6. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate

  7. Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE worked with ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. to install an efficient recovery boiler to burn blast furnace gases generated during iron-making operations to produce electricity and steam onsite at the company's Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. The steam is being used to drive existing turbogenerators onsite, creating enough electricity to power the

  8. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  9. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  10. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  11. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

  12. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006deeryang.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste...

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  14. [Waste water heat recovery system]. Final report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of the Department of Energy or any other organization. ... Journal of Energy Resources Technology, "NOx and N2O ... Paper PET Containers & packaging HDPE Textiles PVC ...

  16. Evaluation the microwave heating of spinel crystals in high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J. H.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-08-18

    In this report, the microwave heating of a crystal-free and a partially (24 wt%) trevorite-crystallized waste glass simulant were evaluated. The results show that a 500 mg piece of partially crystallized waste glass can be heated from room-temperature to above 1600 °C (as measured by infrared radiometry) within 2 minutes using a single mode, highly focused, 2.45 GHz microwave, operating at 300 W. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the partially crystallized glass experiences an 87 % reduction in trevorite following irradiation and thermal quenching. When a crystal-free analogue of the same waste glass simulant composition is exposed to the same microwave radiation it could not be heated above 450 °C regardless of the heating time.

  17. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H.; Matsubae, K.; Bai, H.; Nagasaka, T.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

  18. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an over-the-road truck system. PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  19. Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of " Waste Heat...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    largest community-owned electric utility that has created the Nation's top performing renewable energy program, and ClimateMaster, a leading manufacturer of geothermal heat pumps,...

  20. Waste heat from kitchen cuts hot water electricity 23%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1984-05-21

    Heat recovered from the Hamburger Hamlet's kitchen in Bethesada, Maryland and used to pre-heat the million gallons of hot water used annually reduced hot water costs 23% and paid off the investment in 1.5 years. Potomac Electric initiated the installation of an air-to-water heat pump in the restaurant kitchen above the dishwasher at a cost of about $5300, with the restaurant obliged to reimburse the utility if performance was satisfactory. Outside water recirculates through storage tanks and the ceiling heat pump until it reaches the required 140/sup 0/F. The amount of electricity needed to bring the preheated water to that temperature was $3770 lower after the installation. Cooled air exhausted from the heat pump circulates throughout the kitchen.

  1. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  5. Enhancing the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery | Department of Energy the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Enhancing the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Good ZT can occur in non-traditional TE material structure. Ordered layer for charger carrier and disordered layer for phonon scattering is probably a good way to get high ZT. PDF icon ren.pdf More Documents & Publications Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking

  6. EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE worked with ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. to install an efficient recovery boiler to burn blast furnace gases generated during iron-making operations to produce electricity and steam onsite at the company's Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. The steam is being used to drive existing turbogenerators onsite,

  7. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Hkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  8. Turning Waste Heat into Power: Ener-G-Rotors and the Entrepreneurial Mentorship Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you’ve ever driven by an industrial plant, you’ve probably noticed big white plumes rising from the tops of the facilities. While it might look like smoke or pollution at first glance, most of the time those white plumes are comprised of steam and heat, or what Ener-G-Rotors CEO Michael Newell calls waste heat. Mike and the researchers of Ener-G-Rotors are finding ways to use this escaped steam and turn it into energy.

  9. The biomethanation of waste material; An example in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, K.C. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that digester gas (biogas) can be generated from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste substances. In the municipal sewage treatment plants in Germany most of the gas production is used for heating and electric power generation. The major portion of solid waste shall be returned to the economical circuit as biogas, compost and recyclable materials.

  10. A Spin on Technology: Extracting Value from Wasted Heat

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wastewater and steam can be a challenging resource for manufacturers to manage. The heated wastewater and steam are either lost or must be cooled using additional energy. Thus recycling these resources can result in significant cost savings and even reduce companies’ carbon footprint.

  11. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  13. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  14. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vego, Goran Kucar-Dragicevic, Savka Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-15

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia.

  15. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  16. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace049_schock_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate

  17. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy Determining if a 10% fuel economy improvement is possible using thermoelectrics on a OTR truck PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate

  18. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  19. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  20. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D. (Vernon, CT); Biederman, Bruce P. (West Hartford, CT); Brasz, Joost J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  1. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  2. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-06-10

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJthmoreof residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.less

  3. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  4. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief. Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Brochure).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable Industrial Technologies Program Boosting the productivity and competitiveness of U.S. industry through improvements in energy and environmental performance 1 BestPractices Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - Tribal Leader Forum Waste to Energy Introductio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... What types of waste are available? * Municipal waste * Commercial Industrial Waste * ... bags * Packingwrapping papers * Greeting cards Newspaper * Coated paper * Magazines ...

  6. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  7. Development of High-efficiency Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Utililization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qiang

    2009-04-30

    The goals of this . CRADA are: 1) Investigation of atomistic structure and nucleation of nanoprecipitates in (PbTe){sub I-x}(AgSbTe2){sub x} (LAST) system; and 2) Development of non-equilibrium synthesis of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. We have made significant accomplishment in both areas. We studied the structure of LAST materials using high resolution imaging, nanoelectron diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, arid electron energy loss spectrum, and observed a range of nanoparticles The results, published in J. of Applied Physics, provide quantitative structure information about nanoparticles, that is essential for the understanding of the origin of the high thermoelectric performance in this class of materials. We coordinated non-equilibrium synthesis and characterization of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery application. Our results, published in J. of Electronic Materials, show enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit and robust mechanical properties in bulk . filled skutterudites.

