National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for waste combustible gas

  1. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  2. Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Local Government MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric...

  3. Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of its unique ability to handle a wide variety of liquids and solids in an energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner, fluid bed combustion is being increasingly applied to the utilization of waste materials and low grade fuels...

  4. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

  5. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  6. Particulate Waste Product Combustion System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, D. R.; Chastain, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    sive. Their low nutritive properties, resistanre to weather, great bulk with variabl density, and possession of high ash or silica content present special problems when attf>...mpting to dispose of these wastes. In the past, eccnanics dictated... with high ash or silica content into burn.ers have produced problems of fly ash in the exhaust stream causing extensive darrage to boilers f1red by th gasification process. For exanple, the contlus ioo of the rice hull pre sents a unique problem due...

  7. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  8. Waste incineration through pulsating combustion. Part I. Combustor characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Tiejun; Yeboah, Y.D.; Wang, Zhicheng [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes work performed under the 1st phase of an on-going effort to develop pulsating combustion waste incineration technology. The primary objective of the effort is to study the effect of pulsating combustion upon the incineration of wastes, especially medical wastes, and to develop a laboratory scale experimental pulsating combustion medical waste incinerator. In this paper, the characteristics of the developed combustor are discussed. Specifically, emission measurement under various operating conditions of the combustor is discussed. The numerical analysis of the fluid flow is also presented.

  9. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Evaluation of Good Combustion Performance in Waste Incinerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    a legal requirement to minimize pollution in municipal solid waste incinerators. The conditions for in-furnace destruction of pollutants are stated as: good combustion is achieved when 2-second gas residence time at 850 C of potential pollutants. The residence time needs to be carefully determined based on the gas inlet position

  11. Combustion and inorganic emissions of ground waste tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Steciak, J.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristics and emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} gases from ground waste tires. Results were contrasted with those obtained from burning pulverized coal. Laboratory bench-scale experiments were conducted in a drop-tube, laminar-flow furnace, in air at fuel-lean conditions, at gas temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1600 K. Two particle size cuts were burned from both materials, 75-90 {mu}m and 180-212 {mu}m. Blends of coal and tire particles, at equal weight ratios, were also burned. Pyrometric and cinematographic observations revealed that the coal particles exhibited distinct volatile and char combustion phases, while tire particles exhibited a distinct primary volatile phase followed by a char combustion phase, which was accompanied by burning of secondary pyrolysis products. SO{sub 2} emissions of burning ground tires increased from 160 to 500 ppm as the temperature increased from 1300 K to 1600 K. Combustion of coal produced SO{sub 2} emissions in the neighborhood of 200-300 ppm (corresponding to 40 to 60 wt% of its sulfur content) independent of the gas temperature. The blend of coal and tire particles (equal mass ratios) exhibited SO{sub 2} values which fell in between the above. NO{sub x} emissions were constant at approximately 175 ppm for tire crumb (corresponding to approximately 45 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) and 625 ppm for coal (corresponding to 55 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) in the temperature range studied. CO{sub 2} emissions from tire were 8-9 molar %, while for coal particles they were 5-7 molar %; the upper limits corresponded to approximately 100% combustion efficiency. As a means to reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions, pulverized coal and tire crumb were fluidized together with particles of a calcium bearing sorbent - calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA has been identified as an effective SO{sub 2} scrubbing agent in previous studies.

  12. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  13. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia, University of

    Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease Accepted 29 January 2012 Keywords: Amphibian Coal combustion wastes Contaminants Trace elements Selenium terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival

  14. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  15. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  17. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  18. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  19. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  20. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  1. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  2. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  3. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Olson, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    The Hanford Site has been used for the storage of solid waste including transuranic and low-level mixed wastes. The storage and handling of solid waste presents some fire safety questions because most of the solid waste contains combustible components. This report addresses the composition, average fuel loading, and some general observations about performance of steel-drummed solid waste in fire situations.

  4. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  5. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  6. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  7. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  8. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  11. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  12. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  13. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the USWAG survey. The selected States were Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, North Da

  14. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  15. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  16. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-08-08

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream.

  17. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

  18. Municipal solid waste combustion: Waste-to-energy technologies, regulations, and modern facilities in USEPA Region V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    Table of Contents: Incinerator operations (Waste preprocessing, combustion, emissions characterization and emission control, process monitoring, heat recovery, and residual ash management); Waste-to-energy regulations (Permitting requirements and operating regulations on both state and Federal levels); Case studies of EPA Region V waste-to-energy facilities (Polk County, Minnesota; Jackson County, Michigan; La Crosse, Wisconsin; Kent County, Michigan; Elk River, Minnesota; Indianapolis, Indiana); Evaluation; and Conclusions.

  19. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working...

  20. New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

  1. Energy from Waste November 4, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Waste Combustion (MWC) · Power plant that combusts MSW and other non-hazardous wastes as fuel gas to energy facilities · 2 Hydro electric facilities · Recently broke ground on Durham / York

  2. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lowers Costs ArcelorMittal's Indiana Harbor plant in East Chicago, Indiana, is the largest steel mill in the Western Hemisphere. It operates five...

  3. Chemical kinetic modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas, a mixture of natural gas (primarily methane (CH 4 )), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), could enable the utilization of large natural gas resources, especially when ...

  4. Experimental Investigations of Partially Premixed Hydrogen Combustion in Gas Turbine Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    H. Koch, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines and Power P. Patnaik, AMazzocchi, ASME J. of Eng. Gas Turbines and Power [3] K.M.Hydrogen Combustion in Gas Turbine Environments By Andrew

  5. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Turbines Incorporated is a leading manufacturer of industrial gas turbine packages for the power generation- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  6. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  7. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  8. Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare

  9. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  10. Sensitivity of natural gas HCCI combustion to fuel and operating parameters using detailed kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S; Dibble, R; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C K

    1999-07-19

    This paper uses the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to analyze natural gas HCCI combustion in an engine. The HCT code has been modified to better represent the conditions existing inside an engine, including a wall heat transfer correlation. Combustion control and low power output per displacement remain as two of the biggest challenges to obtaining satisfactory performance out of an HCCI engine, and these are addressed in this paper. The paper considers the effect of natural gas composition on HCCI combustion, and then explores three control strategies for HCCI engines: DME (dimethyl ether) addition, intake heating and hot EGR addition. The results show that HCCI combustion is sensitive to natural gas composition, and an active control may be required to compensate for possible changes in composition. The three control strategies being considered have a significant effect in changing the combustion parameters for the engine, and should be able to control HCCI combustion.

  11. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  12. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

  13. Application of pulse combustion to incineration to liquid hazardous waste. Final report, September 1991-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBenedictis, C.

    1994-04-01

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combuster burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. The fuel oil was doped with surrogate principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). For each test condition, the burner was operated in both a pulsing and nonpulsing mode. Large amplitude acoustic pulses were generated by adjusting the burner frequency to match the natural frequency of the combustion chamber. The combustion gases were sampled to quantify organic and particulate emissions. The results showed destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) values that were greater than six nines (99.9999%) for both pulsing and nonpulsing operations. The pulse combustor for the study was equipped with a fuel vaporization unit which may have enhanced the destruction capabilities of the burner.

  14. On the dynamic nature of azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular gas turbine combustion chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    On the dynamic nature of azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular gas turbine combustion chambers with the dynamics of standing and rotating azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular combustion chambers source intensity, the asymmetry in the system and the strength of the thermo-acoustic interaction

  15. Method to prevent recession loss of silica and silicon-containing materials in combustion gas environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brun, Milivoj Konstantin (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Niskayuna, NY)

    2003-01-01

    While silicon-containing ceramics or ceramic composites are prone to material loss in combustion gas environments, this invention introduces a method to prevent or greatly reduce the thickness loss by injecting directly an effective amount, generally in the part per million level, of silicon or silicon-containing compounds into the combustion gases.

  16. Application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous-waste incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, C.R.; Lemieux, P.M.; Zinn, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. A rotary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. The pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln and increases the completeness of combustion by promoting better mixing within the system. Tests were performed using toluene sorbed onto a ground corn cob sorbent and placed in cardboard containers. The burner was operated in a non-pulse mode as a baseline condition, and then in a pulse mode in which the frequency of the pulse combustor was adjusted to the natural frequency of the combustion chamber, creating resonant pulsations of large magnitude. The test was also performed using polyethylene tube bundles to simulate a solid waste and to investigate a surrogate which produces different puff characteristics. The addition of turbulence in the rotary kiln due to high amplitude acoustic pulsations has a strong tendency to reduce the amount of soot and/or semivolatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons. Mass emissions of soot were consistently reduced in all tests. Carbon monoxide increased during acoustic pulsations in the toluene tests. The paper also discusses unsatisfied oxygen demand and carbon penetration and how pulsations affect them.

  17. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  18. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1991-02-11

    Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  20. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  1. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  2. An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David Bruce

    1981-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION, STEAM INJECTED GAS TURBINE A Thesis by DAVID BRUCE FORD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 19SI Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION i STEAM INJECTED GAS TURBINE A Thesis DAVID BRUCE FORD Approved as to style and content by: & cene 'u Co...

  3. Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines the EL method well suited for gas turbine computations, but RANS with the EE approach may also be found and coupled with the LES solver of the gas phase. The equations used for each phase and the coupling terms

  4. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  5. Applications of risk management to waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Kimball, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    Human health and ecological risk assessments have become routine for waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) as a result of USEPA`s Combustion Strategy, questions raised by citizens about the health effects of incineration, and the desire for the regulated community to have a level playing field regarding emissions regulations. The USEPA, National Academy of Sciences, various trade organizations, and individual researchers have published widely regarding methods for facility-specific risk assessments. Often these risk assessments are highly complex, site-specific documents that use advanced techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation. However, the risks that are calculated in these risk assessments are usually only used to compare to criteria for health effects and, thereby, develop permit conditions that are protective of health and the environment. Thus, the risk assessment is only used to derive a simple set of numbers and most of the information derived in the complex risk computations is lost. The object of this paper is to demonstrate how to derive more information from risk assessments that can be used in making management decisions. This paper will discuss the theory of risk management and present applications to combustion of waste in BIFs. For example, a permit applicant needed to make a decision among alternative air pollution control (APC) equipment sequences including scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators. Limited life cycle analysis was used to determine the amount of direct and total waste produced by each of the alternatives. Monte Carlo risk assessment was used to determine the health risks associated with each of the alternatives and reliability analysis was employed to minimize both waste production and health risk.

  6. Performance evaluation of a gas turbine cycle with a pulse combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Gizawy, I.G.; Gadalla, M.A. [Helwan Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the effect of a pulse combustion system on the performance of a gas turbine cycle. The advantages of pulse combustors are numerous. The heat transfer is enhanced by the large oscillations resulting in the flowfield within the combustion zone. These oscillations arise from intrinsic combustion driven instabilities, similar to those that occur in rocket motors. The enhanced heat transfer means that a smaller combustion chamber (furnace) can be used to provide the same energy output. Moreover, a reduction in the No{sub x} level in the exhaust gases can be obtained without additional pollution control. The purpose of this paper, is to analyze theoretically the effect of pulse combustion system on the performance of a gas turbine cycle so that the resultant changes in performance can be estimated without experiment. In addition, this paper investigates the utilization of converting part of chemical energy of fuel into pressure energy in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine utilizing a pulse combustor. A computer code has been written to evaluate the cycle performance, thermodynamic characteristics of the cycle during operation as compared with a conventional cycle. The study describes the influence of the maximum possible pressure rise in combustion chamber, the heat addition ratio, maximum temperature and compressor pressure ratio on the performance parameters such as fuel consumption, net work output, excess air factor and thermal efficiency.

  7. Performance and gas cleanup criterion for a cotton gin waste fluidized-bed gasifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Joe David

    1980-01-01

    to gasify cottin gin waste. General objectives are: 1) Design and construct a fluidized-bed gasification reactor based on results of a study by Groves (1979). 2) Evaluate performance of the scaled up reactor based on Groves' empirical prediction equation... of Groves (1979). A gasifier of this type would supply about 238 megajoules of heat per hour based on converting 90 percent of the produced gas to heat. If the produced gas were used in an internal combustion engine with 20 per- e nt conversion effic...

  8. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Documents & Publications TEG On-Vehicle Performance & Model Validation Thermoelectric Generator Performance for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for...

  9. Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.E. Lippert; D.M. Bachovchin

    2004-03-31

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. In addition to kinetic modeling and experimental task, CFD modeling (by Texas A&M) of airfoil injection and its effects on blade aerodynamics and turbine performance. This report discusses validation of the model against single-vane combustion test data from Siemens Westinghouse, and parametric studies of injection reheat in a modern turbine. The best location for injection is at the trailing edge of the inlet guide vane. Combustion is incomplete at trailing edges of subsequent vanes. Recommendations for further development are presented.

