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Sample records for waste heat municipal

  1. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

  3. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be

  5. BT16 Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Municipal Solid Waste Resources Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass ... trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. ...

  6. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

  7. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

  8. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  9. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  10. Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the ...

  12. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  13. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  14. Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  15. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic ... Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in ...

  17. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3. Public

  18. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  19. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  20. Municipal waste to vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henrich, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of water as a scrubbing agent for biogas from wastewater treatment plants and landfills is described. The purified gas containing 98% CH/sub 4/ is a viable and potentially cost-effective fuel for traction. A biogas-purification process (the Binax system), delivery of the gas, quality and economics of the purified gas, the Binax design specifications, and a vehicle-conversion system to operate on gasoline or CH/sub 4/ are discussed. Biogas manufacture from wastewater-treatment plants is generally approximately 0.25 -3 cubic ft/capita-day depending on digester design and operating efficiency, solid removal efficiency (primary treatment vs. secondary treatment), and on the amount of industrial and agricultural waste flowing into the facilities. A treatment facility serving a population of 100,000 might produce 50,000-300,000 cubic ft digester gas/day.

  1. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  2. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  3. Summary of Interim Policy on CERCLA Settlements Involving Municipalities and Municipal Wastes. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet addresses a consistent agency-wide approach for addressing municipalities and municipal wastes in the Superfund settlement process. The policy also addresses settlements with private generators and transporters of hazardous waste trash derived from a commercial, institutional, or industrial process or activity.

  4. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  6. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. - Allentown, PA A microbial reverse electrodialysis technology ... Bio-Electrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-To-Energy Conversion, ...

  7. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  8. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator ... More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat ...

  9. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for ...

  10. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  11. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  12. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Swapan Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  13. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) (494.7 KB) More

  14. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. > Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. > Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  15. Waste heat: Utilization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving this heat and energy is covered, including technical aspects and potential applications. Illustrations demonstrate that recovery methods have become economical due to recent refinements. The book includes theory and practice concerning waste heat management and utilization.

  16. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  17. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  1. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  2. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  3. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  4. Investigation of fluid-bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eustis, R.H.; Wilson, K.B.; Preuit, L.C.; Marasigan, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after the test, and bed agglomeration did not occur. A corrosion tube placed in the free-board showed considerable metal wastage for carbon and low-alloy steels and some wastage for stainless steels. Low-temperature carbon steel water tubes in the bed showed negligible wastage. It was concluded that heat-exchanger tubes in the freeboard require protection from the high-velocity elutriated solids. Combustion efficiency was greater than 99%, and pollutants were measured as follows: SO/sub 2/ = 58 ppm, NOx = 178 ppm, CO = 242 ppm, hydrocarbons = 5.4 ppm. A system study was conducted for a cogeneration, 800-tons/day power plant to be located on the Stanford U. campus to supply all of the process steam requirement and as much of the electrical power as possible.

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  6. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful ...

  7. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, D.; Hill, K.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  8. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  9. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  10. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. Mokhtarani, N. Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-15

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  11. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  13. Waste utilization as an energy source: Municipal wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of municipal wastes as an energy source. Articles discuss energy derived from incineration/combustion, refuse-derived fuels, co-firing municipal waste and standard fuels, landfill gas production, sewage combustion, and other waste-to-energy technologies. Citations address economics and efficiencies of various schemes to utilize municipal waste products as energy sources. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  15. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. Waste Heat Utilization System Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste heat utilization systems arefacilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elect...

  17. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  18. Batteries called primary source of lead, cadmium in municipal waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency reports that lead-acid batteries, such as those used in automobiles, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in consumer electronics equipment, are the primary sources of lead and cadmium in municipal trash and garbage. A report prepared for EPA analyzed existing data from 1970 to 1986 and made projections to the year 2000. Lead-acid batteries continue to constitute a major source of lead in garbage even though 80 percent of them are now recycled. As a result, EPA is calling for additional recycling of batteries. This study is an important step in implementing EPA's strategy for helping states and cities achieve the national goal of recycling and reducing 25 percent of all municipal garbage by 1992. The findings on batteries are the result of a study conducted for EPA because of concern over the levels of lead and cadmium found n ash (residue) from municipal waste incinerators. Lead and cadmium are two metals of particular concern in the solid waste stream. The metals can contaminate soil and groundwater when landfilled. They also may be found in some incinerator emissions.

  19. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  20. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases -

  1. USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management: Theory vs. practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matar, G. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper will address USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management (MSWM), which places source reduction and recycling above combustion and landfilling. Many have read this to mean that combustion and landfilling should only be considered after all recycling and reduction efforts have been explored. This mentality has not only left many communities in a MSWM capacity crisis, but also created planning problems for many others. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, it will be shown that the last two methods on the hierarchy should be considered from the beginning when planning for MSWM. It will also be shown that these methods are not antithetical to the first two methods, but are actually complimentary.