  8. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  9. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy Describes TEG systems built at MSU to mitigate couple failures and a cost-benefit analysis for a system used as an energy recovery system … auxiliary power unit in an over-the-road truck system. PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste

  10. Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle | Department of Energy The project objective is to develop the scroll expander for Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems to be used in medium-grade waste heat recovery applications, and to validate and quantify the benefits of the prototype system. PDF icon Factsheet More Documents & Publications CX-010694: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Projects Poster 2014 AMO Peer Review Agenda

  11. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    The results of the feasibility study for utilizing low temperature geothermal heat in the City of San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant are summarized. The study is presented in terms of preliminary engineering design, economic analysis, institutional issues, environmental impacts, resource development, and system implementation.

  12. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  13. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  14. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  15. Remediation of Highland Drive Landfill: Technical Challenges of Segregating Co-Mingled LLRW and Municipal Solid Waste in an Urbanized Area - 13319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Jeff; Lawrence, Dave; Case, Glenn; Fergusson Jones, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Highland Drive Landfill is an inactive Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill which received waste from the 1940's until its closure in 1991. During a portion of its active life, the Landfill received low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) which currently exists both in a defined layer and co-mingled with MSW. Remediation of this site to remove the LLRW to meet established cleanup criteria, forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The total volume of LLRW and co-mingled LLRW/MSW estimated to require removal from the Highland Drive Landfill is approximately 51,900 cubic metres (m{sup 3}). The segregation and removal of LLRW at the Highland Drive Landfill presents a number of unique technical challenges due to the co-mingled waste and location of the Landfill in an urbanized area. Key challenges addressed as part of the design process included: delineation of the extent of LLRW, development of cut lines, and estimation of the quantity of co-mingled LLRW in a heterogeneous matrix; protection of adjacent receptors in a manner which would not impact the use of adjacent facilities which include residences, a recreational facility, and a school; coordination and phasing of the work to allow management of six separate material streams including clean soil, MSW, co-mingled LLRW/MSW, LLRW, un-impacted water, and impacted water/leachate within a confined environment; and development of a multi-tiered and adaptive program of monitoring and control measures for odour, dust, and water including assessment of risk of exceedance of monitoring criteria. In addition to ensuring public safety and protection of the environment during remedy implementation, significant effort in the design process was paid to balancing the advantages of increased certainty, including higher production rates, against the costs of attaining increased certainty. Many of these lessons may be applicable to other projects. (authors)

  16. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  17. A criticism of applications with multi-criteria decision analysis that are used for the site selection for the disposal of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemal Korucu, M.; Erdagi, Bora

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existing structure of the multi-criteria decision analysis for site selection is criticized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental problematic points based on the critics are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some modifications are suggested in order to provide solutions to these problematical points. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new structure for the decision making mechanism is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The feasibility of the new method is subjected to an evaluation process. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to criticize the process of selecting the most appropriate site for the disposal of municipal solid wastes which is one of the problematic issues of waste management operations. These kinds of problems are pathological symptoms of existing problematical human-nature relationship which is related to the syndrome called ecological crisis. In this regard, solving the site selection problem, which is just a small part of a larger entity, for the good of ecological rationality and social justice is only possible by founding a new and extensive type of human-nature relationship. In this study, as a problematic point regarding the discussions on ecological problems, the existing structure of the applications using multi-criteria decision analysis in the process of site selection with three main criteria is criticized. Based on this critique, fundamental problematic points (to which applications are insufficient to find solutions) will be defined. Later, some modifications will be suggested in order to provide solutions to these problematical points. Finally, the criticism addressed to the structure of the method with three main criteria and the feasibility of the new method with four main criteria is subjected to an evaluation process. As a result, it is emphasized that the new structure with four main criteria may be effective in solution of the fundamental problematic points.

  18. Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NATHAN HANCOCK

    2013-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the chosen process stimulation software was required to improve the reliability of process simulations for engineering design support. Data from experiments was also employed to calculate critical mass transfer and system design parameters (such as the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP)) to aid in process design. When measured in a less than optimal design state for the stripping of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from a simulated dilute draw solution the HETP for one type of commercial stripper packing material was 1.88 ft/stage. During this study it was observed that the heat duty required to vaporize the draw solution solutes is substantially affected by the amount of water boilup also produced to achieve a low NH{sub 3} stripper bottoms concentration specification. Additionally, fluid loading of the stripper packing media is a critical performance parameter that affects all facets of optimum stripper column performance. Condensation of the draw solution tops vapor requires additional process considerations if being conducted in sub-atmospheric conditions and low temperature. Future work will focus on the commercialization of the Oasys EO technology platform for numerous applications in water and wastewater treatment as well as harvesting low enthalpy energy with our proprietary osmotic heat engine. Engineering design related to thermal integration of Oasys EO technology for both low and hig-grade heat applications is underway. Novel thermal recovery processes are also being investigated in addition to the conventional approaches described in this report. Oasys Water plans to deploy commercial scale systems into the energy and zero liquid discharge markets in 2013. Additional process refinement will lead to integration of low enthalpy renewable heat sources for municipal desalination applications.