  10. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  11. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  12. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  13. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  15. Corrosion-induced gas generation in a nuclear waste repository: Reactive geochemistry and multiphase flow effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Lying Repositories for Nuclear Waste, NAGRA Technical Reporthost rock formation for nuclear waste storage. EngineeringGas Generation in a Nuclear Waste Repository: Reactive

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  17. Gas generation from Tank 241-SY-103 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Forbes, S.V.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating mechanisms by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-SY-103. The objective of this work is to establish the identity and stoichiometry of degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The focus of the gas generation tests on Tank 241-SY-103 samples is first the effect of temperature on gas generation (volume and composition). Secondly, gas generation from irradiation of Tank 241-SY-103 samples at the corresponding temperatures as the thermal-only treatments will be measured in the presence of an external radiation source (using a {sup 137}Cs capsule). The organic content will be measured on a representative sample prior to gas generation experiments and again at the termination of heating and irradiation. The gas generation will be related to the extent of organic species consumption during heating. Described in this report are experimental methods used for producing and measuring gases generated at various temperatures from highly radioactive actual tank waste, and results of gas generation from Tank 241-SY-103 waste taken from its convective layer. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates from actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from the convective layer of Tank 241-SY-103, a waste tank listed on the Flammable Gas Watch List due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  18. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01

    ); and the bottom (figure 4). The purpose of this design was to provide flexsMity to modify the CC. Figure 5 shows a sectional view of the cydone combustor designed. The dimensions in this drawing were calculated based on a CGT feeding rate in the gasifier... TABLES OF THE STATISTICAL ANALYSES Primary Equivalence Ratio Overall Equivalence Ratio Delay Time between Stages Inlet Reynolds Number Combustion Temperature F/A Ratio in Gasifier D COMPUTER PROGRAM USED IN THE CAMAC SYSTEM E EXAMPLE . 162 163...

  19. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  20. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas�������¢����������������air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed �������¢����������������relative combustion phasing�������¢���������������). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20���������������° to 60���������������°BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  1. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ? A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ? Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ? Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ? Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal.

  2. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski, Stuart K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  3. A Novel Damping Device for Broadband Attenuation of Low-Frequency Combustion Pulsations in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Turbines Mirko R. Bothien, Nicolas Noiray, Bruno Schuermans Alstom, Baden, Switzerland Abstract Damping of thermoacoustically induced pressure pulsations in combustion chambers is a major focus of gas turbine operation turbines. Usually, however, the damping optimum is in a narrow frequency band at one operating condition

  4. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kent Barefield; Charles L. Liotta; Henry M. Neumann

    2002-04-08

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996.

  5. A recuperative external combustion open cycle gas turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Dan Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Annulus Turbine Exhaust Outer Gas Annulus B. B Shell ~ Heavy Fin Rivet nin Light Fin Outer Air Annulus Inner Air Annulus Outer Liner Divider Combustor Inner Liner Figure 4 RECOC Test Engine 13 Table 1 Solar T-62T-17 Gas Turbine MODEL... test engine, a Go-Power D312 water brake dynamometer was available. The power output was the product of the dynamometer torque reading multiplied by shaft speed. The heat imput rate was calculated by flowing fuel from the 2000 ml test vol'- ume...

  6. Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers for Corrosive Waste Gas Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laws, W. R.; Reed, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    gas temperatures. It was noted that ~ degree of self-cleaning had occurred and L particularly all carbon deposits had OXidiSrd away. I 2. Aluminium I Silicon carbide and mullite tubes have been~ evaluated in the waste gas streams of natur 1 gas... fired aluminium reverberator:r furnaces. aving waste gas temperatures cycling from 800 to 1200 deg. C. The application of metallic : convective heat exchar~ers for this duty ha$ proved ur~uitable for ir~tallations partic~arly where the injection...

  7. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  8. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  9. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  10. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About UsEnergyof Energy MaturationColoring and Activity BookCombinedDepartment

  11. DETECTION OF ALUMINUM WASTE REACTIONS AND WASTE FIRES Jeffrey W. Martin, M.S., P.G., R.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , undesirable changes in leachate composition, increased leachate production, and most importantly smoldering combustion of the surrounding solid waste. The landfill liner and explosive gas extraction and leachate, landfill, leachate, leachate recirculation, salt cake, slope stability, smoldering, solid waste, Subtitle D

  12. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  13. LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Khanna

    2002-09-30

    Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub-scale combustor rig, performing and validating CFD predictions, and ultimately conducting a full system demonstration in a multi-injector combustion system at Solar Turbines.

  14. Combustion Gas Turbine Power Enhancement by Refrigeration of Inlet Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meher-Homji, C. B.; Mani, G.

    1983-01-01

    -'--I:~:::=+~:="'t-':::ty= 0 I---t--~~~~h;!:::::"" y~ .2 ,pa .? )/,. .(, ~-N--~-"IY;: .g Y.. I.e ,oR !?IIT/O ~ 1S'1~III!1S PREssuRE RI'1TIO 20 L , --:-3--:':5--?L..l...l.9A..l..l.lJl.....;lo.l..~? Figure 11: Effect of Bleed Air Rates (~) on ~hermal Efficiency... :-: 0.97 40 P, 147 psia P, = 15.0 psia > u c: .!!!20 o ",. EIO ~ A G; -= ~-r 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 net output work (Btu/lb-air) Figure 1: Simple Cycle; Brayton Cycle Gas Turbine and Performance Map. 411 ESL-IE-83...

  15. Controls and Measurements of KU Engine Test Cells for Biodiesel, SynGas, and Assisted Biodiesel Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    2011-04-06

    the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main...

  16. Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tylczak, Joseph

    2014-05-02

    This paper reports on the results of a study that compares the erosion-corrosion behavior of a variety of alloys (Fe- 2ĽCr 1Mo, 304 SS, 310 SS, Incoloy 800, Haynes 230 and a Fe3Al) in a combustion environment. Advanced coal combustion environments, with higher temperatures, are driving re-examination of traditional and examination of new alloys in these hostile environments. In order to simulate conditions in advanced coal combustion boilers, a special erosion apparatus was used to allow for impingement of particles under a low abrasive flux in a gaseous environment comprised of 20 % CO2, 0.05 % HCl, 77 % N2, 3 % O2, and 0.1 % SO2. Tests were conducted at room temperature and 700 °C with ~ 270 ?m silica, using an impact velocity of 20 m/s in both air and the simulated combustion gas environment. The erosion-corrosion behavior was characterized by gravimetric measurements and by examination of the degraded surfaces optically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature most of the alloys had similar loss rates. Not surprisingly, at 700 °C the lower chrome-iron alloy had a very high loss rate. The nickel alloys tended to have higher loss rates than the high chrome austenitic alloys.

  17. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. 1 Introduction The ability to model the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under a a two­step scheme for natural gas combustion [30] coupled with a simplified turbulent kinetics model [6

  18. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  19. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  20. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  1. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  2. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  3. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  4. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  5. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  6. Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D

  7. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  8. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  9. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  10. Stirling Engine Natural Gas Combustion Demonstration Program. Final report, October 1989-January 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

    1991-02-01

    Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling engine may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod III) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

  11. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2015-01-06

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  12. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  13. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  14. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  15. Waste utilization as an energy source: Municipal wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of municipal wastes as an energy source. Articles discuss energy derived from incineration/combustion, refuse-derived fuels, co-firing municipal waste and standard fuels, landfill gas production, sewage combustion, and other waste-to-energy technologies. Citations address economics and efficiencies of various schemes to utilize municipal waste products as energy sources. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  17. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  18. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  19. Combustion Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowling, Ann P.; Mahmoudi, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Combustion noise is becoming increasingly important as a major noise source in aeroengines and ground based gas turbines. This is partially because advances in design have reduced the other noise sources, and partially because next generation...

  20. Experience in preparing fuel for combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rude, J.

    1995-09-01

    The key phase seems to be that wood is the ORIGINAL FUEL. Certainly as man discovered fire, it was the most obvious as well as abundantly available fuel and it burned very well because man was smart enough to select the dry wood once he understood the basics of combustion. As the needs started to go beyond the most elementary, designs for burning ideal fuels were pretty well perfected, however, the burning of less ideal fuels still remain a challenge. To provide plant steam requirements by burning waste that must be disposed of anyway can reduce operating cost considerably. For most of us involved in producing steam, the experience we have with fuels such as bark, wood waste, sludge, and miscellaneous forms of solid combustible waste material, are a result of burning these fuels in an existing boiler supposedly designed for wood waste or possibly a combination of wood and other fuels such as coal, oil, or gas. For a supplier of fuel preparation systems, the typical application involves the sizing, cleaning, and drying of wood waste, and sludge from a pulp and/or paper mill. Other forms of combustible waste are dealt with occasionally and after proper preparation fired in the combustion system for the purpose of generating hot gas and/or steam for the plant process.

  1. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  2. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2010-06-29

    Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60���° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x). Further, the 60���° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20���° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40���° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NO x trends, which showed the lowest NO x emissions for the 60���°, 20���°, and 40���° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to higher peak heat release rates and hotter packets but the pilot quantity and intake temperature affected the potential for NO x formation to a greater extent.

  4. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alas, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T. [ETSC Government Services, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  5. Thermal and radiolytic gas generation from Tank 241-S-102 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic rate parameters for flammable gas generation in Hanford single-shell tank wastes based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-S-102 (S-102). Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and its Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) under subcontract to PNNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company) using actual wastes. The results of gas generation from Tank S-102 waste under thermal and radiolytic conditions are described in this report. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates in actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from Tank S-102, a waste tank listed as high priority by the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  6. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  7. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  8. Municipal waste combustion assessment: Fossil fuel co-firing. Final report, October 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landrum, V.J.; Barton, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; and describes the population of coal fired boilers that currently co-fire RDF, have previously co-fired RDF but have ceased to do so, and have been used in RDF co-firing demonstrations. (Fossil fuel co-firing, defined as the combustion of RDF with another fuel (usually coal) in a device designed primarily to burn the other fuel, is generally confined to commercial and utility boilers.) Model plants are developed and good combustion practices are recommended.

  9. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Waste CO 2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals Enabling high-yield, low-cost, low- temperature production of chemical intermediates Chemical intermediates,...

  10. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01

    W. , " A Model For The Thermoacoustic Response of A premixedThe Calculation of Thermoacoustic Oscillations," Journal ofKeller , J. J. , " Thermoacoustic Oscillations in Combustion

  11. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  12. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, Raymond M. (McKeesport, PA)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  13. Multi-phase Combustion and Transport Processes Under the Influence of Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wegener, Jeffrey Lewis

    2014-01-01

    and Aeronautics: Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbinefor combustion instability in lean premixed gas turbineBlust. Combustion instabilities in industrial gas turbines:

  14. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  15. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas temperatures as well as peak heat release rates in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

  16. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbines Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Jun

    2004-01-01

    operation of gas turbines (especially combustion turbines inthe development of gas turbines, especially combustion gas

  17. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  18. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  19. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  20. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  1. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  2. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  3. Status and integration of studies of gas generation in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to review recent progress in determining the mechanism, kinetics, and stoichiometry of gas generation in Hanford waste tanks. Information has been gathered from the results of (1) laboratory studies with simulated wastes; (2) laboratory studies with actual waste core samples (Tanks SY-101 and SY-103); (3) studies of thermal and radiolytic reactions in the gas phase; (4) gas solubility evaluations; and (5) in-tank gas composition data. The results of laboratory studies using simulated wastes, which were aimed at determining chemical mechanisms responsible for gas generation, are summarized in Section 2. Emphasized are findings from work performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), which was conducted under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and completed in FY 1996. Thermally activated pathways for the decomposition of hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA, trisodium salt) in simulated wastes were established by this work, among other accomplishments.

  4. Combustion Characteristics of a Two-Stroke Large Bore Natural Gas Spark-Ignited Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Aaron A

    2015-07-30

    Naturally, there are complex interactions among internal combustion engine parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, emissions, speed, and load. These basic relationships are studied in a naturally aspirated, spark-ignited, two-stroke, large...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  6. Development of hydrogen gas getters for TRU waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Mroz, E. J. (Eugene J.); Peterson, E. (Eric); Stone, M. (Mark); Haga, M. J. (Marc J.)

    2004-01-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For this reason, the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TP-II containers) is limited to the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). The use of hydrogen getters is being investigated to prevent the build up of hydrogen during storage and transport of the TP-II containers (up to 60 days). Preferred hydrogen getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it in the solid state. One proven getter, 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, belongs to a class of compounds called alkynes, which are characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. These carbon atoms will, in the presence of suitable catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with hydrogen to form the corresponding saturated alkane compounds. Because DEB contains two triple bonds, one mole of DEB reacts with 4 moles of hydrogen. The standard formulation for the 'DEB getter' is a mixture of 75% DEB and 25% carbon catalyst (5% palladium on carbon). Certain chemicals such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to 'poison' and reduce the activity of the catalyst. Therefore, in addition to the standard formulation, a semi-permeable barrier that encapsulates and protects the getter and its catalyst from poisons was also developed. The uncoated and polymer coated getter formulations were subjected to tests that determined the performance of the getters with regard to capacity, operating temperature range (with hydrogen in nitrogen and in air), hydrogen concentration, poisons, aging, pressure, reversibility, and radiation effects. This testing program was designed to address the following performance requirements: (1) Minimum rate for hydrogen removal of 1.2E-5 moles hydrogen per second for 60 days; (2) Sufficient getter material within the TP-II to ensure that no more than 50% of getter material is consumed during the 60 days; and (3) Adequate hydrogen removal rate from the getter reaction in the absence of the recombination reaction of hydrogen to produce water. This conservative approach provides a measure of safety for waste shipments by ensuring that sufficient getter material is present and by not taking credit for the recombination reaction. The rationale for measuring and reporting the hydrogen removal rate at 50% getter capacity is thus derived. All of the coated getters as well as the uncoated DEB performed well above the performance requirements. Coating the DEB with polymers did not significantly enhance getter performance in the presence of poisons relative to uncoated DEB. The next phase of the project is to evaluate a scaled-up getter package for performance under waste shipping conditions anticipated in the TP-II.