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  3. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  4. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  5. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation ...

  6. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery ...

  8. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound ...

  9. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound ...

  10. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound ...

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  12. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  13. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  14. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes Advancing a Novel Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis ...

  15. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  16. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fate of 55 metals during shredding and separation of WEEE was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most metals were mainly distributed to the small-grain fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Much of metals in WEEE being treated as municipal waste in Japan end up in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-sorting of small digital products reduces metals to be landfilled at some level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of metal recovery from other middle-sized WEEE is still important. - Abstract: In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio

  17. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  18. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and ...

  19. An economic evaluation of waste flow control policies in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greco, J.

    1995-12-01

    The transport of municipal solid waste through legal means is commonly known as waste flow control. Flow control ordinances prohibit the export of locally generated solid waste to disposal sites outside of a jurisdiction, requiring delivery to a locally designated facility for disposal or processing. Local governments use flow control to support public facilities and to comply with federal and state mandates. A decision by Supreme Court in May, 1994 invalidated the use of flow control by local governments raising important policy questions concerning balances between providing low-cost service to rate-payers, the value of conserving disposal capacity be developing expensive waste management programs, and the protection of the environment from the dangers of poor solid waste management. Since Congress is currently considering passage of federal legislation which would restore flow control authority to local government, there is a need to evaluate waste flow control from economic, environmental, political and social perspectives. This analysis attempts to evaluate flow control policies within an interdisciplinary framework. It examines not only the economic consequences of flow control policies, but also the social and environmental objectives that local governments claim are achieved via use of flow control. The analysis reveals that flow control introduces economic distortions into a highly competitive market for solid waste services, a market which consistently produces lower costs than flow-controlled, publicly-sponsored facilities. Important questions are raised concerning the allocation of risk in capital investments made by municipalities that use flow control to insulate investors and themselves from financial liability. Controlling waste flow helps local governments fulfill regulatory responsibilities that may not be met by reliance on competitive market forces.

  20. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  1. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  2. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  3. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  4. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  5. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  6. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  7. Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for ...

  8. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jingfu Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin; Shu, Xinran

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for the MSW incinerator with preheated air was developed. • Gas radiative properties were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. • Non-gray body radiation model can provide more accurate simulation results. - Abstract: Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. In this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.

  9. Municipal waste to energy: an annotated bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The United States generates more than 450,000 tons per day of municipal solid waste (MSW). Disposal of municipal waste is a rapidly growing problem for many areas of the country, where traditional methods (e.g., landfilling and uncontrolled incineration) are becoming too expensive or environmentally unacceptable. At the same time, price increases and supply disruptions, such as the 1973 oil embargo, have caused uncertainty about the future availability and cost of petroleum-derived energy. This uncertainty has in turn led to increased efforts to find alternative energy sources. If new technologies being developed for utilization of municipal solid waste can recover useful energy and/or materials, they can potentially stabilize or reduce the cost of community services and promote local development, as well as serve the interests of health, environmental protection, economic well being, and waste disposal. This annotated bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy (DOE). Reports listed are limited to those that focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  10. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity ...

  12. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate

  13. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC ...

  14. An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An overview presentation of R&D ...

  15. Using Waste Heat for External Processes; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Waste Heat for External Processes The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery ...

  16. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  17. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive ...

  18. Using Waste Heat for External Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Waste Heat for External Processes Using Waste Heat for External Processes This tip sheet describes the potential savings resulting from using waste heat from high-temperature process heating for lower temperature processes, like oven-drying. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #10 Using Waste Heat for External Processes (January 2006) (290.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and

  19. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  20. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  1. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  2. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-15

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  3. Cummins Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Cummins Waste Heat Recovery Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_nelson.pdf (295.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Exhaust Energy Recovery Exhaust Energy Recovery Exhaust Energy Recovery

  4. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  6. [Waste water heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  7. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy improvement without increasing emissions.

  8. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. 2003_deer_algrain.pdf (5.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

  9. An overview of the technology for energy recovery from municipal wastes in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraoka, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since the Japanese government adopted incineration and landfill systems for treatment of municipal refuse in 1963, a large number of incinerators have been built. After the Oil Embargo in 1973, heat recovery from incinerators in large cities was emphasized, and resource and heat recovery have been developed.

  10. Waste Heat Utilization System Income Tax Deduction (Personal)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Waste heat utilization system means facilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elec...

  11. Waste Heat Utilization System Income Tax Deduction (Corporate)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Waste heat utilization system means facilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elec...

  12. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  13. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  14. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  18. List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  19. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  20. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-06-30

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  1. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-07-16

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  2. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  3. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Geothermal Heat Pump Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Maximum Rebate 1,000ton Program Info...

  4. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas ... More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste ...

  5. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  6. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  7. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold.