  19. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  20. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  1. Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Guide to Clean Development...

  2. Development and pilot test of an intensive municipal solid waste recycling system for the Town of East Hampton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commoner, B.; Frisch, M.; Pitot, H.A.; Quigley, J.; Stege, A.; Wallace, D.; Webster, T.

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and test a new type of trash disposal system for the Town of East Hampton, Long Island: the Intensive Recycling System. The system is intended to serve as the Town's primary means of regular trash disposal. The Intensive Recycling System is based on separation of regular trash, by household and commercial establishments, into four fractions: (1) food garbage and soiled paper; (2) paper/cardboard; (3) metal cans/glass bottles; (4) non-recyclables. Fraction 1, together with yard waste, is processed at a compost facility, yielding marketable compost. Fractions 2 and 3 are processed by a materials recovery facility (MRF) into marketable products: several grades of paper and cardboard; aluminum cans; tin cans; scrap metal; and color-sorted crushed glass (cullet). The non-recyclable components (fraction 4) and misclassified components rejected during processing are consigned to a landfill. This document is Volume 2 of two volumes and contains the appendix for Volume 1.

  3. Development and pilot test of an intensive municipal solid waste recycling system for the Town of East Hampton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commoner, B.; Frisch, M.; Pitot, H.A.; Quigley, J.; Stege, A.; Wallace, D.; Webster, T.

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and test a new type of trash disposal system for the Town of East Hampton, Long Island: the Intensive Recycling System. The system is intended to serve as the Town's primary means of regular trash disposal. The Intensive Recycling System is based on separation of regular trash, by households and commercial establishments, into four fractions: (1) food garbage and soiled paper; (2) paper/cardboard; (3) metal cans/glass bottles; (4) non-recyclables. Fraction 1, together with yard waste, is processed at a compost facility, yielding marketable compost. Fractions 2 and 3 are processed by a materials recovery facility (MRF) into marketable products: several grades of paper and cardboard; aluminum cans; tin cans; scrap metal; and color-sorted crushed glass (cullet). The non-recyclable components (fraction 4) and misclassified components rejected during processing are consigned to a landfill. This document is Volume 1 of two volumes. 75 refs., 24 figs., 81 tabs.

  4. Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFL’s design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

  5. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urata, Tatsuo

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  6. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  7. The effects of the mechanicalchemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ? Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ? Increasing heavy metal stability. ? Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calciumsilicatehydrates (CSH) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  8. Two component absorption/phase separation chemical heat pump to provide temperature amplification to waste heat streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.; Kaplan, S.I.

    1987-09-04

    A chemical heat pump that utilizes liquid/liquid phase separation rather than evaporation to separate two components in a heat of mixing chemical heat pump process. 3 figs.

  9. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Systems Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility Facility Regional Waste Systems Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid...

  12. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  13. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY USING THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES IN THE LIGHT METALS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choate, William T.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Majumdar, Rajita

    2007-05-01

    Recently discovered thermoelectric materials and associated manufacturing techniques (nanostructures, thin-film super lattice, quantum wells...) have been characterized with thermal to electric energy conversion efficiencies of 12-25+%. These advances allow the manufacture of small-area, high-energy flux (350 W/cm2 input) thermoelectric generating (TEG) devices that operate at high temperatures (~750C). TEG technology offers the potential for large-scale conversion of waste heat from the exhaust gases of electrolytic cells (e.g., Hall-Hroult cells) and from aluminum, magnesium, metal and glass melting furnaces. This paper provides an analysis of the potential energy recovery and of the engineering issues that are expected when integrating TEG systems into existing manufacturing processes. The TEG module must be engineered for low-cost, easy insertion and simple operation in order to be incorporated into existing manufacturing operations. Heat transfer on both the hot and cold-side of these devices will require new materials, surface treatments and design concepts for their efficient operation.

  14. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips No.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures more than 100 F to 150 F higher than the temperature of the generated steam. Generally, boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for every 40 F reduction in flue gas temperature. By recovering waste heat, an economizer can often reduce fuel requirements by 5% to 10% and pay for itself in less than 2 years. The table provides examples of the potential for heat recovery.

  15. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  16. Waste2Energy Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a supplier of proprietary gasification technology designed to convert municipal solid waste, biomass and other solid waste streams traditionally destined for landfill into...

  17. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste via Gasification | Department of Energy Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification The Bioenergy Technologies Office develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and

  18. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H.E.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents an evaluation of Brayton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. It is also shown that, if installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or $170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that would hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified.