  7. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

  8. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  9. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01

    of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustors," Journal of

  10. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling for Gas Turbine Engines," 34th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEECombustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines: Operationalcombustion systems in gas-turbine engines. However, as the

  11. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  12. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  13. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  14. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  15. Stratified charge and homogeneous charge flowfields in natural gas fueled rotary engines. Interim report on task 2. 1. 7 combustion/stratification studies'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.

    1988-12-09

    Natural gas stratification and combustion in a rotary engine are studied with a three-dimensional model. The validated model could be employed as a useful tool in selection of optimum spark plug locations, number of spark plugs, spark timings, pocket geometry, and optimization studies of natural gas fired rotary engines.

  16. Combustion Timing Control of Natural Gas HCCI Engines Using Physics-Based Modeling and LQR Controller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelgawad, Marwa

    2012-07-16

    the auto-ignition of a compressed homogenous fuel-air mixture, thus making it a "fusion" between spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. The main challenge in developing HCCI engines is the absence of a combustion trigger hence making it difficult...

  17. Analysis of Principal Gas Products During Combustion of Polyether Polyurethane Foam at Different Irradiance Levels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante Valencia, Lucas; Rogaume, Thomas; Guillaume, Eric; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2009-01-01

    . This allows the mass balance of the elements in the virgin foam content with the gaseous product content. The effective heat of combustion and the ratio between heat release rate and CO2 mass flow are calculated at each of the irradiance levels....

  18. Sandia Energy - Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of CO2 and H2O (from flue gas recirculation) create very different physical and chemical properties of the combustion medium, influencing coal ignition and combustion rates....

  19. Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Engine Concept Development Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an...

  20. Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

  1. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant gettering mechanism in both getter materials as evidenced by (1) consumption of oxygen in the belljars, (2) production of free water in the belljars, and (3) absence of chemical changes in both getter materials as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

  2. Scaled Testing of Hydrogen Gas Getters for Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, J.; Mroz, E.; Haga, M.; Hollis, W. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Peterson, E.; Stone, M.; Orme, C.; Luther, T.; Benson, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage and shipment containers. Hydrogen forms a flammable mixture with air over a wide range of concentrations (5% to 75%), and very low energy is needed to ignite hydrogen-air mixtures. For these reasons, the concentration of hydrogen in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TRUPACT-II containers) needs to remain below the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). Accident scenarios and the resulting safety analysis require that this limit not be exceeded. The use of 'hydrogen getters' is being investigated as a way to prevent the build up of hydrogen in TRUPACT-II containers. Preferred getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it into the solid state. In this study, two getter systems are evaluated: a) 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds; and b) a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter, VEI or TruGetter, characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds. Carbon in both getter types may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. With oxygen present, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB and VEI performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests using small test volumes (ml-scale), high hydrogen generation rates, and short time spans of hours to days. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether DEB and VEI perform satisfactorily in actual drum-scale tests with realistic hydrogen generation rates and time frames. The two getter systems were evaluated in test vessels comprised of a Gas Generation Test Program-style bell-jar and a drum equipped with a composite drum filter. The vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and volume of a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were conducted in an atmosphere of air for 60 days at ambient temperature (15 to 27 deg. C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60 E-07 moles hydrogen per second (0.35 cc/min). Hydrogen was successfully 'gettered' by both systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant mechanism in both getters as evidenced by 1) consumption of oxygen in the bell-jars; 2) production of free water in the bell-jars; and 3) absence of chemical changes in both getters as shown by NMR spectra. (authors)

  3. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  4. Gas Generation Rates as an Indicator for the Long Term Stability of Radioactive Waste Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steyer, S.; Brennecke, P.; Bandt, G.; Kroger, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pursuant to the 'Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards' (Atomic Energy Act) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) is legally responsible for the construction and operation of federal facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. Within the scope of this responsibility, particular due to par. 74(1) Ordinance on Radiation Protection, BfS defines all safety-related requirements on waste packages envisaged for disposal, establishes guidelines for the conditioning of radioactive waste and approves the fulfillment of the waste acceptance requirements within the radioactive waste quality control system. BfS also provides criteria to enable the assessment of methods for the treatment and packaging of radioactive waste to produce waste packages suitable for disposal according to par. 74(2) Ordinance on Radiation Protection. Due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany, quality control measures for all types of radioactive waste products are carried out prior to interim storage with respect to the future disposal. As a result BfS approves the demonstrated properties of the radioactive waste packages and confirms the fulfillment of the respective requirements. After several years of storage the properties of waste packages might have changed. By proving, that such changes have no significant impact on the quality of the waste product, the effort of requalification could be minimized. Therefore, data on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste products need to be acquired and indicators to prove the long-term stability have to be quantified. Preferably, such indicators can be determined easily with non-destructive methods, even for legacy waste packages. A promising parameter is the gas generation rate. The relationship between gas generation rate and long term stability is presented as first result of an ongoing study on behalf of BfS. Permissible gas generation rates that ensure adequate product stability with respect to future disposal are to be identified. (authors)

  5. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  6. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01

    of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2001. Vol. 123:

  7. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    BOILER OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN DIRTY GAS STREAMS Alan H. Kreeger. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. Sacramento. California ABSTRACT The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating on an aluminium melting furnace...

  8. Integration of a Process Waste Gas into a Site's Energy Concept 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, J.

    2000-01-01

    cogeneration system since 1985 so they naturally reviewed the economics of another such installation. At the same time, a new Acetylene plant was being planned, which generated a large process waste gas stream. Conceptual studies indicated that integrating...

  9. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  10. Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Gas Migration in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smai, Farid

    2010-01-01

    We present a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological radioactive waste repository. This model includes capillary effects and the gas diffusivity. The choice of the main variables in this model, Total or Dissolved Hydrogen Mass Concentration and Liquid Pressure, leads to a unique and consistent formulation of the gas phase appearance and disappearance. After introducing this model, we show computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas phase appearance and disappearance in different situations typical of underground radioactive waste repository.

  11. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, Miladin Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of the primary air speed, fuel moisture and inert content on the combustion characteristics (ignition rate, combustion rate, ignition front speed and temperature of the reaction zone) is evaluated. The upward combustion concept decouples the drying, devolatilization and burnout phase. In this way the moisture and inert content of the waste have almost no influence on the combustion process. In this paper an experimental comparison between conventional and reversed combustion is presented.

  12. Control methods and valve arrangement for start-up and shutdown of pressurized combustion and gasification systems integrated with a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Provol, Steve J. (Carlsbad, CA); Russell, David B. (San Diego, CA); Isaksson, Matti J. (Karhula, FI)

    1994-01-01

    A power plant having a system for converting coal to power in a gas turbine comprises a coal fed pressurized circulating bed for converting coal to pressurized gases, a gas turbine having a compressor for pressurizing air for the pressurized circulating bed and expander for receiving and expanding hot combustion gases for powering a generator, a first fast acting valve for controlling the pressurized air, a second fast acting valve means for controlling pressurized gas from the compressor to the expander.

  13. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael L. (Kennewick, WA); Perez, Jr., Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA); Peters, Richard D. (Pasco, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  14. Optimization of Combustion Efficiency for Supplementally Fired Gas Turbine Cogenerator Exhaust Heat Receptors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    A broad range of unique cogeneration schemes are being installed or considered for application in the process industries involving gas turbines with heat recovery from the exhaust gas. Depending on the turbine design, exhaust gases will range from...

  15. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

  16. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  17. Hydrogen Gas Generation Model for Fuel Based Remote Handled TRU Waste Stored at INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soli T. Khericha; Rajiv N. Bhatt; Kevin Liekhus

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) initiated efforts to calculate the hydrogen gas generation in remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) containers in order to evaluate continued storage of unvented RH-TRU containers in vaults and to identify any potential problems during retrieval and aboveground storage. A computer code is developed to calculate the hydrogen concentration in the stored RH-TRU waste drums for known configuration, waste matrix, and radionuclide inventories as a function of time.

  18. Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-06-28

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

  19. Mathematical Simulation of the Gas-Particles Reaction Flows in Incineration of Metal-Containing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojovan, M. I.; Klimov, V. L.; Karlina, O. K.

    2002-02-26

    A ''quasi-equilibrium'' approach for thermodynamic calculation of chemical composition and properties of metal-containing fuel combustion products has been developed and used as a part of the mathematical model of heterogeneous reacting flow which carry burning and/or evaporating particles. By using of this approach, the applicable mathematical model has been devised, which allows defining the change in chemical composition and thermal characteristics of combustion products along the incineration chamber. As an example, the simulation results of the reacting flow of magnesium-sodium nitrate-organic mixture are presented. The simulation results on the gas phase temperature in the flow of combustion products are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally. The proposed method of ''quasi-equilibrium'' thermodynamic calculation and mathematical model provide a real possibility for performing of numerical experiments on the basis of mathematical simulation of nonequilibrium flows of combustion products. Numerical experiments help correctly to estimate the work characteristics in the process of treatment devices design saving time and costs.

  20. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

  1. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  2. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  3. CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER I. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robben, R.

    2010-01-01

    l~ Roberts, "Catathermal Combustion: A New Process for Lm'l-significant gas phase combustion is induced by the presenceInternational) on Combustion (to be published), The

  4. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  5. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  6. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-04-01

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  7. Assessment of chemical vulnerabilities in the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meacham, J.E.

    1996-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of relevant data (tank farm and laboratory) and analysis related to potential chemical vulnerabilities of the Hanford Site waste tanks. Potential chemical safety vulnerabilities examined include spontaneous runaway reactions, condensed phase waste combustibility, and tank headspace flammability. The major conclusions of the report are the following: Spontaneous runaway reactions are not credible; condensed phase combustion is not likely; and periodic releases of flammable gas can be mitigated by interim stabilization.

  8. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and...

  9. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The advantage of these advanced combustion systems is that the high concentration of CO2 in the flue gas reduces the cost and improves the performance of the CO2 capture...

  10. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Illinois coals are prime candidates for use in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants because of their high volatility and good char reactivity. In these plants, partial gasification of the coal in the presence of limestone eliminates the major portion of the sulfur species in the product gases, which are used as fuel for the topping cycle. The char produced is high in ash content, the major portion of which is calcium sulfide. It is also low in volatiles and of low density, compared to the parent coal. The economic success of the gasification route depends on the subsequent utilization of the residual char for raising steam for use in a Rankine cycle bottoming plant and/or preheating the air to the gasifier. Fluidized bed combustion of the char appears an attractive way of utilizing the char. Areas of concern in the fluidized bed combustion of the high ash, low volatility char are: attainment of high carbon conversion efficiencies; reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions; reduction/elimination of corrosive chlorine species; reduction/elimination of sodium and other alkali species; and efficient usage of the calcium present in the ash to reduce sulfur compounds. The aim of the present project is to investigate ways of improving the carbon conversion efficiency, sulfur capture efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction during the fluidized bed combustion by pelletizing the low density char with coal and coal wastes using cornstarch or wood lignin as binder. During this first quarter, the parent coals and the chars to be tested have been analyzed. Particle size distributions have been measured. Sample pellets have been made evaluation of their properties.

  11. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  12. Combustion Air Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    to 100%. If the air and fuel controls are on automatic but the flue gas oxygen content cannot be lowered to 4% oxygen without the boiler smoking, burner problems may be suspected. The trouble may be traced to dirty or improperly assembled oil guns..., combustion air distribution problems, vaporizing steam control problems, oil viscosity, or flow control problems. It is very important to have all oil guns operating properly before proceeding with a combustion test. The minimum stack gas oxygen level you...