  8. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  9. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  10. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  11. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  12. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief | Department of Energy Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  14. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery This tip sheet on feedwater economizers for waste heat recovery provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #3 Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery (January 2012) (381.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer Considerations When Selecting a Condensing Economizer

  15. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical ...

  16. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Overview and status of project to develop thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery and achieve at least 10% fuel economy improvement. deer08_gundlach.pdf (1 MB) More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry Develop Thermoelectric

  17. Municipal geothermal heat utilization plan for Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    A study has been made of the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing the geothermal resource underlying Glenwood Springs Colorado, to heat a group of public buildings. The results have shown that the use of geothermal heat is indeed feasible when compared to the cost of natural gas. The proposed system is composed of a wellhead plate heat exchanger which feeds a closed distribution loop of treated water circulated to the buildings which form the load. The base case system was designed to supply twice the demand created by the seven public buildings in order to take advantage of some economies of scale. To increase the utilization factor of the available geothermal energy, a peaking boiler which burns natural gas is recommended. Disposal of the cooled brine would be via underground injection. Considerable study was done to examine the impact of reduced operating temperature on the existing heating systems. Several options to minimize this problem were identified. Economic analyses were completed to determine the present values of heat from the geothermal system and from the present natural gas over a 30 year projected system life. For the base case savings of over $1 million were shown. Sensitivities of the economics to capital cost, operating cost, system size and other parameters were calculated. For all reasonable assumptions, the geothermal system was cheaper. Financing alternatives were also examined. An extensive survey of all existing data on the geology of the study has led to the prediction of resource parameters. The wellhead temperature of produced fluid is suspected to lie between 140 and 180/sup 0/F (60 and 82/sup 0/C). Flowrates may be as high as 1000 gpm (3800 liters per minute) from a reservoir formation that is 300 ft (90 m) thick beginning about 500 ft (150 m) below the suggested drill site in the proposed Two Rivers Park.

  18. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy 2 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. 2002_deer_hopmann.pdf (828.29 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

  19. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of U.S. Department of Energy contractor reports through 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports Through 1994 (NREL/TP-430-7886). The original bibliography, entitled Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, was published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes--an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update.

  20. Design of a large-scale anaerobic digestion facility for the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayhanian, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-12-31

    The California Prison Industry Authority, in conjunction with the City of Folsom, operates a 100 ton/d municipal solid waste (MSW) recovery facility using inmate labor. Through manual sorting, all useful organic and inorganic materials are recycled for marketing. The remaining organic material will be further processed to remove hazardous and inert material and prepared as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion process. The clean organic waste (approximately 78 ton/d) will then be shredded and completely mixed with sewage water prior feeding to the digester. Off gas from the digester will be collected as a fuel for the steam boiler or combusted in a waste gas burner. Steam will be injected directly into the digester for heating. The anaerobically digested material will be moved to compost area where it will be mixed with wood faction of yard waste and processed aerobically for the production of compost material as a soil amendment. Anaerobic digesters will be constructed in two phases. The first phase consists of the construction of one 26 ton/d digester to confirm the suitability of feeding and mixing equipment. Modifications will be made to the second and third digesters, in the second phase, based on operating experience of the first digester. This paper discusses important design features of the anaerobic digestion facility.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  2. LCA of local strategies for energy recovery from waste in England, applied to a large municipal flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunesi, Simonetta

    2011-03-15

    An intense waste management (WM) planning activity is currently undergoing in England to build the infrastructure necessary to treat residual wastes, increase recycling levels and the recovery of energy from waste. From the analyses of local WM strategic and planning documents we have identified the emerging of three different energy recovery strategies: established combustion of residual waste; pre-treatment of residual waste and energy recovery from Solid Recovered Fuel in a dedicated plant, usually assumed to be a gasifier; pre-treatment of residual waste and reliance on the market to accept the 'fuel from waste' so produced. Each energy recovery strategy will result in a different solution in terms of the technology selected; moreover, on the basis of the favoured solution, the total number, scale and location of thermal treatment plants built in England will dramatically change. To support the evaluation and comparison of these three WM strategy in terms of global environmental impacts, energy recovery possibilities and performance with respect to changing 'fuel from waste' market conditions, the LCA comparison of eight alternative WM scenarios for a real case study dealing with a large flow of municipal wastes was performed with the modelling tool WRATE. The large flow of waste modelled allowed to formulate and assess realistic alternative WM scenarios and to design infrastructural systems which are likely to correspond to those submitted for approval to the local authorities. The results show that all alternative scenarios contribute to saving abiotic resources and reducing global warming potential. Particularly relevant to the current English debate, the performance of a scenario was shown to depend not from the thermal treatment technology but from a combination of parameters, among which most relevant are the efficiency of energy recovery processes (both electricity and heat) and the calorific value of residual waste and pre-treated material. The

  3. Simplified method to characterize municipal solid waste properties under seismic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Deepankar Savoikar, Purnanand