  19. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  20. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  1. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  2. Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Meisner

    2011-08-31

    We conducted a vehicle analysis to assess the feasibility of thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery and conversion to useful electrical power and found that eliminating the 500 W of electrical power generated by the alternator corresponded to about a 7% increase in fuel economy (FE) for a small car and about 6% for a full size truck. Electric power targets of 300 W were established for city and highway driving cycles for this project. We obtained critical vehicle level information for these driving cycles that enabled a high-level design and performance analysis of radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems for several potential vehicle platforms, and we identified the location and geometric envelopes of the radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems. Based on this analysis, we selected the Chevrolet Suburban as the most suitable demonstration vehicle for this project. Our modeling and thermal analysis assessment of a radiator-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, revealed severe practical limitations. Specifically the small temperature difference of 100°C or less between the engine coolant and ambient air results in a low Carnot conversion efficiency, and thermal resistance associated with air convection would reduce this conversion efficiency even further. We therefore decided not to pursue a radiator-based waste heat recovery system and focused only on the exhaust gas. Our overall approach was to combine science and engineering: (1) existing and newly developed TE materials were carefully selected and characterized by the material researcher members of our team, and most of the material property results were validated by our research partners, and (2) system engineers worked closely with vehicle engineers to ensure that accurate vehicle-level information was used for developing subsystem models and designs, and the subsystem output was analyzed for potential fuel economy gains. We incorporated material, module, subsystem, and integration costs into the material selection criteria in order to balance various materials, module and subsystem design, and vehicle integration options. Our work on advanced TE materials development and on TEG system design, assembly, vehicle integration, and testing proceeded in parallel efforts. Results from our two preliminary prototype TEGs using only Bi-Te TE modules allowed us to solve various mechanical challenges and to finalize and fine tune aspects of the design and implementation. Our materials research effort led us to quickly abandon work on PbTe and focus on the skutterudite materials due to their superior mechanical performance and suitability at automotive exhaust gas operating temperatures. We synthesized a sufficiently large quantity of skutterudite material for module fabrication for our third and final prototype. Our TEG#3 is the first of its kind to contain state-of-the-art skutterudite-based TE modules to be installed and tested on a production vehicle. The design, which consisted of 24 skutterudite modules and 18 Bi-Te modules, attempted to optimize electrical power generation by using these two kinds of TE modules that have their peak performance temperatures matched to the actual temperature profile of the TEG during operation. The performance of TEG#3 was limited by the maximum temperature allowable for the Bi-Te TE modules located in the colder end of the TEG, resulting in the operating temperature for the skutterudite modules to be considerably below optimum. We measured the power output for (1) the complete TEG (25 Watts) and (2) an individual TE module series string (1/3 of the TEG) operated at a 60°C higher temperature (19 Watts). We estimate that under optimum operating temperature conditions, TEG#3 will generate about 235 Watts. With additional improvements in thermal and electrical interfaces, temperature homogeneity, and power conditioning, we estimate TEG#3 could deliver a power output of about 425 Watts.

  3. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  4. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system prototype using wastewater effluent samples from candidate facilities to produce either electric power or hydrogen

  5. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery, turbocharging or turbo-compounding, and exhaust aftertreatment.

  6. Biomass and Waste-to-Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion & Biogas: Industry Perspectives ... waste and manure, and municipal commercial food waste. ... Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast ...

  7. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #3 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROGRAM Energy Tips: STEAM Steam Tip Sheet #3 Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the fue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler fue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures more than 100°F to 150°F higher than the temperature of the generated steam. Generally, boiler effciency can be increased by 1% for every 40°F reduction in fue gas temperature. By recovering waste heat, an

  8. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

  9. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolealov, Markta; Beneov, Libue; Zvodsk, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. The physicochemical characteristics were determined. The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Unions solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the Czech Ministry of Environment to optimise the national waste management strategy.

  10. Waste-to-energy plants face costly emissions-control upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    One treatment method of municipal solid waste, incineration, has fallen in and out of public favor. In the 1970s, emerging consciousness of the threat to groundwater posed by leaking landfills made incineration an attractive option. Prompted by disrupted energy supplies and steeply rising prices, more than 100 municipalities began to generate electricity from the heat produced by burning trash. In the 1990s, the pendulum of public enthusiasm has swung away from incineration. Energy prices have declined dramatically, and safety and siting concerns complicate new projects. A recent Supreme Court decision ruled that municipal incinerator ash must be tested as hazardous waste and disposed accordingly if levels of such pollutants as cadmium and lead exceed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limits. So-called flow control regulations, which allowed municipalities to apportion garbage disposal to ensure steady supplies to incinerators, also have been struck down. EPA is tackling the issue of air emissions from waste-to-energy and non-energy-producing municipal waste combustors. Emissions guidelines for MWCs and new-source performance standards for new units, proposed Sept. 20 under Sec. 129 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, are the culmination of a stalled and litigated initiative dating back to the CAA Amendments of 1977.

  11. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluate the fouling characteristics in field testing, and remove the uncertainty factors included in the estimated payback period for the H2O2 distillation system.

  12. PSNH- Municipal Smart Start Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), an electric utility, offers the Smart Start Program to Municipal customers. This program assists municipalities in reducing energy consumption and electric...

  13. Eversource- Municipal Smart Start Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eversource (previously Public Service of New Hampshire), an electric utility, offers the Smart Start Program to municipal customers. This program assists municipalities in reducing energy...

  14. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 8792%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.