  13. An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menell, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    combustion in mass burn facilities or by shredding and screening wastes to produce highly combustible fuel pellets (refuse-derived

  14. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  15. Plasma/catalytic gas cleaning to deliver high quality syngas from waste biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma/catalytic gas cleaning to deliver high quality syngas from waste biomass Paul T. Williams, Alstom, Process Systems Enterprises Ltd, C-Tech Innovation Ltd Introduction #12;Background Biomass for decarbonising power production." BUT: · A key problem for biomass gasification is tar in the syngas. · Tar

  16. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  17. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  18. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  19. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  20. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ÂşF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  1. Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Doug

    to as Combustion Turbine Generators (CTGs). Each unit is connected to a Rentech Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) which captures waste heat from combustion turbine exhaust to produce steam for the campus's heatingActive NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade

  2. Gas Releases During Saltcake Dissolution for Retrieval of Single-Shell Tank Waste, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-12-28

    It is possible to retrieve a large fraction of soluble waste from the Hanford single-shell waste tanks (SSTs) by dissolving it with water. This retrieval method will be demonstrated in Tanks U-107 and S-112 in the next few years. If saltcake dissolution proves practical and effective, many of the saltcake SSTs may be retrieved by this method. Many of the SSTs retain flammable gas that will be released into the tank headspace as the waste dissolves. This report describes the physical processes that control dissolution and gas release. Calculation results are shown and describe how the headspace hydrogen concentration evolves during dissolution. The observed spontaneous and induced gas releases from SSTs are summarized, and the dissolution of the crust layer in SY-101 is discussed as a recent example of full-scale dissolution of saltcake containing a large volume of retained gas. The report concludes that the dissolution rate is self-limiting and that gas release rates are relatively low.

  3. COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

  4. Performance and economics of co-firing a coal/waste slurry in advanced fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.; Reuther, R.B.; Bonk, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    This study`s objective was to investigate co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor with coal and refuse-derived fuel for the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of waste. Performance evaluation of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) power plant co-fired with refuse-derived fuel showed only slightly lower overall thermal efficiency than similar sized plants without waste co-firing. Capital costs and costs of electricity are within 4.2 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, of waste-free operation. The results also indicate that there are no technology barriers to the co-firing of waste materials with coal in a PFBC power plant. The potential to produce cost-competitive electrical power and support environmentally acceptable waste disposal exists with this approach. However, as part of technology development, there remain several design and operational areas requiring data and verification before this concept can realize commercial acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in...

  6. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford single-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Recknagle, K.P.; Reid, H.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford single-shell waste tanks based on theory, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The single-shell tanks likely to pose a flammable gas hazard are listed and described, and photographs of core extrusions and the waste surface are included. The credible mechanisms for significant flammable gas releases are described, and release volumes and rates are quantified as much as possible. The only mechanism demonstrably capable of producing large ({approximately}100 m{sup 3}) spontaneous gas releases is the buoyant displacement, which occurs only in tanks with a relatively deep layer of supernatant liquid. Only the double-shell tanks currently satisfy this condition. All release mechanisms believed plausible in single-shell tanks have been investigated, and none have the potential for large spontaneous gas releases. Only small spontaneous gas releases of several cubic meters are likely by these mechanisms. The reasons several other postulated gas release mechanisms are implausible or incredible are also given.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  8. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  9. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study, 2013 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCarib Energy (USA) LLCAdministrationAward-LNG -07-11-2014Department

  10. Spatially distributed flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.

    2010-09-15

    The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)

  11. High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery Systems on Combustion Engines High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery Systems on Combustion...

  12. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  13. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    internal combustion enginesand gas turbines, fuel cells,2, the external combustion engines(gas turbine and Stifling)or external combustion engines, such as the gas turbine or

  14. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  15. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotis, S.C. [Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC (United States); Sussman, D. [Poubelle Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  16. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

  17. Measurements and calculations of oscillations and phase relations in the driven gas-phase combustion of acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.K.; Hjelmfelt, A.; Ross, J. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA))

    1991-09-01

    Oscillations in light emission and species concentrations, are measured as periodic perturbations are simultaneously applied to the input rates of acetaldehyde and oxygen in the gas-phase combustion of acetaldehyde in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor for conditions where the autonomous reaction itself is oscillatory. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of a five-variable thermokinetic model. We measure periodic responses in the fundamental entrainment band (ratio of frequency of perturbation to frequency of response equal to unity) for four different values of phase shift between the acetaldehyde and oxygen perturbation wave forms as we vary the frequency and amplitude of the external periodic perturbations. Outside of the entrainment bands we find quasiperiodic response. We determine the phases of the light emission and six species concentrations, as measured with a mass spectrometer, with respect to the periodic perturbation, the variation of these phases across the fundamental entrainment band for different values of reactant phase shift and for different amplitudes of perturbation, and the effects of the phase shift between the two input perturbations on the light emission response of the system for different frequencies of perturbation. Both the experiments and calculations predict a widening of the entrainment band with an increase in perturbation amplitude, and the same variation in bandwidths for the four values of reactant phase shift studied. The experiments and calculations also predict the same general trends in light phase and species phases (difference between the light emission and species concentrations with respect to the perturbing wave form) as the band is traversed for different amplitudes of perturbation and for different values of reactant phase shift.

  18. GAS-GENERATION EXPERIMENTS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE OF TRU WASTES AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felicione, F.S.; Carney, K.P.; Dwight, C.C.; Cummings, D.G.; Foulkrod, L.E.

    2003-02-27

    An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH-TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750-ml headspace was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure expected in the repository were it inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30 C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generate d by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6-1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. One vessel measured over 4.2% hydrogen, by volume. Two other vessels generated well over 1% hydrogen, and another was at nearly 1%. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in tests containing carbon steel. Average corrosion penetration rates in carbon-steel of up to 2.3 microns per year were deduced. Conversion of carbon to carbon dioxide was calculated to be up to 4.7 {micro}g-mol/yr/g-carbon.

  19. BEP Proposal: Towards Cleaner Industrial Combustion -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    BEP Proposal: Towards Cleaner Industrial Combustion - How to Reduce the Formation of Pollutants furnace fired by the combustion of natural gas. The chemical reaction of the gas and oxygen mixture releases heat and side products such as water and carbon monoxide. The combustion also produces undesired

  20. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  1. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  2. IFRF Combustion Journal Article Number 200303, July 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    IFRF Combustion Journal Article Number 200303, July 2003 ISSN 1562-479X Waste Incineration European-mail: klaus.goerner@uni-essen.den URL: http://www.luat.uni-essen.de #12;IFRF Combustion Journal - 2 - Goerner the lower calorific value of normal municipal waste increased with the consequence of increasing combustion

  3. Hot waste-to-energy flue gas treatment using an integrated fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M. [DIEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Saccani, C. [DIEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: cesare.saccani@unibo.it

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes an innovative process to increase superheated steam temperatures in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. This solution is mainly characterised by a fluidised bed reactor in which hot flue gas is treated both chemically and mechanically. This approach, together with gas recirculation, increases the energy conversion efficiency, and raises the superheated steam temperature without decreasing the useful life of the superheater. This paper presents new experimental data obtained from the test facility installed at the Hera S.p.A. WTE plant in Forli, Italy; discusses changes that can be implemented to increase the duration of experimental testing; offers suggestions for the design of an industrial solution.

  4. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  5. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO? Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO? stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO? capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and safety risks have been addressed through experimental tests, consultation with vendors and engineering analysis. Multiple rounds of TEA were performed to improve the GPS-based PCC process design and operation, and to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plant among the DOE/NETL report Case 11 (the PC plant without CO? capture), the DOE/NETL report Case 12 (the PC plant with benchmark MEA-based PCC), and the PC plant using GPS-based PCC. The results reveal that the net power produced in the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MWe, greater than that of the Case 12 (550 MWe). The 20-year LCOE for the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of that of the Case 11, which is also 23% less than that of the Case 12. These results demonstrate that the GPS-based PCC process is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.

  6. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  7. Sealed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet discusses the benefits of sealed combustion appliance units in order to ensure good indoor air quality.

  8. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  9. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  10. Processing mixed-waste compressed-gas cylinders at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-05-01

    Until recently, several thousand kilograms of compressed gases were stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, because these cylinders could not be taken off-site in their state of configuration for disposal. Restrictions on the storage of old compressed-gas cylinders compelled the Waste Management Organization of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) to dispose of these materials. Furthermore, a milestone in the ORR Site Treatment Plan required repackaging and shipment off-site of 21 cylinders by September 30, 1997. A pilot project, coordinated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was undertaken to evaluate and recontainerize or neutralize these cylinders, which are mixed waste, to meet that milestone. Because the radiological component was considered to be confined to the exterior of the cylinder, the contents (once removed from the cylinder) could be handled as hazardous waste, and the cylinder could be handled as low-level waste (LLW). This pilot project to process 21 cylinders was important because of its potential impact. The successful completion of the project provides a newly demonstrated technology which can now be used to process the thousands of additional cylinders in inventory across the DOE complex. In this paper, many of the various aspects of implementing this project, including hurdles encountered and the lessons learned in overcoming them, are reported.

  11. Water-Steel Canister Interaction and H2 Gas Pressure Buildup in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu; Senger, Rainer; Finstele, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Waste Repository T. Xu & S. Finsteiie Earth Sciencesdeep lying repositories for nuclear waste. Nagra Techni­ calthe system state in a nuclear waste re­ pository. 2 PROCESS

  12. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen CROSS EFFECTS, TOTAL SYSTEM LAY-OUT 13.6.2001 10-1 Figure 10.1 Typical pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber + baghouse filter for SO2 and particulate the emissions regulations depend on process type and plant size. Some compounds such as alkali or chlorine may For a conventional pulverised coal-fired power plant a set-up is shown in Figure 10.1, with a gas clean-up system

  13. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  14. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  15. Status of pulse combustion applications in (1) steam reforming of coal, (2) fluid bed combustion of coal, and (3) direct coal fired gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durai-Swamy, K. [ThermoChem, Inc., Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States); Chandran, R.; Said, H.; Steedman, W.

    1994-12-31

    ThermoChem, Inc. has designed a 450 T/D wet coal gasification by indirect, pulse-combustor-heated, steam reforming process. The plant site is Gillette, Wyoming. Products from the demo project are: (1) High pressure steam for a K-Fuel coal upgrading plant and (2) Medium Btu syngas, which could be used for power generation or methanol production. The indirect heated steam reformer could also produce a char by-product (if desired) that could be used as a reductant in direct iron making (DRI) process. There has been interest for char production as well. ThermoChem is constructing a pulse assisted, atmospheric pressure fluid bed combustor unit (PAFBC) to produce 50,000 lb/hr of steam, at Clemson University in South Carolina. MTCI`s developing a pressurized pulse coal combustor coupled with bimodal ash agglomeration, sulfur capture and solids removal features, such that the hot flue gas can be directly expanded in a gas turbine to generate power. The status of these Clean Coal Technologies is presented in this paper.

  16. Is combustion of plastics desirable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piasecki, B.; Rainey, D.; Fletcher, K.

    1998-07-01

    Managing waste will always entail some tradeoffs. All of the three options--recycling, landfilling and combustion--have some disadvantages. Even landfilling, which produces no emissions, fails to take advantage of the energy value inherent in plastic. Waste combustion, on the other hand, recovers the energy in plastic materials and reduces the volume of disposed solid waste by up to 90% of its initial preburn volumes. However, this management option generates emissions and produces an ash residue that must be managed. As demonstrated by recent test burns, improvements in combustion and air-pollution-control technology have dramatically reduced the health risks from emissions and ash. Recent studies have shown that plastics--in quantities even higher than those normally found in municipal solid waste--do not adversely affect levels of emissions or the quality of ash from waste-to-energy facilities. In addition, waste-to-energy facilities may be a relatively economical source of fuel, and may be a more economic solution to waste management than the other available options. A waste-to-energy plant generally produces electricity that is sold to the electric utilities for approximately six cents per kilowatt-hour, a rate that is competitive with those offered by nuclear power plants and power plants that generate energy by burning fossil fuels.

  17. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  18. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bean, J.E. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W.; Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schreiber, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P.N. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and examination of scatterplots are used in conjunction with the BRAGFLO model to examine two phase flow (i.e., gas and brine) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. The analyses consider either a single waste panel or the entire repository in conjunction with the following cases: (1) fully consolidated shaft, (2) system of shaft seals with panel seals, and (3) single shaft seal without panel seals. The purpose of this analysis is to develop insights on factors that are potentially important in showing compliance with applicable regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B; 40 CFR 268). The primary topics investigated are (1) gas production due to corrosion of steel, (2) gas production due to microbial degradation of cellulosics, (3) gas migration into anhydrite marker beds in the Salado Formation, (4) gas migration through a system of shaft seals to overlying strata, and (5) gas migration through a single shaft seal to overlying strata. Important variables identified in the analyses include initial brine saturation of the waste, stoichiometric terms for corrosion of steel and microbial degradation of cellulosics, gas barrier pressure in the anhydrite marker beds, shaft seal permeability, and panel seal permeability.

  19. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-05

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  20. Predictive modeling of combustion processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Sandeep, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in improving the efficiency and lowering the emissions from operating combustors, e.g. internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines. Different fuels, additives etc. are ...

  1. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  2. Hydrogen Gas Generation Model for Fuel-Based Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Stored at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khericha, S.; Bhatt, R.; Liekhus, K.