    2009-02-15

    The response of municipal solid waste landfills during earthquakes is gaining worldwide attention due to the devastating nature of earthquakes on landfills. Safety code provisions and regulations of various countries require the incorporation of safety measures against seismic hazards in the design of new landfills, as well as for extensions of existing landfills in seismic zones. Determination of dynamic properties is the first step for the analysis of municipal solid waste materials under seismic conditions. Landfill composition and properties, like unit weight, shear wave velocity, shear strength, normalized shear modulus, and material damping, are the most important dynamic properties that have direct impact on the seismic behaviour of landfills, and need to be evaluated carefully. In the present study, based on the extensive data provided by various researchers, the dynamic properties of landfill materials are analyzed using curve-fitting techniques, and simple mathematical equations are proposed. The resulting profiles are compared with laboratory and field data wherever possible. These properties are difficult to generalize and may vary from landfill to landfill. Hence, the proposed simple mathematical models for these landfill properties can be used to design municipal solid waste landfills in the absence of landfill-specific field data under seismic conditions.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  5. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_schock.pdf (615.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste

  6. Municipal solid waste combustion: Waste-to-energy technologies, regulations, and modern facilities in USEPA Region V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    Table of Contents: Incinerator operations (Waste preprocessing, combustion, emissions characterization and emission control, process monitoring, heat recovery, and residual ash management); Waste-to-energy regulations (Permitting requirements and operating regulations on both state and Federal levels); Case studies of EPA Region V waste-to-energy facilities (Polk County, Minnesota; Jackson County, Michigan; La Crosse, Wisconsin; Kent County, Michigan; Elk River, Minnesota; Indianapolis, Indiana); Evaluation; and Conclusions.

  7. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrot, Laurent Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-02-15

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  10. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.

  11. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation`s landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  13. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  14. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Johannes G.

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  15. Municipal solid waste energy conversion study on Guam and American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-31

    In the Pacific Islands of Guam and Tutuila in American Samoa, conversion of municipal solid waste to useable energy forms - principally electricity but possibly steam - may hold promise for reducing economic dependence on imported petroleum. A secondary benefit may be derived from reduction of solid waste landfill requirements. At the preliminary planning stage, waste-to-energy facilities producing electricity appear technically and environmentally feasible. Economically, the projects appear marginal but could be viable under specific conditions related to capital costs, revenue from garbage collection and revenue from the sale of the energy generated. Grant funding for the projects would considerably enhance the economic viability of the proposed facilities. The projects appear sufficiently viable to proceed to the detailed planning stage. Such projects are not viable for the islands now emerging from the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 2, Exhibits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  17. Reverse logistics network for municipal solid waste management: The inclusion of waste pickers as a Brazilian legal requirement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferri, Giovane Lopes; Diniz Chaves, Gisele de Lorena; Ribeiro, Glaydston Mattos

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We propose a reverse logistics network for MSW involving waste pickers. • A generic facility location mathematical model was validated in a Brazilian city. • The results enable to predict the capacity for screening and storage centres (SSC). • We minimise the costs for transporting MSW with screening and storage centres. • The use of SSC can be a potential source of revenue and a better use of MSW. - Abstract: This study proposes a reverse logistics network involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to solve the challenge of economically managing these wastes considering the recent legal requirements of the Brazilian Waste Management Policy. The feasibility of the allocation of MSW material recovery facilities (MRF) as intermediate points between the generators of these wastes and the options for reuse and disposal was evaluated, as well as the participation of associations and cooperatives of waste pickers. This network was mathematically modelled and validated through a scenario analysis of the municipality of São Mateus, which makes the location model more complete and applicable in practice. The mathematical model allows the determination of the number of facilities required for the reverse logistics network, their location, capacities, and product flows between these facilities. The fixed costs of installation and operation of the proposed MRF were balanced with the reduction of transport costs, allowing the inclusion of waste pickers to the reverse logistics network. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposition of a reverse logistics network for MSW simultaneously involving legal, environmental, economic and social criteria, which is a very complex goal. This study can guide practices in other countries that have realities similar to those in Brazil of accelerated urbanisation without adequate planning for solid waste management, added to the strong presence of waste pickers that, through the

  18. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  19. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María Zafra-Gómez, José Luis Pérez-López, Gemma López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  20. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-08-15

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  1. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  2. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  3. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_crane.pdf (549.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS,

  5. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most promising classes of the new materials, the skutterudites, into a working automotive TEG prototype and test results on its performance deer11_meisner.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery Along with high efficiency engine technologies and emission control, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting research and development to increase vehicle fuel economy by recovering energy from engine waste heat. In current gasoline vehicles, only about 25 percent of the fuel's energy is used to drive the wheels; in contrast, more than 70 percent is lost

  7. Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Industry | Department of Energy and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_yang.pdf (803.83 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive

  8. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy ... Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical and ...