  15. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  16. Enhancement of the anaerobic hydrolysis and fermentation of municipal solid waste in leachbed reactors by varying flow direction during water addition and leachate recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uke, Matthew N.; Stentiford, Edward

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? Combined downflow and upflow water addition improved hydraulic conductivity. ? Upflow water addition unclogged perforated screen leading to more leachate flow. ? The volume of water added and transmitted positively correlated with hydrolysis process. ? Combined downflow and upflow water addition increased COD production and yield. ? Combined downflow and upflow leachate recycle improved leachate and COD production. - Abstract: Poor performance of leachbed reactors (LBRs) is attributed to channelling, compaction from waste loading, unidirectional water addition and leachate flow causing reduced hydraulic conductivity and leachate flow blockage. Performance enhancement was evaluated in three LBRs M, D and U at 22 3 C using three water addition and leachate recycle strategies; water addition was downflow in D throughout, intermittently upflow and downflow in M and U with 77% volume downflow in M, 54% volume downflow in U while the rest were upflow. Leachate recycle was downflow in D, alternately downflow and upflow in M and upflow in U. The strategy adopted in U led to more water addition (30.3%), leachate production (33%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation (33%; 1609 g against 1210 g) compared to D (control). The total and volatile solids (TS and VS) reductions were similar but the highest COD yield (g-COD/g-TS and g-COD/g-VS removed) was in U (1.6 and 1.9); the values were 1.33 and 1.57 for M, and 1.18 and 1.41 for D respectively. The strategy adopted in U showed superior performance with more COD and leachate production compared to reactors M and D.

  17. Final Report: Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Jalal Zia

    2013-09-01

    This research and development (R&D) project exemplifies a shared public private commitment to advance the development of energy efficient industrial technologies that will reduce the U.S. dependence upon foreign oil, provide energy savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for the conversion of waste heat from gas turbine exhaust to electricity. In conventional ORCs, the heat from the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to a hydrocarbon based working fluid by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. The Direct Evaporator accomplishes preheating, evaporation and superheating of the working fluid by a heat exchanger placed within the exhaust gas stream. Direct Evaporation is simpler and up to 15% less expensive than conventional ORCs, since the secondary oil loop and associated equipment can be eliminated. However, in the past, Direct Evaporation has been avoided due to technical challenges imposed by decomposition and flammability of the working fluid. The purpose of this project was to retire key risks and overcome the technical barriers to implementing an ORC with Direct Evaporation. R&D was conducted through a partnership between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and General Electric (GE) Global Research Center (GRC). The project consisted of four research tasks: (1) Detailed Design & Modeling of the ORC Direct Evaporator, (2) Design and Construction of Partial Prototype Direct Evaporator Test Facility, (3) Working Fluid Decomposition Chemical Analyses, and (4) Prototype Evaluation. Issues pertinent to the selection of an ORC working fluid, along with thermodynamic and design considerations of the direct evaporator, were identified. The FMEA (Failure modes and effects analysis) and HAZOP (Hazards and operability analysis) safety studies performed to mitigate risks are described, followed by a discussion of the flammability analysis of the direct evaporator. A testbed was constructed and the prototype demonstrated at the GE GRC Niskayuna facility.

  18. Municipal Energy Reduction Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2010, the New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority (CDFA) launched a revolving loan program to encourage the state’s municipal governments to invest in energy efficiency and...

  19. Municipal garbage disposal: A problem we cannot ignore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In 1980 the US generated 150 million metric tons of municipal solid waste, and this figure is expected to increase to over 200 million metric tons by 1990. This comment discusses the traditional approaches to waste management, as well as current options available for waste disposal and the federal environmental laws that impinge on these options. Next, the national dimensions of the garbage disposal problem, as epitomized by the garbage barge and the international export of waste generated by this country, are discussed. This Comment concludes with recommendations for a change in public policy to foster recycling, taxing non-biodegradable products, as well as more stringent regulatory controls on solid waste disposal.

  20. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

  1. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV...

  3. Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Hull Municipal Light Plant Name: Hull Municipal Light Plant Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 781-925-0051 Website:...

  4. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Overview and status of project to develop...

  5. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  6. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  7. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  8. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  9. Clean energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1996-07-02

    This progress report describes a slurry grinding trial where a carbonized refuse derived fuel was dispersed in water. The RDF slurry produced in this study is to subjected to dioxin combustion tests.

  10. Waste Heat-to-Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle DE-EE0005767 TIAX LLC and Green Mountain Coffee (field test site)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dieckmann, TIAX LLC, Principal Investigator (Presenter) U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 Waste Heat-to-Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle DE-EE0005767 TIAX LLC and Green Mountain Coffee (field test site) July 1, 2013 - January 30, 2017 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Primary objective - develop scroll expander

  11. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  12. List of Heat pumps Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Wind Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Yes Alternative and Clean Energy State Grant Program (Pennsylvania) State Grant...

  13. They`re up! They`re down! They`re waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varrasi, J.

    1996-03-01

    Burning garbage - either just to get rid of it, or to recover its latent energy as heat or electricity - has never been a sweet-sounding or -smelling idea. Long before the first boiler and turbine/generator were integrated with a trash incinerator - turning it into a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant - public concern about the air pollution produced by burning municipal solid waste (MSW) began placing an upper bound on the growth of the WTE industry, as it continues to do today. This paper describes some statistics, benefits and problems related to WTE plants.

  14. Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willigan, Rhonda

    2009-09-30

    The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

  15. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

  16. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Applications Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy...

  17. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery ...

  18. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Model ...

  19. Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  20. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dallas, TX Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Dallas, TX This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal ...

  1. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department - Residential Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats: 25 Water Heater: 100 Summary The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric...

  2. Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr Jump to: navigation, search Name: Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr Place: Iowa Phone Number: 319-293-3406 Website: villagesofvanburen.comdirecto...