    2003-01-14

    The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) initiated efforts to calculate the hydrogen gas generation in remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) containers in order to evaluate continued storage of unvented RH-TRU containers in vaults and to identify any potential problems during retrieval and aboveground storage. A computer code is developed to calculate the hydrogen concentration in the stored RH-TRU waste drums for known configuration, waste matrix, and radionuclide inventories as a function of time.

  3. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has s

  4. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  5. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  6. Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smaď, Farid

    2008-01-01

    We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

  7. Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alain Bourgeat; Mladen Jurak; Farid Smaď

    2008-02-29

    We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

  8. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  9. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

  10. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; FLUE GAS; PARTICLE SIZE; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AIR FILTERS; DISTRIBUTION; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; SORTING; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION;...

  11. Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst: Final Report, 24 February 2004 -- 23 February 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.

    2005-09-01

    This report discusses the development of a E7G 12-liter, lean-burn natural gas engine--using stoichiometric combustion, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and three-way catalyst technologies--for refuse haulers.

  12. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen in the gas phase; comparison of gas generation rates in supernate and solid fractions of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating me by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using simulated waste mixtures. Work described in this report. was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), under subcontract to PNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at VMC using actual wastes.

  13. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford single-shell waste tanks 241-A-101, 241-S-106, and 241-U-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rassat, S.D.; Caley, S.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Rinehart, D.E.; Forbes, S.V.

    1998-09-01

    The 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site contain millions of gallons of radioactive waste resulting from the purification of nuclear materials and related processes. Through various mechanisms, flammable gas mixtures of hydrogen, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide are generated and retained in significant quantities within the waste in many ({approximately}25) of these tanks. The potential for large releases of retained gas from these wastes creates a flammability hazard. It is a critical component of the effort to understand the flammability hazard and a primary goal of this laboratory investigation to establish an understanding of the mechanisms of gas retention and release in these wastes. The results of bubble retention experimental studies using waste samples from several waste tanks and a variety of waste types support resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. Gas bubble retention information gained in the pursuit of safe storage will, in turn, benefit future waste operations including salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing/retrieval.

  14. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  16. Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Energy's patented technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed-efficient technology represented by the coal-substitute technology. The same technology will be deployed by DIGGDigital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel Digital

  17. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Intermediate-Scale Column and Open-Channel-Depth Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Heldebrant, David J.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Sande, Susan; Davis, James M.; Telander, Monty R.

    2014-02-14

    Gas generation in Hanford’s radioactive waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which may be hazardous and/or flammable, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge increases the sludge-layer volume, which decreases the available tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge can potentially result in a relatively rapid release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. The potential for rapid release of large amounts of hazardous and/or flammable gases is a safety hazard that needs to be managed. Accordingly, a thorough understanding is needed of the circumstances that can lead to problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers. The Deep-Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP) is tasked with developing an improved understanding of these gas release events.

  18. Sandia Energy - Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Reacting Flow Experiments Turbulent Combustion Turbulent CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-30T01:39:47+00...

  19. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Optical Measurement of Combustion Products by Zeeman Atomicand T. Hadeishi • . . • . • . • • . • Combustion Sources offrom Pulverized Coal Combustion J. Pennucci, R. Greif, F.

  20. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  1. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  2. Industry Motivated Advancements of Current Combustion Instability Model: The Conversion of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flandro, Gary A.

    INSTABILITY CHARACTERISTICS IN GAS TURBINES ...................- 5 - 1.5. COMBUSTION INSTABILITYIndustry Motivated Advancements of Current Combustion Instability Model: The Conversion of Volume to thank Dr. Flandro. His eternal knowledge of Combustion Instability has resonated in this work and his

  3. 1 Copyright 2003 by ASME 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1 Copyright © 2003 by ASME 17th FBC 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion May COMBUSTION OF HIGH-PVC SOLID WASTE WITH HCl RECOVERY Loay Saeed, Antti Tohka, Ron Zevenhoven* Helsinki.zevenhoven@hut.fi * Corresponding author ABSTRACT A process for two-stage combustion of high-PVC solid waste with HCl recovery

  4. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00...

  5. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00 Fuel...

  6. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Heavy Duty Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00...

  7. Pressure-gain combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, J.; Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Norton, T. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Pulse combustion has been proposed for gas turbine applications in many early articles and more recently has been demonstrated to produce so-called ``pressure-gain`` in a small gas turbine. The basic concept is that the oscillatory combustion occurs as a constant-volume process, producing a gain in the stagnation pressure of air flowing through the combustor, rather than the pressure loss associated with conventional, steady combustion. If properly utilized, this pressure-gain could enhance simple-cycle gas turbine efficiency several percent, depending on the operating conditions. In addition, pulse combustors have demonstrated relatively low NO{sub x} pollutant levels in some applications. The combined potential for higher cycle efficiency and lower pollutant levels is the basis for the present investigation. Tests in progress at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) have considered a baseline pulse combustor configuration that has shown good oscillating performance, low NO{sub x} emissions, but disappointing results in terms of pressure-gain. However, a combination of numeric simulations and test data suggest that pressure-gain can be produced by a select combination of operating conditions and combustor geometry, but is especially sensitive to the combustor inlet geometry. Tests in progress will evaluate the effect of inlet geometry and operating pressure on both pollutant emissions and pressure-gain.

  8. Controlling fuel and diluent gas flow for a diesel engine operating in the fuel rich low-temperature-combustion mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, David M

    2007-01-01

    The flow of a diluent gas supplied to a motoring engine was controlled at a diluent to air mass flow ratios of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. This arrangement was a significant set up for running the engine in the Low-Temperature ...

  9. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well waste waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadlec, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    1995-08-01

    Constructed wetlands are small on-site systems that possess three of the most desirable components of an industrial waste water treatment scheme: low cost, low maintenance and upset resistance. The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge base of wetland treatment systems to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well wastewaters. A list of the most relevant and comprehensive publications on the design of wetlands for water quality improvement was compiled and critically reviewed. Based on our literature search and conversations with researchers in the private sector, toxic organics such as Phenolics and b-naphthoic acid, (NA), and metals such as CU(II) and CR(VI) were selected as target adsorbates. A total of 90 lysimeters equivalent to a laboratory-scale wetland were designed and built to monitor the uptake and transformation of toxic organics and the immobilization of metal ions. Studies on the uptake of toxic organics such as phenol and b-naphthoic acid (NA) and heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI), the latter two singly or as non-stoichiometric mixtures by laboratory-type wetlands (LWs) were conducted. These LWs were designed and built during the first year of this study. A road map and guidelines for a field-scale implementation of a wetland system for the treatment of oil and gas wastewaters have been suggested. Two types of wetlands, surface flow (SF) and sub surface flow (SSF), have been considered, and the relative merits of each configuration have been reviewed.

  10. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  11. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, chemically activated bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective sorbent, showing over 99% mercury removal according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 101A. Data indicate that adding O{sub 2} at 4 vol% reduced the effectiveness of the steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, and sulfur- impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. Adding SO{sub 2} at 500 ppm improved the mercury removal of the sulfur-impregnated carbon. Further, the presence of HCl gas (at 50 ppm) produced an order of magnitude increase in mercury removal with the chemically activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  12. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  13. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  14. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  15. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  16. Ma,BonzongoandGao/UniversityofFlorida Characterization and Leachability of Coal Combustion Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Ma,BonzongoandGao/UniversityofFlorida Characterization and Leachability of Coal Combustion Residues an important solid waste in Florida, i.e., coal combustion residues (CCR) detailed in #2-4 of the current

  17. Co-combustion feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handcock, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the technical and economic feasibility of co-combusting municipal sewage sludge produced by the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 with paper mill sludge produced by the Cottrell Paper Company, Encore Paper Company, International Paper Company, Mohawk Paper Mills, and TAGSONS Papers at the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1`s secondary wastewater treatment plant and recovering any available energy products. The co-combustion facility would consist of sludge and wood chip storage and conveying systems, belt filter presses, screw presses, fluidized-bed incinerators, venturi scrubbers and tray cooling systems, ash dewatering facilities, heat recovery steam generators, gas-fired steam superheaters, and a back-pressure steam turbine system. Clean waste wood chips would be used as an auxiliary fuel in the fluidized-bed incinerators. It is recommended that the ash produced by the proposed facility be beneficially used, potentially as a raw material in the manufacture of cement and/or as an interim barrier layer in landfills.

  18. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  19. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemical-activated hardwood and bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective carbon, showing over 99% mercury removal according to EPA Method 101A. Data indicate that O{sub 2} (4 vol%) and SO{sub 2} (500 ppm) improved the mercury removal of the other carbons for tests at 150{degrees}C using 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}. Further, the presence of HCl (at 50 ppm) produced a magnitude increase in mercury removal for the steam-activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  20. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  1. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  2. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  3. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  4. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  5. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  6. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  7. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  8. Aalborg Universitet Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel. In Proceedings of the 55th International Conference Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel Morten Andreasena, , Matthieu Marissala,b, , Kim Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist of recovering some of the waste heat from

  9. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    turbulent methane combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. , 29:in premixed turbulent combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. ,for zero Mach number combustion. Combust. Sci. Technol. ,

  10. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention and release: results for Hanford Waste Tanks 241-S-102 and 241-SY-103 and single-shell tank simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Konynenbelt, J.H.; Tingey, S.M.; Mendoza, D.P.

    1996-09-01

    Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has probed the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of flammable gases from radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford. This study was conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. The wastes contained in the tanks are mixes of radioactive and chemical products, and some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns.

  11. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  12. Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed.

  13. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 693702 COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A FORCED, TIME-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Marshall B.

    's cyclic history. Introduction Most practical combustion systems, such as gas turbines and industrial693 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 693 systems that help bridge the gap between laminar and turbulent combustion. In this study, we investigate

  14. Combustion & Health 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.

    2012-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-12-10-18.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4107 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-KT-12-10-18.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH... Winifred J. Hamilton, PhD, SM Clear Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Galveston, TX October 9?11, 2012 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? Biggest threat to world ecosystems (and to human health) ? Combustion of fossil fuels...

  15. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to meet local air quality authority emissions restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to...

  16. Preheated Combustion Air; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to improve efficiency and productivity is to preheat the combustion air going to the burners. The source of this heat energy is the exhaust gas stream, which leaves the process...

  17. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  18. Combustion systems for power-MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Christopher Michael), 1974-

    2004-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop a micro-scale gas turbine engine for power generation and micro-propulsion applications, this thesis presents the design, fabrication, experimental testing, and modeling of the combustion ...

  19. Sandia Energy - Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetics Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Combustion Kinetics Combustion KineticsAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:45:13+00:00 The...

  20. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI engine in...

  1. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  2. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  3. Zinc Bromide Combustion: Implications for the Consolidated Incinerator Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    1998-12-16

    In the nuclear industry, zinc bromide (ZnBr2) is used for radiation shielding. At Savannah River Site (SRS) zinc bromide solution, in appropriate configurations and housings, was used mainly for shielding in viewing windows in nuclear reactor and separation areas. Waste stream feeds that will be incinerated at the CIF will occasionally include zinc bromide solution/gel matrices.The CIF air pollution systems control uses a water-quench and steam atomizer scrubber that collects salts, ash and trace metals in the liquid phase. Water is re-circulated in the quench unit until a predetermined amount of suspended solids or dissolved salts are present. After reaching the threshold limit, "dirty liquid", also called "blowdown", is pumped to a storage tank in preparation for treatment and disposal. The air pollution control system is coupled to a HEPA pre-filter/filter unit, which removes particulate matter from the flue gas stream (1).The objective of this report is to review existing literature data on the stability of zinc bromide (ZnBr2) at CIF operating temperatures (>870 degrees C (1600 degrees F) and determine what the combustion products are in the presence of excess air. The partitioning of the combustion products among the quencher/scrubber solution, bottom ash and stack will also be evaluated. In this report, side reactions between zinc bromide and its combustion products with fuel oil were not taken into consideration.

  4. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  5. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    MSW to fuel 24 Non-biogenic waste transformation .. 25 Incineration (add citations) . 25 Incomplete combustion: pyrolysis and gasification ..

  6. Analysis of NOx Formation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelsen, GS; Therkelsen, P; Werts, T; McDonell, V

    2009-01-01

    Lefebvre, A.H. , 1999, Gas Turbine Combustion (2 nd Ed. ),1981, “Hydrogen Combustion Test in a Small Gas Turbine,”Combustion Performance of Hydrogen in a Small Gas Turbine

  7. Partially Premixed Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partially Premixed Combustion Partially Premixed Combustion Published materials on partial premixed combustion (PPC) combined with Volvo's own combustion research provides...

  8. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  9. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  11. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  12. Conversion of Waste CO2 & Shale Gas to High Value Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Novomer Process: High Selectivity Catalyst (>99%) Leverages low cost shale gas & ethylene derivatives Lower energy & carbon footprint Novomer process...

  13. Combustion and Flame 143 (2005) 613628 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Marshall B.

    2005-01-01

    combustion devices include gas turbines, furnaces, and internal combustion engines. While pre- mixedCombustion and Flame 143 (2005) 613­628 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame Soot formation volume fractions, as the fuel fraction increases. 2005 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier

  14. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

  15. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy|| Department-

  16. Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system by #12;ii Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system, and to a large extent influences the combustion process. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is not a uniform fuel

  17. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air...