  9. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry On Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Skutterudites Development of Thermoelectric ...

  10. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient Thermoelectric Generator Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicular ...

  11. Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics High Temperature Thermoelectric ...

  12. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  13. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermoelectrics on a OTR truck PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  14. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  15. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. {yields} Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. {yields} Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  16. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing; Keat, Tan Soon; Gersberg, Richard M.

    2010-05-15

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  17. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  18. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  19. Recovery and utilization of cellulosic feedstock from steam classified municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Guinn, G.R.; Bagchi, J.

    1994-12-31

    Steam classification is a process for treatment of commingled municipal solid wastes that transforms the pulp and paper materials and most food and soft yard wastes into a fairly uniform product. After processing and partial drying, most of the transformed cellulosic material can be easily separated from the non-biomass materials by conventional screening and air classification to yield a biomass feedstock. The focus of this report is the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component of this feedstock to produce glucose for fermentation to ethanol. Several commercially available cellulases were tested on the feedstock, and optimum conditions were found for glucose production, including enzyme loading, feedstock concentration, hydrolysis rate, conversion efficiency, and glucose yield.

  20. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1982-01-01

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  1. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles | Department of Energy This project discusses preliminary experimental results to find how thermoelectrics can be applied ot future hybrid vehicles and the optimum design of such equipment using heat pipes deer09_kim.pdf (628.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat

  2. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.M.; Hartman, R.M.; Kort, D.; Rapues, N.

    1994-09-01

    This ash study investigates several aspects of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) ash utilization to develop an alternative to the present disposal practice of landfilling in a lined monofill. Ash was investigated as a daily or final cover for municipal waste in the landfill to prevent erosion and as a road construction aggregate. Samples of eight mixtures of ash and other materials, and one sample of soil were analyzed for chemical constituents. Biological tests on these mixters were conducted, along with erosion tests and sieve analyses. A chemical analysis of each sieve size was conducted. Geotechnical properties of the most promising materials were made. Findings to this point include: all ash samples take have passed the EPA TCLP testing; chemical analysis of bottom and combined ash samples indicate less than expected variability; selected ash mixtures exhibited very low coefficients of hydraulic conductivity; all but one of the ash mixtures exhibited greater erosion resistance than the currently used landfill cover material; MWC combined analysis indicates this is a viable alternative for landfill cover; MWC ash size reactions and chemical analysis show bottom and combined ash to be a viable alternative for road construction.

  3. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Recovery of essential nutrients from municipal solid waste – Impact of waste management infrastructure and governance aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabaleta, Imanol; Rodic, Ljiljana

    2015-10-15

    Every year 120–140 million tonnes of bio-waste are generated in Europe, most of which is landfilled, incinerated or stabilized and used as covering material in landfill operation. None of these practices enables the recovery of essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), which are in great demand for agricultural production. Recovery of these nutrients is a matter of international concern considering the non-renewable nature of P sources and the energy intensive production process required for the synthesis of N fertilizers. The objective of this research is to understand the relation between the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system, both its the physical components and governance aspects, and the recovery of nutrients in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) as a benchmark for European medium-size cities. The analysis shows that the existing physical infrastructure and facilities for bio-waste have high potential for nutrient recovery, 49% for N and 83% for P contained in bio-waste. However, governance aspects of the MSWM system such as legislation and user inclusivity play an important role and decrease the actual nutrient recovery to 3.4% and 7.4% for N and P respectively.

  5. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B. . E-mail: nchang@even.tamuk.edu

    2005-07-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues.

  6. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. > Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. > Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. > Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. > Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35{sup o} for fresh MSW to 28{sup o} for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1{sup o} to 9{sup o}, respectively, while the effective strength parameters

  7. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  8. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • To draw a waste generation and composition map of a town a lot of factors must be taken into account. • The methodology proposed offers two different depending on the available data combined with geographical information systems. • The methodology has been applied to a Spanish city with success. • The methodology will be a useful tool to organize the municipal solid waste management. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the

  9. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corvellec, Herve; Bramryd, Torleif

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 8, Appendix F, Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community`s solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a ``transition`` document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  11. Data Summary of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives. Volume VIII: Appendix F - Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community's solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a transition'' document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  12. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  13. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni’meh; Al-Sari’, Majed I.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Contribution to the scientific literature by examining the relationship between concern for the environment and waste disposal in the frame of household waste treatment mechanism specifically in developing countries. • The awareness of the citizens satisfaction level and the local existing capacities in developing countries significantly contribute to decision making on MSW management sustainability in Palestine and other developing countries when applied. • Identification of the differences and similarities among DC resulting to failures or success in WM field. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens’ collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent’s educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the

  14. Integrated municipal solid waste management: Six case studies of system cost and energy use. A summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of integrated municipal solid waste management systems in six cities: Minneapolis, NW; Springfield, MA; Seattle, WA; Scottsdale, AZ; Palm Beach County, CA; and Sevierville, TN. The primary objective of these case studies was to develop and present consistent cost, resource use (especially energy), and environmental regulator information on each operating IMSWM system. The process is defined as using two or more alternative waste management techniques. Detailed reports on each system are available.