  3. Thurmont Municipal Light Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thurmont Municipal Light Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thurmont Municipal Light Co Place: Maryland Phone Number: 301-271-7313 Website: www.thurmont.com Facebook: https:...

  4. Osage Municipal Utilities Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Facility Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Osage...

  5. Woodstock Municipal Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Woodstock Municipal Wind Facility Woodstock Municipal Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Developer Juhl Wind...

  6. Willmar Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit with form History Willmar Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Willmar Municipal Utilities Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 320.235.4422 Website:...

  7. Delano Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Delano Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Delano Municipal Utilities Place: Minnesota Website: www.dmumn.com Outage Hotline: (763)972-0557 References: EIA Form...

  8. Indianola Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indianola Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indianola Municipal Utilities Place: Iowa Phone Number: 515.961.9444 Website: www.i-m-u.com Outage Hotline:...

  9. Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebate Varies depending on utility Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company in collaboration with municipal utilities...

  10. Price Municipal Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Price Municipal Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Price Municipal Corporation Place: Utah Phone Number: 435-636-3197 Website: www.priceutah.netCityDirUti Outage...

  11. Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects AgencyCompany...

  12. American Municipal Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Municipal Power Place: Columbus, Ohio Zip: 43219 Product: AMP is a non-profit corporation that owns and operates electric...

  13. Philippi Municipal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippi Municipal Electric Jump to: navigation, search Name: Philippi Municipal Electric Place: West Virginia Phone Number: 304-457-3700 Outage Hotline: 304-457-3700 References:...

  14. Utah Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Power Agency Place: Utah Phone Number: (801) 798-7489 Website: www.umpa.cc Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesUtah-Municipal-Power-Agency152219714819535 Outage...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Space Heat (6) Apply Solar Space Heat filter Food Service Equipment (5) Apply Food Service Equipment filter Municipal Solid Waste (5) Apply Municipal Solid Waste filter...

  16. Thermal valorization of post-consumer film waste in a bubbling bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martnez-Lera, S., E-mail: susanamartinezlera@gmail.com; Torrico, J.; Pallars, J.; Gil, A.

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: Film waste from packaging is a common waste, a fraction of which is not recyclable. Gasification can make use of the high energy value of the non-recyclable fraction. This waste and two reference polymers were gasified in a bubbling bed reactor. This experimental research proves technical feasibility of the process. It also analyzes impact of composition and ER on the performance of the plant. - Abstract: The use of plastic bags and film packaging is very frequent in manifold sectors and film waste is usually present in different sources of municipal and industrial wastes. A significant part of it is not suitable for mechanical recycling but could be safely transformed into a valuable gas by means of thermal valorization. In this research, the gasification of film wastes has been experimentally investigated through experiments in a fluidized bed reactor of two reference polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene, and actual post-consumer film waste. After a complete experimental characterization of the three materials, several gasification experiments have been performed to analyze the influence of the fuel and of equivalence ratio on gas production and composition, on tar generation and on efficiency. The experiments prove that film waste and analogue polymer derived wastes can be successfully gasified in a fluidized bed reactor, yielding a gas with a higher heating value in a range from 3.6 to 5.6 MJ/m{sup 3} and cold gas efficiencies up to 60%.

  17. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  18. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  19. Potential use of feebate systems to foster environmentally sound urban waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2004-07-01

    Waste treatment facilities are often shared among different municipalities as a means of managing wastes more efficiently. Usually, management costs are assigned to each municipality depending on the size of the population or total amount of waste produced, regardless of important environmental aspects such as per capita waste generation or achievements in composting or recycling. This paper presents a feebate (fee+rebate) system aimed to foster urban waste reduction and recovery. The proposal suggests that municipalities achieving better results in their waste management performance (from an ecological viewpoint) be recompensated with a rebate obtained from a fee charged to those municipalities that are less environmentally sound. This is a dynamic and flexible instrument that would positively encourage municipalities to reduce waste whilst increasing the recycling.

  20. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for...

  1. 6. annual waste-to-energy conference. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This conference proceedings offers professionals a single resource from which to learn the latest developments in the field of waste-to-energy. The Sixth Annual North American Waste-To-Energy Conference (NAWTEC VI) joined together previously separate waste-to-energy conferences including the International Conference of Municipal Waste Combustion, the US Conference on Waste-To-Energy, SWANA`s Waste-to-Energy Symposium, the ASME SWPD Biennial Meeting and Exhibit, and the A and WMA/EPA Solid Waste Management, Thermal Treatment, and Waste-to-Energy Technology Conference. NAWTEC VI provided information on all facets of solid waste combustion including pollution control and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste combustion systems, residue disposal, energy generation, social and technical issues, and regulatory directions. The proceedings is valuable to those concerned with planning, permitting, design, construction, operation, and evaluation of waste-to-energy and research and development.

  2. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers common pitfalls that lead to wasted energy in industrial heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  3. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar...

  4. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  5. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  6. Kenyon Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenyon Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kenyon Municipal Utilities Place: Minnesota References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form...

  7. Texas Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Municipal Power Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: Texas Municipal Power Agency Place: Texas Sector: Wind energy Phone Number: (936) 873-1100 Website: www.texasmpa.org...

  8. Waste-to-energy: A review of the status and benefits in USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Psomopoulos, C.S. Bourka, A.; Themelis, N.J.