  18. Large-Scale Testing of Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Holdup in Process Vessels in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 8280

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Arm, Stuart T.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Stewart, Charles W.; Wells, Beric E.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2008-06-03

    The Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will vitrify the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes generate and retain hydrogen and other flammable gases that create safety concerns for the vitrification process tanks in the WTP. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the WTP process streams. Prior testing in a bubble column and a small-scale impeller-mixed vessel indicated that gas holdup in a high-level waste chemical simulant with AFA was up to 10 times that in clay simulant without AFA. This raised a concern that major modifications to the WTP design or qualification of an alternative AFA might be required to satisfy plant safety criteria. However, because the mixing and gas generation mechanisms in the small-scale tests differed from those expected in WTP process vessels, additional tests were performed in a large-scale prototypic mixing system with in situ gas generation. This paper presents the results of this test program. The tests were conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in a Ľ-scale model of the lag storage process vessel using pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Holdup and release of gas bubbles generated by hydrogen peroxide decomposition were evaluated in waste simulants containing an AFA over a range of Bingham yield stresses and gas gen geration rates. Results from the Ľ-scale test stand showed that, contrary to the small-scale impeller-mixed tests, gas holdup in clay without AFA is comparable to that in the chemical waste simulant with AFA. The test stand, simulants, scaling and data-analysis methods, and results are described in relation to previous tests and anticipated WTP operating conditions.

  19. Large-Scale Testing of Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Holdup in Process Vessels in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Arm, S.T.; Guzman-Leong, C.E.; Jagoda, L.K.; Stewart, C.W.; Wells, B.E.; Yokuda, S.T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will vitrify the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes generate and retain hydrogen and other flammable gases that create safety concerns for the vitrification process tanks in the WTP. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the WTP process streams. Previous testing in a bubble column and a small-scale impeller-mixed vessel indicated that gas holdup in a high-level waste chemical simulant with AFA was as much as 10 times higher than in clay simulant without AFA. This raised a concern that major modifications to the WTP design or qualification of an alternative AFA might be required to satisfy plant safety criteria. However, because the mixing and gas generation mechanisms in the small-scale tests differed from those expected in WTP process vessels, additional tests were performed in a large-scale prototypic mixing system with in situ gas generation. This paper presents the results of this test program. The tests were conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in a 1/4-scale model of the lag storage process vessel using pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Holdup and release of gas bubbles generated by hydrogen peroxide decomposition were evaluated in waste simulants containing an AFA over a range of Bingham yield stresses and gas generation rates. Results from the 1/4-scale test stand showed that, contrary to the small-scale impeller-mixed tests, holdup in the chemical waste simulant with AFA was not so greatly increased compared to gas holdup in clay without AFA. The test stand, simulants, scaling and data-analysis methods, and results are described in relation to previous tests and anticipated WTP operating conditions. (authors)

  20. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  1. Dynamic Modelling and Control Design of Pre-combustion Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    principles. The pre- combustion gas power cycle plants consist of reformers and separation units, com and control design of two pre-combustion power cycles, i.e., a hydro- gen membrane reformer (HMR) based power- pressors, gas and steam turbines and a heat recovery system. Analysis of dynamic models at an early stage

  2. Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    material in the wastewater into hydrogen gas. There is a lot more energy locked in the wastewater than to experience wine making and wine, and now they can also see a demonstration of how to make clean hydrogen gas liter of reactor," he added. "We hope to generate more energy in the form of hydrogen than was used

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  4. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  5. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    a critical role in combustion processes just as chemicalparameters are essential for combustion modeling; molecularwith Application to Combustion. Transport Theor Stat 2003;

  6. PARAMETRIC EFFECTS OF ANTI-FOAM COMPOSITION, SIMULANT PROPERTIES AND NOBLE METALS ON THE GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE OF A NON-NEWTONIAN WASTE SLURRY SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H; Charles Crawford, C; Mark Fowley, M

    2008-08-07

    Gas holdup tests were performed in bench-scale and small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing systems at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101. These featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A anti-foam agent. Results indicated that this anti-foam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter-intuitively, that the holdup increased as the non-newtonian simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). Such results raised the potential of increased flammable gas retention in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs) during a Design Basis Event (DBE). Additional testing was performed to determine the effects of simulant properties, composition of alternate AFAs, and presence of trace noble metals. Key results are that: (1) Increased gas holdup resulting from addition of Q2-3183A is due to a decrease in surface tension that supports small bubbles which have low rise velocities. (2) Dow Corning 1520-US AFA shows it to be a viable replacement to Dow Corning Q2-3183A AFA. This alternative AFA, however, requires significantly higher dosage for the same anti-foam function. (3) Addition of noble metals to the AZ-101 waste simulant does not produce a catalytic gas retention effect with the AFA.

  7. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  8. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  9. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe supercritical PC plant with 90% CO2 capture. This plant has the same boiler firing rate and superheated high pressure steam generation as the DOE/NETL report’s Case 12 PC plant. However, due to the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant may not be exactly at 550 MWe.

  10. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 055107 (2013) Turbulent premixed combustion in V-shaped flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    2013-01-01

    industrial combustion systems such as, stationary gas turbines, lean premixed and prevaporized jet engines for simulating combustion in gas turbine engines. Second, although a large body of research has been devotedPHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 055107 (2013) Turbulent premixed combustion in V-shaped flames

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    - combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion combustion technologies that can capture at least 90 % of a power plant's CO2 emissions with less than a 35 fossil fuels in O2, often in combination with recirculated flue gas, rather than in air. An optimized oxy

  12. COMBUSTION FOR CLEAN ENERGY: FROM LOW EMISSIONS TO LOW CO2 Ahmed F. Ghoniem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heydari, Payam

    on gas-phase oxy-combustion, membrane-supported thermochemistry and chemical looping combustion (oxy-combustion, membrane separation and chemical looping) and fuel production from renewable sources of the Center for Energy and Propulsion Research and the Reacting Gas Dynamics Laboratory. He received his B

  13. Control-relevant Modelling and Linear Analysis of Instabilities in Oxy-fuel Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Control-relevant Modelling and Linear Analysis of Instabilities in Oxy-fuel Combustion Dagfinn combustion have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gas turbine cycles for achieving CO2-capture for CO2 sequestration purposes. While combustion instabilities is a problem in modern conventional gas

  14. Aalborg Universitet CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chungen

    -to-Energy (WtE) plants for CHP (combined heat and power) production from waste combustion/incineration. However-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion (Computation Fluid Dynamics) is a powerful tool to aid in optimization of WtE plants to achieve higher

  15. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  16. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a compendium on GHG reductions via improved waste strategies in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note provides a strategic framework for Local Authorities in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assists LAs to select Zero Waste scenarios and achieve sustained GHG reduction. - Abstract: Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector.

  17. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  18. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    1985-01-01

    BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed combustion, has encouraged many... steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However, this addition of cogeneration...

  19. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  20. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  1. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  2. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    relative to combustion in the single-pulse engine. FOOTNOTEto engine combustion have been conducted in a single- pulsecombustion in engines conducted in our laboratory by the use of the single pulse

  3. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    boundary layer for propane/air combustion on a platinumDuring FY 1979 the combustion of lean propane/ air mixturescombustion characteristics of a two-dimensional flow of premixed propane/

  4. Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL ACTIVATION;...

  5. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  6. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  7. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  8. Assessment of Dynamic Closure for Premixed Combustion LES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langella, Ivan; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian; Gao, Yuan; Chakraborty, Nilanjan

    2015-08-04

    model 1. Introduction High efficiency and low emission can be achieved simultaneously for power plants used in transport sectors, specifically gas turbines, using lean turbulent premixed combustion. A strong interplay between thermochemical and fluid... stream_source_info Langella et al 2015 Combustion Theory and Modelling.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 77455 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Langella et al 2015 Combustion Theory and Modelling.pdf.txt Content...

  9. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  10. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

  11. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD IMPLEMENTATION OF AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR HEADSPACE GAS SAMPLING OF TRANSURANIC WASTE DRUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polley, M.; Ankrom, J.; Wickland, T.; Warren, J.

    2003-02-27

    A fast, safe, and cost-effective method for obtaining headspace gas samples has been developed and implemented at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A sample port is installed directly into a drum lid using a pneumatic driver, allowing sampling with a side-port needle. Testing has shown that the sample port can be installed with no release of radioactive material. Use of this system at LANL has significantly reduced the time required for sampling, and eliminates the need for many safety precautions previously used. The system has significantly improved productivity and lowered radiation exposure and cost.

  13. Conversion of Waste CO2 & Shale Gas to High Value Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeep JanuaryDepartment ofSadesh

  14. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High Value Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeep JanuaryDepartment ofSadeshAllen,

  15. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeep JanuaryDepartment ofSadeshAllen,of

  16. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

  17. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Gas Migration at a Proposed Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Wastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess editor, K.

    2010-01-01

    by NAGRA, Baden, Switzerland, and by the U.S. Department ofWastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland Karsten Pruess Earth

  19. Generating Steam by Waste Incineration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

  20. UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    lead to higher flashback propensity. Adding methane or carbon monoxide inhibited flashbackUCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu RECENT PUBLICATIONS/PAPERS Brendan Shaffer, Zhixuan operability problem associated with converting lean, premixed combustion systems from operation on natural gas

  1. Flow Forcing Techniques for Numerical Simulation of Combustion Instabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Flow Forcing Techniques for Numerical Simulation of Combustion Instabilities A. KAUFMANN* and F of combustion instabilities in gas turbine combustors require the knowledge of flame transfer functions. Those flame) and for one case where a CFD code is necessary (a laminar Bunsen-type flame). © 2002

  2. Pi-CO2 Aqueous Post-combustion CO2 Capture: Proof of Concept Through Thermodynamic, Hydrodynamic, and Gas-Lift Pump Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M.-H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system (Pi-CO2) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO2 has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO2 from local industrial sources.

  3. Deflagration studies on waste Tank 101-SY: Test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Zlochower, I.A.; Hertzberg, M.

    1991-07-01

    Waste slurries produced during the recovery of plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel are stored in underground storage tanks. While a variety of waste types have been generated, of particular concern are the wastes stored in Tank 101-SY. A slurry growth-gas evolution cycle has been observed since 1981. The waste consists of a thick slurry, consisting of a solution high in NaOH, NaNO{sub 3}, NaAlO{sub 2}, dissolved organic complexants (EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, and degradation products), other salts (sulfates and phosphates), and radionuclides (primarily cesium and strontium). During a gas release the major gaseous species identified include: hydrogen and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Significant amounts of nitrogen may also be present. Traces of ammonia, carbon oxides, and other nitrogen oxides are also detected. Air and water vapor are also present in the tank vapor space. The purpose of the deflagration study is to determine risks of the hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and oxygen system. To be determined are pressure and temperature as a function of composition of reacting gases and the concentration of gases before and after the combustion event. Analyses of gases after the combustion event will be restricted to those tests that had an initial concentration of {le}8% hydrogen. This information will be used to evaluate safety issues related to periodic slurry growth and flammable gas releases from Tank 101-SY. the conditions to be evaluated will simulate gases in the vapor space above the salt cake as well as gases that potentially are trapped in pockets within/under the waste. The deflagration study will relate experimental laboratory results to conditions in the existing tanks.

  4. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  5. Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats; Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems.

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  7. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  8. Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research & Development

    1997-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

  9. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF FINGERING PATTERN FORMATION IN A COMBUSTION MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jie

    MODELING AND SIMULATION OF FINGERING PATTERN FORMATION IN A COMBUSTION MODEL LINA HU, CLAUDE-MICHEL BRAUNER, JIE SHEN, AND GREGORY I. SIVASHINSKY Abstract. We consider a model of gas-solid combustion background. Combustion is basically a process of fast oxidation accompanied by substantial heat release

  10. Structure and Combustion of Magnegases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Santilli; A. K. Aringazin

    2001-12-20

    In this paper, we study the structure and combustion of magnegases$^{TM}$ (Patented and International Patents Pending), new clean fuels developed by one of us (R.M.S.) [1], which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called PlasmaArcFlow\\tm, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000$^o$ F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. The new fuels possess a ew chemical structure first identified by one of us (R.M.S.), which is characterized by clusters of ordinary molecules and atoms under a new bond of electromagnetic nature. These clusters constitute a new chemical species different than the conventional molecules, since they are stable at ordinary conditions while exhibiting no infrared signature (other than those of conventional molecular constituents), thus confirming that the bond is not of valence type. For this reason the new chemical species is called ''Santilli's electromagnecules'' or ''magnecules''.

  11. Waste wood processing and combustion for energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth Annual National Biofuels Conference and Exhibition held October 19--22, 1992 in Newton, Massachusetts. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the database.

  12. Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  13. Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph

    2013-08-28

    Exposures were completed to ~1400 hr. Analysis of kinetics are close to completion. No oxy-combustion gas phase effects were found at 700{degrees}C.