  15. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  16. Investigating the effect of compression on solute transport through degrading municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodman, N.D. Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The influence of compression on MSW flushing was evaluated using 13 tracer tests. • Compression has little effect on solute diffusion times in MSW. • Lithium tracer was conservative in non-degrading waste but not in degrading waste. • Bromide tracer was conservative, but deuterium was not. - Abstract: The effect of applied compression on the nature of liquid flow and hence the movement of contaminants within municipal solid waste was examined by means of thirteen tracer tests conducted on five separate waste samples. The conservative nature of bromide, lithium and deuterium tracers was evaluated and linked to the presence of degradation in the sample. Lithium and deuterium tracers were non-conservative in the presence of degradation, whereas the bromide remained effectively conservative under all conditions. Solute diffusion times into and out of less mobile blocks of waste were compared for each test under the assumption of dominantly dual-porosity flow. Despite the fact that hydraulic conductivity changed strongly with applied stress, the block diffusion times were found to be much less sensitive to compression. A simple conceptual model, whereby flow is dominated by sub-parallel low permeability obstructions which define predominantly horizontally aligned less mobile zones, is able to explain this result. Compression tends to narrow the gap between the obstructions, but not significantly alter the horizontal length scale. Irrespective of knowledge of the true flow pattern, these results show that simple models of solute flushing from landfill which do not include depth dependent changes in solute transport parameters are justified.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  18. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  19. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  20. The impact of air pollution control system design on municipal waste incinerator emissions: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Boehm, E.G.

    1998-07-01

    The use of semi dry scrubbing systems to control acid gases and other pollutants from waste combustors has become an accepted international environmental strategy in countries that incinerate Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). This paper will examine and compare, two MSW facilities in Korea utilizing this technology. It will also discuss various environmental concerns (impacts) relative to a system in operation for three years versus a system scheduled to go into operation later this year. Based on these two projects, the suitability of semi dry scrubbing technology to attain present and more stringent performance requirements will be discussed. Selection of specific equipment and major components relative to system design performance standards in affect at the time of the installation will also be examined. Since the semi dry scrubber system is crucial in maintaining the facilities ability to reduce waste and/or produce energy, while keeping within the design performance standards, it will be discussed in more detail. The system's dual fluid atomizer, including its performance and the impact it has on reagent utilization, system economics and maintainability will also be discussed in detail. Finally, the overall configuration of the scrubber vessel is examined as is the impact that this configuration has on the system performance.

  1. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  2. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  3. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  5. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuboňová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  6. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-04-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

  7. Evolution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste during bio-drying and implications of their subsequent transfer during combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing; Zhang Hua; Wu Changlin; Shao Liming; He Pinjing

    2011-08-15

    Bio-drying has been applied to improve the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to combustion. In the present study, evolution of heavy metals in MSW during bio-drying and subsequent combustion was studied using one aerobic and two combined hydrolytic-aerobic scenarios. Heavy metals were concentrated during bio-drying and transformed between different metal fractions, namely the exchangeable, carbonate-bound, iron- and manganese-oxides-bound, organic-matter-bound and residual fractions. The amounts of heavy metals per kg of bio-dried MSW transferred into combustion flue gas increased with bio-drying time, primarily due to metals enrichment from organics degradation. Because of their volatility, the partitioning ratios of As and Hg in flue gas remained stable so that bio-drying and heavy metal speciation had little effect on their transfer and partitioning during combustion. In contrast, the partitioning ratios of Pb, Zn and Cu tended to increase after bio-drying, which likely enhanced their release potential during combustion.

  8. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-10-14

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time.

  9. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident

  10. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-15

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy.

  11. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste pre-collection system. A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • MSW recovery starts at homes; therefore it is important to facilitate it to people. • Additionally, to optimize MSW collection a previous pre-collection must be planned. • A methodology to organize pre-collection considering several factors is presented. • The methodology has been verified applying it to a Spanish middle town. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consists in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has

  12. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  13. Waste-to-Energy (Municipal Solid Waste) - Energy Explained, Your Guide To

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse

  14. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such

  15. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The isotopic signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ► Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ► In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ► The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ► δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a δ{sup 13}C-DIC of −20‰ to −25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in δ{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW

  16. Electric-resistance furnace for melting ash from municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakao, Tsuyoshi; Nakahara, Keisuke; Akashi, Tetsuo