    2009-05-15

    The USA has significant experience in the field of municipal solid waste management. The hierarchy of methodologies for dealing with municipal solid wastes consists of recycling and composting, combustion with energy recovery (commonly called waste-to-energy) and landfilling. This paper focuses on waste-to-energy and especially its current status and benefits, with regard to GHG, dioxin and mercury emissions, energy production and land saving, on the basis of experience of operating facilities in USA.

  9. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    barriers and over potential associated with hydrogen production, will be broadly applicable in U.S. industry, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and refining sectors. ...

  10. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... MHRC is most applicable to manufacturing facilities in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and refnery markets, which typically have effuent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ...

  11. Reducing Waste and Harvesting Energy This Halloween | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste and Harvesting Energy This Halloween Reducing Waste and Harvesting Energy This Halloween October 30, 2013 - 9:57am Addthis This graphic shows how seasonal waste can be used to generate power. | Graphic by BCS for the Energy Department This graphic shows how seasonal waste can be used to generate power. | Graphic by BCS for the Energy Department Paul Grabowski Demonstration and Deployment, Bioenergy Technologies Office This Halloween, think of turning seasonal municipal solid waste (MSW) to

  12. Vitrification of waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-04-06

    A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  13. Vitrification of waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  14. Waste remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  15. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  16. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  17. Illinois Municipal Electric Agency - Electric Efficiency Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    approval Other EE Geothermal Direct-Use Vending Machine Controls Maximum Rebate General: 75% of project cost Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Illinois Municipal...

  18. Indianola Municipal Utilities- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indianola Municipal Utilities offers a number of energy efficiency rebates to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The program provides rebates for commercial lighting, central air...

  19. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northwest Region Workshop, held in Seattle July 15, 2011.

  20. Canton Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCanton-Municipal-Utilities332942860232523?refhl Outage Hotline: 601.859.2474 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  1. Municipalities and Renewable Energy Opportunities | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipalities and Renewable Energy Opportunities Jump to: navigation, search BUILDING COMMUNITIES WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY --Rsiegent 20:06, 20 January 2010 (UTC) BC communities and...

  2. Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and additional program requirements can be found in the rebate guide located on the program web site. Contact Marblehead Municipal Light Department for more details on this...

  3. Denton Municipal Electric- Standard Offer Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Within the GreenSense program, Denton Municipal Electric's Standard Offer Program provides rebates to large commercial and industrial customers for lighting retrofits, HVAC upgrades and motor...

  4. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  5. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boston, MA Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and ... U.S. Department of Energy Boston's LED Street Lighting Initiative Joanne Massaro, ...

  6. Watertown Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utilities Place: South Dakota Phone Number: (605)882-6233 Website: watertownmu.com Twitter: @watertownmu Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesWatertown-Municipal-Utiliti...

  7. Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Serv Comm Place: Michigan Phone Number: 734.324.7190 Website: www.wyan.org Twitter: @wyandottemunsvs Facebook: https:www.facebook.comwyandottemunicipalservices...

  8. Mora Municipal Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Mora Municipal Utilities Website http:www.SaveEnergyInMora.com State Minnesota Program...

  9. Tipton Municipal Electric Util | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Util Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tipton Municipal Electric Util Address: P.O. Box 288 Place: Tipton, Indiana Zip: 46072 Service Territory: Indiana Phone Number:...

  10. Shawano Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utilities Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 715-526-3131 Website: www.shawano.tv Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesShawano-Municipal-Utilities156410777732483 Outage...

  11. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic...

  14. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes Power Plant Solar Augmentation Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), under the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Development (HIBRED) program, is demonstrating a hybrid CSP solar energy system that takes advantage of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection.

  15. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits Analysis, April 2002 In this paper, an analysis was performed to determine that the increased production of waste heat...

  16. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working to expand the usage of thermoelectric technology beyond seat heating and cooling and in doing so reduce CO2 emissions and...

  17. Draft Transcript on Municipal PV Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar on navigating the legal, tax, and finance issues associated with the installation of Municipal PV Systems. The following agenda was developed based on Pat Boylston's experience assisting municipalities with their PV projects and the requests for information that the Solar America City technical team leads have received from many of the 25 Solar America Cities since the April 2008 meeting in Tucson.

  18. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  19. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  20. Process for treating fission waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  1. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Solar Array | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Utility District Solar Array Sector Solar Facility Type Ground-mounted fixed tilt Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

  2. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

  3. Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm I...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    I Jump to: navigation, search Name Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm I Facility Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Sector Wind energy...

  4. Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm Ii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ii Jump to: navigation, search Name Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm Ii Facility Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Sector Wind energy...

  5. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department- Residential Conservation Services Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company (MMWEC), offers the "Incentive Rebate Program" to encourage...

  6. Stuart Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stuart Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Stuart Municipal Utilities Location Stuart IA Coordinates 41.493988, -94.327403 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  7. Lenox Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lenox Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Lenox Municipal Utilities Location Lenox IA Coordinates 40.880592, -94.559029 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  8. Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Location Wall Lake IA Coordinates 42.281965, -95.094098 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  9. Municipal Energy Agency of MS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Municipal Energy Agency of MS Place: Mississippi Phone Number: (601) 362-2252 Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesMunicipal-Energy-Agency-of-Mississippi Outage...

  10. New Castle Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Serv Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: New Castle Municipal Serv Comm Place: Delaware Phone Number: 302-323-2333 Website: www.newcastlemsc.comindex.php Outage...