  14. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  15. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  16. Combustion Technology Development for an Advanced Glass Melting System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickler, D. B.; Westra, L.; Woodroffe, J.; Jeong, K. M.; Donaldson, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Concept feasibility of an innovative technology for glass production has recently been demonstrated. It is based on suspension heating of the glass-forming batch minerals while entrained in a combustion flow of preheated air and natural gas...

  17. Author's personal copy Combustion and Flame 151 (2007) 104119

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    combustion of coal, bio- mass, and other solid or liquid fuels while still main- taining high conversion). emissions. Synthetic gas (syngas) fuels derived from coal are particularly promising in this regard. Syn

  18. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  19. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  1. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  2. Pulse combustion: Commercial, industrial, and residential applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the evolution of pulse combustion, the types of pulse combustion burners and their applications, and selected fuels utilized. Topics include fuel combustion efficiency, energy conversion and utilization technologies, modeling of chemical kinetics, and dynamics and thermal characteristics of pulse combustors. Pulse combustion systems for water heaters, gas furnaces, industrial and residential boilers, commercial cooking equipment, and space heating devices are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Methane Flame Simulations Run 6x Faster on NERSC's Hopper Supercomputer November 25,...

  4. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Wednesday, 22 October 2014 11:43 Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that...

  5. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  6. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - October 2013 October 2013 Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities...

  7. The Conversion of Waste to Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.; Cheek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Almost every industrial operation produces some combustible waste, but conversion of this to useful energy is often more difficult than with other energy recovery projects and requires careful attention to design, operating and maintaining...

  8. Hanford waste tank bump accident analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MALINOVIC, B.

    2003-03-21

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis (HNF-SD-Wh4-SAR-067 2001). The purpose of the new evaluation is to consider new information and to support new recommendations for final safety controls. This evaluation considers historical data, industrial failure modes, plausible accident scenarios, and system responses. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. A tank bump is distinguished from a gas release event in two respects: First, the physical mechanism for release involves vaporization of locally superheated liquid, and second, gases emitted to the head space are not flammable. For this reason, a tank bump is often called a steam bump. In this report, even though non-condensible gases may be considered in bump models, flammability and combustion of emitted gases are not. The analysis scope is safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential, application of the criteria to the tanks, and accident analysis of bump scenarios. The result of consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks for specific scenarios where bumps are credible; conversion to health consequences is performed elsewhere using standard Hanford methods (Cowley et al. 2000). The analysis forms a baseline for future extension to consider waste retrieval.

  9. Modeling Decomposing Objects under Combustion Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    . The fluid motion is applied to advect three quantities: fuel gas, exhaust gas, and heat. Allowing heat as a fuel source. Some recent visualization research has focused on tracking the mo- tion of the flame front the heat distribution and fuel gas mo- tion required by the model. The heat produced by combustion af

  10. Control system for supercharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A control system for controlling an internal combustion engine is described having a supercharge including a rotatable shaft and an exhaust turbine driven by exhaust gas. The control system comprising: a rotary electric machine mounted on the rotatable shaft of the supercharger for imposing a load on the exhaust turbine of the supercharger; setting means for setting an engine brake mode of the internal combustion engine; and operating means for operating the rotary electric machine when the engine brake mode is set by the setting means.

  11. Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

  12. Application of pathways analyses for site performance prediction for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, F.G.; Oblow, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste is evaluated using pathways analyses. The analyses rely on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Conceptual and numerical models are developed using data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations and are used to simulate the long-term transport of contamination to man. Conservatism is built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events have to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics exist. Maximum potential doses to man are calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. The sites are found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations. Conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability are drawn. In reaching these conclusions, some consideration is given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  14. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D.; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    and robust combustion concept for gas turbines. The use of acombustion systems have been adopted by virtually every industrial gas turbinegas turbines is non-trivial due to the dynamic nature of the combustion

  15. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  16. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    2012-01-01

    CombustionEquations . . . . . . . . . . Combustion and Ionizationpulsating detonations. Combustion Theory and Modeling, 9:

  17. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

  18. Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

  19. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimpan, Ciprian Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  20. Stratified cross combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, J.L.

    1981-06-23

    A piston engine is provided in which adjacent cylinder pairs share a common combustion chamber and the pistons are mounted to reciprocate substantially in phase, one of the pistons in each piston pair receiving a rich mixture which is ignited by a sparkplug in that cylinder, with the other cylinder in the cylinder pair being passive in its preferred form, and receiving through a separate intake valve either pure air or a leaner mixture into which the combusted richer mixture pours, insuring that the greatest combustion possible resulting in the greatest percentage of carbon dioxide formation as opposed to carbon monoxide is created.

  1. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  2. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

  3. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

  4. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  5. Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion N. Peters Institut f¨ur Technische Mechanik RWTH Aachen Turbulent Combustion: Introduction and Overview 1 1.1 Moment Methods in Modeling Turbulence with Combustion and Velocity Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Regimes in Premixed Turbulent Combustion

  6. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    to natural gas combustion and air pollution were reviewedreports on combustion-related air pollution were alsoCombustion Emissions? Specialty Session, 67th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution

  7. EA-0952: The Louisiana State University Waste-to Energy Incinerator, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for incinerating combustible, non-recyclable office wastes from Louisiana State University (LSU) administrative/academic areas and...

  8. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The DTFF is extended to larger sample collecting capability and higher temperatures, resulting in the establishment of the Ash Characterization Facility and the High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace. The Ash Characterization Facility enables continuous coal injection and sampling under controlled conditions. Several hundred milligrams of char or ash can be collected in one-half hour. The High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace uses a plasma torch to preheat the gas to over 2000 K and inject it into a ceramic tube which enters a furnace designed for 1700{degrees}C (1973 K) operation, so that temperatures and heating rates encountered by pulverized coal particles in the flames of large boilers or in the advanced slagging cyclone combustors can be simulated. An aerodynamic coal feeder works well in supplying coal continuously to the drop tube. A watercooled, Helium-quench sampling probe collects the solid samples. A scanning electron microscope is used to study the morphology of ash and char particles. A sulfur determinator, a gas chromatograph provide analytical means in the laboratory, and the Illinois State Geological Survey performs other necessary analyses of the samples. Tests on cofiring coal with I to 4% methane show that sulfur retention in ash was related to temperature and residence time. The addition of methane caused changes in gas temperature profile in the tube and also changes in chemical composition of the gases. The overall effect on sulfur retention is seen to be a result of several complex interacting factors. Further detailed studies are necessary to clarify the contribution of each factor and to provide clues to the mechanism of the process.

  9. Turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine with four-stroke capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrahm, R.W.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes, in a turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine without crankcase scavenging and having means for operating the exhaust valves in accordance with either two-stroke or four-stroke operation, a means for enabling the intake of combustible gas into cylinders of the engine during four-stroke operation through a port in each cylinder from a combustible gas source. It comprises: a valve mounted on each port responsive to pressure within the cylinder.

  10. A Study of Advanced Materials for Gas Turbine Coatings at Elevated Temperatures Using Selected Microstructures and Characteristic Environments for Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravinder Diwan; Patrick Mensah; Guoqiang Li; Nalini Uppu; Strphen Akwaboa; Monica Silva; Ebubekir Beyazoglu; Ogad Agu; Naresh Polasa; Lawrence Bazille; Douglas Wolfe; Purush Sahoo

    2011-02-10

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that can be suitable for use in industrial gas turbine engines have been processed and compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) microstructures for applications in advanced gas turbines that use coal-derived synthesis gas. Thermo-physical properties have been evaluated of the processed air plasma sprayed TBCs with standard APS-STD and vertically cracked APS-VC coatings samples up to 1300 C. Porosity of these selected coatings with related microstructural effects have been analyzed in this study. Wet and dry thermal cycling studies at 1125 C and spalling resistance thermal cycling studies to 1200 C have also been carried out. Type I and Type II hot corrosion tests were carried out to investigate the effects of microstructure variations and additions of alumina in YSZ top coats in multi-layered TBC structures. The thermal modeling of turbine blade has also been carried out that gives the capability to predict in-service performance temperature gradients. In addition to isothermal high temperature oxidation kinetics analysis in YSZ thermal barrier coatings of NiCoCrAlY bond coats with 0.25% Hf. This can affect the failure behavior depending on the control of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface. The TGO growth kinetics is seen to be parabolic and the activation energies correspond to interfacial growth kinetics that is controlled by the diffusion of O{sub 2} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference between oxidation behavior of the VC and STD structures are attributed to the effects of microstructure morphology and porosity on oxygen ingression into the zirconia and TGO layers. The isothermal oxidation resistance of the STD and VC microstructures is similar at temperatures up to 1200 C. However, the generally thicker TGO layer thicknesses and the slightly faster oxidation rates in the VC microstructures are attributed to the increased ingression of oxygen through the grain boundaries of the vertically cracked microstructures. The plasma sprayed TBC microstructure (VC and STD) with NiCoCrAlY-Hf bond coat are stable up to 1100 C. However, as with other TBC structures, a considerable amount of interdiffusion was observed in the different layers, although the TBC growth was self-limiting and parabolic. The addition of Hf to the VC microstructure appears to have some potential for the future development of robust TBCs with improved isothermal and service temperatures in advanced gas turbines.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  12. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  13. Large Steam Generating Units for the Combustion of Refuse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, P. J.; Robinson, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    GENERATING UNITS FOR THE COMBUSTION OF REFUSE P. J. Adams and C. C. Robinson Foster Wheeler Limited, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada INTRODUCTION Many by-products of our economy are considered "waste" and are disposed of as landfill or by incineration...

  14. Pilot-scale Tests to Vitrify Korean Low-Level Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.; Kim, C.-W.; Park, J. K.; Shin, S. W.; Song, M.-J.; Brunelot, P.; Flament, T.

    2002-02-26

    Korea is under preparation of its first commercial vitrification plant to handle LLW from her Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The waste streams include three categories: combustible Dry Active Wastes (DAW), borate concentrates, and spent resin. The combustible DAW in this research contains vinyl bag, paper, and protective cloth and rubber shoe. The loaded resin was used to simulate spent resin from NPPs. As a part of this project, Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) has tested an operation mode utilizing its pilot-scale plant and the mixed waste surrogates of resin and DAW. It has also proved, with continuous operation for more than 100 hours, the consistency and operability of the plant including cold crucible melter and its off-gas treatment equipment. Resin and combustible DAW were simultaneously fed into the glass bath with periodic addition of various glass frits as additives, so that it achieved a volume reduction factor larger than 70. By adding various glass frits, this paper discusses about maintaining the viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass bath within their operable ranges, but not about obtaining a durable glass product. The operating mode starts with a batch of glass where a titanium ring is buried. When the induced power ignites the ring, the joule heat melts the surrounding glass frit along with the oxidation heat of titanium. As soon as the molten bath is prepared, in the first stage of the mode, the wastes consisting of loaded resin and combustible DAW are fed with no or minimum addition of glass frits. Then, in the second stage, the bath composition is kept as constant as possible. This operation was successful in terms of maintaining the glass bath under operable condition and produced homogeneous glass. This operation mode could be adapted in commercial stage.

  15. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  16. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oilOil Lubricants Naphtha Petroleum feedstocks Natural Gas Liquids Municipal Solid Waste

  17. Sandia Energy - Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxy-fuel combustion. However, properly designing new pressurized combustion burners and boilers requires accurate data on coal devolatilization and combustion rates...

  18. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Investigation of fuel effects on low-temperature combustion, particularly HCCI PCCI combustion deer09gehrke.pdf More Documents & Publications The Role of Advanced Combustion in...

  19. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray A for different combustion vessels Title Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research...

  1. Constant Volume During Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Constant Volume During Combustion Constant Volume During Combustion This presentation covers constant volume during combustion and discusses how it can alter the kinematics of...

  2. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants from Indoor Combustion Sources: I. Field Measure-Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion, paper presented atInternational) on Combustion, August, 1974, Tokyo, Japan. 8

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research and...

  4. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Combustion -Generated Indoor Air Pollution Craigcontrol of air pollution from indoor combustion sources. Ifocused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namely

  5. Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  7. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.

    1993-07-20

    A multi bank power plant is described comprising at least a first and a second rotary internal combustion engine connectable together in series, each of the engines comprising: a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing and rotatable about a central axis; an output shaft extending axially from each the engine block, each output shaft being coaxial with the other; means for coupling the output shafts together so that the output shafts rotate together in the same direction at the same speed; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on each block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; a combustion chamber, means permitting periodic introduction of air and fuel into the combustion chamber, means for causing combustion of a compressed mixture of air and fuel within the combustion chamber, means permitting periodic exhaust of products of combustion of air and fuel from the combustion chamber, and means for imparting forces and motions of the piston within the cylinder to and from the cam track, the means comprising a cam follower operatively connected to the piston; wherein the cam track includes at least a first segment and at least a second segment thereof, the first segment having a generally positive slope wherein the segment has a generally increasing radial distance from the rotational axis of the engine block whereby as a piston moves outwardly in a cylinder on a power stroke while the cam follower is in radial register with the cam track segment, the reactive force of the respective cam follower against the cam track segment acts in a direction tending to impart rotation to the engine block.