    1997-12-31

    Existing landfill capacity is dwindling in Japan and it is difficult to find new landfill sites because of strong opposition from residents. Under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law in 1991 in Japan, fly ashes from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator have to be treated by one of the four methods: (1) vitrification, (2) solidification by cement, (3) stabilization using chemical agents, or (4) extraction with acid or other solvent. In these four technologies, the vitrification technology has some advantages: decreasing ash volume which can solve the landfill problem, de-taxiing ash, and utilization of its products from residues. NKK has developed an electric resistance furnace for melting MSW incineration residues and built a demonstration plant (24t/d). The performance test results showed as follows; (1) Si, Al, and Ca tended to become the molten slag. Cu, P, and Fe tended to become the molten metal. Pb, Zn, and Cd tended to become the molten fly ash. (2) HCl from the slag resistance electric furnace was 60 ppm and very low compared with other melting systems. (3) Decomposition rate of dioxins was 99 % in the melting furnace. (4) Concentration of heavy metals in the molten slag was low and leaching of heavy metals was below Japanese regulation.

  17. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  18. A process for treatment of APC residues from municipal solid waste incinerators: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelmar, O.; Birch, H.

    1997-12-01

    The problem of environmentally safe management of the residues from air pollution control (APC) systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, particularly the residues from the semidry/dry acid gas cleaning processes (dry scrubber residues), has not yet been solved in a satisfactory and sustainable manner. These residues are in many cases simply stored indefinitely in big bags or they are landfilled under conditions that in the long term may not be able to prevent potentially harmful constituents from leaching and leaking into the environment. The APC residues, including fly ash, are in many countries classified as hazardous or special waste due to their high contents of soluble salts (particularly calcium chloride) and trace elements/heavy metals. The semidry/dry APC residues are strongly alkaline due to a content of excess lime, and the high pH favours the leaching of several contaminants, particularly lead. This paper presents preliminary results of a study of a process for treatment of semidry/dry APC residues and fly ash from MSW incinerators. In the process the contaminants are partly removed, partly immobilized thus improving the above mentioned situation and allowing for subsequent safe management (i.e. utilization or landfilling) of the treated residues.

  19. Ultramizer: Waste Heat Recovery System for Commercial and Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    removes pure water from the waste stream, which can then be reused to reduce makeup water demand. The recovered latent heat energy can be used to reduce energy input for...

  20. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research ...

  1. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giudicianni, Paola; Bozza, Pio; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A domestic scale prototype for the pre-treatment of OFMSW has been tested. • Two grinding techniques are compared and thermopress is used for the drying stage. • Increasing temperature up to 170 °C reduces energy consumption of the drying stage. • In the range 5–10 bar a reduction of 97% of the initial volume is obtained. • In most cases energy recovery from the dried waste matches energy consumption. - Abstract: In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of

  2. NREL Reveals Potential for Capturing Waste Heat via Nanotubes - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Reveals Potential for Capturing Waste Heat via Nanotubes April 4, 2016 A finely tuned carbon nanotube thin film has the potential to act as a thermoelectric power generator that captures and uses waste heat, according to researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The research could help guide the manufacture of thermoelectric devices based on either single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films or composites containing these nanotubes.

  3. Identification of existing waste heat recovery and process improvement technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Dodge, R.E.; Smith, S.A.; Ames, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    General information is provided on waste heat recovery opportunities. The currently available equipment for high- and low-temperature applications are described. Other equipment related to wasteheat recovery equipment such as components, instruments and controls, and cleaning equipment is discussed briefly. A description of the microcomputer data base is included. Suppliers of waste heat equipment are mentioned throughout the report, with specific contacts, addresses, and telephone numbers provided in an Appendix.

  4. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recovery Applications | Department of Energy Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed fluerial.pdf (3.11 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and

  5. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  6. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bareither, Christopher A.; Wolfe, Georgia L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Benson, Craig H.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ► Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ► Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ► Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ► Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and

  7. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  9. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  10. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  11. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase the energy efficiency of process heating systems. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #8 Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (September 2005) (280.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System Using

  12. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Model developed provides effective guidelines to designing thermoelectric generation systems for automotive waste heat recovery applications

  13. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  14. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  15. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan; Li Xiangzhi; Zhaojie Cui

    2010-11-15

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  18. Control strategies for an expert system at a municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockrill, P.; Zheng, L.; Clements, B.; Ram, K.; Boatwright, K.

    1997-12-31

    Optimal burning of municipal waste is challenging due to the unknown variability of the garbage and the strict limits on the emission streams. Proper operation relies upon procedures that are, to a certain extent, based upon previous experience. Therefore this is an excellent application for an expert system since they are designed to initiate operator actions before actual operator intervention is necessary. This paper briefly discusses the rationale for developing an expert system at the Burnaby Incinerator, Burnaby, British Columbia and how it was implemented. The Burnaby Incinerator, owned by the Greater Vancouver Regional District and operated by Montenay, Inc., was a test location for an expert system jointly funded by Environment Canada and the Panel for Energy Research and Development and developed by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. The expert system was designed to perform a number of functions: identification of boiler upsets due to fuel variations, prediction of stack emissions and control of lime injection for SO{sub 2} emissions. These particular functions were chosen to smooth the boiler operation and reduce the cost of plant operation. The expert system is a PC based system using both commercial and developed software. It incorporates rule based and model based techniques and neural network technology. The results of the expert system project are presented.