  11. Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Place: Cape May Court House, New Jersey Zip: 8210...

  12. Valley Center Municipal Water District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Center Municipal Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Valley Center Municipal Water District Place: Valley Center, California Zip: 92082 Product: VCMWD is the...

  13. Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments ...

  14. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers the Demand and Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to eligible commercial, industrial, and municipal government customers served by OMPA. This...

  15. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to demonstrate the environmental and combustion performance advantages of a carbonized refuse derived fuel (RDF) slurry, produced from EnerTech`s slurry carbonization process, using continuous pilot scale equipment and its suitability as an alternative fuel for utility and industrial boilers.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with ... of Feedstock and Technology Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from ...

  17. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste potential market implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, H.T.D.; Mooij, H.P.

    1985-08-01

    A 10-day retention time experiment determined digester biogas production and overall digester performance for comparison with previous experiments using 12- and 18-day retention. The authors describe the experiments, compare the results, and discuss general operation and start-up of the three experiments. The results show that the 10-day retention time produces a high level of biogas with substantially lower retention times. The data suggest that as sludge is used and the problem of leaks is addressed, gas production rate can be increased as well as the extent of bio-conversion. They also suggest that a seven-day retention time is physically feasible, and that similar values for gas production and bio-conversion can be maintained. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the ILbiomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL...

  19. Indicators of waste management efficiency related to different territorial conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passarini, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.passarini@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Dept. Industrial Chemistry and Materials, viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Vassura, Ivano, E-mail: ivano.vassura@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Dept. Industrial Chemistry and Materials, viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Monti, Francesco, E-mail: fmonti84@gmail.com [University of Bologna, Dept. Industrial Chemistry and Materials, viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Morselli, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.morselli@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Dept. Industrial Chemistry and Materials, viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Villani, Barbara, E-mail: bvillani@arpa.emr.it [Regional Environmental Protection Agency (Emilia-Romagna Region), Largo Caduti del Lavoro 6, I-40122 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    The amount of waste produced and the control of separate collection are crucial issues for the planning of a territorial Integrated Waste Management System, enabling the allocation of each sorted waste fraction to the proper treatment and recycling processes. The present study focuses on assessing indicators of different waste management systems in areas characterized by different territorial conditions. The investigated case study concerns the municipalities of Emilia Romagna (northern Italy), which present a rather uniform socioeconomic situation, but a variety of geographic, urban and waste management characteristics. A survey of waste generation and collection rates was carried out, and correlated with the different territorial conditions, classifying the municipalities according to altitude and population density. The best environmental performances, in terms of high separate collection rate, were found on average in rural areas in the plain, while the lowest waste generation was associated with rural hill towns.

  20. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  1. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System | Department of Energy A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-20_kim.pdf More Documents & Publications Low and high Temperature

  2. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  3. Solid waste disposal economics. (Latest citations from the NTISs Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects of solid waste disposal. Topics include feasibility studies of specific waste-to-energy programs, materials recovery and recycling, and the use of fuel gases from landfills. Waste materials sources include industrial and municipal wastes, dredged materials, and waste derived from agricultural and mining operations. Considerable attention is given to Superfund records of decision at specific sites. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Solid waste disposal economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects of solid waste disposal. Topics include feasibility studies of specific waste-to-energy programs, materials recovery and recycling, and the use of fuel gases from landfills. Waste materials sources include industrial and municipal wastes, dredged materials, and waste derived from agricultural and mining operations. Considerable attention is given to Superfund records of decision at specific sites. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    low activity waste facility (LA3W) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and met with responsible Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss comments. ...

  7. 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Southwest Region Workshop, held in Los Angeles on September 30, 2010.

  8. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northeast Region Workshop, held in Philadelphia, May 19–20, 2011.

  9. 2011 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Southwest Region Workshop, held in San Jose, California, August 25­–26, 2011.

  10. 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Southeast Region Workshop, held in Tampa, FL, February 17–18, 2011.

  11. New London Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: New London Municipal Utilities Place: Iowa References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility...

  12. Municipal Electric Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Municipal Electric Authority Place: Georgia Phone Number: 1-800-333-MEAG; 770-563-0300 Website: www.meagpower.org Twitter:...

  13. Municipal Consortium Releases Updated Model Specification for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for LED Roadway Luminaires Municipal Consortium Releases Updated Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires July 10, 2014 - 10:23am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's ...

  14. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Los Angeles, CA Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and ... Lighting L.M. Seventynine: Who Is He and What Does He Have to Do with LED Street Lighting? ...

  15. Atlantic Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Iowa Phone Number: 712-243-1395 Website: www.a-m-u.net Twitter: @AMUAtlantic Facebook: https:www.facebook.comAtlanticMunicipalUtilities Outage Hotline: 712-243-1395...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Boilers, Heat...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste,...

  19. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  20. Renewable Electricity Generation and Delivery at the Sacramento Municipal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility District | Department of Energy Electricity Generation and Delivery at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District Renewable Electricity Generation and Delivery at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District Dairy digester and engine genset at New Hope dairy farm. | <em>Photo courtesy of Sacramento Municipal Utility District</em> Dairy digester and engine genset at New Hope dairy farm. | Photo courtesy of Sacramento Municipal Utility District The Sacramento Municipal Utility