  8. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?˘ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?˘ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?˘ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?˘ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?˘ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?˘ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  9. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  10. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  11. Hazardous and Corrosive Gas Production in the Radiolysis of Water/Organic Mixtures in Model TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVerne, Jay A.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments in combination with diffusion-kinetic modeling incorporating track structure simulations are used to examine the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Irradiations with both Co-60 gamma rays and alpha particles are employed in order to simulate typical mixed radiation environments encountered in waste management. The goal is to determine fundamental mechanisms, kinetics, and yields for the formation of potentially explosive gases and corrosive agents, such as H2 and HCl, respectively, in the radiolysis of water-organic mixtures. The radiation chemical systems studied are found throughout the DOE portfolio and are important in radioactive waste remediation and management.

  12. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  13. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  14. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  15. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  16. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  18. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  19. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  20. UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    be addressed for successful commercial operation of stationary gas turbines. The present work focuses on flashback and lean blow out of premixed jet flames in a combustor from a commercially available gas turbineUCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu Figure 3 shows the predicted extinction limits

  1. The feasibility of source segregation as the first step for a municipal solid waste disposal scheme 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiedler, Charles Walter

    1982-01-01

    ) In later years the history of Great Britain, in particular London, documents the progress of waste disposal in the growing urban environment. In recent years the problems of waste disposal have been compounded by the migration of the majority..., plastics, cardboard, etc. , and less combustible or non-combustible items, i. e. , the remaining wastes like cans, bottles, food wastes, etc. The project was strictly voluntary even though it took place in a military environment. The study period lasted...

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  3. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  4. DNS of inhomogeneous reactants premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kian Min

    2015-02-03

    of the combustion. This ushers in a new mode of combustion, called the inhomogeneous reactants premixed combustion. The present study investigates the effects of inhomogeneous reactants on premixed combustion, specifically on the interactions of an initially...

  5. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  8. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is a porous medium of varying height and is made up of spherical particles of solid waste. The solid moves Me´tallurgie (LSG2M) Nancy, France T he incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributes occurring during waste combustion. Second, results from the bed model were taken as boundary conditions

  10. renewable energy from waste 1730 RHODE ISLAND AVENUE, NW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , or about 90,000 tons each day. The nation's waste-to-energy plants have a baseload electric generation separate mechanisms: 1) by generating electrical power or steam, waste-to-energy avoids carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel- based electrical generation; 2) the waste-to-energy combustion process

  11. Japanese RDF-fired power generation system and fundamental research on RDF combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narukawa, Kimihito; Goto, Hidenori; Chen, Y.; Yamazaki, Ryouhei; Moi, Shiegkatsu; Fujima, Yukihisa; Hirama, Toshimasa; Hosoda, Hideo

    1997-12-31

    Power generation from refuse derived fuel (RDF) is one of the new technologies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This technology is strongly attracting the attention of the Japanese government. The results of a feasibility study of this system in Japan is presented. To develop this highly efficient RDF-fired CFB generating process, combustibility and dechlorination characteristics of RDF were investigated by both the thermo-balance technique and combustion tests with an electric furnace. RDF combustion tests by a bench scale CFBC were carried out and then the following experimental results were obtained: (1) RDF can be combusted almost completely even in small scale CFBC; (2) HCl and N{sub 2}O emissions are quite low at any conditions; and (3) NO{sub x} emissions are a little higher in single stage combustion, however they are reduced at 50% air bias ratio. Some of the results can be explained by a RDF combustion model.

  12. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion. The following topics are discussed: what is pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion?; pulse combustors; pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (PAFBC); advantages of PAFBC; performance advantages; PAFBC facts; and PAFBC contact points.

  13. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the project’s technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  14. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  15. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005...

  16. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  17. Industrial Wastes as a Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

    1980-01-01

    available for coal since it was at one time a major industrial fuel and is still used extensively for electric power generation. However, combustion data for other fuels such as wood and solid materials typically generated as industrial wastes can only...

  18. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Volume 30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    Papers discussed combustion theory and modelling, turbulent combustion, laser diagnostics and control, chemical kinetics, computational combustion, flames, detonations, droplet combustion, catalysis/materials synthesis, pulse detonations engines, diagnosis, engine combustion, heterogeneous combustion, pollutants (PAH and soot), kinetics, flame diagnosis, propulsion, laminar diffusion flames, lifted turbulent flames, nanoparticles, premixed turbulent flames, solid oxide fuel cells, laminar flames, stationary power systems, and plasma supported flames.

  19. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  20. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  1. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  2. Advanced clean combustion technology in Shanxi province

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, K.-C.

    2004-07-01

    Biomass energy resources in China are first described, along with biomass gasification R & D now underway. In Shanxi province biomass and other regenerative energy is relatively little used but coal resources are large. Hence Shanxi is mainly developing clean coal technology to meet its economic and environmental protection requirements. Clean combustion research at Taiyuan University of Technology includes cofiring of coal and RDF in FBC, gas purification and adsorption, fundamentals of plasma-aided coal pyrolysis and gasification and coal derived liquid fuels from synthesis gas. 5 refs.

  3. 8th i-CIPEC8th International Conference/Exhibition on Combustion, Incineration/Pyrolysis, Emission and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    8th i-CIPEC8th International Conference/Exhibition on Combustion, Incineration/Pyrolysis, Emission Pyrolysis and Gasification / New Materials / New Processes ·Waste-to-Energy Conversion Traditional as well

  4. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  5. Improving medical waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, L.

    1994-05-01

    This article describes the use of electron-beam irradiation, steam detoxification, and microwave disinfection systems rather than incineration to rid the waste stream of medical scraps. The topics of the article include biological waste stream sources and amounts, pyrolysis and oxidation, exhaust gas cleanup, superheated steam sterilization and detoxification.

  6. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    in air- craft gas turbine engines is one possible approachexample, both gas-turbine and diesel engines at idle or low-engines, diesel engines, gas turbines, and large steam

  7. Combustion of volatile matter during the initial stages of coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlow, D.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

    1990-08-01

    Both the secondary pyrolysis and combustion of the volatiles from a bituminous coal will be studied. Devolatilization and secondary pyrolysis experiments will be conducted in a novel flow reactor in which secondary pyrolysis of the volatiles occurs after devolatilization is complete. This allows unambiguous measurements of the yields from both processes. Measurements will be made for reactor temperatures from 1500 to 1700 K, and a nominal residence time of 200 msec. These conditions are typical of coal combustion. Yields of tar, soot, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons will be determined as a function of reactor temperature. The yields will be reported as a function of the temperature of the reactor. The instrumentation for temperature measurements will be developed during future studies. Combustion studies will be conducted in a constant volume bomb, which will be designed and constructed for this study. Tar and soot will be removed before introducing the volatiles to the bomb, so that only the combustion of the light gas volatiles will be considered. The burning velocities of light gas volatiles will be determined both as functions of mixture stoichiometry and the temperature at which the volatiles are pyrolysed. 90 refs., 70 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  10. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  11. Lean Premixed Combustion/Active Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. J. Seery

    2000-02-01

    An experimental comparison between two contrasting fuel-air swirlers for industrial gas turbine applications was undertaken at the United Technologies Research Center. The first, termed an Aerodynamic nozzle, relied on the prevailing aerodynamic forces to stabilize the downstream combustion zone. The second configuration relied on a conventional bluff plate for combustion stability and was hence named a Bluff-Body nozzle. Performance mapping over the power curve revealed the acoustic superiority of the Bluff-Body nozzle. Two dimensional Rayleigh indices calculated from CCD images identified larger acoustic driving zones associated with the Aerodynamic nozzle relative to its bluff counterpart. The Bluff-Body's success is due to increased flame stabilization (superior anchoring ability) which reduced flame motion and thermal/acoustic coupling.

  12. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  13. National incinerator testing and evaluation program: The environmental characterization of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) Combustion Technology, Mid-Connecticut Facility, Hartford, Connecticut. Final report, June 1987-March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finklestein, A.; Klicius, R.D.

    1994-12-01

    The report gives results of an environmental characterization of refuse-derived (RDF) semi-suspension burning technology at a facility in Hartford, Connecticut, that represents state-of-the-art technology, including a spray dryer/fabric filter flue-gas cleaning (FGC) system for each unit. Results were obtained for a variety of steam production rates, combustion conditions, flue gas temperatures, and acid gas removal efficiencies. All incoming wastes and residue streams were weighed, sampled, and analyzed. Key combustor and FGC system operating variables were monitored on a real time basis. A wide range of analyses for acid gases, trace organics, and heavy metals was carried out on gas emissions and all ash residue discharges.

  14. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  15. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  16. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  17. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins...

  18. US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion. acecroadmapjune2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of the Advanced Combustion Engine...

  19. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  20. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar...

  1. Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion...

  2. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  3. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  4. IR-laser initiated combustion -- A step toward complete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghai, A.; Nabavi, S.H.; Servati, H.B.; Syed, F.

    1996-09-01

    The new global environmental regulations for reducing the engine emissions from both moving and stationary sources, as well as improvement in fuel economy are the major motifs to obtain a perfect combustion process and exhaust aftertreatment methods. Infrared (IR)-Laser initiated combustion provides a very high initial temperature, which produces propagation of a turbulent thermopressure pulse that results in a fast burning and improved combustion. The role of IR is to maximize the heat generation efficiency.

  5. Characterization of an Aerosol Shock Tube Facility for Heterogeneous Combustion Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, Lori Marie

    2013-04-05

    the fuel in a mixture to exist in pure gas-phase. This makes it challenging to test low-vapor-pressure fuels that tend to remain in condensed form. Low-vapor-pressure fuels are commonly used in many combustion applications, making combustion studies...

  6. Project Sponsors:UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Project Sponsors:UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu GOALS ·Establish the general capabilities of time-efficient CFD models to provide reliable predictions of mixing of natural gas in model of premixers in lean combustion applications RESULTS ·Numerical cases have been generated through several steps

  7. Project Sponsors:UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Project Sponsors:UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu MOTIVATION As Americans realize. For the most part, natural gas is composed of 90- 98% methane, CH4, with ethane and propane as the next main of the burner to optimize performance. Fuel Composition Sensors For Smart Combustion Date: 2/22/2012 GOAL

  8. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  9. Vehiculos de combustible flexible: brindando opciones en combustible...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    actualizada para convertidores de combustible alternativo de la EPA en su sitio web, www.epa.govotaq certdearmfrcisd0602.pdf. El E85 afecta el desempeo del...

  10. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins to explore strategies for fuel economy improvements (PCCI and HECC) and redced engine-out NOx emissions.

  11. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  12. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ĺmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Hĺkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  13. Research in Industrial Combustion Systems - Current and Future R&D 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Keller, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    recuperators, regenerators, waste heat boilers, heat pumps, etc. Fuel savings can also be achieved by improving the efficiency of the combustion process where the internal energy in the fuel is converted to thermal energy. An applied research and develop... Opportunity Assessment", DOE/DIP positionnpaper, June 1983. 2. Lukasiewicz, M.A., "Industrial Utilization R&D Status Report '85-'86, GRI, September 1986. 3. Lukasiewicz, M.A.,"Industrial Combustion Technologies" Symp.Proc., ASM, April 29, '86...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) funds research focused on developing a greater understanding of engine combustion and how emissions form within engine cylinders. This work includes research on low temperature combustion, dilute (lean-burn) gasoline combustion, and clean diesel combustion, all of which can substantially contribute to increasing efficiency and lowering emissions in internal combustion engines.

  15. Sandia Energy - Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and they form the basis for the creation of validated submodels that bridge fundamental energy sciences with applied device engineering and optimization. Turbulent-combustion-lab...

  16. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  17. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD); Chandran, Ravi (Ellicott City, MD)

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  18. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a toroidal combustion chamber for stratified-charge engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiros, E.N.; Adams, J.W.; Otis, D.R.; Myers, P.S.

    1990-03-02

    Maximum efficiency of cyclic combustion engines (CCE) is achieved when using stratified charge and high compression ratio with controlled air circulation and combustion. A description is given of a varying-area, toroidal-shaped combustion chamber designed to achieve the above objectives by: obtaining initial circulatory air motion induced by the piston late in the compression stroke; increasing this piston-induced velocity using the momentum of fuel injected tangentially to the center line of the toroid; and by using combustion to further increase the circulation rate. Four combustion chamber configurations were studied in a bomb with zero initial air velocity to ascertain whether significant rotation could be achieved by injection and combustion. Gas pressure was measured and high speed photographs were taken of the injection and combustion process. The ideal situation, at full load, is to have one rotation of the gas during the time allocated to combustion. The experimental results, with zero initial velocity, show that fuel momentum plus combustion produces from one-half to three-quarters of a rotation in the available time. Modeling suggests that the use of initial, piston-induced velocities would result in the desired one rotation in the available time.

  19. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  20. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.