  19. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  1. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process

  2. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  3. Multiple stakeholders in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltani, Atousa; Hewage, Kasun; Reza, Bahareh; Sadiq, Rehan

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We review Municipal Solid Waste Management studies with focus on multiple stakeholders. • We focus on studies with multi-criteria decision analysis methods and discover their trends. • Most studies do not offer solutions for situations where stakeholders compete for more benefits or have unequal voting powers. • Governments and experts are the most participated stakeholders and AHP is the most dominant method. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is a complicated process that involves multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. Decision-makers look for decision support frameworks that can guide in defining alternatives, relevant criteria and their weights, and finding a suitable solution. In addition, decision-making in MSWM problems such as finding proper waste treatment locations or strategies often requires multiple stakeholders such as government, municipalities, industries, experts, and/or general public to get involved. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is the most popular framework employed in previous studies on MSWM; MCDA methods help multiple stakeholders evaluate the often conflicting criteria, communicate their different preferences, and rank or prioritize MSWM strategies to finally agree on some elements of these strategies and make an applicable decision. This paper reviews and brings together research on the application of MCDA for solving MSWM problems with more focus on the studies that have considered multiple stakeholders and offers solutions for such problems. Results of this study show that AHP is the most common approach in consideration of multiple stakeholders and experts and governments/municipalities are the most common participants in these studies.

  4. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE SOLIDIFICATION CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2009-06-01

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  5. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  6. Assessing the credibility of the calorific value of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.; Ledford, A.E.; Colbert, J.C.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Paule, R.C.; Reilly, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards to establish the limits of reliability of the calorific value of municipal solid waste (MSW) determined by the bomb calorimetric procedure currently used in commercial test laboratories. This procedure involves using gram-size samples derived from MSW that has been processed down to a particle size of 2 mm or less. Critics of the procedure argue that gram-size samples are too small to be representative of such a large quantity of so heterogeneous a material, and that processing MSW may also alter its composition. To test the bomb calorimetric procedure, a 2.5 kg capacity combustion flow calorimeter was designed and constructed for the determination of the enthalpies of combustion of kilogram-size samples of MSW in flowing oxygen near atmospheric pressure. Calorimetric data on processed MSW were obtained using both the kilogram-size flow and a gram-size bomb calorimeter. Intercomparison of results shows that the calorific value (on a dry basis) of gram-size test samples agrees, within the uncertainty of our experiments, with the corresponding values for their kilogram-size parent samples provided that the sample division technique used to obtain the gram-size samples is that described in this work. The average difference of the parent minus gram-size sample values (on a dry basis) is -0.1% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-1.1% of the mean calorific value. The effects of processing on sample composition were determined by intercomparison of flow calorimetric results on kilogram-size samples of processed and minimally processed MSW (150 mm or less particle size) that are nominally identical. The average difference of the unprocessed minus processed values (on a dry basis) is -0.5% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-2.9% of the mean calorific value. 7 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  8. Design considerations for the cross jet air mixing in the municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Choi, S.

    1995-12-31

    In the mass-burning municipal solid waste incinerators, overfire air injection plays a key role in the improvement of mixing and reaction between oxygen and incomplete combustion products and/or pollutants. However, design parameters of overfire air nozzles are not well understood and sometimes confusing. In this paper, major design parameters of the cross jet air nozzles are discussed along with flow simulation results for the simplified furnace geometry. The overall performance of the jet air mixing and the effects of design parameters are quantitatively evaluated. The flow simulation results are interpreted in terms of the penetration depth of the jet into the main flow, the size of the recirculation zone and the ratio of the unmixed portion of the gas flow. The momentum flux ratio(J) of the jet to the cross flow strongly affects the penetration depth of the jet and the mixing of two flow streams. As the inter-nozzle distance (S in non-dimensional form) decreases, the penetration depth decreases but the size of recirculation zone increases and the resultant mixing deteriorates. The degree of mixing of the jet with the cross gas stream is evaluated in terms of the mass-averaged probability distribution of the relative concentration. Fresh air disperses more efficiently into the gas stream as J and S increase. The momentum flux ratio and the inter-nozzle distance are considered as important design parameters, and optimum values of these variables can be chosen for the given furnace conditions. This numerical evaluation also provides the basis of the similarity consideration for the cold flow model tests and the validity of the 2-dimensional idealization.

  9. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech06_reedy_040213.pdf (403.24 KB) More Documents & Publications Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance Database - 2013 BTO Peer Review Department of Energy

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy

  10. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases